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  • Millions of people around the world live with diabetes mellitus. Many of them have medication and specific dietary management approaches to help them maintain stable blood sugar levels. However, recent innovations, such as inhaled insulin, the hormone made by the pancreas, which controls blood sugar, have sparked hope for more effective and user-friendly treatments.

    Diabetes is characterized by insufficient insulin production or ineffective insulin utilization. It causes many health problems and risks for those with one of the various forms of the disease. Risks include cardiovascular disease and microvascular complications such as eye, nerve, and kidney disorders. There is also the risk of acute problems that can lead to sudden death.

    Conventional treatments rely on daily insulin injections or insulin pumps used in conjunction with regular blood glucose monitoring. Such regimens can be complicated and are associated with discomfort, time constraints, and the need for precise dosing, to avoid unpredictable blood sugar levels and severe complications.

    Inhalable insulin offers a new approach to diabetes management. Using devices, similar to those used by people with asthma or other chronic lung diseases, including nebulizers and metered-dose inhalers it is possible to dispense a precise amount of insulin into the patient's lungs from where the hormone will be absorbed into the bloodstream quickly and effectively allowing for rapid action when needed.

    One such drug, Afrezza, a fast-acting inhalable insulin, was given US Food & Drug Administration (FDA) approval in 2014 and remains the only inhaled insulin product on the market. It represented an important step towards a new approach to diabetes treatment. Some earlier inhaled therapies had not proven themselves safe nor effective. Afrezza has a more reliable pharmacokinetic profile, which will give patients greater convenience and improved control of their blood sugar levels.

    Writing in the International Journal of Nano and Biomaterials, a team from India explains that insulin inhalers could improve patient adherence to their drug regimen and thus outcomes by providing a non-invasive and user-friendly alternative to traditional administration methods. Priya Patel and Bhavisha Kacha of the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences at Saurashtra University in Gujarat, India, add that nanotechnology could help drive the next steps in developing even more effective inhaler-type drug delivery systems for treating diabetes mellitus.

    Patel, P. and Kacha, B. (2024) 'Inhaled insulin: current steps towards diabetes treatment', Int. J. Nano and Biomaterials, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp.171–188.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJNBM.2024.137687

  • A detailed analysis of Vietnam's real estate market aimed to identify the factors that contribute to the formation of real estate bubbles. The study, published in the International Journal of Economics and Business Research covered the period from 2011 to 2021 and focused on various economic variables and regional factors influencing property prices and the overall stability of the real estate market.

    Le Phuong Lan of the Foreign Trade University and Nguyen Quynh Anh of Tien Phong Bank both in Hanoi, Vietnam, point out that in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, which itself revealed vulnerabilities in Vietnam's real estate sector, the new work shows that proactive measures are needed to mitigate against financial risks in this sector and to attempt to avoid unsustainable increases in property prices.

    The researchers looked at macroeconomic indicators, such as economic growth, inflation, lending interest rates, money supply, credit growth, migration rates, and provincial competitiveness. They then used their findings to develop a predictive model that would hopefully allow them to spot any patterns as the real estate market evolves.

    Critically, economic growth seems to be the real driver for activity across the real estate sector, The team points out that fluctuations in the growth rate of Vietnam's Gross Domestic Product (GDP), is linked to changes in the overall demand for property and investment in property. Conversely, inflationary pressures and variations in lending interest rates, because they affect borrowing costs, are another important factor that influences buying and selling behaviour in the real estate market. Unfortunately, the team also showed that liquidity within the financial system in general has a major effect on real estate speculation. The greater the money supply and credit growth, the greater the property price inflation. The team found some regional disparities where migration rates and provincial competitiveness affected movement in the real estate sector in specific geographic areas.

    Their conclusion is that measures to enhance transparency and regulatory oversight should be put in place to improve the way in which market participants garner information and to protect them and the sector from at least some of the common risks. They add that prudent monetary policy and effective macroeconomic management could also be used to maintain stability and confidence in the real estate sector and the broader financial system.

