International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing (18 papers in press)
THE 2014 FIFA WORLD CUP IN BRAZIL: THE PROMISED LEGACY WAS DRIBBLED PAST
by Roberto Bondarik, Luiz Alberto Pilatti, Diogo José Horst
Abstract: This work evaluates the legacy left by the 2014 FIFA World-Cup held in Brazil, demonstrating the differences between the proposed and actual costs, construction projects and investments. This documentary study used statistical data provided by the Brazilian Government and the F
Keywords: FIFA World Cup; financial management; economics; sports event management.
Athlete Brand Identity, Image and Congruence: A Systematic Literature Review
by Annika Linsner, Popi Sotiriadou, Brad Hill, Kirstin Hallmann
Abstract: Research interest around athlete and human branding has increased significantly over recent years however gaps are evident in terms of cohesive strategic direction and consensus around important issues. This study aims to address those gaps and determine a strategic direction for future research by providing an in-depth, systematic literature review of existing material on athlete branding.
A total of 63 articles published in 27 academic journals between 1999 and 2019 were analysed, revealing research on athlete branding had predominantly focused on brand image from the consumer perspective. Few studies investigated strategic athlete brand building and the importance of brand identity creation from the brand manager (athlete) perspective.
Study findings highlight the importance of brand congruence as the synergy between athlete brand identity and athlete brand image. This research establishes foundations to inform development of strategic direction, guide future research and be the catalyst for new and innovative projects around athlete brand management.
Keywords: athlete brand management; brand identity; brand image; brand congruence; systematic literature review;.
NCAA eSports 20XX: An analysis of radical innovation adoption through firm collaboration
by Dylan Williams, Patrick Tutka, Joey Gawrysiak, Seth Jenny
Abstract: The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) is considering the adoption of eSports (i.e., organized competitive video gaming), which could be considered a radical innovation as it deviates in many areas from traditional sports (e.g., online game play format, lack of high physical exertion, complicated intellectual property rights for each game, etc.). However, collaboration with firms familiar with the innovation (e.g., National Association of Collegiate eSports [NACE]) might mitigate risks surrounding the radical innovation. Thus, the purpose of this paper was to investigate whether a potential association between the NCAA and NACE would be advantageous to both organizations. Through a deductive qualitative document content analysis underpinned by Rogerss (2003) innovation characteristics (e.g., complexity, compatibility, and relative advantage), several themes emerged: physical exertion, eSports structure, amateurism, eligibility, compensation, profitability, and diversity and gender equity. These themes are discussed while identifying the benefits and issues surrounding a NCAA/NACE collegiate eSports adoption and collaboration.
Keywords: radical innovation; innovation adoption; collaboration; eSports; NCAA; NACE.
From Start-Up Nation to Sports-Tech Nation? A SWOT Analysis of Israels use of Sports for Nation Branding
by Yoav Dubinsky
Abstract: Innovation and adaptation are rooted in the history of Jewish people and the State of Israel, including through sports. The study analyzes the role of sports in the branding of the State of Israel. Nations, countries, and places going through lengthy armed conflicts and wars, suffer from negative images, which have a negative effect on potential customers to purchase products associated with these countries or visit them. For almost three millennia, countries, cities, and places have been using sports to improve their images. Israels image is deteriorating as the Israeli-Arab dispute escalates, partly due to not of having clearly communicated nation branding strategies. In this qualitative study, I conducted 14 semi-structured interviews with official in key policy-making positions in Israeli sports and in the Israeli government influencing on sports or branding policies. Based on the thematic analysis, I conducted a SWOT analysis, and came up with six practical recommendations for Israel. With Israel being a world leader in the number of start-up companies per-capita, and with sports organizations recognizing the potential of Israeli becoming a technological greenhouse, one of the key recommendations of the study is to have a collective new approach and brand Israel as a Sports-Tech nation. Although the study focuses on Israel, other countries facing prolonged conflicts should also consider the recommendations when using sports for nation branding purposes.
Keywords: Nation branding; Public diplomacy; Country image; Israel; Sports; Soft power;.
Sport-specific factors affecting location decisions in business to business sport manufacturing companies: a qualitative study in the Alps
by Elisabeth Happ, Mike Peters, Martin Schnitzer
Abstract: International business research has focused on location decision criteria a lot. In contrast to existing studies, this qualitative study examined business to business sport industry companies, considering the hypothesis that sport is both commercially special and culturally unique. Furthermore, the focus was on sport-specific factors influencing the decision-making process of sport industry companies. The results showed that sport-specific factors, such as the corporate sport culture, the work attitude in terms of sport, and the locations destination image regarding sport, play key roles in the location decision-making process. Additionally, the spirit of sport is a fixed component of sport businesses corporate culture. The findings contribute to the sport management literature by adding sport-specific factors influencing location decision-making in the sport industry and suggest a new framework for these factors. Managers and governments could utilise the findings as support for their settlement decisions and as an advice for benchmarking initiatives.
