International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing (18 papers in press)
Cultural differences in Sports Fan Engagement on Facebook: A comparison of Australian and Indian Cricket league
by Balamurugan Annamalai, ShabbirHusain R.V, Shabana Chandrasekaran, Sanjeev Varshney
Abstract: The study explores the impact of cultural differences on social media fan engagement depending on the post content shared on social media. The differential impact on fan engagement with regard to team performance is also explored. Around 1500 Facebook posts across four cricket teams from the cricket leagues of Australia and India were evaluated. Analysis of variance was used to test the effect of the post content, team performance, and cultural differences on affective fan engagement. First, fans are likelier to have higher engagement with posts that deal with individual sports person than the team and this effect is more pronounced in countries with higher power distance. Second, our study has established that fans are likelier to have higher engagement with better performing teams and this effect is more pronounced in countries with higher collectivism. This is the first study to explore the cultural differences and the impact of player versus team-related content types on social media engagement metrics in sports fan engagement. The study results have direct implications on developing the social media content strategy for sports clubs across different cultures.
Keywords: Australia; Cricket; Culture; Facebook; Fan engagement; India; Individualism; Power-distance; Social media marketing; Sports.
Developing a Model for Athletes Personal Brands on Social Networks (Case Study: Instagram)
by Ali Reza Zakerian, Pegah Sarkoohi, Farzad Ghafouri, Sara Keshkar
Abstract: The purpose of the present study is to identify the characteristics of athletes' personal brands on social networking sites, with Instagram being the focus of attention. This study is of the qualitative type and relies on the grounded theory. In this study, three soccer players namely Ali Daei, Ali Karimi, and Sardar Azmoun who have the largest number of followers on Instagram were selected. The participants in this study consisted of 15 marketing managers, marketers of soccer clubs and professors in the field of brand and sports marketing, with whom in-depth interviews were conducted. The data were conceptualized and categorized through open, axial, and selective coding processes. The results show that social, sports, political, religious, economic and personal/behavioral factors, respectively, are the most important factors influencing users decision to follow athletes on Instagram. The results, also, indicate that personal sports brands can expand their branding strategies and help to improve relationship marketing.rn
Keywords: Grounded Theory; Instagram; Personal Brand; Relationship Marketing; Social Networks.
Characterising Features of the Sport Entrepreneurship Process
by Antti Kauppinen
Abstract: The research on sports entrepreneurship suggests that entrepreneurial orientation (EO) is one of its features. However, sports entrepreneurship scholars have thus far neglected the process aspect of EO or its derivates in any empirical analysis. This article reviews the research on sports entrepreneurship as a process. The purpose of the study is to show how the sports entrepreneurship process differs from other entrepreneurship processes. The results confirm a key notion outlined in previous sports entrepreneurship studies: athletes can be entrepreneurial individuals. This paper develops this notion further by suggesting research questions to advance the area of business creation and development among athlete entrepreneurs.
Keywords: entrepreneurial orientation (EO); process; athlete; entrepreneurial individual.
On-site Sponsorship Leveraging Patterns of TOP and Domestic Programmes: The Case of 2018 PyeongChang Winter Games
by Kyu Ha Choi, Dana Ellis, Becca Leopkey, Jinsu Byun, Kathleen Zinn
Abstract: This study explores on-site sponsorship leveraging of The Olympic Partners and domestic sponsors at Olympic venues. Field research consisting of photographs and reflective journals was conducted at the 2018 PyeongChang Olympic Winter Games, and these were analysed along with other archival documents. Findings revealed that, as groups, the two sponsorship programmes did not make a noticeable difference in on-site sponsorship leveraging patterns, such as leveraging methods, leveraging focus, and sponsorship fit. However, slight variances in terms of individual sponsors were observed. The research presents the On-site Olympic Sponsorship Leveraging Cube as a tool that allows for visual cross-sectional representation of individual Olympic sponsors on-site sponsorship leveraging within three key dimensions: leveraging method, leveraging focus, and sponsorship fit.
Keywords: on-site sponsorship; Olympic sponsorship; leveraging method; leveraging focus; sponsorship fit; brand image transfer; 2018 PyeongChang Winter Games.
