International Journal of Mobile Communications (63 papers in press)
Self-service Kiosks: An Investigation into Human Need for Interaction and Self-efficacy
by Saejoon Oh, Eun Mi Lee
Abstract: This study constructs customers' psychological intention during the use process of kiosk services, along with their need for interaction and self-efficacy. Variables selected as service attributes of service kiosks are as follows: service speed, information quality, reliability, convenience, and usability. This study was conducted with data from over 250 respondents who have experience with kiosk services in Quick Service Restaurants. The results show that convenience and usability factors are negatively related to customers' need for interaction, whereas service speed and usability factors are positively related to customers' self-efficacy. As earlier studies indicate, customers who have experienced self-efficacy show a high level of intent to use kiosk services. Above all, the surprising result is that there exists an unexpected positive relationship between customers' need for interaction and the intention to use kiosk services. It seems that customers with satisfying experiences in interactive service show intent to revisit and use kiosk services.
Keywords: Kiosks; Service Attributions (Service speed; Information Quality; Reliability; Convenience; Usability); Need for Interaction; Self-efficacy; Intention of Use.
Effects of Gamification Incorporated in Branded Apps on Brand Responses
by Lee Ya-Ching, Ying Lin Ho
Abstract: This study investigates impacts of gamification incorporated in branded apps (GBAs) on brand responses. The results reveal that perceived challenge, competitive achievement, and intrinsic social interaction derived from GBAs are important drivers of flow, which significantly and positively affects consumers brand attitudes and purchase intentions. The results also show moderating effects of creativity. This paper fills research gaps by evaluating the impacts of GBAs on brand responses with flow mediating the impacts. The results advance our knowledge by identifying consumers psychological paths of using GBAs. In addition, we develop and validate scale items for these variables, which can assist the robustness of future research. This paper indicates the loci on which brands should focus to improve brand attitudes and increase purchase decisions with GBAs. It also verifies the role of creativity in gamification. Finally, this paper offers practical suggestions.
Keywords: Achievement; Branded apps; Challenge; Flow; Gamification.
Role of ubiquity in m-commerce shopping intentions: a comparative study
by Rao Muhammad Rashid, Qurat Ul Ain Rashid, Cuiqing Jiang, Abdul Hameed Pitafi
Abstract: The ubiquitous nature of mobile commerce allows consumers to assess information anywhere and anytime. Several studies have shown that it has failed to attract potential consumers across different countries. By considering the ubiquitous nature of mobile commerce (m-commerce), it is worth studying the ubiquity as an essential aspect in consumers shopping intentions in m-commerce environments. This study examines the role of UTAUT2 by integrating ubiquity in the model to explain consumers shopping intentions in m-commerce environments in countries having different cultures and at different levels of m-commerce adoption (China, Pakistan). Our findings provide empirical evidence that performance expectancy, habit and ubiquity have significant effect on consumers shopping intentions in m-commerce environments. Habit negatively moderates the relationship between ubiquity and consumers shopping intentions in m-commerce environments in China but not in Pakistan. Control variables individualism/collectivism and uncertainty avoidance has significant effect on dependent variable (i.e. shopping intentions) in Pakistan, while long-term orientation has significant effect on dependent variable (shopping intentions) in China.
Keywords: UTAUT2; ubiquity; m-commerce; emerging economies; shopping intentions.
A Hybrid Framework for Understanding Mobile Robotic Financial Service Adoption, Encompassing Utility and Trust Theories to Define Service Redesign Actions
by Ya-Hui Chan, Shu-Ping Lin, I-Ying Lu
Abstract: The mobile robotic financial service (MRFS) is an important disruptive innovation in mobile banking development. However, very few studies have been conducted to investigate MRFS adoption behaviour in order to help define MRFS redesign actions for responding to dynamic markets. Thus, this studys main aims are: 1) to propose a service redesign framework for continuous MFRS innovation; and 2) to perform an empirical analysis to explain how to apply it to identify the antecedents of user behaviours, extract determinants, and finally define service redesign actions. Data analysis reveals that the hybrid causal model is partially mediated by extending utility theory to include trust theory. Thus the direct and indirect effects that affect adoption behaviours significantly must be calculated. Finally, action matrix analysis is employed, and the results reveal that the service redesign action changes after the causal dynamics of the hybrid model are considered.
Keywords: mobile banking; mobile robotic financial service; mobile communication; utility theory; trust theory; adoption behaviour; structural equation modelling; service design; service diffusion.
Running frequently with an app to be fantastic! Determinants of Runtastic usage continuation intention among German users
by Ardion Beldad, Sabrina Hegner
Abstract: Fitness apps have become increasingly popular tools that aid health conscious individuals to reach their fitness goals. In Germany, one of the most widely used fitness app is Runtastic with an estimated 130 million registered users worldwide. To determine the factors influencing German Runtastic users intention to continue using the app, the Technology Acceptance Model was tested with the inclusion of subjective norm, trust, privacy risk perception, and habit as predictors of usage continuation intention using data from 193 Runtastic users. Structural equation modelling reveals that Runtastic users intention to continue using the app is predicated on three factors, namely perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness of the app and subjective norm. Trust and privacy risk perception have no significant effects on usage continuation intention.
Keywords: fitness app; Runtastic; Technology Acceptance Model; trust; privacy risk perception.
Examining the antecedents and consequences of perceived value A case study of mobile banking application usage in Saudi Arabia
by Hawazen O. Alamoudi, Majed D. Alharthi, Aijaz A. Shaikh, Mohamed Yacine Haddoud
Abstract: Recent advancements in information, communications, and mobile technologies have revolutionized banking and payment services as well as consumer behavior. This study examines the continuous usage experience of mobile financial services, and especially mobile banking services, in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Data were collected from 300 experienced mobile banking users across the KSA using a pre-tested survey instrument. The partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) was used to analyze the data. The results supported all the hypotheses and revealed that e-service quality, e-information quality, and experience flow have a significant and positive influence on the perceived value of mobile banking services. Furthermore, the perceived value of mobile banking services had a positive and the most substantial impact on advocacy intention compared to sustained usage. This study has important implications for banking and other financial institutions in the KSA and beyond.
