International Journal of Tourism Anthropology (6 papers in press)
Pilgrimage or Tourism? Travel Motivation on Way of Saint James
by Noelia Araújo-Vila, Lucília Cardoso, Arthur Filipe De Araújo, Jose Antonio Fraiz-Brea
Abstract: Among the widely known places of pilgrimage is Santiago de Compostela (Spain) and linked to it Way of Saint James (El Camino de Santiago in Spanish) - through its different routes. The present work analyses this way from three perspectives: 1) that of potential pilgrims searching information about El Camino; 2) that of tourists who do El Camino, focusing on their motivations; and 3) that of the academic world. Results show that El Camino de Santiago is resource that generates worldwide interest, for its religious aspect, and for the touristic one, which are often combined in visitors motivations. Between 2004 and 2018 the number of pilgrims who arrived in Santiago increased by 67.34%. And special interest is given to the Jacobean Years, with figures of pilgrims that double those of the non-saintly years. Furthermore, research in this field shows that religious or spiritual motivation is still present, although combined with other motivations such as heritage, culture, tourism and the experience itself.
Keywords: religion; tourism; Way of Saint James; Santiago de Compostela; Camino.
RESPONSIBLE TOURISM: COSMETICS, UTOPIA OR REALITY? AN ANALYSIS OF THE SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE
by Xerardo Pereiro, Edgar Bernardo
Abstract: Responsible tourism is an increasingly important subject in tourism research, political discourse and business practice. However, its meaning, principles and operation are far from settled. We present in this paper a critical review of both the concept of responsible tourism, as well as the use of the concept of responsibility in the scientific literature of tourism from 1988 to 2018. Taking an anthropological perspective, we reflect on the social role of responsible tourism in relation to the term as concept, the practices of companies, and the communities and public administrations affected by it. We have used anthropological epistemologies, theories (reflexive anthropology) and our own anthropological fieldwork experience to engage with the scientific literature on responsible tourism. The results are an exhaustive, complete and updated picture of the meanings of responsible tourism for academics; the paper also represents a debate focused on the moralization of tourism and the critical meaning of responsible tourism as a concept, social practice of consumption, behavior, social movement and agency for sustainable tourism change. Finally, a unified theory for responsible tourism is proposed, based on accountability, sustainability and behavior, for a new definition of ethical tourism practice.
Keywords: responsible tourism; accountability; sustainability; behaviour change; critical turn; sustainable tourism; anthropology of responsible tourism; moralization of tourism; greenwashing tourism; ethical tourism.
The Darkest Spectrum of Replublica de Croma
by Maximiliano Korstanje
Abstract: The turn of the century has brought many dangerous and unseen risks for the tourist system. The methodological limitation of risk perception theory to make safer destinations has led towards a new paradigm where risk-management the pace to post-disaster consumption. The precautionary logic, which plays a leading role in the risk perception paradigm, is replaced by a type of morbid consumption (ipso facto) where adaptation is vital. Having said this, post-disaster tourism flourishes in a moment where the tourism industry if not tourism epistemology- seems to be in crisis. The present paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of current post-disaster tourism research to unpack the proper experiences and information recollected during my own ethnographies in Republica de Croma
Keywords: Dark Tourism; Post Disaster Tourism; Death; Gazing; Anthropology; Republica de Cromañónrnrn.
David Harrison: a career in the anthropology of tourism and the sociology of development
by Kevin Yelvington
Abstract: This article analyzes the career of the sociologist/social anthropologist of tourism David Harrison. An important figure in tourism studies across disciplinary boundaries and regional specialization, Harrison went from academic appointments in Britain to the position of Head of School of Tourism and Hospitality Management at the University of the South Pacific in Fiji and back to Britain again, conducting field studies in the Caribbean, Africa, Europe, and Asia and the Pacific. He engaged in and anticipated theoretical debates in the anthropology of tourism and the sociology of development, publishing key books, articles, and book chapters, participating in the editing of some of the leading tourism studies journals, and teaching on MA courses and supervising a number of MA dissertations and PhD theses on the topic of tourism. In this article, Harrison discusses the main theoretical position he came to take up. This entailed a political economy position that simultaneously considered the interaction of world economic and political systems with local systems of behaviour and meaning, yet based on empirical first-hand research, all with a kind of fundamental skepticism of foregone conclusions offered by pre-approved orthodox theories. The article provides detailed information on Harrisons early life and unconventional path to the profession, his theoretical influences and directions, and his career trajectory. There are two main objectives to this article. One is to document the evolution of the thought and pedagogy of an important figure in tourism studies. This is accomplished by presenting Harrisons career narrative in his own words. Another objective is to begin to provide a history of tourism studies by proposing an approach to the history of social science that considers the production of knowledge, the institutionalization of knowledge, the reproduction of knowledge, and the politics of the reception of knowledge in dialectical interaction.
Keywords: David Harrison; anthropology of tourism; tourism and development; sociology of development; development theory.
Tourism Travel Patterns and Mexican Millennial Women:
A comparative study of their conditions and meanings
by Rosa Adriana Vázquez Gómez, Maribel Osorio García, Denice Anel Ordaz Mejía
Abstract: This article presents a comparative study of the living conditions, practices and meanings of tourist travel for young millennial women in Mexico Citys metropolitan area within the framework of youth tourism in order to identify how travel contributes to the social construction of their identity. Through comparative, mixed and gendered research, a methodological convergence strategy was applied in which quantitative research was carried out through surveys and qualitative research through interviews, aimed at two groups of young female students in different educational institutions, with different economic situations, and located in a central area versus the outskirts of Mexico City. The results reveal similarities in both groups travel practices, but there are differences with respect to the meanings they grant them and, therefore, the role that travel has in constructing their identities.
Keywords: Tourism; Millennial youth; Travel; Identity; Meanings.
INVOLUTION IN SMALL-SCALE LAVA TOUR ENTERPRISES AMONG PEOPLE AFFECTED BY THE MOUNT MERAPI ERUPTION, INDONESIA
by Bambang Hudayana
Abstract: Disaster victims of the Merapi eruption in 2010 propelled local recovery by shifting from dairy farming to small-scale lava tour enterprises, taking tourists on tours to areas affected by the eruption by jeep. This paper explores the idea of adopting a moral economy for the enterprises, and the importance of lava tourism in post-disaster recovery and long-term livelihoods. This ethnographic research was conducted in Umbulharjo village, on Mount Merapi, Yogyakarta Special Region. Data collected by conducting in-depth interviews towards twelve key informants and eleven participatory observations towards the lava tour, dairy farming and community activities. Q research was also used to gather information about the relevance of various tour packages to its sustainability. This ethnographic research was also supported by a survey involving 36 respondents to quantitatively describe their lava tour profile. In a moral economic theory, village communities control institutions to open access for their citizens to earn a living, equal income distribution and achieve shared prosperity. This paper contributes to a theoretical discussion by explaining the local concept of moral economy, its relevance to community resilience in disaster prone areas, and the concept of shared resources in the lava tour enterprises. This paper finds that moral economy served to protect tourism resources as the village communitys asset aiming to prevent capitalists from opening the businesses in their village. As an impact, lava tour enterprises were promisingly sustainable despite experiencing an involution process because of its applied moral and rational economy.
Keywords: lava tour; community; moral economy; resilience; involution.