How does spectator marketing in women's leagues differ from that in men's leagues?
by Hirotaka Matsuoka
Abstract: Women's sport have been receiving increasing attention internationally. However, only a few studies have examined the differences in effective marketing strategies for men's versus women's leagues or teams. Most research assumes that women's and men's teams are marketed in the same manner. This study's purpose is two-fold: first, to compare the men's and women's league's spectator demographic variables emphasizing the uniqueness of spectators in women's sport; and second, to compare the spectator motivation between gender-based leagues. A series of questionnaire surveys were conducted at the Women's and Men's V. Premium Leagues, Japan's top-level volleyball leagues. This study uses a 2,405 dataset and implies that differentiating spectators by combining spectator and athlete gender will enable sport marketers and researchers to understand a sport's consumer more intimately. Additionally, even though both sports are the same, it is crucial to devise completely different marketing strategies for different leagues.
Keywords: spectator motivation; gender difference; league difference; two-way analysis of variance.
The Impact of Dynamic Ticket Pricing on Major League Baseball Attendance
by Charles Wassell Jr, Robert Carbaugh
Abstract: Throughout the 2010s, dynamic pricing has become a popular strategy for the pricing of tickets to Major League Baseball games, as well as other sports games. This paper considers the role that dynamic ticket pricing has in increasing a teams revenue and profitability. The paper first examines the evolution of this dynamic pricing and its theoretical effects. This is followed by empirical evidence concerning the impacts of dynamic pricing on attendance, as a proxy for gate receipts. While not definitive, our results suggest that implementation of dynamic pricing does increase attendance, and presumably profitability.
Keywords: baseball; major league baseball; MLB; dynamic pricing; attendance; ticket price; price discrimination; revenue; profit.
Why Sport Ticket Salespeople Leave Their Jobs: Applying Attribution Theory to Employee Turnover
by Nels Popp, Liz Sattler, David Pierce, Megan Shreffler
Abstract: Professional sports teams report high levels of turnover among ticket salespeople. Utilizing Attribution Theory (Heider, 1958), the current study examined the reasons why ticket salespeople leave their jobs by surveying both current and former ticket sales professionals from North American Big 4 sports teams (N = 511). Mutable factors such as pay, leadership style, and professional development opportunity were cited as stronger reasons for leaving than immutable factors such as team success and customer rejection. Significant differences emerged regarding factors attributed to sales success between three groups: (a) those in sport ticket sales positions, (b) those who continue to work in the sport industry but in a different area than ticket sales, and (c) those who left the sport industry altogether. The constructs of ability and training related to sales success were rated significantly higher, and the construct of luck significantly lower, for those who persisted in ticket sales positions.
Keywords: Ticket sales; employee turnover; salesperson; attribution theory; sport sales.
A Study on Influence of Toss Result, Toss Decision and Venue on the Outcome of IPL Cricket Match
by Sanjita Jaipuria, Sumit Kumar Jha
Abstract: The Indian Premier League (IPL) is one of the most popular cricket tournaments played in India. The winning and losing of a cricket match depend on the individual player's performance within the team. Apart from this, it depends on some other factors such as toss result (win or lose the toss), tosses decision (first bating or fielding decision), and venue of the match (home ground, away from the home ground). These three factors have a special effect on the match outcome. Hence, these factors are considered in this study to analyze their influence on the winning probability of the IPL cricket team. The popular statistical quality control tool called the full factorial design a Design of Expert (DOE) tool has been used in this study to analyze the degree of influence of the considered factors on the winning probability of the IPL cricket team. The team those have participated in more than five seasons of IPL match from the year 2008 to 2018 has been considered in this study. The teams are Chennai Super Kings (CSK), Delhi Daredevils (DD), Kings XI Punjab (KXIP), Kolkata, Knight Riders (KKR), Mumbai Indians (MI), Rajasthan Royals (RR), and Royal Challengers Bangalore (RCB). Further, based on findings, this work suggested an optimal combination of considered factors(toss result, toss decision, and venue) to maximize the winning probability for the individual team so that team can plan a strategy to win the match.
Keywords: Indian Premier League (IPL); Design of Expert (DOE); Analysis of Variance (ANOVA); Toss decision; Toss result; Home Ground.
Investigating the Sport Participation Legacy of a Major Event: The Case of One Multi-Use Sport Facility
by Kevin E. S. Wilson, Patti Millar
Abstract: Newly constructed sport facilities are often a staple of hosting major sport events. However, these facilities often become underutilized and present a significant financial burden for host communities. With demonstrated relationships between facility access and physical activity levels, sport facilities that are built with intended community use following the event are perhaps a likely mechanism to foster a sport participation legacy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the sport participation legacy associated with one multi-use sport facility built for a major sport event. Interviews with key stakeholders and an analysis of program documents revealed that the location and design of the facility itself, the formal agreements between the facility operating groups, and the breadth of sport and recreation programming offered at the facility all contributed to fostering a post-event sport participation legacy. Future research directions and practical implications are presented.
