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- What's the chat about global cybersecurity?
An analysis in the Journal for International Business and Entrepreneurship Development has looked at the various approaches to cybersecurity and data protection taken by key global players, namely the European Union (EU), the United States of America (USA), and China. As nations address historical data concerns and evolving cyber threats, the practical implications for businesses and individuals are significant. In this context, they consider the impact of the emergence of large language models (LLMs), such as ChatGPT, often, and perhaps erroneously, referred to as artificial intelligence (AI) tools.
Cybersecurity and data privacy have become central concerns, affecting business operations and user safety worldwide. The EU's General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) stands out as one of the more well-known and effective cyber strategies that have nudged businesses to strengthen cybersecurity measures and improve data management practices for compliance and consumer trust.
In contrast, the USA currently lacks a unified legislative framework for cybersecurity, relying instead on various regulations many of which are rather outdated in the digital landscape as it stands. Nevertheless, the USA does maintain high levels of preparedness against cyberattacks through legal, technical, and organizational measures.
China, on the other hand, has taken a stringent and strident position on cybersecurity and data protection, balancing the safeguarding of its citizens with strict regulations. These, of course, have raised concerns in many quarters about individual rights.
In their paper, Teddy Lynn Ladd of Wipro Enterprise Futuring in Plano, Texas, Shawn M. Carraher of KFUPM in Dhahran, KSA, Sherry E. Sullivan of BGSU, Bowling Green, Ohio, and Shawn M. Carraher Jr. of TAMU in Commerce, Texas, USA, suggest that LLMs have an important role to play.
These tools offer a new way to understand and navigate the complex current regulations and future legislation, which could help organizations in their compliance efforts as well as improve cybersecurity for those organizations, governments, and individuals. LLMs might be prompted to help in the interpretation of regulations and provide assistance in developing proactive rather than reactive strategies to address the challenges involved in compliance and cybersecurity. They might even be useful in allowing organisations to surmount the financial burdens and resource constraints, particularly for multinational corporations, that are necessitated by the need for cybersecurity and regulatory compliance.
Ladd, T.L., Carraher, S.M., Sullivan, S.E. and Carraher Jr., S.M. (2023) 'Cybersecurity and data protection in the European Union, the USA, and China: does ChatGPT really make a difference?', J. International Business and Entrepreneurship Development, Vol. 15, No. 3, pp.355–390.
- AI catches phish on day zero
A recent study in the International Journal of Information and Computer Security has introduced an innovative approach to addressing the persistent challenge of zero-day phishing attacks in cybersecurity. Zero-day threats represent a significant challenge for computer security systems. Such threats can be used to exploit previously unidentified vulnerabilities in software, networks, and computer systems before those security systems can be patched or updated to address the new exploit. Although they have only a brief window to circumvent conventional malware detection, antivirus software, and firewalls this can be sufficient to allow a data breach or other malicious process to be undertaken.
Thomas Nagunwa of the Department of Computer Science at the Institute of Finance Management in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania, has proposed a machine learning (ML) model that is designed to detect these emerging and ever-evolving threats in real time. It could offer a much-needed and pragmatic solution to enhancing computer security in a range of environments.
One of the biggest threats to computer security often exploits social engineering wherein the user's gullibility or lack of understanding is used to breach the first line of defence. In the case of a "phishing" attack, for instance, an unwary user is persuaded or coerced into unwittingly clicking a malicious link in an email or on a website. Often such phishing attacks will use zero-day tactics, approaches that have not been widely recognised at the point or time of implementation. Commonly, such exploits evade detection because their characteristics and format have not been added to the conventional blacklists used by security systems to otherwise block them.
The newly developed model aims to overcome these limitations by using a diverse set of features extracted from the structural characteristics of phishing websites. Those features are categorized into five groups, including web page structure, URL characteristics, WHOIS records, TLS certificates, and web page reputation. Notably, features derived from third-party services and web page reputation proved particularly influential in predicting phishing attacks, highlighting the significance of external sources and reputation-based indicators in enhancing detection capabilities.
