International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing (19 papers in press)
Hidden Subsidies and the Public Ownership of Sports Facilities:
The Case of Levis Stadium in Santa Clara
by Robert Baumann, Victor Matheson, Debra O'Connor
Abstract: Levis Stadium in Santa Clara, California is an example of a private financing / public ownership arrangement. While the stadiums construction resulted in no direct tax increases, this ownership arrangement allows the San Francisco 49ers to avoid many types of taxes on the income generated from Levis Stadium. We estimate the total tax savings to the 49ers at between $106 and $213 million over the first 20 years of Levis Stadium compared with a privately financed and owned option. We argue that tax savings inherent in private financing / public ownership arrangements represent indirect and hidden subsidies.
Keywords: Stadium Construction; Economic Impact; Public Sport Facilities; Public Policy.
Why the mens UEFA Champions League reduces competitive balance in domestic football leagues: An empirical study of the French league
by Gael Raballand, Sebastien Dessus
Abstract: This paper provides some empirical foundation in support of the observation that the mens UEFA Champions League (CL) reduces competitive balance in domestic football leagues. It relies on the assumption that clubs optimal budgets result from win-maximizing strategies, accounting for similarly driven budget decisions from competitors in the domestic league and are thus ultimately determined through a Nash equilibrium process. Using a panel of 23 professional French clubs over nine consecutive seasons (2004/2005-2012/2013), we estimate such optimal budgets, and measure the extent to which access to the Champions League amplifies budget inequalities between clubs. Our results suggest that the CL amplifies inequalities by a magnitude significantly larger than the direct income received from UEFA for participating in the CL.
Keywords: Champions’ League; optimal budget; competitive balance; ligue 1; football club revenues.
FOOTBALL IN BRAZIL: WHAT BRINGS FANS/CONSUMERS TO STADIUMS AND ARENAS IN THE CITY OF S
by Leandro Carlos Mazzei, Ivan Furegato Moraes, Eduardo De Oliveira Cruz Carlassara, Ary José Rocco Júnior
Abstract: This article aims to identify the reasons/motives that influence attendance of football games in the stadiums. The Motives for Attendance Scale (MAS) questionnaire was applied to a sample of 369 fans who attended the stadiums/arenas in the city of S
Keywords: consumer behaviour; entertainment; Sport Marketing; Sport Management; football; fans; Brazil; stadiums; sports arenas; attendance.
Servant Leadership, Trust and Knowledge Management in Sport Organizations
by Majd Megheirkouni
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the direct and indirect effects of servant leadership on knowledge management (KM). A quantitative methods approach was used to gather the data. Four hundred and twenty-three surveys were completed from for-profit, non-profit and state sport sectors. The results showed that servant leadership behaviors are positively related to KM. More importantly, the results revealed that trust mediates the relationship between servant leadership and KM in these three sectors. The paper provides an insight into the mediating effect of trust on servant leadership and KM, by using a quantitative methods approach. While this is an appropriate method, an in-depth interviews approach is also needed to explore and understand these variables through focusing on the lived experience of sport managers in top management.
Keywords: Servant leadership; knowledge management; trust; sport organizations.
Applying Network Analysis to the Social Media Communication of the Youth Olympic Games and the Olympic Games
by Juha Yoon
Abstract: This study examined the social media interactions between online stakeholders and the Youth Olympic Games (YOG) and the Olympic Games (OG). The investigation observed what type of users exist as network members within the organizations social networks (i.e., Twitter), analyzed the network structures as they relate to the users engaged with the organizations, and mapped the network members and their online relationships to reveal how the network formations facilitate the social media interactions. Python was used to mine the data and create adjacency metrics and UCINET 6.627 and NetDraw were utilized for analytical procedures and visual representations of the networks. Key findings revealed that for the YOG there has been an evolution with regard to the structure and complexity of the network and that national sport organizations made up one of the key stakeholders for the YOG in comparison to other key stakeholders (e.g., media, Olympians, celebrities) for the OG.
Keywords: social media; network analysis; Youth Olympic Games; Olympic Games; Python.
Doomed to fail? A study of how junior managers at a major sport event cope with leadership issues
by Annika Bodemar, Anna-Maria Strittmatter, Josef Fahlen
Abstract: The Organizing Committee at the 2012 World Snowboarding Championships in Oslo experienced major problems such as uncertainty among the junior managers and general chaos. Despite this, in external communications, the event was declared to be a success. This article draws on the works of Parent and Seguin (2007) and Parent, Beaupre, and Seguin (2009) to examine the key leadership and organizational factors that contributed to these problems. The purpose of this study is to investigate how the junior managers coped with uncertainty and solved problems. This study is based on semi-structured interviews, documents, and participant observations. The findings show that a variety of mechanisms caused uncertainty, including some factors that predicted the events failure. Although the existing literature is focused on explaining events success or lack thereof via leadership, this case provides an opportunity to understand how an event can succeed despite the presence of factors that typically lead to failure.