Keywords: event legacy; sport participation; recreation programming; sport facilities; major events; community sport and recreation.
Capital structure of Iberian football clubs: Does sport performance matter?
by Luís Pacheco
Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to study the capital structure determinants of the major Spanish and Portuguese football clubs, in particular the impact of their sport performance on leverage. Football clubs were chosen because of their public relevance and also because the sectors capital structure has hardly been studied, in particular in the Iberian Peninsula. The obtained results could be useful to football clubs managers, particularly in regard to their capital structure management. Using panel data methodology and considering a sample of 32 football clubs organised as public limited sports companies we study the capital structure determinants between 2010 and 2015, adding a set of sport performance variables. The results suggest that size, total liquidity and asset intangibility are key factors affecting the capital structure and that Pecking Order theory seems more suited to those companies, whereas sport performance variables are irrelevant.
Keywords: Capital structure; Professional football clubs; Public limited sports companies; Panel data estimation.
Football agents from the perspective of their clients: services, service evaluation, and factors that create satisfaction
by Andreas Gohritz, Gregor Hovemann, Peter Ehnold
Abstract: The article analyses players satisfaction with their football agents and factors that influence differences in level of satisfaction. To analyse the performance relationship between player and agent, their relationship is based on the principal-agent theory. The explorative study includes a dataset from professional German football players (n=336). A logistic regression model was used to determine relevant factors influencing differences in a players satisfaction with an agent. Across all leagues, agents generally perform classic transfer and contract-related tasks. It is less common for agents to be delegated tasks requiring expert knowledge in areas such as taxation. Players levels of satisfaction with their agents appears to be rather ambivalent. However, this is significantly influenced by implicit and explicit factors, such as the scope of services and a personal relationship or screening agents in advance, respectively.
Keywords: Football agents; Football intermediaries; Principal-agent relationship; Football agents’ services; Service evaluation; German agents market; Moral hazard; Screening; Monitoring; Logistic regression.
Modifying rules in womens professional sport: A case study of the Australian Football League Womens league
by Kim Encel, Pamm Phillips, Paul Turner, Helen Brown, Gavin Abbott
Abstract: Rule modifications are common-place in mens professional sport however there is little understanding of why rules are modified in womens professional sport beyond sociological enquiry. This research aims to understand the Australian Football Leagues (AFL) rationale for, and approach to, modifying match rules for the inaugural Australian Football League Womens league (AFLW). Performance data was collected from 295 players during 10 exhibition matches in 2016 and semi-structured interviews were conducted with AFLW managers (n=2) and coaches (n=8). A rigorous data-driven approach to modifying rules for the AFLW suggested that the AFL had commercial logics and were not driven by sociologically driven gendered expectations. However, quantitative data indicated that rule modifications made no significant difference to the commercial appeal of match play. Rather, AFLs commercial priorities in modifying rules were tempered by developmental logics of operational stakeholders which led to the introduction of minimal rule modifications for the AFLW.
Keywords: women’s sport; rule modifications; sport development; professional sport leagues; logics.
Internationalization and martial arts: the case of Carlson Gracies Brazilian jiu-jitsu gym
by Heloisa A. F. Soares, Renato D. C. Mello, Clarice Kogut
Abstract: This study analyzes the internationalization process of Carlson Gracies Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Academy, from the perspective of behavioral theories of internationalization applied to services. Using the case study method, it sought to understand the reasons for internationalization, factors influencing it, and, mainly, the explanatory power of the aforementioned theories. As a result, behavioral theories have provided solid explanation to this phenomenon, with Network Theory and International Entrepreneurial Orientation best supporting the case. With an empirical, unique and interesting case, we hope to contribute to the assessment of behavioral theories of internationalizations applicability and the exploration of international entrepreneurship and network literatures.
Keywords: Internationalization of firms; service firms; Sport related firms; Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu; behavioral theories of internationalization; martial arts; Gracie family;.
Special Issue on: Innovative Marketing in Women’s Professional Sport
Motive-Based Taxonomy of Professional Softball Fans: A segmentation study
by Ceyda Mumcu, Nancy Lough, Michelle Coyner
Abstract: Although softball is one of the most popular participation sports in the United States, motives and behaviours of softball consumers have not been examined. As sport consumption options proliferate, there is a greater need to understand consumers motives related to the sports they elect to consume. Market segmentation is key to addressing the varying wants and needs of sport consumers, yet there has been limited research on womens sport consumer segments. The purpose of this study was to identify motive-based consumer segments by examining the motives of professional softball consumers using the Sport Interest Inventory and to explore differences in consumption intentions among these distinct softball fan segments. A two- stage cluster analysis utilizing hierarchical and nonhierarchical methods was performed.