Nagunwa evaluated the performance of his model against both traditional machine learning and deep learning algorithms, with promising results. Accuracy above 99% with minimal false positives and false negatives was achievable. Critically, working in a browser in real-time did not slow the loading of websites to the point at which they would compromise the user browsing experience.
Nagunwa, T. (2024) 'AI-driven approach for robust real-time detection of zero-day phishing websites', Int. J. Information and Computer Security, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp.79–118.
- Driving advanced security for the Internet of Vehicles
The Internet of Things (IoT) is a relatively familiar concept. It refers to the network of interconnected devices embedded with sensors, software, and other technologies that enable them to collect and exchange data over the Internet. These devices can range from everyday objects such as household appliances, wearable devices, and industrial machines to vehicles and infrastructure components like traffic lights and smart meters.
The underlying concept of the IoT is the creation of a seamless network in which physical objects can communicate and interact with each other without requiring human intervention. This connectivity enables IoT devices to gather real-time data, analyze it, and respond accordingly, leading to increased efficiency, automation, and convenience in various aspects of life and industry.
The IoT represents a move away from the conventional way in which we perceive and interact with the world around us, as it integrates the physical and digital realms to create networked systems that can enhance productivity, improve decision-making, and drive innovation across numerous sectors.
When we talk specifically of the IoT of vehicles, that represents its own digital ecosystem, which we might call the IoV, the Internet of Vehicles. Work in the International Journal of Internet Technology and Secured Transactions introduces innovative security schemes to tackle the growing security challenges facing the Internet of Vehicles (IoV). The aim is to enhance the integrity and resilience of connected vehicles in the face of evolving smart technologies where vehicles have increasing autonomy and connectivity. Given that any connectivity has associated security risks, such as authentication breaches, data confidentiality breaches, and routing attacks, it is important that the IoV can be made secure.
Roumissa Sahbi and Salim Ghanemi of Badji Mokhtar Annaba University, in Annaba and Mohamed Amine Ferrag of Guelma University, in Guelma, Algeria, have proposed security solutions that use Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC). This allows them to identify and block potential attacks within the IoV system and so boost security.
With the Internet of Things (IoT) linking smart devices across different domains, the need for strong security measures is critical. The proposed security schemes offer a way to protect the IoV network against different kinds of threats. The team has used formal and informal security analyses with tools like AVISPA and BAN logic to verify the effectiveness of their protocols in mitigating attacks.
Sahbi, R., Ghanemi, S. and Ferrag, M.A. (2024) 'Security of internet of vehicles in smart cities: authentication and confidentiality aspects', Int. J. Internet Technology and Secured Transactions, Vol. 13, No. 3, pp.232–269.
- Hybrid security in the cloud
Research in the International Journal of Internet Technology and Secured Transactions, uses a hybrid approach to boosting the security of online applications, particularly within the realm of cloud computing. By merging two distinct techniques – homomorphic encryption and the squirrel search algorithm (SSA) – the study demonstrates a significant enhancement in the security of cloud computing models.
Homomorphic encryption is a form of encryption that allows mathematical operations to be performed on encrypted data without first having to decrypt data. This means that computations can be carried out on encrypted text, to yield useful results that, when decrypted, match the results of the same operations as if they had been performed on the plain text.
The SSA is a nature-inspired optimization algorithm that mimics the dynamic foraging behaviour of flying squirrels. It's classified as a metaheuristic algorithm, meaning it solves problems iteratively using randomness and guided search instead of using a conventional approach.
R.S. Kanakasabapathi and J.E. Judith of the Department of Computer Applications at the Noorul Islam Centre for Higher Education in Kumarcoil, India, hoped to boost cloud data storage systems using an advanced encryption technique. Encryption obviously plays a key role in safeguarding data from unauthorized access or breaches. The team has assessed the effectiveness of their approach, measuring upload and download time and encryption and decryption time. They demonstrated that the hybrid approach outperforms the Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA) and ECC-based cryptography.