    Lan, L.P. and Anh, N.Q. (2024) 'Impacts of macroeconomic factors on the real estate bubble in Vietnam's big cities with industrial zones', Int. J. Economics and Business Research, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp.511–532.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEBR.2024.138079

  • A study in the International Journal of Economics and Business Research has looked at the various factors affecting fluctuations in the price of natural rubber in Thailand, the world's largest producer of the product. The study considers both domestic and external influences on rubber prices, showing just how the Thai market is affected by global changes and trends.

    Part Sungkaew of King Mongkut's University of Technology North Bangkok, in Thailand, points out that exports are critical to the Thai rubber industry. Just 18 percent of production is used domestically. Even then, domestic use is largely accounted for by foreign companies operating within Thailand. In other words, external factors such as exchange rates, export volumes, and oil prices all play part in determining the price. Moreover, despite Thailand being the leading producer, Sungkaew found that the market favours foreign buyers.

    An important factor that affects price is the volume of natural rubber stock within Thailand and abroad. This factor makes the Thai industry vulnerable to global market dynamics, with price changes in other major producing countries such as Malaysia and Indonesia affecting prices in Thailand. In addition, the rise of China as a major consumer further complicates the changing market, suggesting a shift in the balance of power in the global natural rubber market.

    Rubber farm cooperatives have offered some relief through cost-saving measures and efficiency drives. However, the impact of these is very subtle. The actions of the rubber farmers themselves has a very small role to play in the global natural rubber market.

    There have also been government interventions aimed at trying to prevent falling prices, driven by changing stocks and demand. But, the study found that the predominance of large buyers persists. The Thai government is under pressure to create policies to support value-added rubber products and the domestic industries in an attempt to mitigate against price fluctuations and stabilise the market.

    Sungkaew, P. (2024) 'Factors affecting natural rubber prices in Thailand', Int. J. Economics and Business Research, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp.489–510.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEBR.2024.138077

  • The exchange of knowledge has always been an important part of the research process. Digital platforms have made this easier than ever but at the same time added to the information burden. There are efficient tools available to researchers that allow them to collaborate and share knowledge more effectively. Research in the International Journal of Business Innovation and Research has investigated the various factors that lead to academics participating or otherwise in such systems.

    Osama F. Al Kurdi of Ahlia University in Manama, Bahrain, has carried out a quantitative study using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) to analyse feedback from academics on their use of online research communities. He has thus been able to identify seven important variables including attitudes towards knowledge, intention to share knowledge, perceived behavioural control, self-efficacy, subjective norms, and the role of tools and technology.

    As one might expect, the most important variable driving use of online research collaboration is the individual's attitude to this kind of approach to research. The research would therefore suggest that to boost use of such systems, the service providers need to do their best to foster positive attitudes within academic institutions.

    Beyond the obvious implications of the research, the paper also has broader significance for theoretical frameworks and practical applications. The theoretical integration of elements from the Theory of Planned Behaviour and social exchange theories provides insights into knowledge-sharing behaviour in an academic setting. Individual attitude needs to be considered together with social and technological influences. The ultimate aim is to improve knowledge sharing with a view to improving innovation.

    Al Kurdi, O.F. (2024) 'Factors affecting the use of online research collaboration platforms for knowledge sharing: evidence from knowledge-intensive organisations', Int. J. Business Innovation and Research, Vol. 33, No. 4, pp.433–456
    DOI: 10.1504/IJBIR.2024.137604

  • Crime is an age-old and never-ending problem for societies worldwide and crime detection and crime fighting have always chased after the criminals who often stay one step ahead. Research in the International Journal of Knowledge-Based Development has turned to emotional data alongside machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) techniques to develop technology that might one day help us better understand the criminal mind and perhaps even predict criminal activity so that it might be prevented.