Keywords: Mobile banking; mobile banking application; perceived value; sustained usage; advocacy intention; Saudi Arabia.
The excessive utilization of social networking sites affects the symptom severity across patients with anxiety disorders
by Fikret Poyraz Çökmüş, Orkun Aydin, Kuzeymen Balikçi, Pinar Ünal Aydin
Abstract: Despite the well-known undesired effects of problematic social networking sites (SNSs) use, the studies performed with the psychiatric population are still scarce. The objective of this research is to discover whether problematic SNS use affects symptom severity among patients with anxiety disorder (AD). One-hundred patients with AD and 100 healthy controls (HCs) were participated. State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Social Media Addiction Scale (SMAS) were administered. In order to reveal the associations between SNSs use and anxiety symptoms Pearson correlations and linear regression analyses were performed. According to our results, the state and trait anxiety were positively correlated with virtual communication scores among AD patients. HCs trait anxiety was associated with both SMAS subtests; however, the state anxiety was not in a relationship with problematic SNSs use. Our study demonstrated the negative effects of problematic SNS on AD. The clinicians should consider SNSs use patterns while managing the treatment AD.
Keywords: addiction; anxiety disorder; excessive use; social networking sites; state anxiety; trait anxiety.
Improving mobile donations: Exploring an advanced technology acceptance model, media preferences, and demographics of mobile donors
by Yue Zheng, Brooke McKeever
Abstract: Mobile donations, contributions made by sending a text message, have been possible for more than a decade and have led to successful fundraising campaigns such as one following an earthquake in Haiti in 2010. However, most mobile phone users have never used this technology and few campaigns have come close to the funds raised for Haiti earthquake relief. To examine peoples motivations to make mobile donations, this study conducted a national survey with 994 US-based respondents to explore an advanced version of the technology acceptance model. By comparing the findings between those who have previously made mobile donations and those who have not, perceived credibility was identified as a key factor to motivate nondonors. This research also explored how mobile donation motivations varied across multiple media preference and demographic variables, which contributes practical implications for non-profit organisations to improve future fundraising efforts.
Keywords: mobile donation; fundraising; non-profit; technology acceptance model; TAM; texting; texting donation; text-to-give; text-to-donate; mobile communication.
The barriers and drivers of postponers adoption intention of mobile-only banks
by Hyo-Jung Kim, Jin-Myong Lee
Abstract: Among non-adopters of new technologies or innovations, postponers those who have decided to adopt the innovation but have not implemented it - have significant value as potential users. This study examined the characteristics of postponers decision-making for mobile-only banks (MOBs) as an innovative financial service, and investigated the factors that impede or facilitate postponers adoption intention of MOBs. Data were collected from a selfadministered online survey with South Korean consumers. Structural equation modelling results revealed that functional risk, privacy risk, relational risk, and cognitive inertia were significant barriers to postponers intention to adopt MOBs, while subjective norms and social image were significant drivers of this intention. The results have valuable implications for mobile-only business practitioners and contribute to the development of decision-support frameworks to study postponers adoption of innovations.
Keywords: mobile-only; mobile banking; postponer; decision making; innovation; consumer adoption intention; perceived risk; inertia; social influence; South Korea.
Context-aware and social integrative-related factors as the precursors of efficient context aware advertising via mobile applications
by Xuan Cu Le, Hu Wang
Abstract: In the new setting of context aware advertising (CAA), it is crucial to elucidate factors influencing consumers interaction with advertisements and patronage inclination. This work scrutinises an overarching mechanism of formulating Vietnamese natives attitude and patronage intention toward mobile app CAA based on the theoretic underpinning of the uses and gratifications (U&G) paradigm. A research framework and hypotheses are tested with a representative sample of 327 mobile users and analysed quantitatively. The findings unveil that factors of context-awareness, perceived benefit, and societal integration are the determinative motivations underlying positive attitude, in turn, have significant impacts on tendencies to patronise vendors, whilst perceived intrusiveness negatively affects. The results are insightful for innovative marketers to ameliorate advertising tactics and lure more potential customers. Ultimately, managerial and academia hints and promising research paths are discussed.
Keywords: attitude; context aware advertising; patronage intention; perceived benefit; social value; Vietnam.
Is an anthropomorphic app icon more attractive than a non-anthropomorphic one? A case study using multimodal measurement
by Yaqin Cao, Robert W. Proctor, Yi Ding, Vincent Duffy, Yun Zhang, Xuefeng Zhang
Abstract: This study investigates how an anthropomorphic app icon affects users responses from an emotional standpoint. The design is a case-study/laboratory experiment in which 50 participants evaluated a commercially available weather app icon that had facial features (with an anthropomorphic appearance) and the same app icon but without the facial features (non-anthropomorphic appearance). The participants also selected one of the two apps presented on a mock app download interface. Multimodal measurement was used to measure users responses, including: 1) subjective emotional experiences; 2) attitudes; 3) pupil dilation and facial electromyographic responses; 4) app-selection responses. The relationship between the anthropomorphic and non-anthropomorphic weather app icon designs and users responses were analysed. Results showed that the anthropomorphic app icon induced positive emotions, enhanced favourable attitudes, and was selected for downloading more often than the non-anthropomorphic one. An implication is that weather app icons, and probably other icons, should be designed using anthropomorphic elements to attract users.
Keywords: Android; affective reaction; anthropomorphism; app icon; app selection; emotion experience; facial EMG; facial features; multimodal measurement; pupil dilation.