Ultimately, minimizing encryption and decryption times while maximizing data protection and so ensuring the integrity and confidentiality of cloud-stored information is critical. Given that there are ongoing concerns surrounding the security of cloud computing, ever-expanding volumes of data being stored and processed in the cloud, innovative approaches are needed to safeguard that data as each wave of malicious actors comes to the fore who might compromise or illicitly access that data.
Kanakasabapathi, R.S. and Judith, J.E. (2024) 'Improving cloud security model for web applications using hybrid encryption techniques', Int. J. Internet Technology and Secured Transactions, Vol. 13, No. 3, pp.291–308.
- An end to single-use plastic bags?
Single-use plastics cause pollution, harm wildlife, deplete resources, pose health risks, and create waste management challenges, necessitating urgent action for reduction and better management. A study in the Global Business and Economics Review has identified drivers for the consumer shift away from single-use plastics.
The work conducted by Rajendran Geetha and Chandrasekaran Padmavathy of the Vellore Institute of Technology in Vellore, India, improves our understanding of the factors influencing consumers' decisions to avoid single-use plastic (SUP) bags. The team used Stimulus-Organism-Response (S-O-R) theory to analyse the various external influences and internal motivations.
External factors such as green advertisements, retailer incentives, and government policies were found to play significant roles. Green advertisements were effective in motivating individuals to choose what are commonly referred to as eco-friendly alternatives, while incentives such as discounts and rewards from retailers also encouraged them to avoid SUP bags and opt for reusable cloth and reinforced, "bag-for-life" type bags. Additionally, government policies such as bans and taxes on SUP bags have had a significant impact on consumer choice, emphasizing the importance of regulatory interventions in promoting sustainability and nudging consumers to use alternatives.
The findings provide insights for policymakers, advertisers, retailers, and communities on the importance of environmental messaging and individual perceptions in promoting sustainable behaviour. Millions if not billions of SUP bags are manufactured every year the world over. Most, as the name would suggest, are used once, and then discarded. Ultimately, they add a heavy burden to the waste stream and many of those that don't end up in landfill or being incinerated with other waste will reach environmental niches or the seas where they cause immense problems to different kinds of ecosystems and living things.
Implications drawn from the study suggest a need for a comprehensive approach. Advertisers can use environmental appeals, while retailers can incentivize behavioural change through discounts and rewards. Government and policymakers are urged to implement regulations and awareness campaigns to address plastic pollution effectively.
The study underscores the urgency of addressing environmental challenges and calls for collective efforts to build a sustainable ecosystem. Understanding and acting upon these findings are essential steps toward a greener future.
Geetha, R. and Padmavathy, C. (2024) 'Effects of external and internal influences on intentions to avoid single-use plastic bags', Global Business and Economics Review, Vol. 30, No. 2, pp.176–188.
- Challenging entrepreneurship in higher education
A study published in the International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business has investigated entrepreneurship education within higher education institutions. The results shed light on the critical role of such educators in engaging with students and communities while navigating various institutional perspectives.
Ethné Swartz of Montclair State University, New Jersey, Dianne H.B. Welsh of the University of North Carolina (Greensboro), Steven Tello of the University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, USA, and Norris Krueger of Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan, collected and analysed survey data to understand the dynamics of entrepreneurship education.
The team found a correlation between institutional roles and the level of engagement in boundary-spanning activities. Boundary spanning refers to connections between disparate groups, departments, or organizations within a larger system. It involves individuals or units that operate at the interface between different domains, facilitating communication, collaboration, and information exchange across various boundaries. In the context of entrepreneurship education, boundary spanning often entails interactions between educators, students, academic departments, industry partners, and community organizations to promote learning, innovation, and engagement.
Intriguingly, faculty members, despite their active involvement, showed lower levels of engagement compared to other stakeholders. This raises concerns about the factors influencing faculty commitment, with tenure requirements being identified as a potential deterrent due to their heavy emphasis on research outcomes.
The study underscores the need for further investigation into the motivations and challenges within entrepreneurship education. It highlights the evolving nature of the educator's role and emphasizes the importance of aligning roles with core values, whether focusing on teaching, networking, or student-centred activities.
