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  • The work-life balance and juggling family can lead to emotional turmoil for those who find themselves unable to resolve the conflicting demands of work and family. A research team in India has now looked surveyed 346 employees from 93 organisations in order to ascertain whether "emotional dissonance" caused by work-family conflicts correlates with a person's intention to quit their employment.

    Subhash Kundu and Nidhi Gaba of the Haryana School of Business, at Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, in Hisar, Haryana, India, explain how they used multiple regression analysis on the data to test their hypothesis. Writing in the International Journal of Business and Globalisation, they describe how the analysis shows that the conflict between work and family life has a positive and statistically significant influence on a person's intention to quit. Critically, they showed that emotional dissonance is a key mediating factor in this regard.

    Longer working hours, more rigid targets, mobile computing, and other factors and the change in the structure of families from single earners to dual-career couples as well as increased pressure from urbanization and longer-lived older family members are putting many people under new kinds of pressure and stress. There is even specifically on those in employment not only to perform well in their jobs but also to be successful in terms of a family too. But work demands and family demands are very different and pull people in two different directions commonly leading to conflict and what psychologists might refer to as emotional dissonance that a lay person might simply perceive as stress.

    New insights into how emotional dissonance arises because of this almost ubiquitous work-family conflict could help policymakers and managers cope better with a changing world and to help retain a happy and less conflicted workforce.

    Kundu, S.C. and Gaba, N. (2018) 'Work-family conflict and intention to quit: the mediating role of emotional dissonance', Int. J. Business and Globalisation, Vol. 21, No. 4, pp.464–483.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBG.2018.095764

  • Haruo Awano of Sugimura & Partners and Koji Tanabe of the Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan, have looked at the strategy of repeated 'open' and 'narrow' approaches for standardised media in the context of market expansion where markets utilise international standards. Standardisation leads to the faster spread of a given technology and allows easy entry for many competitors into the market. Of course, this has a detrimental effect on the bottom line of the pioneering companies that invent a given technology as competition means price erosion. It is no surprise that so many electronics companies devise device-specific proprietary and patented peripherals, connectors, and power supplies for the products to help them retain a niche in the market and ward off those companies that would seek to use the existence of standards to circumvent the patents legitimately.

    The team points out that there are still opportunities for innovators and inventors. They have now looked at the case of Sony and its 130 mm magneto-optical (MO) media and how the company could take advantage of its intellectual property even in the face of competition using the same technical standards to create rival products.

    Fundamentally, one approach that can be taken is to build an entry barrier by creating a market in demand for highly reliable media, so that cheap competitors are ignored in the face of the more well-known product with a greater reputation. A second strategy is to simply update the pioneering product, with new innovation. In the case of MO media, doubling capacity periodically, for instance, while continuing to standardise. Competitors must then play catchup while the pioneer continues to reap the rewards of its intellectual property in new sales to the market. A market that is at once open to competition through standardisation is thus once more narrowed by innovating anew within the same format and niche.

    Awano, H. and Tanabe, K. (2018) ' The strategy of repeated 'open' and 'narrow' approaches for standardised media', Int. J. Technology Management, Vol. 78, No. 4, pp.261–279.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.2018.095757

  • In order to trade with markets in China, multinational corporations in the "West" have to share knowledge with their Chinese partners. This, warns a Norwegian team writing in the International Journal of Technology Management, leaves those corporations open to their products being copied. The corporations must share knowledge within a realm in which the familiar copyright and trademark laws that protect them in the West are not applicable.

    Kim Van Oorschot and Jan Terje Karlsen of the BI Norwegian Business School, Hans Solli-Sæther of the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, in Oslo, have analysed the strategic paradox of knowledge sharing and knowledge security. They have taken the ship-building industry as a case model for their research and looked at the long-term effects of a protection-based and a sharing-based knowledge strategy.

    Fundamentally, while sharing knowledge leads to more illicit imitation, the long-term success of protecting knowledge from the Chinese markets is more detrimental as it simply undercuts trust of the multinationals among the Chinese suppliers. Moreover, the team found that protection irreparably reduces innovation rates. By contrast, sharing knowledge with Chinese partners encourages continuous reciprocity between those partners and the Western companies in a way that simply does not happen if trust is lost. "Innovation boosts the potential to keep sharing new and interesting knowledge in the future, thereby feeding this continuous reciprocity phenomenon," the team reports.