    A. Kalai Selvan and N. Sivakumaran of the Department of Instrumentation and Control Engineering & Head at the National Institute of Technology,in Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India had two main objectives: the prediction of crime using ML models based on emotional data and the identification of future crime hotspots using DL methods applied to crime incident data.

    By analysing voice-based emotional cues using ML algorithms, the team has achieved a detection accuracy of 97.2% for various crimes. Additionally, DL techniques, particularly convolutional stacked bidirectional long short-term memory (LSTM), allowed them to detect crime hotspots with an accuracy of 95.64%.

    The researchers point out how the significance of emotional states in speech patterns allowed them to explore speech-based emotion detection. They took into account linguistic origin, paralinguistic cues, and the characteristics of the speaker. This allowed them to integrate the emotional data they obtained with other factors such as location and the type of crime that takes place in a hotspot. While, the notion sounds rather futuristic, the rapid advances in algorithms that can extract and identify patterns in data is in no way a matter only for science fiction. The team says that their approach could monitor activity in crime hotspots, detect crimes, and forecast future criminal activities.

    Future work might allow similar machine learning techniques to be used for emergency response systems, rather than only in crime fighting. By analysing the emotional content of a person calling the emergency services, the system might be able to distinguish between genuine emergencies and non-emergency or even fraudulent calls, which could reduce the burden on the services considerably. It is only a matter of time before the research takes the prediction accuracy closer and closer to the ideal 100 percent of the ultimate crime-fighting AI emotion detector.

    Kalai Selvan, A. and Sivakumaran, N. (2024) 'Crime detection and crime hot spot prediction using the BI-LSTM deep learning model', Int. J. Knowledge-Based Development, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp.57–86.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJKBD.2024.137600

  • A comprehensive review of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles and energy-storage systems offers a valuable resource for researchers in this area, according to the authors writing in the International Journal of Vehicle Information and Communication Systems.

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are an important part of sustainable personal transport as we try to move from a world drive on fossil fuels to one powered by solar, wind, and other renewables. Lithium-ion batteries continue to play a vital role in the ongoing success of EVs, and will do so until an even better alternative storage technology is developed.

    Mandar Maruti Bidwe and Swanand Gajanan Kulkarni of the SKN Sinhgad College of Engineering in Korti, Pandharpur, Maharashtra, India, conducted a detailed review of the research literature covering the period 2010 to 2022. They hope that their work will shine headlights on the lithium-ion battery roadmap and help researchers navigate the terrain towards future sustainable of electric transportation and energy storage.

    The team's review looked at various aspects of lithium-ion battery technology and shows that it is important to understanding the diverse materials used in different types of battery and the impact these material choices have on performance, lifetime, and sustainability. The team explains that materials such as lithium cobalt oxide offer high energy density but are hindered by limited availability and lower thermal stability. By contrast, materials such as lithium iron phosphate are much safer and longer-lasting, but do not necessarily have the energy density some applications demand.

    There is an ongoing need to model the behaviour of different types of battery in order to develop technology that optimises battery performance and management systems without too much compromise in terms of sustainability and resource safety and ethics. The review points to various papers that have focused on such models and assesses which might be used to best effect by researchers. This is critical given that challenges exist, not least in terms of the recycling and sustainability. The team points to several research gaps in these areas that could help focus efforts.

    Research into lithium-ion batteries is multidisciplinary and given its central role in the electrification of transport it will be a focus for several years yet. This review offers waymarkers on the roadmap for research and development.

    Bidwe, M.M. and Kulkarni, S.G. (2024) 'Lithium-ion battery: a review', Int. J. Vehicle Information and Communication Systems, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp.135–163.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJVICS.2024.137854

  • TikTok is a social media platform known for its short-form videos. Content creators, who have built a significant following on the site, often work with corporate brands to promote products to their audience, often through affiliate marketing. This involves a so-called influencer sharing products in their videos with affiliate links and then earning a commission from the company for purchases made through those links. It might be said that success lies in creating authentic content that attracts users and takes advantage of the current trends. However, for an influencer to be successful, they need to be transparent about their affiliate relationships in order to build and maintain the trust of their audience.