Upon identifying motive-based softball fan segments, a MANOVA was performed revealing differences in each fan segments consumption intentions. Both theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
Keywords: fan segments; market segmentation; women’s sport; softball; cluster analysis.
Determinants of the Construction of Personal Brands of Brazilian and German Womens Football Players on Instagram
by Ana Cristina Picinin De Rezende Costa, Kirstin Hallmann
Abstract: Women's football experienced exponential growth after the FIFA Women's World Cup 2019 and determinants of the construction of player ?s personal brands add value to the understanding of which image they want for themselves and for their sport. The purpose of this research is to provide a multidimensional exploration of this process. Three studies were conducted through content analysing Brazilian and German elite footballers Instagram posts (n=278), interviewing national team players (n=9) and surveying football fans of both countries (n=430). The findings indicated that female footballers portrayed themselves in active pictures, presenting themselves first as players and second as females. Brazilian footballers were slightly more engaged with the political and collective aims of developing women's football while German footballers were more attached to sporting performance and promotional objectives. Personal brand management by players and the collective construction of a global women's football brand are addressed in the discussion.
Keywords: social media; self-presentation; personal brand; marketing; communication; gender equality.
Special Issue on: Consumer Behaviour in Sports Tourism, Recreation and Leisure
Its getting tight in the Alps - Challenges and implications of the e-mountain bike boom for sustainable tourism management
by Christian Moesch, Samuel Christen, Tim Ströbel
Abstract: This study analyses the challenges and implications of technological development in mountain-bike sports for alpine tourism destinations. We investigate the motivations of e-mountain bikers in tourism destinations and derive implications for tourism managers to handle dynamic technological developments in a sustainable manner. A mixed-method design including qualitative in-depth interviews with relevant actors and a quantitative survey with 175 e-mountain bikers was applied. The e-bike boom offers potential and challenges for sustainable tourism management in alpine destinations. Tourism managers must develop diverse, participatory, and nature-friendly concepts as well as collaborations with nearby destinations and recreational areas to control the flow of tourists within ecologically sensitive areas.
Keywords: E-bike; e-mountain biking (e-MTB); mountain biking (MTB); technological development; tourism trends; sustainable tourism management; responsibility; people planet profit; destination management; destination management organisation (DMO); destination marketing; alpine destination.
Determinants of the value of fishing tourism experience among anglers
by Raija Komppula, Jarno Suni, Lari Turunen, William Gartner, Anssi Vainikka
Abstract: In this study, we aim to use survey data to define the value of the fishing tourism experience to anglers. Customer value is examined within the framework of Sheths, Newmans, and Grosss (1991) consumption value theory, complemented by the togetherness value suggested by Komppula and Gartner (2013). Our study, based on 937 responses from Finnish anglers, shows that value expectations differ. Six experience value-based segments within the tourist angler population were identified: service-minded novelty seekers; tranquillity seekers; service-oriented catch keepers; recognition seekers; food anglers; and novelty seeking experts. We propose that the customer value framework by Sheth et al. (1991), complemented by a two-dimensional togetherness dimension (family, friends), is well suited for defining the value of a hobby-related tourist experience. Additionally, three sub-dimensions of epistemic value are distinguished. The study presents numerous managerial implications for fishing tourism service providers.
Keywords: fishing tourism; customer value; tourist experience; experience value; special interest tourism; value dimensions; segmentation.
Do they behave the same? Identifying the motives and behavioural intentions that influence the event loyalty of different distance triathletes
by Esmarie Myburgh, Martinette Kruger
Abstract: Triathlons consist of four different events, determined by distance (Olympic distance, Ironman, sprint, and middle distance/Half Ironman). Participants may have different levels of involvement and behavioural intentions because of the difference in distance (half vs full triathlon). This study identifies the determinants of loyalty among athletes who compete in triathlons that differ in distance. Participants competing in a full (140.6 miles) or a half (70.3 miles) Ironman triathlon in South Africa were surveyed in 2018. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed during the respective registration periods, and 348 and 443 completed questionnaires were obtained. Multivariate analyses revealed the primary behavioural intention (event loyalty pursuits) and the secondary intentions in the form of pursuits and motives to participate. Regression analyses showed similar variables influencing both types of triathletes event loyalty pursuits. This studys findings can assist event marketers with strategic marketing decisions to attract and retain loyal triathletes.
Keywords: half triathlon; full triathlon; Ironman; determinants of loyalty; loyalty pursuits; sport tourism; triathletes; sport events; sport participants.