Understanding the adoption of mobile social payment?From the cognitive behavioral perspective
by Jie Wang, Chonghuan Xu, Weinan Liu
Abstract: With the rapid development of mobile payment technology, many social applications provide payments function. This paper takes the cognitive behavioural influencing factors of the consumer mobile social payment acceptance behaviours as the purpose of the research and uses the literature research method to build the research model. On the basis of technology acceptance model, this paper integrates the theory of planned behaviour, theory of reasoned action and innovation diffusion model and adds variables such as perceived risk, perceived entertainment, social influence, consumer innovativeness and so on. Then the mobile social payment acceptance behaviour model is supposed, and 12 assumptions that may have an influence on the application acceptance behaviours of the mobile social users from different perspectives are given out. According to the results of data analysis and test hypotheses, this paper puts forward suggestions combined with the development status and existent problems of the mobile social networking services.
Keywords: mobile social payment; MSP; cognitive behaviour; adoption behaviour; innovation diffusion theory; technology acceptance model.
Impact of Compulsive Use of Mobile Social Networking Sites on Discontinuous Intentions of Users: A Perspective of Stressor-Strain-Outcome Model
by Sara Qaisar, Jianxun Chu, Zakir Shah, Zameer Hassan
Abstract: Cumulative evidence has demonstrated that compulsive use of mobile social networking site (SNS) applications, in particular among emerging adults, is a growing problem. Therefore, we propose a research model based on stressor-strain-outcome (SSO) framework to explore the impact of compulsive use of mobile SNS applications on discontinuous intentions of SNS users. To test the proposed model and hypothesis, 956 mobile SNS users in China participate in the study. Findings reveal that compulsive use of mobile SNSs directly impacts techno-exhaustion and also a positive significant relationship exist between techno-exhaustion and discontinuous intentions of SNS users. The moderation analysis shows that social support weakens the relationship between compulsive use of mobile SNSs and techno-exhaustion. Implications emphasise that social, emotional and information support on SNS platforms should be provided to reduce the negative consequences induced through compulsive SNS usage.
Keywords: compulsive use of mobile SNSs; compulsive SNS use; techno-exhaustion; social support; discontinuous intentions.
The antecedents and effects of app evolution: A co-evolutionary perspective
by Hengqi Tian, JING ZHAO, Bingchen Guo, Feiyan Lin
Abstract: B2C platforms have increasingly relied on applications (apps) to conduct business and compete fiercely with rivals and complementors in the contest of app evolution. The extant digital innovation and digital platform literature mainly study antecedents of app evolution from the platform perspective and with scant attention on how intra-platform competition affects app evolution. Based on Red Queen competition theory and the platform envelopment literature, we investigate how the coevolutionary competition with rival and complementor apps affects the evolution of the focal app and the subsequent effects on its market performance. Our empirical results unveil an inverted U-shaped relationship between app evolution and market performance and show that rival app evolution decreases the rate at which the B2C app evolves, while complementor app evolution escalates the evolution rate. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Keywords: app evolution; app updates; platform envelopment; Red Queen competition.
Technology, Organization and Environment factor on Mobile Payment Implementation: Focus on SMEs in Malaysia
by Seuk Wai Phoong, Seuk Yen Phoong, Shuang Tien Ho
Abstract: The rapid development of mobile technology resulted in the advent of mobile commerce, which is the disruption to the cash-dominated small and medium enterprises (SMEs). This paper details the investigation into the readiness and factors affecting mobile payment systems implementation by SMEs in Malaysia using the technology-organisation-environment (TOE) framework. The results indicated that all TOE framework dimensions are significant for SMEs implementing mobile payment systems in Malaysia. In the case of the critical determinants, security concerns, relative advantages, and top management support are the top factors impacting SMEs when deciding to implement mobile payment systems.
Keywords: mobile payment system; technology; organisation; environment; SMEs; Malaysia.
Mobile shopping continuance intentions of expats in China: Influence of structural assurance and the stay duration
by MUHAMMAD SHEHZAD HANIF, SHAO YUN-FEI, Muhammad Imran Hanif, Farman Afzal
Abstract: Mobile shopping continuance intentions tend to globally vary due to several factors exhibiting positive and negative influence. Majority of studies in past assumed the adoption behaviours of local and expat communities to be the same towards mobile shopping. By integrating core tenets of UTAUT2 model with the constructs of perceived risk, trust and structural assurance, this study aims to test the applicability of the model for a distinctive sample of expat students based in China using structural equation modelling (SEM) technique. Results demonstrate the noticeable effects of perceived risk and trust whereas the vital counterbalancing influence is provided through moderating roles of structural assurance and the duration of stay in a foreign country. This study contributes to technology adoption theory by analysing the post-adoption phase from the viewpoint of an expatriate consumer in a foreign country. Implications for both theory and practice are furnished followed by conclusion and research limitations.
Keywords: continuance intention; mobile shopping; UTAUT2; perceived risk; expat customer; trust; structural assurance; moderator; China.
Continuance Usage of Mobile SMS: The Moderating Role of Habit
by Li-Yueh Chen, Bo Hsiao, Wenli Hwang
Abstract: With the rapid growth of mobile technology and social media, research into continuance usage of mobile social media services (MSMS) has emerged as an important issue. This study proposes a research model by extending the expectation-confirmation model with the perspectives of IS motivation theory, theory of planned behaviour, social cognitive theory and privacy concerns to explore the determinants of individuals continuance intention and continuance usage toward MSMS. Data collected from 376 participants with prior experience with Facebook mobile were used to test the proposed model. The findings indicate that perceived usefulness and perceived enjoyment are important in forming the continuance intention and subsequently leading to continuance usage. The concern-for-information-privacy associated with secondary use, and anxiety associated with capability and contexts can be regarded as antecedents of users continuance intention of using MSMS. Results also confirmed the moderating effects of habit on the relationship between users continuous intention and usage.
Keywords: mobile anxiety; concern for information privacy; habit; perceived usefulness; perceived enjoyment; mobile social media services; MSMS.