    Writing in the International Journal of Technology Marketing, Minh T.H. Le of the College of Business at the University of Economics in Ho Chi Minh City (UEH), Vietnam, discusses how the effectiveness of affiliate marketing might be improved by users hoping to influence young people. Le's study was based on a standardized questionnaire distributed across internet platforms. The results were analysed using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM). Her research identified some of the factors affecting consumer trust and buying decisions, including the opinions of other followers.

    She found that the perceived expertise of content creators and feedback from their followers is important to consumer trust. Le explains that a marketing campaign can pivot on this point. However, the entertainment value of an influencer video, is perhaps the most important factor leading to better user engagement and whether that user buys the products touted by the influencers they follow.

    The detailed findings discussed in IJTMKT offer practical guidance for marketers and businesses who are attempting to make the most of digital marketing. The advice suggests that companies need to understand how Key Opinion Leaders, Key Opinion Consumers, and influencers operate and the effect they have on everyday users. Given that TikTok appeals to a wide audience seeking amusement as well as product recommendations, it is worth exploring in detail its potential as a marketing channel.

    Le, M.T.H. (2024) 'Enhance the effectiveness of affiliate marketing on Tiktok for young people', Int. J. Technology Marketing, Vol. 18, No. 2, pp.162–184.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTMKT.2024.137669

  • The digital library is a searchable store of text, audio and visual materials, and more. However, as the amount of data that must be stored and made searchable increases, efficient management and retrieval can be a major headache for the digital library. Research in the International Journal of Information and Communication Technology could lead to a new solution to the problem by integrating image processing, big data analytics, and deep learning techniques.

    Xiaoyan Wang and Meimei Jia of Nanyang Normal University, Nanyang, Henan, China, like others, recognise the complexities of enhanced multimedia search and retrieval and have turned to the modern tool of deep learning to help. The team has developed a cross-media semantic search framework. This finds and uses the correlations between different types of media to assist in search and retrieval. Their deep learning algorithm can analyse and organize multimedia resources to improve search accuracy and system performance. Indeed, the use of this cross-modal correlation analysis and hierarchical knowledge inference in refining search results gave the team an almost 12 percent boost in search performance when compared with conventional approaches.

    The approach will be useful for generic digital libraries and could be extended to personal devices such as smartphones, enabling greater access to useful information silos for the lay public. In more specialist applications, the same approach might be used in medical and scientific information systems. This could allow complex medical imagery, such as MRI scans and diagnostic test data and chemical databases, to be more readily searchable. In enterprise knowledge management systems, with such a system, companies could better handle their ever-accumulating data and information. Moreover, in any field where vast amounts of multimedia data accumulate every day and need efficient search and retrieval methods to make the most of the information they hold, an improved system will benefit users.

    Wang, X. and Jia, M. (2024) 'Development of a unified digital library system: integration of image processing, big data, and deep learning', Int. J. Information and Communication Technology, Vol. 24, No. 3, pp.378–391.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICT.2024.137942

  • Technology is changing all areas of education not least language learning. Research in the International Journal of Information and Communication Technology has looked at the potential of Computer-assisted Language Learning (CALL).

    Learning a new language has usually relied on the traditional classroom setting and a native speaker of the language to teach students the vocabulary and grammar. However, there have for many years language learning systems that use voice recordings and books. In recent years, these systems have migrated to smartphones. The number of learners answering the CALL has risen because of the accessibility and convenience. Such systems now use artificial intelligence and algorithmic processing to help learners get to grips with their language second, or third, or more, language of choice. Indeed, the new tools offer an immersive and interactive language-learning experience.

