International Journal of Tourism Anthropology (7 papers in press)
Indigenous Peoples and Tourism Business Opportunity: The Influence of Orang Aslis Personality Traits and Sense of Community
by Derweanna Bah Simpong, Mohd Salehuddin Mohd Zahari, Mohd Hafiz Hanafiah, Roslina Ahmad
Abstract: This paper empirically investigates the influence of Malaysian indigenous peoples (Orang Asli) personality traits and sense of community toward their participation in tourism industry-related businesses. Specifically, this study surveyed Orang Asli entrepreneurs who are involved in tourism businesses. This study applies the causal research design through a quantitative method, self-reported and self-administered questionnaire. Two hundred eighty-five (285) completed surveys were successfully collected and coded. Through Structural Equation Modelling (SEM), the path analysis result shows that there is a strong link between Orang Asli personality traits and their participation in tourism businesses. Also, there is also evident that their sense of community is an essential factor for the Orang Asli to partake in the tourism business. This promising indication has undoubtedly drawn several practical implications not only for the Orang Asli entrepreneurs but also for the policy maker and responsible authority.
Keywords: Indigenous; entrepreneurs; tourism business; Orang Asli; Malaysia.
Environmental Conservation, Tourism Development and the Dilemma of the Indigenous Pygmy People in Southeast Cameroon
by Ngambouk Vitalis Pemunta, Asahngwa Constantine
Abstract: This paper examines the implications of the paradox implicit in the conflation of Pygmies andrnother forest-based peoples (Bantu farmers) as a single identity group by conservationists andrntourism developers. These actors share a hardened image and a single field view of the Pygmiesrnas people of the forest that must paradoxically be evicted to give way for neoliberalrndevelopment activities. The paper demonstrates that while Pygmies have diversified livelihoodrntrajectories, prevailing prejudicial views about their non-contamination by the tourist andrnacademic industry persists. As agents, the Pygmies are however, simultaneously maintaining theirrnidentity while engaging in performatic performances through which they stage their authenticityrn(reflective ethnicity) for their own benefits. To avoid conflicts between protected areas and people,rnand ensure co-management, conservationists and eco-tourism developers should take note of thernco-constitution of man-nature relationships, the intersection between economic and ecologicalrnjustice as well as inter-group power dynamics among multiple stakeholders in local communities.
Keywords: reflective ethnicity; sustainable tourism; sustainable development; (eco-)tourism paradox; hunter-gatherers; Pygmies; indigenous people.
Research on the intangible ethnic tourism development after the civil war, based on stakeholder perspective: the case of Jaffna, Sri Lanka
by WHMS Samarathunga
Abstract: During the recent past, tourism literature discusses much about the stakeholders involvement in tourism planning and development. The present study aims at identifying the stakeholders perspectives on intangible ethnic tourism (IET) development in Jaffna, Sri Lanka, using stakeholder theory, which has been a missed area in the tourism literature. Interviews, discussions and participatory observations were used as key research tools during the data collection process. Content analysis was conducted using NVivo software to analyze the data. The analysis of the stakeholders perspectives emphasized that there is a huge IET potential in Jaffna which can contribute to the socio-economic development in the area. Although the stakeholders have mixed feelings towards IET development, their insights provide valuable directions for sustainable development of IET in Jaffna.
Keywords: stakeholders; stakeholder theory; intangible ethnic tourism; sustainable development.
Pi Ta Khon A liminal celebration in a bureaucratized framework
by Erik Cohen
Abstract: The Pi Ta Khon are masked dancers in the Pha Wet (Vessantara) festival in Dan Sai town, northeastern Thailand, who in recent decades became a major tourist attraction. This is a case study of the transformation of the appearance and conduct of the Pi Ta Khon, as they were adapted by the national and local tourist authorities for the growing domestic and foreign tourist audience. Taking a Turnerian perspective, the Pi Ta Khon are interpreted as liminal beings, whose liminality, however, is attenuated by the interference of those outside organizational forces. Two modifications of Turners approach to liminality and pilgrimage are suggested on the basis of this case study.
Keywords: Vesantara Jataka; Phra Wet festival; masks; liminality; pilgrimage; tourism; commercialization.
From the Costa Del Sol to Vietnam: Culture, Behavior, and Ethnographic Inquiry in Tourism Studies
by Nuno Ribeiro
Abstract: In this research note, I discuss culture, taken as a cognitive construct derived from Goodenoughs (1967) definition, as a cornerstone concept in tourism studies. Reflecting on my experience as a hospitality practitioner and as a tourism scholar, I marshal autoethnographic evidence to support the view that ethnographic inquiry is perhaps the most useful tool at the disposal of tourism scholars to make significant forays into the study of tourism. Specifically, I contend that issues that tourism scholars deal with such as excessive dependency on recall data, lack of understanding of relevant local conceptual categories, responder and researchers bias, a narrow focus on quantitative measurement, and dogmatic epistemological attachment can all be ameliorated through the use of ethnographic research. I conclude by discussing food tourism in Vietnam as a case study where ethnographic inquiry is particularly valuable for tourism research. Implications for current literature and directions for further research are discussed.
Keywords: anthropology; autoethnography; behavior; cultural anthropology; cross-cultural research; culture; ethnography; ethnographic inquiry; tourism; tourism anthropology; tourist behavior; Vietnam.
Reflection of Acculturation in Tourism: A Systematic Literature Review
by Yakup Kemal ÖZEKICI, Kurban ÜNLÜÖNEN
Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to reveal the present knowledge on the situation of tourism-oriented acculturation studies versus main acculturation literature. More specifically it is aimed to compile, evaluate, classify, discuss and compare the emerging tourism-acculturation literature by considering scope, sample, data, discipline and model criteria. Based on the systematic literature review principles, 27 tourism-oriented acculturation studies were refined from whole acculturation literature then classified according to criteria. In results, it was revealed that acculturation intention studies as the scope, migrants as the sample, quantitative methods as the data type and anthropology /sociology as the discipline outweigh and rise to the forefront compared to other considered factors within this tiny tourism-acculturation literature. As to the model usage criteria, it was surprisingly seen that, studies were preferred to be designed either on model-less-ness being on the lead or on Berrys two-dimensional model to which the extant acculturation literature adopts.
Keywords: Acculturation; acculturation literature; tourism; literature review.
Empowering indigenous communities through participation in tourism
by Nur Aliah Mansor, Mazne Ibrahim, Siti ‘Atikah Rusli, Derweanna Bah Simpong, Nurul Fardila Abd Razak, Harnidah Samengon, Nurashikin A Ridzuan, Nur Azimah Othman
Abstract: This study explores the involvement of Malaysian indigenous peoples (Orang Asli) at both the individual and community level to analyse the impact of tourism development on the economic and socio-cultural aspects of their communities. The study was conducted at two tourism sites, Bukit Tadom and Cameron Highlands. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 participants from the Orang Asli community and Orang Asli employees and management at the sites. Data were transcribed using ATLAS.ti and assessed using thematic analysis. Orang Asli communities recognised the opportunities that tourism development brings to their social and economic conditions, although it is not wholly beneficial. They also want to be actively involved in tourism planning. The study contributes to the development of indigenous peoples, especially in Malaysia, promoting a new perspective on long-term tourism development. It also highlights several new considerations that should be addressed by the authority in planning and managing tourism sites, especially in regard to community acceptance, involvement and demand for benefits.
Keywords: indigenous; tourism; community participation; Orang Asli; Malaysia; rural; empowerment.