Determinants and Consequences of Social Media Apps Usage: From the Perspective of the Value Theory
by HengLi Yang, Shiang-Lin Lin
Abstract: Among a large number of available mobile applications (apps), social media apps are the widely used by users. However, some negative effects might occur when people rely too much on social media apps. This study applies empirical research to discuss the values that social media apps can provide to users, and to explore the impact of social media apps usage. The results indicated that information value, social value, fashion value, and perceived social presence have a significant influence on users usage of social media apps. However, growing usages on social media apps could lead to users social interaction overload. Besides, users dependency on social media apps has a significant and positive influence on their virtual social self-efficacy, but feeling exhausted due to social interaction overload has a negative influence on users virtual social self-efficacy. Finally, users virtual social self-efficacy has a significantly positive influence on their real social self-efficacy. Some suggestions are given by this study.
Keywords: social media apps; theory of consumption values; theory of information overload; social cognitive theory; dependency; exhaustion.
Understanding mobile learning continuance from an online-cum-offline learning perspective: A SEM-neural network method
by Miao Zhang, Yuangao Chen, Shuai Zhang, Wenyu Zhang, Yixiao Li, Shuiqing Yang
Abstract: Based on uses and gratifications theory and literature related to perceived integration, this study investigated the factors that influence college students mobile learning continuance from an online-cum-offline learning perspective. A research model was developed and tested against data collected from 261 college students who are the mobile learning users of an online flipped learning platform in China. A multi-analytic method was employed whereby the proposed model was first tested using structural equation modelling (SEM), and the results of the SEM then utilising as inputs for a neural network approach to explain mobile learning continuance. The results show that perceived integration affect mobile learning continuance directly and indirectly via students extrinsic gratification (social need) and intrinsic gratifications (affective need and entertainment need). According to the normalised importance, affective need is the most significant factor affecting mobile learning continuance, following by social need and entertainment need.
Keywords: mobile learning; perceived integration; gratifications; neural network; multi-analytic method.
Understanding the factors affecting elderly users intention to use mobile social networks: a study of elderly Chinese WeChat users
by Xiwei Wang, Ruonan Jia, Jiaxing Li
Abstract: The aging population around the world is increasing, so is the number of elderly users of social networks. However, most of the existing research take the middle-aged and the young as their research samples. Meanwhile, the existing researches on elderly users usage behaviour are lack of theoretical innovation. Understanding what will influence the attitude and intention of elderly users will benefit developing social network products that meet the needs of them, and enhance the sense of satisfaction and well-being of them. Based on previous studies and information ecological theory, this paper develops a model to understand elderly users attitudes and intentions in using mobile social networks. The survey approach is used for data collection and structural equation modelling is used to process the data. The study found that the factor of information has the greatest influence on the intention of elderly users, followed by the information environment and information technology.
Keywords: information ecological; elderly users; social network; intended use; influence factors.
FACTORS AFFECTING THE CONTINUANCE INTENTION OF MOBILE PAYMENT SERVICES: A PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEMS PERSPECTIVE
by Ryoonhee Choi, Ohbyung Kwon
Abstract: With the increased use of mobile payment services, continuance intention, rather than adoption intention, becomes the focus. In addition, while the effects of mobile and payment characteristics on technology acceptance have been thoroughly studied, studies are lacking a focus on mobile payment services from the services perspective. The purpose of this study is to identify factors that affect the intention to continue to use mobile payment services, and to examine the service-related characteristics of such services based on PSS (productservice system) theory. In particular, we examine whether tangible and intangible values are useful parameters in investigating the relationships between continuance intention and mobile, payment, and service-related characteristics. The empirical results indicate that the service-related characteristics of mobile payment services with intangible value have a significant influence on the intention to continue to use them. We also utilise the concept of tangible and intangible value to explain the continuance intention more thoroughly than was done by earlier studies that were based on legacy technology acceptance models.
Keywords: mobile payment services; product-service system; PSS; continuance intention; empirical study.
The Moderating Effect of Perceived Transparency and Accountability on the Adoption of Mobile Government Services
by Isaac Mensah, Sammy Adams, Chuanyong Luo
Abstract: This paper examined the moderating impact of perceived transparency and accountability (PTA) on the adoption of mobile government services. The technology acceptance model (TAM) was used as the theoretical foundation and the data analysis was completed with SPSS and SmartPLS. The study was based on data collected from 320 Chinese college students in the city of Ganzhou. The results demonstrate that PTA does not moderate the impact of perceived usefulness and trust in government on the intention to adopt mobile government services. However, PTA showed a significant moderating effect on the relationship between both perceived ease of use and citizen empowerment on the intention to use mobile government services. It was also revealed that while perceived usefulness was not a significant predictor of the intention to use mobile government services, it was, however, a significant determinant of trust in government. Contrary to our expectations both citizen empowerment and trust in government do not predict the intention to use mobile government services. The managerial and theoretical implications of these results are deliberated.
Keywords: e-government; mobile government; m-government; transparency; mobile government services; accountability; technology acceptance model; TAM; moderating effect.
Smartphone usage of university students and academic performance: An empirical analysis
by Wajeeha Aslam, CHAI L.E.E. GOI, Imtiaz Arif
Abstract: Although a lot of research has been done on smartphone use among students, the question is whether the smartphone really helps and supports the education system or distracts university students, especially their academic performance. Therefore, this study examined the effects of smartphone use by university students and their academic performance. A total of 300 usable data were analysed using PLS-SEM. The results revealed that relative advantage, smartphone self-efficacy, and interaction competency significantly impact the intention to use a smartphone for academic purposes. Also, interaction competency positively influences smartphone self-efficacy. Results also revealed that smartphone self-efficacy and behavioural intention to use smartphone positively affect students academic performance. This study provides information to education officials, policymakers, faculty, and university management on smartphone use behaviour among students and its impact on their academic performance. This study also provides ideas to mobile phone manufacturers and app developers in designing better learning tools or applications.
Keywords: academic performance; relative advantage; self-efficacy; interaction competency; smartphone.
