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International Journal of Tourism Anthropology (2 papers in press)
Pilgrimage or Tourism? Travel Motivation on Way of Saint James by Noelia Araújo-Vila, Lucília Cardoso, Arthur Filipe De Araújo, Jose Antonio Fraiz-Brea Abstract: Among the widely known places of pilgrimage is Santiago de Compostela (Spain) and linked to it Way of Saint James (El Camino de Santiago in Spanish) - through its different routes. The present work analyses this way from three perspectives: 1) that of potential pilgrims searching information about El Camino; 2) that of tourists who do El Camino, focusing on their motivations; and 3) that of the academic world. Results show that El Camino de Santiago is resource that generates worldwide interest, for its religious aspect, and for the touristic one, which are often combined in visitors motivations. Between 2004 and 2018 the number of pilgrims who arrived in Santiago increased by 67.34%. And special interest is given to the Jacobean Years, with figures of pilgrims that double those of the non-saintly years. Furthermore, research in this field shows that religious or spiritual motivation is still present, although combined with other motivations such as heritage, culture, tourism and the experience itself. Keywords: religion; tourism; Way of Saint James; Santiago de Compostela; Camino.
RESPONSIBLE TOURISM: COSMETICS, UTOPIA OR REALITY? AN ANALYSIS OF THE SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE by Xerardo Pereiro, Edgar Bernardo Abstract: Responsible tourism is an increasingly important subject in tourism research, political discourse and business practice. However, its meaning, principles and operation are far from settled. We present in this paper a critical review of both the concept of responsible tourism, as well as the use of the concept of responsibility in the scientific literature of tourism from 1988 to 2018. Taking an anthropological perspective, we reflect on the social role of responsible tourism in relation to the term as concept, the practices of companies, and the communities and public administrations affected by it. We have used anthropological epistemologies, theories (reflexive anthropology) and our own anthropological fieldwork experience to engage with the scientific literature on responsible tourism. The results are an exhaustive, complete and updated picture of the meanings of responsible tourism for academics; the paper also represents a debate focused on the moralization of tourism and the critical meaning of responsible tourism as a concept, social practice of consumption, behavior, social movement and agency for sustainable tourism change. Finally, a unified theory for responsible tourism is proposed, based on accountability, sustainability and behavior, for a new definition of ethical tourism practice. Keywords: responsible tourism; accountability; sustainability; behaviour change; critical turn; sustainable tourism; anthropology of responsible tourism; moralization of tourism; greenwashing tourism; ethical tourism.