Keywords: event management; networking; group work; autonomy; loyalty; sport management; junior managers.
The Social Capital Structure of a Small-Scale Sport Event: Configuration, Evolution, and Legacy
by Hagen Wäsche
Abstract: Social capital is a resource created through networks and considered to be a potential legacy of small-scale sport events. To understand the structure of social capital, the interorganisational network of a small-scale sport event was analysed longitudinally. A multiplex network analysis was used to study the structural patterns of different types of relations (business, social, and personal), their simultaneous interplay, and their evolution. The results suggest that social capital is embedded primarily in formal business network relations, centred around a governing lead organisation. The business network relations showed a significant interaction with personal relations. A strengthening of the informal personal network occurred pointing towards an event legacy that can be capitalised on. The insights help event organisers and hosting communities to better understand the structural configuration of social capital, mechanisms of its evolution and how the social capital resource can be utilised for building cooperative capacity and sustainable network development.
Keywords: Social Capital; Sport Event; Interorganisational Network; Cooperation; Collaboration; Network Governance; Event Management; Event Leveraging; Sustainability; Legacy; Social Network Analysis.
THE 2014 FIFA WORLD CUP IN BRAZIL: THE PROMISED LEGACY WAS DRIBBLED PAST
by Roberto Bondarik, Luiz Alberto Pilatti, Diogo José Horst
Abstract: This work evaluates the legacy left by the 2014 FIFA World-Cup held in Brazil, demonstrating the differences between the proposed and actual costs, construction projects and investments. This documentary study used statistical data provided by the Brazilian Government and the F
Keywords: FIFA World Cup; financial management; economics; sports event management.
Athlete Brand Identity, Image and Congruence: A Systematic Literature Review
by Annika Linsner, Popi Sotiriadou, Brad Hill, Kirstin Hallmann
Abstract: Research interest around athlete and human branding has increased significantly over recent years however gaps are evident in terms of cohesive strategic direction and consensus around important issues. This study aims to address those gaps and determine a strategic direction for future research by providing an in-depth, systematic literature review of existing material on athlete branding.
A total of 63 articles published in 27 academic journals between 1999 and 2019 were analysed, revealing research on athlete branding had predominantly focused on brand image from the consumer perspective. Few studies investigated strategic athlete brand building and the importance of brand identity creation from the brand manager (athlete) perspective.
Study findings highlight the importance of brand congruence as the synergy between athlete brand identity and athlete brand image. This research establishes foundations to inform development of strategic direction, guide future research and be the catalyst for new and innovative projects around athlete brand management.
Keywords: athlete brand management; brand identity; brand image; brand congruence; systematic literature review;.
NCAA eSports 20XX: An analysis of radical innovation adoption through firm collaboration
by Dylan Williams, Patrick Tutka, Joey Gawrysiak, Seth Jenny
Abstract: The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) is considering the adoption of eSports (i.e., organized competitive video gaming), which could be considered a radical innovation as it deviates in many areas from traditional sports (e.g., online game play format, lack of high physical exertion, complicated intellectual property rights for each game, etc.). However, collaboration with firms familiar with the innovation (e.g., National Association of Collegiate eSports [NACE]) might mitigate risks surrounding the radical innovation. Thus, the purpose of this paper was to investigate whether a potential association between the NCAA and NACE would be advantageous to both organizations. Through a deductive qualitative document content analysis underpinned by Rogerss (2003) innovation characteristics (e.g., complexity, compatibility, and relative advantage), several themes emerged: physical exertion, eSports structure, amateurism, eligibility, compensation, profitability, and diversity and gender equity. These themes are discussed while identifying the benefits and issues surrounding a NCAA/NACE collegiate eSports adoption and collaboration.
Keywords: radical innovation; innovation adoption; collaboration; eSports; NCAA; NACE.
From Start-Up Nation to Sports-Tech Nation? A SWOT Analysis of Israels use of Sports for Nation Branding
by Yoav Dubinsky
Abstract: Innovation and adaptation are rooted in the history of Jewish people and the State of Israel, including through sports. The study analyzes the role of sports in the branding of the State of Israel. Nations, countries, and places going through lengthy armed conflicts and wars, suffer from negative images, which have a negative effect on potential customers to purchase products associated with these countries or visit them. For almost three millennia, countries, cities, and places have been using sports to improve their images. Israels image is deteriorating as the Israeli-Arab dispute escalates, partly due to not of having clearly communicated nation branding strategies. In this qualitative study, I conducted 14 semi-structured interviews with official in key policy-making positions in Israeli sports and in the Israeli government influencing on sports or branding policies. Based on the thematic analysis, I conducted a SWOT analysis, and came up with six practical recommendations for Israel. With Israel being a world leader in the number of start-up companies per-capita, and with sports organizations recognizing the potential of Israeli becoming a technological greenhouse, one of the key recommendations of the study is to have a collective new approach and brand Israel as a Sports-Tech nation. Although the study focuses on Israel, other countries facing prolonged conflicts should also consider the recommendations when using sports for nation branding purposes.