    The team adds that, "Our simulation shows that giving is a better strategy than taking, which appears counterintuitive, especially in the context of the competitive Chinese market, with its reputation for active imitation." However, they suggest that Western management style wherein "giving" is a rare action, must be modernized to allow both sides to engage positively in the growing Chinese markets.

    Van Oorschot, K.E., Solli-Sæther, H. and Karlsen, J.T. (2018) 'The knowledge protection paradox: imitation and innovation through knowledge sharing', Int. J. Technology Management, Vol. 78, No. 4, pp.310-342.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.2018.095760

  • We need safe, secure, and sustainable ways to collect and transport infectious medical waste, according to researchers writing in the International Journal of Risk Assessment and Management. A.R. Tembhurkar and Radhika Deshpande of the Department of Civil Engineering, at Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, in Nagpur, Maharashtra, India, explain that risk assessment is critical to understanding how we can develop new approaches to the infectious medical waste problem. This is not something that has yet been addressed properly in India, they add.

    Rapid urbanisation and improved access to medical facilities has come at a price in terms of increased levels of medical waste. Such waste has to be handled carefully given its obvious risks to human health and the environment. Earlier research has looked at how to improve handling through better awareness, training of personnel handling medical waste management, and through quantifying the amount of waste that is being generated. Risk cannot be avoided entirely, but it can be minimized.

    The current work looks at developing a scenario-based risk assessment approach to analyse and assess the various risks and confounding factors associated with the collection and transportation of infectious medical waste. The fundamental conclusion from the work is that secure transportation is critical to reducing risk. "The risk assessment model developed in this study is based upon the primary data collected for IMWCT system in India and thus, this will aid in analysing the risk in IMWCT system for Indian conditions," the team reports. They add that the same model might be adapted for other parts of the world.

    Tembhurkar, A.R. and Deshpande, R. (2018) 'Scenario-basedrisk assessment model for infectious medical waste collection andtransportation system', Int. J. Risk Assessment and Management, Vol. 21, No. 4,pp.271–282.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJRAM.2018.095782

  • Electric rickshaws, e-rickshaws, are becoming commonplace in India, according to researchers writing in the International Journal of Intelligent Enterprise. However, battery power means electricity supply and that is a problem in terms of a lack of sustainable energy sources. Ravinder Kumar and Ravindra Jilte of the School of Mechanical Engineering, at Lovely Professional University, in Phagwara, Punjab, India, and Mohammad Hossein Ahmadi of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, at Shahrood University of Technology, in Shahrood, Iran, outline efforts that might take us down the road to a green city.

    The team has investigated the potential of biogas in the face of massive urban population growth in India's cities. They point out that there will be massive and growing demands on electricity supply as the number of people living in India's cities approaches the total population of the USA today. They add that the Smart Cities Mission launched in 2015 aims to undertake urban renewal and retrofitting with a welcome emphasis on integrated planning and the provision of urban services, including power, water, waste, and mass transportation. However, as with any infrastructure project there remain many obstacles to be surmounted.

    Transportation is one of the most prominent of those obstacles, which is why the emergence of the e-rickshaw might represent an intriguing alternative to conventional modes of transport, especially if there is potential to make the supply of power to such "vehicles" sustainable and non-polluting. The team describes the results of their feasibility study on generating electricity for e-rickshaw recharging using biogas in their paper.

    Kumar, R., Jilte, R. and Ahmadi, M.H. (2018) 'Electricity alternative for e-rickshaws: an approach towards green city', Int. J. Intelligent Enterprise, Vol. 5, No. 4, pp.333-344.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIE.2018.095721

  • These days, Moore's Law is not so much a scientific law as an aspiration. The notion that there is a doubling every year of the number of components that can be squeezed on to the same area of integrated circuitry was first observed in the mid-1960s by Gordon Moore, the co-founder of Fairchild Semiconductor and Intel. Ever since the microelectronics industry has strived to Moore's Law although in some periods that annual doubling seems to occur over a period of 18 months if not longer.

    Nevertheless, it still offers a rule-of-thumb for how rapidly technology advances and posits a guideline as to what technology industries might aim for. Now, a paper in the International Journal of Technology Management asks whether technology improvement rates in knowledge industries, microelectronics, mobile communications, and genome-sequencing technologies might follow this law.