The Effect of Mobile Interactivity and Customized Information on Repurchase Intentions
by Pan Huifeng, Hong-Youl Ha
Abstract: There has been limited research regarding the effects of mobile interactivity and customised information on attitudes toward mobile sites, satisfaction with mobile sites, and customer repurchase intention. This study examines whether both mobile interactivity and customised information indirectly influence repurchase intention toward mobile service providers. Using structural equation modelling (SEM) to compare frequent and infrequent travel visitors, the findings show that the effects of customised information are limited by its positive correlation with customers satisfaction with mobile sites. The results indicate that customised information only influences satisfaction when frequent mobile customers engage in subsequent purchase behaviour. In contrast, when infrequent mobile customers engage in repurchase behaviour, their satisfaction with mobile sites was largely unaffected by customised information.
Keywords: customised information; mobile interactivity; repurchase intention; frequent visitor; infrequent visitor.
Exploring how consumers purchasing behaviour is influenced in mobile webcast shopping context
by HongQian Wang, Zheng Zhang
Abstract: The webcast in mobile devices supports real-time interaction and great social experience. Extensive types of information can be obtained and consumer involvement can be improved. Consumers purchase behaviour is changing with the emergence of mobile webcast marketplace. The study aims to investigate how purchase behaviour is influenced by salient factors in mobile webcast shopping context. The theoretical model is developed by introducing social presence theory (SPT) and consumer involvement into theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Quantitative information is collected by online survey targeted at mobile webcast users. Totally 204 valid questionnaires are obtained and analysed using PLS modelling. The results indicate that social presence positively influences consumers attitude and further affects purchase intention. Additionally, the effect of consumer involvement on perceived behavioural control is positive. It also implies that consumer involvement is positively affected by social presence. The empirical results indicate that mobile webcast could be an effective marketing tool.
Keywords: social presence; consumer involvement; mobile webcast; theory of planned behaviour; TPB; social presence theory; SPT.
Application-based mobile payment systems: continuance intention and intention to recommend
by Abul Khayer, Md Shamim Talukder, Yukun Bao, Md. Nahin Hossain
Abstract: This research paper valuates the factors of continuance intention and intention to recommend application-based mobile payment systems. The research model has been developed based on several strands of theories in information systems. The model has been tested using 360 respondents data collected from Wuhan, PR China. This study used a hybrid method by relating structural equation modelling (SEM) and artificial neural network (ANN) for analysing data. The SEM confirms that satisfaction, perceived usefulness, perceived enjoyment, habit, and context are the key predictors of the continuance intention. The continuance intention positively affects the intention to recommend the application-based mobile payment. This study also confirms the moderating effect of context on the relationship between satisfaction and continuance intention. The ANN concludes that the most significant predictor of continuance intention is satisfaction, while the least important factor is habit. This studys implications provide worthy insights to the researchers, practitioners, and managers, which assist them in devising effective strategies for implementing application-based mobile payment.
Keywords: application-based mobile payment; expectation-confirmation model; ECM; continuance intention; intention to recommend; structural equation modelling; SEM; artificial neural network; ANN.
The Roles of Mobile Social Supports as a Multi-level Moderator in the Acculturation Process among International Students: Testing moderated mediation and mediated moderation models
by Wonjun Chung, Soobum Lee
Abstract: The main purpose of this study was to investigate the roles of the social supports from mobile social network sites (SS-SNS) in coping with depression among international students. Using a total of 265 international students in the U.S., this study revisited to test the unidimensional relationship among acculturative stressors, acculturative stress, and depression in an academic setting. This study further examined two hypothesised models: a) a moderated mediation model where acculturative stressors and the SS-SNS interact in moderating the level of depression mediated by stress; b) a mediated moderation model where the SS-SNS moderate the impact of acculturative stress initially mediated by stressors on depression. The findings supported the mediated moderation model rather than the moderated mediation model. It explains that SS-SNS does not offer an intervention impact between stressors and stress to reduce depression, but moderates only the effects of the extensive amount of acculturative stress on depression.
Keywords: social network sites; SNS; acculturative stressors; acculturative stress; depression; moderated mediation; mediated moderation.
A holistic analysis of Near Field Communication mobile payments: An empirical analysis
by Francisco Liébana-Cabanillas, Zoran Kalinic, Iviane Ramos De Luna, Veljko Marinkovic
Abstract: The improvement of near field communication (NFC) technology has increased the number of its applications, although it is still incipient in the field of mobile payments. So far, studies that have analysed the adoption of NFC mobile payment systems have used classic models. To improve this proposal, this study incorporated a set of drivers proposed in research related to mobile payments: perceived compatibility, individual mobility, subjective norms, personal innovation and perceived security. The resulting model was analysed after implementing an online questionnaire with 499 users in Europe. The results confirm all the hypotheses raised with the exception of one related to ease of use. Finally, we highlight the main implications for management and cite some strategies to reinforce this new business in the context of new technical developments.
Keywords: near field communication; NFC; mobile payments; intention to use; perceived compatibility; personal innovativeness in information technology; perceived security.
Mobile payment adoption at the pre-purchase stage
by Ling Long Tsai, Michael Loncar
Abstract: Although several studies have examined adoption of mobile commerce, only a few have considered mobile payment (MP) adoption at the pre-purchase encounter stage. The following study aims to investigate MP usage intention at the pre-purchase stage. A questionnaire based on the extended unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) model was issued to 550 Taiwanese mobile phone users. Results show that at the pre-purchase stage, effort expectancy, performance expectancy, and perceived value are the three major predictors of intention to use MP. It was also found that facilitating conditions and self-efficacy are significant predictors of effort expectancy, perceived benefits have a positive impact on perceived value, and that perceived risks have a negative influence on perceived value. Importantly, effort expectancy was also found to mediate facilitating conditions and performance expectancy, as well as self-efficacy and performance expectancy.
Keywords: mobile payment; unified theory of acceptance and use of technology; UTAUT; service encounter; pre-purchase stage; usage intention.