Keywords: location decisions; sport industry; sporting goods industry; location criteria; uniqueness of sport; sport specific factors; qualitative study;.
Keeping Spectators in the Stands: Sport Literacy Framework for College Basketball
by Kyungun Kim, Emily Sparvero, Diego Arguelles
Abstract: Despite the potentially valuable benefits of sport literacy for spectators, there is no analytical framework for understanding the necessary components of, and the role of, sport literacy in sport spectatorship. This study aims to develop a conceptual sport literacy framework that explains the necessary elements of sport spectatorship for mens college basketball. We recruited nine college basketball experts, six self-identified fans, and five novices, and conducted semi-structured face-to-face interviews. The interview data, memos, observed data from scenario play, and narratives of video clips were integrated into NVivo software, and the transcribed data were analyzed using a series of coding techniques in grounded theory. Most participants identified specific types of knowledge necessary for becoming a literate spectator along with the factors that facilitate the development of sport literacy. The proposed conceptual framework seeks to direct researchers and practitioners in their efforts to promote spectators sport literacy.
Keywords: sport literacy; spectator; college basketball; sport knowledge.
Do endorsements by sports celebrities positively influence consumers purchase intentions? Endorser-product congruence and the amplifying influence of consumers involvement in the sport
by Aaron Von Felbert, Christoph Breuer
Abstract: Companies use product endorsements in overstimulated markets as a marketing tactic to gain consumers attention and increase their product sales. Extant studies have indicated that a sports celebritys endorsement can have an overall positive influence on advertising outcomes like purchase intentions. However, research lacks a holistic perspective, such as the combined influence of endorsers characteristics, brand credibility, and endorser-product congruence on purchase intentions. To address this limitation, the present study reports on the results of 262 responses from an online survey that were analyzed using a multigroup Structural Equation Model. Findings show that endorsers direct influence on consumers purchase intentions is negative, independent of endorsed product category, but outweighed by a positive influence of endorser-product congruence in a sports-related endorsement. The study also shows that a consumers significant involvement in the sport amplifies the negative effect of a non-sports-related product endorsement.
Keywords: Sports Marketing; Sports Celebrity Endorsement; Endorser-Product Congruence; Consumers’ Sports Involvement; Structural Equation Modeling.
Exploring the Involvement of Athletes in Influencing a Host Countrys Image via Social Media: The Case of the Rio 2016 Olympic Games
by Maksim Berdnikov, Norm O'Reilly
Abstract: This study explores the role of athletes in influencing the image of an Olympic Games host country via social media, specifically the image of the country of Brazil during the 2016 Rio Olympic Games. The study employed a content analysis method based on data gathered from Canadian Olympic athletes (n=314) social media platforms, namely Twitter, Instagram and Facebook over a period of three months. The study identified eight categories of Brazils image communicated on the athletes social media platforms. These include urbanscape, natural environment, countrys landmarks, social issues, cultural assets, emotional connection, Games operations, and ease of travel. The most often communicated posts were in the urbanscape category (44.0%) followed by natural environment (20.2%) and country landmarks (17.2%). Contributions to the field, managerial implications, and ideas for future research are included.
Keywords: mega events; place image; content analysis; Twitter; Facebook; Instagram.
Aligning donor and organizational interests: An analysis of college athletics fundraising officers
by Matt Huml, Chris McLeod
Abstract: Agency theory and stewardship theory are both widely accepted within the corporate governance literature but it is unclear whether these theories are compatible or competing explanations of principal-agent relationships. This study used an inductive approach to integrate agency theory and stewardship theory in the context of nonprofit sport organizations. Drawing on interviews with gift officers for athletic departments in the United States, and employing a Gioia methodology for analysis, this article asks: How do athletic foundations reconcile their priorities with financers interests when creating gift-financed projects? Findings show seven scenarios where athletic department priorities are reconciled with donor interests, ranging from scenarios where athletic department priorities prevail over donor interests to scenarios where donor interests come first. The ideal scenario, a cultivated donor base, is a special case and the only situation described by a perfect stewardship relationship. This article contributes a continuum model that blends agency theory and stewardship theory.
Keywords: Fundraising; Agency Theory; Stewardship Theory; Donors; College Athletics.
