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  • Knowledge management is one of those nebulous phrases that means different things to different people. Multiplicity of meaning and ambiguity of definition leads to much debate among those involved in organisational life charged with planning strategy, managing information, and in other areas broadly related to the term. A new bibliographic survey published in the International Journal of Knowledge Management Studies reveals why there is no consensus on the meaning of this term and looks outward with a new definition that might be adopted widely.

    Technical terms and jargon can become meaningless in organisational use where there is no objective definition. Moreover, with use there is abuse and one organisation's definition may well conflict with that of another, so where research across disciplines and organisations is carried out a buzzword or technical phrase used in one context may be invalid in another. Ambiguity and confusion arise and the research literature becomes sullied and distorted by subjectivity.

    Fábio Corrêa of FUMEC University in Brazil, and colleagues, explain how when isolated technical terms are simplified, their full meaning is often lost and so when two or more such terms are then brought together, the neologism that is born is also oversimplified and so can have even less meaning or be wholly ambiguous. The phrase knowledge management suffers from this simplification phenomenon.

    Knowledge can be a true and justified belief, a set of experiences, values, contextual information and insights, a personal abstraction of an experience. Management is synonymous with administration but is also about the execution of roles and the fulfillment of objectives in many different spheres. Bring the two together and the phrase is diffuse, to say the least. The researchers' through their survey of the literature suggest that we need to take a step back from the phrase and define more subjectively its components in order to allow ourselves to redefine in a more objective, rather than wholly subjective, manner the phrase. By taking such an approach it might then be possible to reach a consensus on exactly what we mean by "knowledge management".

    Corrêa, F., Paula, C.P.A.d., Carvalho, D.B.F. and Anastácio, M.F. (2022) 'Why is there no consensus on what knowledge management is?', Int. J. Knowledge Management Studies, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp.90–109.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJKMS.2022.119287

  • How might we enhance the detection of malware on the Android operating system commonly used to run mobile phones and tablets? Research published in the International Journal of Information Privacy, Security and Integrity looks to the concept of broadcaster receivers as one possible answer to that question.

    Halil Bisgin of the University of Michigan-Flint, in Flint, Rachael Havens of AVL Test Systems Inc., in Plymouth, Michigan, Vincent Nwobodo of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, in Rockville, Maryland, USA, and Fadi Mohsen of the University of Groningen in The Netherlands, explain that the Android operating system has a large share of the mobile market and as such is a target for malware creators and other third parties who would manipulate the system for personal gain.

    There are numerous malware detection methods employed on the Android system that monitor permission requests to the AndroidManifest.xml file. However, one aspect of the workings of malicious apps that has not been considered in detail is the exploitation of the Android broadcast receivers (ABR). ABRs are used heavily by malware and might well correlate with permissions granted to such unwanted apps. Monitoring access to ABRs could improve the accuracy of malware detection without needing to use disproportionate amounts of computer resources in the device as may well be the case with other malware detection approaches.

    Each year there are billions of instances of mobile apps installed on devices around the globe. They represent a vast market and business opportunity for legitimate companies but also for the criminal world. The amount of malware increases year by year and as with every aspect of security involves security companies always playing catch-up with the creators of malware.

    The team explains that malware detection based on the behaviour of software on a device is very effective but uses a lot of the device's resources. In contrast, signature-based solutions are light on resource usage but do not necessarily detect all malware. The team's focus has been on the component that lets apps register to listen to system events such as when a text message is received, calls are made, etc. This component, the team says, is vital in detecting malicious behaviour in an app. The team explains that correlation values suggest that malware shows slightly stronger ties between the actions it registers to listen to and the permissions it requests and this characteristic can be exploited to reveal the presence of malware.

    Bisgin, H., Mohsen, F., Nwobodo, V. and Havens, R. (2021) 'Enhancing malware detection in Android application by incorporating broadcast receivers', Int. J. Information Privacy, Security and Integrity, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp.36–68.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPSI.2021.119168

  • A competitor is usually just one click away, so how to companies make their websites stickier and so retain their potential buyers and persuade them to make a purchase? Writing in the International Journal of Technology Marketing, a team from India has investigated the role of customer values, satisfaction, trust, and habits and how those characteristics related to their sticking with a given website.