The work also draws attention to the increasing complexity of the institutional environment in which entrepreneurship education operates. It points to the growing significance of governing boards in navigating such complexities. In essence, the study provides insights into the challenges faced by entrepreneurship educators and the changing institutional context shaping their roles.
These findings have broader implications beyond academia for society and he wider economy. Understanding and supporting entrepreneurship educators are therefore important in fostering innovation and community engagement.
Swartz, E., Welsh, D.H.B., Krueger, N. and Tello, S. (2024) 'Engagement through boundary spanning: insights from US entrepreneurship educators', Int. J. Entrepreneurship and Small Business, Vol. 51, No. 3, pp.281-300.
- Algorithms don't understand sarcasm. Yeah, right!
Sarcasm, a complex linguistic phenomenon often found in online communication, often serves as a means to express deep-seated opinions or emotions in a particular manner that can be in some sense witty, passive-aggressive, or more often than not demeaning or ridiculing to the person being addressed. Recognizing sarcasm in the written word is crucial for understanding the true intent behind a given statement, particularly when we are considering social media or online customer reviews.
While spotting that someone is being sarcastic in the offline world is usually fairly easy given facial expression, body language and other indicators, it is harder to decipher sarcasm in online text. Work in the International Journal of Wireless and Mobile Computing hopes to meet this challenge. Geeta Abakash Sahu and Manoj Hudnurkar of the Symbiosis International University in Pune, India, have developed an advanced sarcasm detection model aimed at accurately identifying sarcastic remarks in digital conversations, a task crucial for understanding the true intent behind online statements.
The team's model comprises four main phases. It begins with text pre-processing, which involves filtering out common, or "noise", words like "the", "it", and "and". It then breaks down the text into smaller units. To address the challenge of dealing with a large number of features, the team used optimal feature selection techniques to ensure the model's efficiency by prioritizing only the most relevant features. Features indicative of sarcasm, such as 'information gain,' 'chi-square,' 'mutual information,' and 'symmetrical uncertainty,' are then extracted from this pre-processed data by the algorithm.
For sarcasm detection, the team used an ensemble classifier comprising various algorithms including Neural Networks (NN), Random Forests (RF), Support Vector Machines (SVM), and a Deep Convolutional Neural Network (DCNN). The performance of the latter was optimized using a newly proposed optimization algorithm called Clan Updated Grey Wolf Optimization (CU-GWO).
The team found that their approach could outperform existing methods across various performance measures. Specifically, it improves on specificity, reduces false negative rates, and has superior correlation values when compared with standard approaches.
Beyond its immediate implications for natural language processing and sentiment analysis, the research holds promise for enhancing sentiment analysis algorithms, social media monitoring tools, and automated customer service systems.
Sahu, G.A. and Hudnurkar, M. (2024) 'Metaheuristic-assisted deep ensemble technique for identifying sarcasm from social media data', Int. J. Wireless and Mobile Computing, Vol. 26, No. 1, pp.25–38.
- Cross-cultural TikTok study
TikTok is a popular social media platform where users can create and share short videos, often featuring music, dance, comedy, and other creative content.
Research in the International Journal of Mobile Communications has compared TikTok usage between China and the United States of America and offers invaluable insights into user behaviour and motivations on the social media platform and how they differ between these two regions. The study involved surveying around 150 each Chinese and US users and introduced the Comprehensive Gratifications Engagement Model to reveal how users interact with TikTok content.
Jian Shi, Mohammad Ali, and Fiona Chew of Syracuse University, New York, USA make several points based on their study. First, TikTok users engage more in self-promotion and with the platform's video content compared with other short-video apps such as Snapchat. This would suggest that part of TikTok's unique appeal is its potential for working as a goal-oriented activity.
Secondly, differences in user engagement between TikTok users in China and the USA were apparent, particularly when it comes to the degree of gratification people hope for in using the app, users in the USA seek a greater degree of gratification than those in China, the team reports. Understanding such cultural differences is essential for companies hoping to tailor marketing strategies on social media in different countries.