Applying the Rasch Model to Sport Management Research: The Case of a Psychological Capital Questionnaire for Sport Employees
by Minsoo Kang, Heontae Kim, Minjung Kim
Abstract: Rasch analysis is a probabilistic model used to calibrate and validate scales during the development and measurement of standardized tests. Its general principles and applications were determined in this research on the basis of a version of the 24-item psychological capital questionnaire (PCQ). The validation of the original PCQ was extended by collecting data from 438 intercollegiate sport employees, after which the Rasch rating scale model was used to examine the data. Overall, the findings regarding modeldata fit, differential item functioning, and convergent validity evidence provided additional support for the suitability of the psychometric properties of the PCQ as a starting point in assessing the psychological states of sport employees. The findings also reflected the wide application potential of Rasch analysis in the assessment of sport management studies.
Keywords: Rasch model; scale calibration; sport employees; psychological capital.
Does home location put young athletes under pressure?
by Elsa Kristiansen, Martin Schnitzer, Barrie Houlihan
Abstract: This paper examines how Norwegian (n=5) and Austrian (n=12) cyclists experienced the interaction with different stakeholders when participating at the UCI Road World Championship. Athletes were interviewed during and after the event in their respective home countries. In addition informal interviews with coaches and journalists were conducted. Findings reveal that the young athletes perceived the media to be a stressor when adding the home location to the event; this was particularly true for the Norwegian men. The massive attention, extra-curricular activities added by sponsors and the expectation of excelling at home, placed pressure on them. In contrast to the Norwegians, Austrian athletes were less stressed as the local organisers were more focused on promoting cycling tourism than on Austrian success in the competition. The findings contribute to the literature by 1) emphasizing the significance of the media as a stressor, 2) identifying the factors that determine the level of stress on young athletes , and finally, 3) analysing the significance of home location for young atheletes in the context of major sports events.
Keywords: Event tourism; media stress; cycling events; athlete-journalist relationship; young athletes; sponsor demands.
Special Issue on: Consumer Behaviour and Trends in Sports Services
Presenting a New Mixed Method for Measuring Service Quality of Health Clubs
by Hossein Abdolmaleki, Behzad Soheili, Michal Varmus, Abbas Khodayari
Abstract: Sports organizations do their job well when they illuminate the future path of society and future building is one of their main characteristics; so, for these organizations, explaining the landscape and improving performance is necessary. On the other hand, the issue of quality has become one of the major challenges of many service organizations, including: health, education and industry. In the present era, the relationship between service quality and business performance, cost reduction, customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and profitability has been proven. So, the aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of services of health clubs by the combined method of Balanced Scorecard (BSc), Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Fuzzy Analysis Hierarchical Process (FAHP). The results showed that from financial perspective, the criteria of strengthening customer value and developing revenue opportunities, respectively with the importance of 0.433 and 0.3243 had the highest scores compared to other criteria in health clubs. From customer's perspective, providing special services for loyal customers and having attractive and new facilities, respectively with the importance of 0.58 and 0.55 had the highest scores compared to other criteria in health clubs. From internal processes perspective, identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the club and maintaining the adequacy and competence of educators, respectively with the importance of 1.31 and 1.15 had the highest scores compared to other criteria in health clubs, and finally, from growth and learning perspective, strengthening management skills, assessing the qualifications of coaches and their performance, with the importance of 2.78 and 2.65, respectively had the highest scores compared to other criteria in health clubs. From the conducted survey, it can be concluded that determining the capacity of sports activities and ensuring the quality of the program of sports clubs for health, providing quality services in a new way is an inevitable necessity.
Keywords: Balanced Scorecard; Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process; Health Clubs; Performance; Quality Function Deployment; Service Quality.
Supporting Sacrifice or Condemning Belief: Consumer Reactions to Nikes Advertising Campaign Featuring Colin Kaepernick
by Akira Asada, Jimmy Sanderson
Abstract: In 2018, Nike released an advertising campaign, Believe in Something, featuring Colin Kaepernick. This campaign drew mixed reactions from consumers and generated numerous social media mentions. Some consumers called for a boycott of Nike products, whereas other consumers expressed support. The current study explored the key personal and emotional factors related to consumers reactions to this controversial advertising. The results of a survey with 254 U.S. consumers indicated that (a) dominance and egalitarianism had positive relationships with purchase intention, whereas uncritical patriotism had a negative relationship; and (b) anger, gratitude, and pride mediated the effects of dominance, egalitarianism, uncritical patriotism on purchase intention, whereas contempt did not show a mediation effect.
Keywords: controversial advertising; moral emotions; sports brand.
A Scale for measuring Member Commitment and Integration in Fitness Services
by Dimitri Koutsoubakis
Abstract: This study assesses the reliability and validity of an instrument adapted from the domain of Student Attrition in higher-education research, for implementation in the field of fitness services management. The study was conducted at a commercial fitness facility based in Dubai, UAE, and comprised 184 subjects. A questionnaire was created by adapting a model with extensive research support in the field of Student Attrition studies; modifications were based on Delphi technique and subject interviews. Items were measured on a 5-point Likert scale, and the data set was subjected to Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). Four factors emerged: Goal Commitment; Institutional Commitment; Social Integration; Institutional Integration. CFA Fit Indices indicated good model fit, and all factors had strong Cronbach Alpha coefficients. The instrument displayed robust psychometric properties / factor-loading invariance, and can be used to measure Commitment and Integration constructs in commercial fitness-club settings.