    Terjani Goyal of the Institute of Rural Management in Jaipur and Kirti Dutta of Rishihood University in Haryana, found that trust is the biggest mediator of a website's stickiness. First and foremost, if a putative customer does not trust the company nor the website on which they land, then they are not likely to stay for long and will surf off to a rival post haste. The team suggests that by managing the factors that determine customer trust as best they can, a company can enhance satisfaction and help form new habits with visitors that leads to them buying from the website rather than their sticking with a competitor.

    Online shopping has become a major part of commerce and was essential for many people during the periods of COVID-19 lockdowns and self-isolation. The team writes that there is a concept of website stickiness that is partly driven by a user's fear of venturing on to a new site to buy the goods and services they have purchased from trusted sources previously. The paradigm for garnering new business is for a previously unused site to somehow make its site sticky to new users who land on it from a search engine, word-of-mouth recommendation or marketing and advertising campaigns. Once a new habit is thus formed, customers will stick with that website for subsequent purchases.

    Indeed, the new research shows that "online retailers need to work for not only customer satisfaction but also build trust as these ultimately lead to formation of habit and once a customer is habitual of purchasing from the same website, they will not look for product or price information." This implies that once a company has the trust of new customers and the website is sticky, they can push their profit margin by nudging prices higher without fear of losing those newly loyal customers. The key is to get those new customers in the first place.

    The researchers add that the companies "need to be true to the product that they are offering and the information that they are sharing so that they can build customer trust and more important the customer's habit of returning to their website for all their purchase needs."

    Goyal, T. and Dutta, K. (2021) 'Website stickiness: role of customer value, satisfaction, trust and habit', Int. J. Technology Marketing, Vol. 15, No. 4, pp.426–447.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTMKT.2021.119075

  • Statistics based on so-called "big data" may not always be as reliable as we might hope, according to a study published in the International Journal of Healthcare Technology and Management. The research analysed a manageable subset of time-stamped dynamic information from the internet pertinent to COVID-19 infections. Study author Kenneth David Strang of W3-Research in Saint Thomas in US Virgin Islands writes that the results were "surprising" and revealed some limitations to conventional statistical techniques. Strang's work suggests that using general analytics tools for healthcare big data may not be reliable.

    Strang points out that while the study is pertinent to our understanding and approach to big data in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, it has broader implications for how big data is analysed using statistical tools and whether there needs to be a paradigm shift in our approach and seemingly conflicting ideas that big data can be handled just as we do any other scientific data or whether such scientific evidence warrants a different approach entirely simply by virtue of the scale of that evidence manifest in big data.

    "More research will certainly be needed to verify these reliability problems with healthcare big data since only the coronavirus case study was used here," says Strang. He points out that the nature of big data and a researcher's access to such vast repositories and the processing power needed to analyse them may offer inherent limitations and how much new information and insight can be readily extracted. Moreover, it is difficult to run checks to prove that any such analysis is valid simply because of the scale of the data and those limitations. Strang offers a hypothetical approach that might allow such validation by using a control data set for a given experiment that is not itself "big" data.

    It is almost an aside of the study's findings regarding our approach to big data that Strang was able to demonstrate that there were some "fascinating potential relationships between foreign property ownership in Australia near the two biggest cities, with links to China, and thereby, potential vulnerabilities to future pandemic outbreaks."

    Strang, K.D. (2021) 'General analytics limitations with coronavirus healthcare big data', Int. J. Healthcare Technology and Management, Vol. 18, Nos. 3/4, pp.153–167.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHTM.2021.119163

  • Most of us will have received a scam email that looks like it has come from our bank or an online store or other company or organization. They can look genuine but usually hidden within are malicious links that once clicked take you to a third-party server that either steals login details you enter or drops malware on your device. These are phishing emails. The deliberate misspelling of "fish" with a "ph" is related etymologically to the term "phreak" which is an abbreviated portmanteau from the 1960s meaning "phone freak" and alluding to a person who hacked phone systems for pleasure or personal gain.

    Some phishing emails may have poor grammar and spelling are rarely perfect or the layout may be askew and not exactly what one would expect from a legitimate organization. Such phishing attacks are relatively easy to spot, but the close-to-perfect ones may well not be and protective systems on one's device are then needed to avoid the user being duped into clicking a malicious link.

    Writing in the International Journal of Information Privacy, Security and Integrity a team from China has developed a deep learning-based framework that might be used to detect phishing websites. Huanhuan Wang, Debin Cheng, and Hui Peng of the Fifth Electronic Research Institute of Ministry of Industry and Information Technology in Guangzhou, China, explain how their framework can extract descriptive and statistical features from a website and then determine whether these features are indicative of a phishing website. The detection of such sites could then be used in online security research and perhaps even be incorporated into browsers to protect unwary users from being phished.