    Ning Li of the Public Teaching Department at Henan Vocational College of Tuina in Luoyang, Henan, China, explains that one aspect of language learning by app is the potential of the software to provide learners with an assessment of their progress and oral proficiency. If the system can analyse the words spoken by the learner in their non-native tongue, then they can be guided to the next level in their education appropriately or given advice on checking and rechecking their understanding and ability.

    CALL systems can offer tailored teaching and thus have the potential to address individual learning needs, accelerating language acquisition for those learners who can cope and slowing the teaching process for those who need more time. Of course, variability in accent and dialect represent a challenge for the assessment algorithms and new innovations and refinements are still needed to make CALL as effective as traditional teaching and learning methods.

    CALL could open up linguistic opportunities far and wide. With improvements in AI such systems will be able to assess learners before they are released into the wilds of international conversation.

    Li, N. (2024) 'Research on scoring mechanism of spoken English self-study system taking into account artificial intelligence technology and speech knowledge recognition algorithm', Int. J. Information and Communication Technology, Vol. 24, No. 3, pp.350–365.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICT.2024.137941

  • The responsibility for maintaining online safety relies on content moderators particularly in times of crisis. However, not all platforms even have moderation systems in place and so disinformation, misinformation, propaganda, and fake news often circulate freely. The time of the COVID-19 pandemic was a case in point, but the propagation of fake news occurs during times of political change and in the wake of other kinds of crises and socioeconomic upheaval. However, there is much content online that is illegal rather than simply being fake and that must be removed summarily.

    Some social media platforms and websites do have individuals and even teams who are tasked with checking user-generated content to ensure it does not contravene the law. Elena Martellozzo, Paula Bradbury, Ruth Spence, and Jeffrey DeMarco of Middlesex University, London, UK, and Paul Bleakley of the University of New Haven, West Haven, USA, point out that during and after the COVID-19 pandemic there was a surge in the volume of illegal content. They report details of their findings and the implications in the International Journal of Technology, Policy and Management.

    The researchers have looked at the experience of content moderators during this period and their findings offer new insights into how this important online role can affect the moderators' mental well-being. Indeed, the upward trend in illegal material being shared online, exacerbated by lockdown measures during the pandemic, put the content moderators under immense pressure. There was a heightened risk of personal burnout, mental health problems, and even trauma when it came to particular kinds of illegal content that required moderation. The new findings suggest that there is an urgent need to improve the working conditions and personnel backup for such moderators.

    Lessons drawn from the pandemic era should provide service providers and their staff, including their content moderators, useful guidance for the improvement of working conditions. Employers must prioritize mental health support, fair compensation, and comprehensive training, the research suggests. This is especially important given the role played by content moderators in helping to remove illegal content from the internet.

    The researchers add that clear communication, professional development opportunities, and tailored support mechanisms, particularly for those working remotely or in a hybrid work environment, are important considerations for employers and service providers.

    Martellozzo, E., Bleakley, P., Bradbury, P., Spence, R. and DeMarco, J. (2024) 'Supporting digital key workers: addressing the challenges faced by content moderators during and after the COVID-19 pandemic', Int. J. Technology, Policy and Management, Vol. 24, No. 2, pp.212–228.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTPM.2024.137818


International Journal of Mechatronics and Manufacturing Systems' editorial team calls for papers 

The following invitation comes from Prof. Tuğrul Özel, Editor in Chief of the International Journal of Mechatronics and Manufacturing Systems, and his editorial team:

We are the editorial team of the International Journal of Mechatronics and Manufacturing Systems (online ISSN 1753-1047; print ISSN 1753-1039), which is a peer-reviewed journal that publishes four issues per year including open-access articles. We are calling for papers for Vol. 17 No. 4 of the journal, and cordially invite you to submit your manuscripts.

You can view the journal's profile here. Instructions on how to submit papers are available under the Submitting Articles tab on this journal webpage. Free sample articles from the journal are available here.