Keywords: Exploratory Factor Analysis; Confirmatory Factor Analysis; retention; commitment; integration; quantitative methodology; AMOS.
Tourist expenditure behavior in the strategic leveraging of sport events portfolios
by Jesyca Salgado-Barandela, Patricio Sanchez-Fernandez, Angel Barajas
Abstract: The alternative to a strategy based on unique and large-scale events is the joint use of small-scale events. In this way, the portfolio of events is shown as a new phenomenon that allows for tourism and economic development strategies in cities. This paper analyzes the spending profile of attendees to three sporting events that are part of a portfolio. Differences in the expenditure behavior of attendees are identified by event category. The results are used to analyze the event selection strategy of the portfolios and the development of strategic leveraging
Keywords: Events; sports events; portfolio; portfolios of sports events; expenditure behavior; strategic leveraging; events costumer behavior; management; events management.
Professional Sport Fans Interests in Hosting an International Visitor at a Game: Evidence for Sports Hosts
by Eric Schwarz, Aurélie Pankowiak
Abstract: With globalisation, a growing number of sport enthusiasts and fans travel overseas to attend professional sports games. In parallel, fans of local professional leagues seek unique, social experiences when attending regular season games. The sport tourism literature suggests that host (local resident) - guest (traveller) relationships, through cultural experiences, could provide a unique, key role to local fans acting as a host. However, knowledge about local sports fans interests in interacting with international travellers is lacking. The main objective of this research was to identify the interests of engaged professional sports fans in acting as a host to international tourists during a regular season game. Qualitative data was collected through a survey distributed to member fans of the Australian Football League (AFL). Qualitative content analysis was performed on a sample of answers from 1,222 members fans who identified they would be interested in hosting an international traveller at a regular season game. The results identified four main factors driving AFL fans interest to host international travellers as well as their prevalence: connection with people (75.5%), being an AFL game promoter and influencer (42.6%), the emotional attachment of fans (34.2%), and being a distinctive experience for the visitor (27.3%). This study provides evidence on the emergence of a sport host as a consumer of sporting experiences. Implications of this study for sport tourism and fan engagement research and practitioners are discussed.
Keywords: sport tourism; international travellers; professional sports; fan engagement; host-guest connection; sport host.
Mobile Marketing Influence on Football Fan Behavior: The Case of FC Persepolis
by Reza Mohammadkazemi, Bahman P. Ebrahimi, Mahmood Shiri
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to identify the effect of Short Message Service (SMS) or text messaging in promoting one of the best Iranian Football Clubs, Persepolis, fans behavior in the 2018-2019 season. We collected data on the attitudinal loyalty, behavioral loyalty, and mobile marketing use of the fans attending a home game. We utilized Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to analyze the data. The findings indicate that mobile marketing has a positive effect on fans attitudinal and behavioral loyalties. Also, attitudinal loyalty has a positive impact on the behavioral loyalty of the Iran Persepolis Football Club fans. We recommend that the managers of the Pro League clubs such as Persepolis prepare the infrastructure for the implementation of fan supporting systems for their clubs. Furthermore, they should employ media experts and professionals to enhance the relationship between their brand, customers, and delivery of information. This is among the first SMS marketing studies about Football Fans Behavior in the Middle East.
Keywords: Football / Soccer Club Fans; Brand Management; Attitudinal Loyalty; Behavioral Loyalty; Mobile Marketing; SMS/Text Marketing.
Non-professional sport academies in Spain: the parents perspective
by Jose Bonal, Jairo León-Quismondo, Benito Pérez-González, Pablo Burillo, Alvaro Fernández-Luna
Abstract: Parents play a key role as decision makers within the young sport services (Nuviala et al., 2005), so to understand their opinion regarding non-professional academies would be a very interesting point for marketing and commercial purposes. A questionnaire was designed for the parents of the non-professional football and basketball academies participants based and adapted from the study of Kosta et al. (2004). After statistic validation, the resultant questionnaire was named Non-Profesional Academies Parents Perspective Questionnaire (Non-PA/PPQ), composed by 5 dimensions: a) Coaches, b) Information and satisfaction, c)Facilities, d)Development/ Intention, e)Location/Environment. On a first exploratory study with parents in Spain, results shown academy location, focus of the programs, on social and personal development aspects and coaches treatment are the main parameters that determine in which academy parents will enrolled their children.
Keywords: sport academy; sport academies; youth sports services; football academies; basketball academies.