    The team has tested their system against two databases, one containing the website address (uniform resource locators, URLs) of 10000 legitimate and otherwise benign sites and 13000 URLs found in the PhishTank public dataset of sites that have previously been themselves hooked and identified as malicious. The team has demonstrated a detection accuracy of almost 99 percent, which they say is a significant improvement on earlier phish detection methods. The approach they have taken might also point to new areas of research in this area and the development and optimization of detection systems that can be incorporated into security systems for mobile and desktop devices.

    Wang, H., Cheng, D. and Peng, H. (2021) 'Phishing website detection method based on CNAIR framework', Int. J. Information Privacy, Security and Integrity, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp.18–35.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPSI.2021.119167

  • Solid, metal antennae have been the standard in a wide range of technologies for decades, including a wide variety of radio communications and scanning such as radar. However, research into the concept of liquid antennae was discussed in the 1990s. A liquid antenna would comprise a lightweight and perhaps collapsible container that could be erected into the appropriate shape and filled with a suitable liquid. Water, saltwater, ionic liquids, and other substances have been investigated over the years.

    New work in the International Journal of Ultra Wideband Communications and Systems offers a novel design of a conical structure for a liquid antenna that can operate effectively across a wide frequency range. The antenna is compact and cost effective the team reports as well as offering a simple way to reconfigure it for different applications, something that is not easy with a solid metal antenna. Conical antennae are usually the form required for radio-frequency broadcast.

    S. Roopa and E. Kiran Kumar of the Siddaganga Institute of Technology Tumakuru, in Karnataka, India, have demonstrated proof of principle for their new type of liquid antenna using pure water, seawater, and glycerin as the liquid component. The device can achieve voltage standing wave ratio of 1 to 2 over a frequency range of 300 to 850 megahertz, the team reports. They add that the gain achieved in experimental results was 2 dBi, which is comparable with their simulations in which the gain is around 1.9 dBi. The operating frequency is adjusted by changing the height of liquid within the cone.

    The team concludes that their proposed antenna is simple, low cost, and covers a wide range of frequencies, which can be tuned easily. The radio emission from the antenna is omnidirectional and the fact that it is transparent gives it an additional attractive design feature for the development of wireless applications. In addition, the antenna is 30 to 40 percent shorter than its equivalent metal antenna.

    Roopa, S. and Kiran Kumar, E. (2021) 'Analysis of conical liquid antenna for wide range of frequencies', Int. J. Ultra Wideband Communications and Systems, Vol. 4, Nos. 3/4, pp.197–204.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJUWBCS.2021.119141

  • Crowdsourcing is a method of problem solving that taps the intellectual potential and skills of a large number of people simultaneously, commonly by using the tools of social media and the internet. New research published in the International Journal of Ad Hoc and Ubiquitous Computing has investigated this phenomenon from the perspective of the various influencing factors and incentive strategies used to make crowdsourcing work the most effectively.

    Xu Zhang, Zhanglin Peng, Qiang Zhang, Xiaonong Lu, and Hao Song of the School of Management at Hefei University of Technology in China, explain how crowdsourcing has been used in many different settings by companies, organizations, and innovators around the world. For instance, it has been used to guide the development of new products, it has been used in citizen science and data collection, to provide fodder for machine learning applications, the testing of new software (often referred to alpha and beta testing, it has even been used in political rallying and in the creative world to nudge performers and producers in a particular artistic direction or to specific places.

    The team writes how crowdsourcing was defined in 2006 by Jeff Howe as "the act of taking a task that is traditionally performed by an employee and outsourcing it to a large and undefined crowd of individuals through an open call."

    The team has reviewed the research literature in this field and found that there are numerous factors influencing the behaviour of individuals in the "crowd", including enjoyment and fun, monetary reward, peer recognition, skill improvement, self-marketing, a sense of belonging, work autonomy, altruism, and task complexity.

    Their work offers related behavioural theories to explain the relationship between those influencing factors and how the crowd behaves when presented with a particular problem to be solved. They highlight the incentive strategies that might be used, from the perspective of both the requester and also the available crowdsourcing platforms. Finally, they discuss the current directions being taken by research and highlight new avenues that might be taken to allow the field to mature.