The Moderating Role of Gender on Behavioural Intention to Adopt Mobile Banking. A Henseler's PLS-MGA and Permutation Approach
by Siao-Pin Yaw, Garry Wei-Han Tan, Pik-Yin Foo, Lai-Ying Leong, Keng-Boon Ooi
Abstract: This study aims to evaluate the predictors that affect the behavioural intention (BI) to adopt mobile banking in Malaysia which is currently an understudied topic. Self-efficacy (SE) perceived risk (PR) government support (GS) and subjective norms (SN) was extended with the technology acceptance model (TAM) to determine their influences on consumers BI with gender acting as a moderator. 450 self-administered survey questionnaires were distributed to mobile respondents in Malaysia with 408 valid responses being gathered. Data were subsequently analysed using PLS-SEM. The results showed that TAM, SN and SE significantly influenced consumers BI. Surprisingly GS and PR were insignificant predictors. Gender was found to be a significant moderator for perceived ease of use (PEOU) SE and PR with BI through Henselers PLS-MGA and permutation approach. Importance-performance matrix analysis also revealed that SE has high importance but low performance and therefore should be given priority. This study has valuable contributions to academicians and practitioners.
Keywords: mobile banking; mobile commerce; PLS-SEM; technology acceptance model; TAM: gender; permutation; multi-group analysis.
Digital Business Strategy as an Initiator of E-business Value Creation
by Maomao Chi, JING ZHAO, Rui Huang, Yuzhu Li, Yixin Liu
Abstract: Business conducted over the internet (known as e-business) generates tremendous wealth in global economy. To explore the value creation process in e-business supply chain, this study focuses on the role of digital business strategy as an initiator of e-business value creation by unfolding its impact on three types of resource deployment. This study proposes a research model to capture multiple relationships among digital business strategy, e-business resource integration, collaboration capability, and firm performance in e-business supply chain. The research model was tested with national survey data collected from 131 Chinese manufacturing firms. Empirical findings showed that steered by digital business strategy, firms focused on leveraging technology integration, human resource integration, and relationship integration in e-business, which helped develop collaboration capability and improve firm performance. Furthermore, human resource integration demonstrated a complementary effect to relationship integration, highlighting the importance of human resources in e-business value creation. [Received: 4 August 2020; Accepted: 6 January 2021]
Keywords: digital business strategy; resource integration; collaboration capability; valuation creation.
Why do they stay with 2G mobile communications services in 5G era
by Dokyung Kim, Seongcheol Kim
Abstract: Termination of existing mobile communications service (MCS) is a critical issue to secure the spectrum for providing next generation network and services. This study aims to examine the factors affecting consumers inertia toward the current 2G MCS, and the effect of inertia on the intentions to upgrade their MCS. The model was empirically validated by a survey among actual users of the 2G MCS in Korea. The empirical data were analysed using structural equation modelling approach. Results of this study showed that consumers inertia toward the 2G MCS significantly reduced their intentions to upgrade services. Learning costs and the uncertainty of switching costs were found to increase inertia. Only perceived enjoyment among the four types of switching benefits significantly reduced consumers inertia. Further, the influence of the innovativeness of ICT on certain switching costs and switching benefits was confirmed.
Keywords: 2G mobile communications service; intention to upgrade service; inertia; switching costs; switching benefits; ICT innovativeness.
Exploring the effects of personality characteristics and demographic factors on WeChat involvement among adults
by Hua Pang
Abstract: The primary purpose of the current study is to systematically investigate whether distinct dimensions of personality traits (i.e., extraversion, neuroticism and openness to experience) and demographic variables could predict WeChat use. Based on a web-based survey, data was gathered from 306 Chinese adults. Correlation analysis and multiple hierarchical regressions were performed to address the research questions. The obtained findings indicate that extraversion, neuroticism, and openness to experiences are positively correlated with individuals WeChat utilisation. Additionally, these results discover that extraverted males and females both tend to utilise this innovative media more frequently. However, only neurotic males incline to be heavier users. Furthermore, the linkage between extraversion and WeChat use is especially crucial among young adults group. Comparatively, open to new experiences acts as the most significant personality characteristic of WeChat use for the older adult cohort. Overall, the article extends the theories of the big-five by illustrating that personality characteristics are linked with demographic variables in the digital media context.
Keywords: social network site; SNS; WeChat; personality characteristics; demographic factors; adults.
Effects of service quality of airline mobile application and individual characteristics on user satisfaction and intention to reuse
by Jung Min Lee, Jin Ki Kim
Abstract: Mobile technology has evolved into intelligent services such as smart phones, smart TVs, smart cars, and healthcare, which are reaching consumers through personal devices. The rapid spread of this kind of technology provides a variety of contents that attract consumers minds. This study explores the impacts of self-efficacy, status quo bias, and service quality of mobile application on satisfaction and intention to reuse. Data is collected from 273 users who had experience using mobile applications. The results show that self-efficacy, status quo, convenience, responsiveness, ubiquity, and interest all affect service quality, and that self-efficacy, convenience, responsiveness, and ubiquity affect satisfaction and intention to reuse. This study suggests utilising strategy and communication with customer who has a high tendency of the status quo bias. This research suggests developing content that meets consumer needs through personal devices and to communicate with consumers.
Keywords: airline mobile application; self-efficacy; status quo bias; service quality; user satisfaction; intention to reuse.
The Online for Offline (O4O) Mobile Retail Business Strategy: Sustainable Multichannel Services
by Kwonsang Sohn, Christine Sung, Qingxuan Zhang, Ohbyung Kwon
Abstract: Online for offline (O4O) ecommerce is a new multichannel strategy that is being adopted worldwide, whereby successful online companies launch offline retail stores. Despite this new retail trend, it is unclear whether this new business model is sustainable. Therefore, the purpose of this empirical study is to identify factors affecting consumers intention to continue using online and offline channels established by successful online brands using an O4O strategy, and to test the halo effect of online stores going offline. The findings of this study confirm that utilitarian value, hedonic value, and parasocial relationships have significant effects on intention to continue visiting online and offline stores. Also, consumers intention to continue to visit online stores strongly influences the perceived utilitarian and perceived hedonic value of the offline store. These results suggest that the perceived utilitarian and hedonic value of the online store can expand and sustain enterprises adopting the multichannel strategy.