Fundamentally, TikTok is widely used as a pastime to help someone escape their everyday life, to relax, to learn, but also as a tool for procrastination and as a status-seeking tool and to impress others. Thankfully, it's not all about self-aggrandisement, people also want to meet and discover interesting people on the app and to make connections and thus to feel like they belong to an interesting community. There remains an element of social in this form of social media. The specifics as detailed in the paper showed the nuanced differences between users in China and the USA.
Shi, J., Ali, M. and Chew, F. (2024) 'Understanding gratifications for engaging with short-video: a comparison of TikTok use in the USA and China', Int. J. Mobile Communications, Vol. 23, No. 2, pp.175–200.
- A sound approach to insomnia
Insomnia is a pervasive sleep disorder affecting millions of people worldwide. It has long been considered a significant health concern characterized by difficulty falling asleep or remaining asleep for a sufficiently long period. While almost everyone suffers sleeplessness on occasion. It can often be alleviated by changing one's bedtime routine, avoiding late food and drink, relaxation and breathing exercises, switching off one's gadgets earlier in the evening, reducing stress overall, and with short-term medication. Chronic insomnia if left untreated can ultimately lead to health issues, such as ongoing fatigue during the day and an increased risk of other health conditions. Approaches to address the problem of insomnia are thus keenly sought.
Research in the International Journal of Industrial and Systems Engineering offers a promising advancement in sleep aid technology. Shan Hu, Liyan Zhang, Weiqi Guo, Dong Zhang, Qi Jia, Zitong Yang, and Min Guo of Hubei University of Technology in Wuhan, Hubei, China, have used neural network science to develop a sleep aid that "understands" the individual user's needs and uses sophisticated processes to model their sleep patterns and then play soothing, music at appropriate points to help overcome the person's insomnia. The team suggests that their work might change how sleep aid products are designed by prioritizing the user rather than their problem.
The team's approach integrates sophisticated techniques such as the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), Quality Function Deployment (QFD), and Function Behaviour Structure (FBS) models to develop a more effective approach. AHP is used to assess the user's needs and give a weighting to each factor. Convolutional neural networks then allow the team to craft a personalized sleep state model that can be tailored to individual sleep patterns and then be optimized for effective sleep assistance. The sleep, or rather "lack-of-sleep" patterns are initially monitored using a heart monitor and skin conductivity measurements the data from which are fed into the model.
Critically, what emerges from this project is that design has to focus on the user as well as the device to get the best results. "This method can improve the user experience of intelligent sleep aid products from the perspective of user needs and provide a feasible reference for the design research of intelligent sleep aid products," the team writes.
Hu, S., Zhang, L., Guo, W., Zhang, D., Jia, Q., Yang, Z. and Guo, M. (2024) 'Research on the design of smart sleep aid interactive products', Int. J. Industrial and Systems Engineering, Vol. 46, No. 2, pp.151–168.
- Communication breakdown when the heat is on
Bulk acoustic wave (BAW) filters are used in various electronic devices, including smartphones, tablets, Wi-Fi routers, and communication systems to help produce smooth and reliable high-frequency radio signals for 5G communications. They are thus important in ensuring efficient communication and data transmission. BAW filters are widely used in the radio frequency front ends of diverse devices, such as magnetoelectric transducer antennae for wireless communication. BAW filters are also used in physical sensors, actuators, and biochemical sensors.
In high-power applications an issue known as the self-heating effect can arise in BAW filters. Self-heating BAW filters when they are powered leads to a degradation in performance known as insertion loss, a fall in signal power. Research in the International Journal of Nanomanufacturing has investigated this phenomenon. Mitigating the detrimental effects of self-heating could improve the overall efficiency of a component or device as well as improving durability.
Bin Ruan and Tingting Liu of Southwest University of Science and Technology, in Mianyang, Shaohua Yang, Qinwen, and Weiheng Shao of the China Electronic Product Reliability, and Environmental Testing Research Institute in Guangzhou, and Ming Wu of Pandhus Microsystem Co., Ltd also in Mianyang, China, have investigated self-heating at high-frequency power levels. The team built a dedicated test system to measure the maximum surface temperature and the insertion loss of BAW filters at different power levels.
