International Journal of Tourism Anthropology (6 papers in press)
A cross-cultural analysis of Hutong tourism at Nanluoguxiang, Beijing, China: Comparison between Beijing, other Chinese and international visitors
by Ming Ming Su, Geoffrey Wall
Abstract: Hutongs, a representative street layout with traditional houses of ordinary Beijing residents, have increasingly used as cultural attractions and generating diverse experiences for tourists from different backgrounds. Taking a cross-cultural perspective, this study compares use patterns, motivations, perceptions and evaluations of Beijing, other domestic and international visitors at Nanluoguxiang hutong tourism site in Beijing through onsite questionnaire surveys. Research indicates that most visitors are young and well educated. Perceptions of the authenticity of the experience decreases and recognition of Nanluoguxiangs representation of Beijing character increases with cultural distance. Activities, such as visiting hutong and interacting with hutong residents, have a stronger influence on perceptions and evaluations of tourists with a greater cultural distance from the host culture. Results support the important role that cultural distance plays in shaping visitor perceptions and evaluations of heritage tourism sites. Practical implications are discussed to inform planning and management of hutong tourism in Beijing.
Keywords: Hutong tourism; visitor; cultural distance; Nanluoguxiang; China.
The fall and reincarnation of Thailands Tiger Temple
by Erik Cohen
Abstract: Illegal animal tourist establishments, such as zoos, theme parks, tourist-oriented farms, and animal shows proliferated in recent years in the emergent regions of the world, and attract large numbers of visitors. Animal rights and ethics advocates generally oppose those establishments and favor their closure, but pay scarce attention to the consequences of successful closure for the saved animals. The Tiger Temple in Thailand was such an illegal but popular establishment, offering tourists a close embodied interaction with nominally wild, but actually tame tigers. This reconstructed anthropological case study of the prolonged struggle of the Thai authorities and animal rights and welfare activists against the Temple, focuses on the successful closure of the tiger displays, the removal of the tigers into government facilities, and the attempt of the Temple to reincarnate its tiger displays in a formally separate tiger zoo. The paper concludes that the manner in which the authorities handled the process, eventuated in undesired consequences for all participants: though the Temple was granted a license for its zoo, it remained without its tigers; the removal burdened the authorities with the care for the relocated animals; and the tigers suffered a reduction in their welfare conditions. In conclusion, the article highlights the need to pay increased attention to the neglected problem of the level of welfare of wild animals after they have been released from the clutch of traffickers or from animal entertainment facilities.
Keywords: tourist-animal interaction; Tiger Temple; Thai Department of National Parks (DNP); tiger shows; tiger trafficking; animal welfare.
Tourism-Driven Urbanization in Chinas Small Town Development: Yiren Town, China
by Li Yang
Abstract: The tourism industry has emerged as a new dynamic impetus for urbanization in China. Many small towns in the peripheral regions of China are experiencing urbanization, especially in places where distinctive tourist attractions are located. However, little has been done to explore the role of tourism real estate development in Chinese urbanization and its consequences. This paper addresses this gap through examining the process of tourism-driven urbanization as a development strategy of small towns in China. The role of tourism real estate and its socio-economic consequences are also explored. The findings from a case study of Yiren Town, Yunnan Province, Southwest China, which is a newly-built destination, reveal that tourism real estate development has transformed Yiren from a sleepy small town into a place with diverse real estate landscapes. The construction of replica old towns alongside leisure properties constitutes a new pattern of urbanization, suggesting that tourism developers and policy-makers should reconsider the large-scale development of tourism real estate and its impacts on the environment and adjacent communities.
Keywords: development; tourism real estate; urbanization; impacts; Yunnan; China.
Locating Nation in A Village: Fusion of Local and Nation Voices in Penglipuran, Bali, Indonesia
by Desideria Murti
Abstract: The purposes of this study are to investigate: (1) how the local people in a cultural heritage village imagine the nation through the space of heritage in their community; and (2) how the heritage village community preserves cultural identity and performs the idyllic concept of the village for the nation. An ethnographic approach was employed. Interviews with twenty-four local leaders and participant observations were conducted in the cultural heritage village of Penglipuran in Bali, one of the top model for village preservation in Indonesia. Penglipuran works as a state of remembrance for local people to imagine their own local identity, to interpret the nations spirit, and to perform their local heritage. Three practices are used to imagine the nation: designing a landscape for the construction of social membership, performing loyalty of imagined community, and implementing the Indonesian nation brand in the village. This study contributes to the exploration of the interpretation of landscape, local story, and cultural materials as the remembrances of the nations symbols in the village and how those materials help to maintain the obedience of locals to the nation by fulfilling the idyllic construction of the village.
Keywords: cultural heritage; villages; imagined community; tourism; local; nation branding; nation; Indonesia; Bali; Penglipuran.
Indigenous Peoples and Tourism Business Opportunity: The Influence of Orang Aslis Personality Traits and Sense of Community
by Derweanna Bah Simpong, Mohd Salehuddin Mohd Zahari, Mohd Hafiz Hanafiah, Roslina Ahmad
Abstract: This paper empirically investigates the influence of Malaysian indigenous peoples (Orang Asli) personality traits and sense of community toward their participation in tourism industry-related businesses. Specifically, this study surveyed Orang Asli entrepreneurs who are involved in tourism businesses. This study applies the causal research design through a quantitative method, self-reported and self-administered questionnaire. Two hundred eighty-five (285) completed surveys were successfully collected and coded. Through Structural Equation Modelling (SEM), the path analysis result shows that there is a strong link between Orang Asli personality traits and their participation in tourism businesses. Also, there is also evident that their sense of community is an essential factor for the Orang Asli to partake in the tourism business. This promising indication has undoubtedly drawn several practical implications not only for the Orang Asli entrepreneurs but also for the policy maker and responsible authority.
Keywords: Indigenous; entrepreneurs; tourism business; Orang Asli; Malaysia.
Environmental Conservation, Tourism Development and the Dilemma of the Indigenous Pygmy People in Southeast Cameroon
by Ngambouk Vitalis Pemunta, Asahngwa Constantine
Abstract: This paper examines the implications of the paradox implicit in the conflation of Pygmies andrnother forest-based peoples (Bantu farmers) as a single identity group by conservationists andrntourism developers. These actors share a hardened image and a single field view of the Pygmiesrnas people of the forest that must paradoxically be evicted to give way for neoliberalrndevelopment activities. The paper demonstrates that while Pygmies have diversified livelihoodrntrajectories, prevailing prejudicial views about their non-contamination by the tourist andrnacademic industry persists. As agents, the Pygmies are however, simultaneously maintaining theirrnidentity while engaging in performatic performances through which they stage their authenticityrn(reflective ethnicity) for their own benefits. To avoid conflicts between protected areas and people,rnand ensure co-management, conservationists and eco-tourism developers should take note of thernco-constitution of man-nature relationships, the intersection between economic and ecologicalrnjustice as well as inter-group power dynamics among multiple stakeholders in local communities.
Keywords: reflective ethnicity; sustainable tourism; sustainable development; (eco-)tourism paradox; hunter-gatherers; Pygmies; indigenous people.