    Zhang, X., Peng, Z., Zhang, Q., Lu, X. and Song, H. (2021) 'User participation behaviour in crowdsourcing initiatives: influencing factors, related theories and incentive strategies', Int. J. Ad Hoc and Ubiquitous Computing, Vol. 38, Nos. 1/2/3, pp.30–44.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2021.119084

  • Critical workers across many different sectors and industries from healthcare and education to manufacturing and retail have faced tough times during the many months of the COVID-19 pandemic. New research in the International Journal of Human Factors and Ergonomics, considers the plight of control room operators in the oil, gas, and petrochemical industry and the psychological fatigue many such workers have faced during the pandemic.

    Budiyanto Soinangun, Ivan Novendri, Jaka Matsana, Fergyanto E. Gunawan, Muhammad Asrol, and A.A.N. Perwira Redi of the Industrial Engineering Department at Bina Nusantara University in Jakarta, Indonesia, explain how within the petrochemical industry sites have to be kept running continuously and so rely on employees working shifts. However, the emergence of a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, in late 2019, and the pandemic that arose, meant measures such as social distancing, lockdowns, quarantines, and self-isolation had to be instigated in many parts of the world to slow the spread of the disease. There were significant problems as a result for many sectors, particularly those industries which must be "always-on".

    The team recognised that in such an industry the pandemic may well have serious psychological effects on its workers. As such, they undertook research to measure sleep quality and quantity, cognitive performance, and fatigue incidents among petrochemical workers and associated accidents.

    The results show that many control room operators got less sleep during the pandemic and the sleep they experienced was of a lower quality than before COVID-19. The researchers also found that cognitive performance was lower as indicated by an almost 15% increase in the number of alarms triggered on average than prior to the pandemic. Companies that adapted to the so-called "new normal" of the pandemic world saw a gradual fall in the number of incidents and accidents over time, however, as they implemented new control and monitoring measures.

    As to the psychological wellbeing of workers, there is a need to implement new measures for them too. Measures that monitor well-being as well as offering counselling with an expert independent third party would improve the situation for over-stressed workers suffering from poor sleep and mental health problems. In addition, companies should offer their workers access to physical exercise equipment, the team suggests.

    Soinangun, B., Novendri, I., Matsana, J., Gunawan, F.E., Asrol, M. and Redi, A.A.N.P. (2021) 'The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the psychological fatigue of control room operators in oil, gas and petrochemical industry', Int. J. Human Factors and Ergonomics, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp.393–407.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHFE.2021.119052

  • Mindfulness can be used by people who work in extremely cold and wet environments to tolerate low temperatures better and so carry out tasks that require motor skills more effectively, according to research published in the International Journal of Human Factors and Ergonomics.

    Commonly, sudden exposure to extreme cold, particularly in wet conditions or following submersion in water, can lead to a cold-shock response. This affects the person's cardiovascular system, metabolism, and leads to changes in breathing and subsequently hypothermia, which is a serious risk to life. Finding ways to inhibit the cold-shock response could be a lifesaver and so methods for improving cold tolerance and endurance to exposure to cold water are important for workers who need to spend time in cold, wet environments or underwater.

    Mindfulness can be described as the practice of deliberately focusing one's attention on the present moment without evaluation. It is an important component of many spiritual and philosophical approaches to life allowing practitioners. It allows people to concentrate on a particular experience or task in a positive way avoiding the distractions of their natural emotional responses and thought processes that normally arise in a given situation and which can interfere with the experience or task in negative ways. Mindfulness is not just another word for meditation rather it is an approach to focus and concentration that can help people cope or work better in many situations. It can also allow them to enjoy and appreciate their life's experiences in a clearer way than if they do not focus on the given situation. There is growing clinical evidence that mindfulness can have physical and mental health benefits.

    Kaitlin Mugford Heather Barry, Michael King, and Heather Carnahan of Memorial University in St. John's NL, Canada, and Gal Ziv of The Academic College at Wingate, Netanya, Israel, investigated whether listening to a mindful passage being read could improve a person's motor performance and cold tolerance in a low-temperature environment. Cold exposure for the participants involved holding their hand in water at a temperature of 2 Celsius while they listened to a mindfulness passage being read. The control group did not have the reading.

    After this training period, the team then tested each group of participants for their ability to ensure a cold exposure. They were also tested with a grooved pegboard and knot untying. Both groups performed similarly in the motor tests. However, members of the mindfulness group were able to tolerate exposure to cold much longer than the other participants.