The International Journal of Mechatronics and Manufacturing Systems is indexed by Scopus, Compendex, Academic OneFile (Gale), cnpLINKer and Expanded Academic ASAP, among others. It has a CiteScore of 1.7 (2022).

Please feel free to share this invitation with your colleagues and associates.

For any queries, please contact Prof. Tuğrul Özel at ozel@rutgers.edu

Best regards,
Editorial team
International Journal of Mechatronics and Manufacturing Systems

Associate Prof. Xin Wang appointed as new Editor in Chief of International Journal of Signal and Imaging Systems Engineering

Associate Prof. Xin Wang from Shenyang Jianzhu University in China has been appointed to take over editorship of the International Journal of Signal and Imaging Systems Engineering.

International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business indexed by Clarivate's Emerging Sources Citation Index

Inderscience is pleased to announce that the International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business has been indexed by Clarivate's Emerging Sources Citation Index.

The journal's Editor in Chief, Prof. Leo Dana, thanks his editorial board and IJESB's reviewers for the parts they played in reaching this significant milestone, as well as all the authors who've submitted their research to the journal.

International Journal of Sustainable Aviation indexed by Scopus

We are pleased to report that the International Journal of Sustainable Aviation has been indexed by Scopus. Inderscience's Editorial Office congratulates the journal's Editor in Chief, Prof. T. Hikmet Karakoc, along with his Associate Editors and Editorial Board.

Editor's call for papers for the International Journal of Complexity in Leadership and Management

Prof. Marco Valeri (marco.valeri@unicusano.it), the new Editor in Chief of the International Journal of Complexity in Leadership and Management (IJCLM), invites articles on topics related to complexity in leadership, governance, management and organisational dynamics. This will help to provide a summary of current research along with predictions of where research is likely to go in the future on the subjects of complexity, nonlinearity, consciousness, intrinsic intelligence, collective intelligence, connectivity, autopoiesis, adaptation, diversity, self-organisation, emergence, dissipation, edge of chaos, butterfly effect and sustainability. Researchers and practitioners are invited to submit articles to IJCLM so that they can share their research on the subject.

List of topics

Topics include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Leadership sensitive to initial input, innovation and creativity
  • Empirical research in frameworks and practices
  • Internationalisation
  • Cultural entrepreneurship
  • Digitalisation and artificial intelligence
  • Tourism management
  • Nonlinear intelligence/thinking, knowledge management, organisational learning
  • Complexity/intelligence mindset, intelligence paradigms
  • Family business and financial performance
  • Complexity adaptive dynamics, complexity/intelligence-centric processes
  • Impact of managerial organisation on communities
  • Developments and changes in managerial ideas
  • Gender impact on organisations

IJCLM is an international peer-reviewed journal. It aims to promote a deeper comprehension and to provide dialogue across country borders and cultures on the issues of complexity in leadership, governance and management. In this respect, it aims to serve as a platform where new philosophies, theories, empirical research findings and case studies can be published and shared internationally.


IJCLM is a vehicle which provides the latest findings, developments and thinking in management, governance and leadership to corporate leaders, company managers, business consultants, education leaders, national policy makers, military leaders, academics and researchers. IJCLM is also a forum through which different stakeholders worldwide can disseminate new thinking, theories, strategies and practices involved in complexity in leadership, governance and management, thus learning from each other's expertise and experience.


IJCLM publishes original papers in theoretical development and empirical research, case studies, discussion papers, conference reports, book reviews, commentaries and news dealing with the frontiers of complexity in leadership, governance and management. IJCLM welcomes worldwide contributions from academics, researchers, policy makers, corporate leaders, educators and business consultants and practitioners with interest in the topics specified.

Submission process

All articles for this journal must be submitted using the online submissions system available via the Submitting Articles tab at www.inderscience.com/ijcih. Please follow all instructions and author guidelines.

There are no charges for publishing with this journal, unless you require your article to be Open Access. You can find more information on OA here.