    Yu Sang Chang of Gachon University, in Seongnam, Jinsoo Lee of the KDI School of Public Policy and Management, in Sejong, and Yun Seok Jung of the Institute for Information and Communications Technology Promotion, in Daejeon, Korea, have tracked technology developments to see whether Moore's Law held over the period 1971 to 2010. Their study shows that indeed it did, moreover they suggest that an analogous exponential law also applies to mobile cellular and genome-sequencing technologies.

    While there has been no downward trend in transistor density, the team has found that the improvement rate in microprocessor clock speed has not been sustained. That said, for genome sequencing technology which is essentially still in the early stages of development, developments continue apace.

    The team points out that the 5-nanometre limit on the quantum tunnelling effect will represent a barrier to the further shrinking of transistors and that we are fast approaching that limit. However, developments in nanotechnology might still allow the industry to sustain Moore's Law in microelectronics even into its centenary year.

    Chang, Y.S., Lee, J. and Jung, Y.S. (2018) 'Are technology improvement rates of knowledge industries following Moore's law? An empirical study of microprocessor, mobile cellular, and genome sequencing technologies', Int. J. Technology Management, Vol. 78, No. 3, pp.182-207.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.2018.095629

  • Albert Einstein is famous for a lot of reasons, but the movement of sediments in rivers is perhaps not one of them. Yet, his name is associated with those of Ackers, White, and Shields who developed equations to help explain how grainy materials transported as particles in a river move. Given the importance of sediment from the physical or chemical degradation of rocks in a waterway and the impact they have on erosion, entrainment, transportation, deposition, and compaction, it is not surprising that geologists, geographers, and others involved in understanding waterways are more than a little familiar, however.

    Now, Hydar Lafta Ali, Badronnisa Binti Yusuf, and Azlan Abdul Aziz of the Universiti Putra Malaysia, Thamer Ahamed Mohammed of the University of Baghdad, Iraq, have attempted to simplify the Einstein equation for the calculation of suspended sediment transport in rivers. Writing in the International Journal of Hydrology Science and Technology, the team explains how they have validated their simplified form of the equation against data from eleven rivers located in different parts of the world. Indeed, their results show that the new simplified equation performs well when compared with Einstein's and Bagnold's equations and when tested on data from the Atchafalaya, the Red, the South American, the Rio Grande and the Al-Garraf rivers.

    It is important to understand river sediment especially in the face of changes driven by natural disasters and global climate changes. Sediment plays an important role after all, in the delivery of nutrients for aquatic ecosystems, as well as for agricultural purposes, the formation and preservation of river deltas, the provision of sand as a building material, as well as the course taken by a river.

    The team says that future studies will employ the proposed equation statistically on other rivers around the world to verify its accuracy still further.

    Ali, H.L., Mohammed, T.A., Yusuf, B. and Aziz, A.A. (2018) 'A simplification of the Einstein equation for the calculation of suspended sediment transport in rivers', Int. J. Hydrology Science and Technology, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp.393-409.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2018.095536

  • Melanoma is a type of skin cancer, it is the most lethal of the various forms of this disease. It can be cured but only if detected early enough in its progress. Now, writing in the International Journal of Advanced Intelligence Paradigm, a research team from India has developed a new way to analyse skin lesions that may or may not be melanoma and so allow a more reliable diagnosis to be developed.

    The World Health Organisation (WHO) says that one third of all cancer cases are skin cancers and there are currently more than 135,000 new melanoma cases diagnosed annually. The five-year survival rate for patients with melanoma diagnosed and treated early is 98%, whereas the survival rate is 62% for cases of melanoma that have spread beyond the local tissues. Survival for cases where the cancer has spread to other tissues and bone well away from the primary tumour site is a mere 16% survival rate after five years.

    Vikash Yadav and Vandana Dixit Kaushik of Harcourt Butler Technical University, Kanpur explain that the diagnosis of skin cancer is difficult using conventional methods but that modern image processing and analysis could improve the outlook significantly. Their approach looks at asymmetries in high-level features of skin lesions and then combining the data with low-level features to create a computer algorithm that can accurately classify a skin lesion as being melanoma or not. The features that emerge as indicative are asymmetries, border irregularities, and colour differences within the same lesion that mark out a common mole or other skin blemish from a melanoma.

    Yadav, V. and Kaushik, V.D. (2018) 'Detection of melanoma skin disease by extracting high level features for skin lesions', Int. J. Advanced Intelligence Paradigms, Vol. 11, Nos. 3/4, pp.397–408.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAIP.2018.095493

  • Many nations have recovered to some extent from the economic crash of 2008 and the subsequent financial downturn although on the whole that recovery has been sluggish at best. Tatyana Boikova of the Department of Business Administration, at the Baltic International Academy and Aleksandrs Dahs of the Centre for European and Transition Studies, at the University of Latvia, both in Riga, Latvia, have now demonstrated that this recovery has been very uneven across the European Union's economic and social area.