Keywords: Nation branding; Public diplomacy; Country image; Israel; Sports; Soft power;.
Special Issue on: Sports Marketing Agenda Revisited
An Advancement in the Study of Marketing Partnership Longevity: Analyzing Sport Sponsorship Survival
by Jonathan A. Jensen, David Head
Abstract: Naming rights agreements are some of the most high profile, and costly, sponsorships in the world. Yet, while growth in investments in these multimillion-dollar partnerships has recently outpaced that of traditional marketing approaches, sponsorship revenue forecasting still largely relies on a decades-old methodology, the renewal rate. Thus, this research seeks to assist the major stakeholders involved in the relationships between sport organizations and sponsoring brands by applying survival analysis methodologies to the study of sport sponsorships, utilizing 205 naming rights sponsorships of facilities based in North America and Europe. Consistent with exchange theory, results indicate that these sponsorships are more susceptible to dissolution earlier in the relationship, and results vary based on the type of facility and location. This research advances our understanding of the dynamics of naming rights sponsorships and demonstrates the importance of providing managers with more advanced methodologies to assist in the organizations sponsorship revenue forecasting activities.
Keywords: Sport marketing; corporate sponsorship; analytics; survival analysis; revenue forecasting; naming rights.
The brand attachment and consumer behavior in sports marketing contexts: the case of football fans in Portugal
by Carla Barbosa Vieira, Bruno Sousa
Abstract: Sport transcends both cultural and social settings and is played in numerous contexts throughout the world. Football teams, when considered as economic organizations, are expected to achieve their objectives without consuming excess resources. Sports marketing is a dynamic subject area linking academic research, marketing practitioners and public policy planners. To provide an experience that meets or exceeds a spectator's expectations, it is important to understand consumer behavior (e.g. behavioral intentions) and the brand attachment in specific sports marketing contexts (e.g. portuguese football supporters). The main purpose of this study is to analyze how brand attachment relates to other relevant variables (brand loyalty, brand commitment, brand satisfaction, brand trust) in consumer's behavior applied to football fans in Portugal. This study included 477 participants The data was collected through online surveys. The results have shown that football fans in Portugal are severely attached and loyal to their teams. This suggest that sports marketing managers should work on the consumers attachment to the team, once higher attachment to the team also meant higher loyalty, commitment and trust on the team. The brand attachment to a football team influences all the variables included in the research conceptual model. The results also demonstrated that brand attachment, brand commitment, brand trust and brand satisfaction influence brand loyalty. This means that a football fan with higher attachment to the team is usually more satisfied, trust full and committed to his/her team and consequently his/her loyalty to the team is also higher. A just a few studies had analyzed the relation between brand attachment and other variables, so this study is groundbreaking relatively to this subject. Implications for future research are also presented.
Keywords: Brand attachment; Sports Consumer's Behavior; Sports Marketing; Trust.
Perceived motivation in football/futsal practice according to players and coaches approaches: a tool of strategic management
by Dina Miragaia, Francisco Guedes
Abstract: The objectives of this study are to identify the profile of football/futsal players relative to their motivation to play these sports and to verify if coaches have similar perceptions to those expressed by the players. A questionnaire was given to 513 players and 206 coaches. The consumer profiles of the players were analyzed according to their motivations, and cluster analysis was done to identify different player segments. Five distinct clusters were identified, and significant differences between gender and age were found. Differences in motivations were identified between male and female athletes and across ages. Also, the coaches' perceptions of the motivations of athletes did not match those expressed by the athletes. This type of analysis is essential for organizational decision makers because it enables designing more effective marketing plans and adjusting services to suit different types of consumers. In turn, more individualized services can ensure a high level of consumer satisfaction and improved retention rates in sports clubs.
Keywords: consumer segmentation; consumer profile; sports marketing; motivation; football; futsal; sport affiliation; stakeholders; retention; cluster analysis.