The relatively simple but important finding from their tests is that as power levels increased, so did heating, and thus, insertion loss. The correlation between higher power and greater insertion loss represents a fundamental trade-off in filter design. As power levels increase, the filter's components may experience greater stress, leading to increased losses.
Armed with this knowledge, it might be possible to use various approaches to mitigate insertion loss while maintaining adequate power handling capabilities. For instance, choosing alternative materials, refining fabrication techniques, and implementing innovative filter configurations might all be used to reduce self-heating and so reduce insertion loss. For instance, incorporating advanced materials with improved thermal properties or refining the geometry of the filter structure might help dissipate heat more effectively, reducing losses at higher power levels.
Ruan, B., Liu, T., Yang, S., Huang, Q., Wu, M. and Shao, W. (2023) 'Study on the effect of self-heating effect of bulk acoustic wave filter on the interpolation loss in the band', Int. J. Nanomanufacturing, Vol. 18, Nos. 3/4, pp.178–188.
Prof. Matti Muhos appointed as new Editor in Chief of International Journal of Management and Enterprise Development
Prof. Matti Muhos from the University of Oulu in Finland has been appointed to take over editorship of the International Journal of Management and Enterprise Development.
Prof. Tianliang Li appointed as new Editor in Chief of International Journal of Computer Aided Engineering and Technology
Prof. Tianliang Li from the Wuhan University of Technology in China has been appointed to take over editorship of the International Journal of Computer Aided Engineering and Technology.
Prof. Filippo Vitolla appointed as new Editor in Chief of International Journal of Financial Services Management
Prof. Filippo Vitolla from LUM University Giuseppe Degennaro in Italy has been appointed to take over editorship of the International Journal of Financial Services Management.
Editor in Chief invites submissions for the International Journal of Power and Energy Conversion
Dr. Abdessamad Didi, Editor in Chief of the International Journal of Power and Energy Conversion, cordially invites general submissions to IJPEC, particularly those that "empower tomorrow" by navigating the complex landscape of energy challenges and sustainable solutions.
Dr. Didi expands as follows:
"Today, the increasing demand for energy poses a significant challenge, and the effective utilisation of this energy requires a complex process involving several essential elements. This includes mobilising qualified human resources, establishing well-equipped structures and leveraging the knowledge and expertise of all involved stakeholders. The harmonious coordination of these diverse elements is crucial to ensuring the success of this endeavour.
From this perspective, power and energy conversion (whether thermal, nuclear, solar, etc.) play a central role. The mastery of these aspects is currently within our reach, allowing us to positively influence the future of energy management. This involves not only adopting cutting-edge conversion technologies but also implementing sustainable energy practices and policies.
Simultaneously, it is essential to consider all anomalies and potential challenges that may arise in this process. This requires constant vigilance and the implementation of adaptive correction mechanisms. The lessons learned from these experiences will contribute to continuously improving our practices and strengthening our resilience for future challenges.
Furthermore, one of the perspectives that generates significant interest is water production through seawater desalination. While this approach requires considerable power and energy, it offers a valuable solution to meeting the growing demand for drinking water. The ongoing development of more efficient and sustainable desalination technologies is therefore a strategic area for the future.
In summary, managing energy and power today requires a holistic approach, involving synergies among human resources, conversion technologies, continuous process monitoring and innovative initiatives such as seawater desalination. It is through a thorough understanding of these elements and consistent implementation that we can shape a more sustainable future for humanity on Earth. All of these aspects can have a profound impact on our success, and in this regard, we aim to contribute to the advancement of science through the International Journal of Power and Energy Conversion, and invite researchers to contribute to our journal to promote scientific progress and create a promising future."
You can visit IJPEC's homepage for more information on the journal and for guidance on how to submit articles.
International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications announces winner of Best Editorial Board Member Award
Prof. Jianbo Su, Editor in Chief of the International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications, is pleased to announce that the 2022-2023 Best Editorial Board Member Award has been won by Prof. Junguo Lu, from Shanghai Jiao Tong University, in recognition of his intelligent and incisive insight on recommending influential papers with higher citations.