Keywords: online for offline (O4O); Ecommerce; Mobile commerce; sustainable multichannel integration; retail strategy.
Quality of Service enabled Resource Scheduling for Cooperative Driving Provision in the Internet of Vehicles
by Nafeesa Kalsoom, Samina Khalid, Iftikhar Ahmad, Zaheed Ahmed
Abstract: The road traffic efficiency may be improved by developing an integrated network for cooperative driving provision (CDP) among vehicles on the road. In a dance urban traffic scenario, the quality of service may be compromised when required bandwidth is not provided by the existing network architecture that impacts negatively on the cooperative behaviour of the vehicles. To solve these problems, a network architecture with better scheduling of resources that meet the quality of service (QoS) is required. So, we proposed a fifth-generation (5G) technology-based network architecture that provides the required QoS for CDP. The proposed architecture consists of a resource scheduling mechanism within the 5G network and a scheme for cooperative behaviour among the vehicles on the road. The implementation of the proposed network architecture is done by incorporating it into a well-known vehicular clustering algorithm. The performance of the proposed architecture is compared with existing schemes that show improvement.
Keywords: internet of vehicles; resource scheduling; quality of service; QoS; cooperative driving.
Performance Analysis of flexible Indoor and Outdoor User distribution in Urban Multi-Tier Heterogeneous Network
by Amalorpava Mary Rajee Samuel, Merline Arulraj
Abstract: The next generation heterogeneous networks (hetnet) refer to a complex eco system of radio cells with varying coverage ranges and technologies that interoperate to deliver the required capacity and coverage. This paper addresses the impact of large scale transmissions and analyses the performance of a typical user distribution in an urban multi-tier hetnet. A Boolean scheme of building blockage has been used to abstract the urban environment, which affects the architecture of hetnet with millimetre wave (mmW) access. A distribution mechanism is proposed to enable the indoor users to operate in mmW band whereas the outdoor users to operate in microwave (?Wave) band. An indoor user can be connected with mmW band if the line-of-sight (LOS) link exists. Otherwise, the exploitation is provided with ?Wave band to enhance the coverage. By employing tools from stochastic geometry, the mathematical expressions are derived for coverage probability, rate and spatial average channel capacity of a user in indoor and outdoor environments. The exact mathematical results show that an impact of small cell occupation ratio results in maximised spatial average channel capacity of an outdoor hetnet. The significant enhancement is provided with mmW small cell in terms of rate and coverage.
Keywords: heterogeneous network; hetnet; urban environment; building blockage; millimetre wave; mmW; coverage probability; spatial average channel capacity.
The Role of Perceived Risks on Mobile Payment Adoption: Evidence from Asia
by Wei-Lun Chang, Renato Pereira, Vladlena Benson
Abstract: Mobile has become an expected method of payment irrespective of the geographical location or the level of technology adoption across the developed and developing countries. The differences of adoption rates between China and Japan are significant, warranting further research into the barriers to mobile payment. To fill this research gap, we propose and empirically test a theoretical model of mobile payment adoption by users in China, Taiwan, and Japan. A decision-tree method was used to analyse 726 questionnaire responses. The results reveal that innovators, early adopters, and the early majority categories are concerned about the performance risk of mobile payment adoption and innovators, early adopters, and the late majority categories are concerned about the security risk of mobile payment adoption. The findings will help 5G mobile services vendors develop consumer trust and increase the contributions of the mobile industry to GDP.
Keywords: mobile payment; perceived risk; innovation adoption; cybersecurity; privacy; Asia.
Influencing factors of young consumers e-payment behaviour: An empirical study of Macaos Y and Z generations
by Matthew Liu, Jin Xue, Alexander Chen
Abstract: : The purpose of this paper is to explore the factors that influence the e-payment behaviour of Macaos young citizens. The mediating effect of intention between certain factors and adoption of e-payment is also considered. This study develops a conceptual model that proposes and applies the technology acceptance model (TAM) and the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology model (UTAUT). 279 valid samples were collected from Macao citizens aged 16 to 40, who belong to the Y generation (= Gen Y) and Z generation (= Gen Z), to test the conceptual model. The study supports some relationships of TAM and UTAUT, such as perceived usefulness (PU), perceived ease of use (PEOU), and social influence (SI). It indicates the role of perceived security (PS), perceived trust (PT), and incentive (INC) as strong predictors of intention (INT) in the Macao context. In addition, the study certifies that the incentive not only affects intention but also have a direct impact on e-payment usage (US).
Keywords: e-payment; technology acceptance model; TAM; perceived security; intention; incentive; young consumer; Macao.
Layer-based Cooperation for intrusion detection in Mobile Cloud environment
by Amel Makhlouf, Saadia Ghribi, Faouzi ZARAI
Abstract: Today, mobile cloud computing is very popular, because of its characteristics, where the cloud computing offers services via the mobile networks. This makes it more attractive to attackers. Many complex attack targets cloud networks are used, such as distributed denial of service (DDoS). Thus, intrusion detection systems (IDSs) based on sensors and distributed IDSs are deployed to reinforce security and to protect data and services provided to customers. In this article, we propose a multi-layer and cooperative distributed intrusion detection system for mobile cloud computing (LC-IDS: layer-based cooperative IDS). The proposed LC-IDS is able to detect distributed and cooperative attacks based on risk analysis, after identifying and comparing the most used distributed intrusion detection systems, deployed in mobile cloud networks. Compared to existing works, the simulation results prove that our approach is efficient in terms of false positive and true positive rates, with minimal detection delay of 0.7 s for six OpenStack instances.