Relationships as strategic assets: A sport fan equity approach
by Young Do Kim, Yukyoum Kim, Marshall Magnusen, Daekwan Kim
Abstract: Despite the importance of customer equity (CE) to the financial success of sport organizations, minimal consideration has been given to this concept by sport scholars, particularly as it pertains to the study of sport fan equity (SFE). The true asset value of the present and anticipated future contributions of a sport fan to a sport team/organization describes SFE. The main objective of this study is to organize, review, and synthesize the extant marketing and sport literatures to propose a new conceptualization of SFE. Specifically, SFE is conceptualized in terms of relationship investment (key predictor), three core components of SFE (i.e., financial value, behavioural value, and psychological value), and the outcome of market performance (i.e., media, sponsorship, licensing, and public investment). The contribution of this study to the advancement of sport marketing is the presentation of a strong foundation for future CE research that stems from a critical review of the relevant CE literature and the development of an original model of SFE.
Keywords: Sport fan equity; financial value; behavioural value; psychological value; customer-oriented paradigm; relationship investment; market performance.
The structure, content and context of achieved celebrity brands: A study of footballers in their brandscapes
by Anna Zarkada, Eugenia Tzoumaka
Abstract: Celebrity athletes are the most prominent achieved celebrity brands with well-noted effects in consumer behaviour. Still, current research is characterised by terminological polyglossia and conceptual overlaps, which results in a lack of clarity regarding the brand structure and content. Moreover, there is no consideration of the brandscape; the team or sports club the player belongs to or has most closely associated his name with.
This paper addresses the current limitations by adopting an exploratory approach. Through qualitative research, namely five focus groups, we empirically investigated the celebrity footballer brand associations as Acknowledgment.
The data demonstrate that the celebrity footballer brand comprises two distinct components proposed by Keller (1993): (1) The professional one, to include product-related associations, further distinguished into individual, organisational and contextual associations and (2) The personal one, which corresponds to non-product-related associations and reflects the balance of a persons perceived virtues and vices. The role of the brandscape emerges as affecting his professional and personal associations both positively and negatively.
Keywords: celebrities; brand associations; brandscape; focus groups; football; human brands; sports celebrities; qualitative research.
Perceived Fan Associations with MLB Teams: Bask Inspite of Reflected Failure versus Cut Off Reflected Success
by DongHun Lee, Michael Cottingham, Shannon Powers, Leeseob Maeng
Abstract: While Campbell, Aiken, and Kents (2004) quadruple grid of team identification has received substantial attention in sport literature (Jensen et al., 2016), only a few empirical-based studies looked at deviant fan tendencies, such as Basking In spite of Reflected Failure (BIRF) and Cutting Off Reflected Success (CORS). This study fills the gap by empirically examining two components of team identification perceived by 1,419 MLB fans. Visual maps exhibited a broad pendulum of how fans associate themselves and their orderly relationships compared to BIRFers and CORSers empirical samples. The 16 fan association types can be interpreted as a behavioral gauge sports fans regularly use in their consumption of Major League Baseball (MLB). Regression results suggest marketing insights for MLB operators who target BIRFers or CORSers: focus on non-performance interests of fans including starter players, levels of competition, on-field management and decisionmaking, concessions, and retelling team history as an antecedent to fans psychological connection with teams.
Keywords: BIRF; CORS; team associations.
Determinants of the intention to participate in semi-marathons events.
by Konstantinos Koronios, Panagiotis Dimitropoulos, Athanasios Kriemadis, John Douvis
Abstract: The aim of the present research is to suggest a theoretical framework of sport marketing research with a focal point on sport participation in semi-marathon events. There are clear benefits of an active lifestyle and people are increasingly engaged in recreational sports activity and participation in recreational sports events. In this study the motivation for such participation is explored drawing on empirical evidence from a semi-marathon running event. Elements were obtained from a semi-marathon and a quantitative questionnaire was utilized for the data collection. The total number of questionnaires successfully gathered was 268, which were then analyzed using SPSS. Results indicate that intention for recurring participation is positively related to perceived benefits in mental and physical health, attachment with running, socializing opportunities, attractiveness of the respective running event and the destinations elements of the semi-marathon event. Significant differences in the motivation between male and female runners were also identified.
The role of patriotism in the city-brand -sport-event relationship
by Ilias Kapareliotis, Katerina Voutsina
Abstract: The importance of mega sports events in relation to city branding has long been recognized by both academics and practitioners from a variety of functional disciplines. This paper links the concepts of city branding and sports events with that of patriotism. The study is based on a systematic literature review that results in a proposition of a conceptual framework, and a synthesis of key findings, which are presented through the proposed conceptual framework. The framework suggests that patriotic feelings enjoyed by citizens of the host city are expected to further develop and intensify in the context of a sports event, while at the same time, positively moderate the impact of the given sports event on the city brand. The implications for practitioners and academics are discussed.
Keywords: city branding; sport event; patriotism; stakeholders.