    Writing in the International Journal of Sustainable Economy, the researchers point out that studies of growth and development do not find a solid relationship between income inequality and the rate of economic growth and there are discrepancies that make interpreting the results and seeing the bigger empirical and theoretical picture difficult.

    The team has now explored in detail the impact of income inequality, poverty, and wealth on the rate of economic growth in the Eurozone. "We find that the effect of income inequality on economic growth is statistically insignificant, whereas poverty and savings have a negative, statistically significant effect on growth, while the effect of financial assets is positive and statistically significant," the team reports. They have also seen a negative, statistically significant effect of consumption on growth and demonstrated that the dynamics of the link between inequality and growth across countries do not take the inverted-U shape curve for all observations and the average values per country in the Eurozone.

    "Given the still-sluggish recovery after the financial crisis, specific features of economic cycles within each country should be taken as the basis of the macroeconomic regulation of the Eurozone," the team concludes. They add that that effort must be aimed at encouraging business investment in order to enhance smart competitiveness and to create long-term economic growth.

    Boikova, T. and Dahs, A. (2018) 'Inequality and economic growth across countries of the Eurozone', Int. J. Sustainable Economy, Vol. 10, No. 4, pp.315-339.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSE.2018.095254

  • Take nothing but memories, leave nothing but footprints...that well-worn traveller's mantra might be modernised to say "take nothing but photos". Indeed, modern travellers take and share billions of photos every year thanks to the advent of smartphones, digital cameras, and social media. The digital footprints they leave offer a hidden treasure of geotagged information about popular and not-so-popular tourist destinations.

    Now, Zhenxing Xu, Ling Chen, Haodong Guo, Mingqi Lv, and Gencai Chen of the College of Computer Science, at Zhejiang University, in Hangzhou, China, have investigated how data-mining online photo collections and their geotags might be used to develop recommendations for other travellers. Until now, most data mining of tourist photographs has focused on time and location and ignored the context of the images. Xu and colleagues have added another layer to a recommendation algorithm.

    "[Our system] uses an entropy-based mobility measure to classify geotagged photos into tourist photos or non-tourist photos," they explain. "Secondly, it conducts gender recognition based on face detection from tourist photos," they add. "Thirdly, it builds a gender-aware profile of travel locations and users and finally, it recommends personalised travel locations considering both user gender and similarity."

    The team has tested the approach with a dataset of geotagged photos from eleven popular tourist destinations across China. "Experimental results show that our approach has the potential to improve the performance of travel location recommendation," they conclude.

    Xu, Z., Chen, L., Guo, H., Lv, M. and Chen, G. (2018) 'User similarity-based gender-aware travel location recommendation by mining geotagged photos', Int. J. Embedded Systems, Vol. 10, No. 5, pp.356-365.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJES.2018.095023


New Editor for International Journal of Metadata, Semantics and Ontologies

Assistant Prof. Emmanouel Garoufallou from Alexander Technological Educational Institute (ATEI) of Thessaloniki in Greece has been appointed to take over editorship of the International Journal of Metadata, Semantics and Ontologies. The journal's previous Editor in Chief, Dr. Miguel-Angel Siciliam will continue to serve IJMSO as Honorary Editor.

New Editor for International Journal of Entrepreneurial Venturing

Nivedita Agarwal from Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg in Germany has been appointed to take over joint editorship of the International Journal of Entrepreneurial Venturing, together with Terrence Brown from the KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden, from 1 January, 2019. She is succeeding Alexander Brem, whom the publisher wants to thank for his four years of dedication to the further development of the journal.

New Editor for International Journal of Modelling in Operations Management

Dr. Weihua Liu from Tianjin University in China has been appointed to take over editorship of the International Journal of Modelling in Operations Management.

New Editor for International Journal of Business and Emerging Markets

Associate Prof. Yam B. Limbu from Montclair State University in the USA has been appointed to take over editorship of the International Journal of Business and Emerging Markets.

New Editor for International Journal of Services Operations and Informatics

Dr. Daniel Palacios from Universitat Politècnica de València in Spain has been appointed to take over editorship of the International Journal of Services Operations and Informatics.