    Mugford, K., Barry, H., King, M., Ziv, G. and Carnahan, H. (2021) 'The effects of mindfulness and repeated cold exposure on cold tolerance and motor skill performance', Int. J. Human Factors and Ergonomics, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp.408–420.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHFE.2021.119051

    The following is the mindfulness passage read to one group of participants:

    Please submerge your hand in the water. We will start with a few deep breaths as you experience your first exposure to this water. Breathe in through the nose… out through the mouth. Keep breathing deep into your abdomen. In. Out. Don't divert your attention from the cold. Be mindful of the cold and accept it. Although it may feel uncomfortable or painful, just keep breathing. In through your nose and out through your mouth. Try to steady your breath. Focus on accepting the sensations that your body is experiencing. Know that what you are feeling is only temporary and it is okay to feel some discomfort. Allow these sensations to happen without reacting to them. Keep your attention on your breath and accept the sensations you are experiencing. Breathe in… and out. Think about the fact that because this is only temporary, you can do this. Remind yourself it is okay.

  • Research published in the International Journal of Emergency Management asserts that infectious animal diseases, such as foot and mouth disease and avian influenza, are a significant and perennial problem in the South Korean winter. These diseases affect food production and so food security but also pose a risk to human health when people are in close proximity to such diseases especially when a pathogen mutates into a strain that has pandemic potential.

    Kyoo-Man Ha of the Department of Emergency Management at Inje University in Gimhae City, South Korea, explains how better stakeholder management is possible and that this could lead to improved oversight and control of such infectious diseases. Ultimately, there needs to be a shift from an ad hoc approach to emergency disease management, Ha suggests.

    Numerous factors, including climate change, globalisation, and bird migration, are involved in the pattern of outbreaks of infectious animal diseases around the world. Some diseases appear on an annual basis and there is in some parts of the world a lack of urgency regarding outbreaks. This lethargy is problematic in that new strains of common pathogens could at any time lead to far greater incidence of disease and so the loss of livestock and poultry. Moreover, neglecting the management of such pathogens might lead to the wider spread of such diseases and the chance emergence of a novel pathogen that leads to human disease.

    Ha suggests that all of the stakeholders putatively affected by the impact of foot and mouth disease and avian influenza must play their role in the South Korean farming landscape to address the perennial problems of these diseases. First, central government must coordinate the 18 Korean ministries. Secondly, local governments must consider the local risks, politics, culture, and emergency management. Thirdly, farms need to be redesigned to give livestock and poultry more space. The fourth group of stakeholders, scientists must focus on research and development. And the fifth group, visitors must be aware of disease outbreaks and the hazards.

    Ha, K-M. (2021) 'Management of infectious animal diseases: the Korean experience', Int. J. Emergency Management, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp.1–16.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEM.2021.118768

News

In Memory of Professor Jesús Perfecto Xamán Villaseñor (academically known as Jesús Xaman)

The editors and staff of the International Journal of Global Warming are sad to note the passing of Prof. Jesús Perfecto Xamán. Prof. Xamán was a longstanding supporter of the journal and a valued and active member of the Editorial Board for over fout years. We offer our sincere condolences to his family, friends and students.

Inderscience journals increasing issue frequency in 2022

Inderscience is pleased to announce that the following journals are increasing their issue frequency from 2022:

International Journal of Continuing Engineering Education and Life-Long Learning
Increasing from 4 to 6 issues per year

International Journal of Learning and Intellectual Capital
Increasing from 4 to 6 issues per year

International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation
Increasing from 4 to 6 issues per year

International Journal of Economic Policy in Emerging Economies
Increasing from 6 to 8 issues per year

International Journal of Internet Marketing and Advertising
Increasing from 6 to 8 issues per year

International Journal of Shipping and Transport Logistics
Increasing from 6 to 8 issues per year

International Journal of Trade and Global Markets
Increasing from 6 to 8 issues per year

New Editor for International Journal of Reliability and Safety

Associate Prof. Yiliu Liu from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Norway has been appointed to take over editorship of the International Journal of Reliability and Safety.

New Editor for International Journal of Business and Emerging Markets

Prof. Vincent Charles from CENTRUM PUCP in Peru has been appointed to take over editorship of the International Journal of Business and Emerging Markets.

New Editor for International Journal of Islamic Marketing and Branding

Dr. Ahmad Jamal from Cardiff University in the UK has been appointed to take over editorship of the International Journal of Islamic Marketing and Branding.