International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing (5 papers in press)
THE 2014 FIFA WORLD CUP IN BRAZIL: THE PROMISED LEGACY WAS DRIBBLED PAST
by Roberto Bondarik, Luiz Alberto Pilatti, Diogo José Horst
Abstract: This work evaluates the legacy left by the 2014 FIFA World-Cup held in Brazil, demonstrating the differences between the proposed and actual costs, construction projects and investments. This documentary study used statistical data provided by the Brazilian Government and the F
Keywords: FIFA World Cup; financial management; economics; sports event management.
Athlete Brand Identity, Image and Congruence: A Systematic Literature Review
by Annika Linsner, Popi Sotiriadou, Brad Hill, Kirstin Hallmann
Abstract: Research interest around athlete and human branding has increased significantly over recent years however gaps are evident in terms of cohesive strategic direction and consensus around important issues. This study aims to address those gaps and determine a strategic direction for future research by providing an in-depth, systematic literature review of existing material on athlete branding.
A total of 63 articles published in 27 academic journals between 1999 and 2019 were analysed, revealing research on athlete branding had predominantly focused on brand image from the consumer perspective. Few studies investigated strategic athlete brand building and the importance of brand identity creation from the brand manager (athlete) perspective.
Study findings highlight the importance of brand congruence as the synergy between athlete brand identity and athlete brand image. This research establishes foundations to inform development of strategic direction, guide future research and be the catalyst for new and innovative projects around athlete brand management.
Keywords: athlete brand management; brand identity; brand image; brand congruence; systematic literature review;.
NCAA eSports 20XX: An analysis of radical innovation adoption through firm collaboration
by Dylan Williams, Patrick Tutka, Joey Gawrysiak, Seth Jenny
Abstract: The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) is considering the adoption of eSports (i.e., organized competitive video gaming), which could be considered a radical innovation as it deviates in many areas from traditional sports (e.g., online game play format, lack of high physical exertion, complicated intellectual property rights for each game, etc.). However, collaboration with firms familiar with the innovation (e.g., National Association of Collegiate eSports [NACE]) might mitigate risks surrounding the radical innovation. Thus, the purpose of this paper was to investigate whether a potential association between the NCAA and NACE would be advantageous to both organizations. Through a deductive qualitative document content analysis underpinned by Rogerss (2003) innovation characteristics (e.g., complexity, compatibility, and relative advantage), several themes emerged: physical exertion, eSports structure, amateurism, eligibility, compensation, profitability, and diversity and gender equity. These themes are discussed while identifying the benefits and issues surrounding a NCAA/NACE collegiate eSports adoption and collaboration.
Keywords: radical innovation; innovation adoption; collaboration; eSports; NCAA; NACE.
From Start-Up Nation to Sports-Tech Nation? A SWOT Analysis of Israels use of Sports for Nation Branding
by Yoav Dubinsky
Abstract: Innovation and adaptation are rooted in the history of Jewish people and the State of Israel, including through sports. The study analyzes the role of sports in the branding of the State of Israel. Nations, countries, and places going through lengthy armed conflicts and wars, suffer from negative images, which have a negative effect on potential customers to purchase products associated with these countries or visit them. For almost three millennia, countries, cities, and places have been using sports to improve their images. Israels image is deteriorating as the Israeli-Arab dispute escalates, partly due to not of having clearly communicated nation branding strategies. In this qualitative study, I conducted 14 semi-structured interviews with official in key policy-making positions in Israeli sports and in the Israeli government influencing on sports or branding policies. Based on the thematic analysis, I conducted a SWOT analysis, and came up with six practical recommendations for Israel. With Israel being a world leader in the number of start-up companies per-capita, and with sports organizations recognizing the potential of Israeli becoming a technological greenhouse, one of the key recommendations of the study is to have a collective new approach and brand Israel as a Sports-Tech nation. Although the study focuses on Israel, other countries facing prolonged conflicts should also consider the recommendations when using sports for nation branding purposes.
Keywords: Nation branding; Public diplomacy; Country image; Israel; Sports; Soft power;.
Sport-specific factors affecting location decisions in business to business sport manufacturing companies: a qualitative study in the Alps
by Elisabeth Happ, Mike Peters, Martin Schnitzer
Abstract: International business research has focused on location decision criteria a lot. In contrast to existing studies, this qualitative study examined business to business sport industry companies, considering the hypothesis that sport is both commercially special and culturally unique. Furthermore, the focus was on sport-specific factors influencing the decision-making process of sport industry companies. The results showed that sport-specific factors, such as the corporate sport culture, the work attitude in terms of sport, and the locations destination image regarding sport, play key roles in the location decision-making process. Additionally, the spirit of sport is a fixed component of sport businesses corporate culture. The findings contribute to the sport management literature by adding sport-specific factors influencing location decision-making in the sport industry and suggest a new framework for these factors. Managers and governments could utilise the findings as support for their settlement decisions and as an advice for benchmarking initiatives.
Keywords: location decisions; sport industry; sporting goods industry; location criteria; uniqueness of sport; sport specific factors; qualitative study;.