Keywords: mobile cloud computing; software as a service; SaaS; infrastructure as a service; IaaS; distributed denial of service; DDoS; cooperation; sensors.
HyDroid: Android malware detection using network flow combined with permissions and intent filters
by Akram Zine Eddine Boukhamla, Abhishek Verma
Abstract: Android has become one of the most widely used operating systems for mobile platforms in the recent years. With its widespread adoption, it has also became the target of malicious applications developers and cyber threats. This in turn has stimulated research on android malware analysis and detection. Several android malware detection techniques have been proposed in the literature. In this paper, we propose a novel hybrid android malware detection method which is named as HydDroid. A hybrid dataset based on the existing CICInvesAndMal2019 dataset by selecting most relevant static features is created. HydDroid is represented by the form of a combination of binary vectors and numerical vectors. The proposed approach is evaluated using three well-known machine learning classification algorithms. The experiment results indicate that HydDroid achieves the accuracy of up to 96.3%. To show the effectiveness of our proposed approach, the performance results are compared with existing solutions.
Keywords: Android malware detection; static analysis; network flow; hybrid analysis; machine learning.
Social Media, Internet Sentiment Tracking and Stock Market Volatility
by Yi-Hsien Wang, Kuang-Hsun Shih, Fu-Ju Yang, Yu-Ting Mai
Abstract: This study analyses how the stock volatility of the positive and negative internet sentiment tracking and investigates the effect of social media activities on the market reaction of Taiwans listed financial holding companies, and further observes the difference in investment decisions made by investors based on the related variables of social media. Negative internet sentiment tracking are more sensitive to stock volatility than positive internet sentiment tracking. Particularly, negative internet sentiment tracking have negative effects on stock returns of financial holding companies. In other words, negative internet sentiment tracking may cause financial holding companies stock market returns to decline. Private financial holding companies have uncertain factors that enable them to be easily affected by comments on the internet. Because pan-government share financial holding companies have strong financial support probably due to the governments stake, investors are less concerned with comments on the mobile internet, making them more stable than private financial holding companies. The mobile internet is highly developed and is affecting the investment behaviour of market investors through the rapid spread of mobile social media. Therefore, the market trend in the digital economy will be affected by the herd effect formed by the influence of different mobile internet sentiment tracking.
Keywords: mobile internet sentiment tracking; emotions; mobile social media; stock returns; stock volatility.
Users continuance intention towards augmented reality from the flow theory perspective
by Heetae Yang, Hwansoo Lee
Abstract: Augmented reality (AR) paves a new way of improving user experience by adding a new perception of and interaction with the real world. This study developed an integrated research model to understand user behaviour in AR adoption. The research model is based on the flow theory and considers AR services and device-related attributes. The model examines the relationship between flow components and the four suggested constructs representing AR services and devices-related attributes using partial least squares structural equation modelling with 295 survey samples. The results demonstrated that flow is a significant factor of continuance intention of AR. Additionally, content quality and visual attractiveness were found to be positively correlated to all three flow components, while ease of use and portability partially affected the flow. This study provides important statistical findings and various practical implications for AR users and developers.
Keywords: augmented reality; AR; continuance intention; flow theory; perceived enjoyment; content quality; visual attractiveness.
Customers Predisposition to Use Mobile Banking: Resources Availability is Decisive
by Jana Prodanova, Sonia San Martín-Gutiérrez, Nadia Jimenez
Abstract: The mobile banking channel, although thriving, has been characterised by features such as lack of information or difficult accessibility to direct advice in the mobile communication between clients and banks, making clients use of mobile banking services challenging. The failure of mobile banking to provide some traditional banking services is considered a shortage, further leaving negative consequences on mobile banking usage. Thus, in the attempt to understand and mitigate these negative effects, with data from 1,429 actual mobile banking clients, this study identifies the adverse influence of the mobile banking inadequacies on clients satisfaction, permission-based mobile marketing tendencies and word-of-mouth. With the idea to overcome the limitations to the mobile banking use, two groups of clients were distinguished, recognising that positive or negative relations are stimulated in accordance with clients perception of the importance of ubiquity, as the unique mobile banking attribute.
Keywords: mobile banking; m-banking; resources; inadequacies; resource-based theory; RBT; ubiquity; satisfaction; permission-based marketing.
A Techno-Economic Model for Future Deployment of Fixed Broadband Services to Stimulate Development across Rural Africa
by Abdulkarim Oloyede, David Grace, Nasir Faruk
Abstract: The pervasive digital divide in rural areas particularly, in Africa, has affected digital inclusiveness and Sustainable Development Goals of the region. The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and other relevant bodies have been advocating for internet for all by 2020, as this would assist in realisation of the public policy, especially in developing economies. However, financial sustainability of the rural access schemes has been major bottlenecks. In this paper, the cost (CAPEX and OPEX) of deploying a terrestrial and high-altitude platform-based communication networks is examined. A techno-economic model for the deployment of future fixed broadband services across rural Africa is proposed. Findings from the simulation revealed that the deployment of fixed broadband services is possible across rural Africa while examining the elasticity invariance to some variables. Furthermore, the cost per person and per household for the proposed model is provided. The work further shows that in rural Africa, deploying a high-altitude platform network is likely to be more cost-effective when compared to a terrestrial network deployment.
Keywords: fixed broadband; OPEX; CAPEX; developing economies; high altitude platform; terrestrial networks; digital divide; Africa.
Improving Performance, Security and Mobile Money Users Experience: A Study of Service Design
by Ismaila Temitayo Sanusi, Sunday Adewale Olaleye, Solomon Sunday Oyelere
Abstract: Mobile technologies have changed the way people interact with their surroundings. Despite the growth of mobile money in Africa, especially in Kenya, Nigeria as a frontier market is lacking behind. Most Nigerians are far from experiencing a cashless economy, and about two-fifths of Nigerians have bank accounts, while four-fifths of Nigerians are ignorant of mobile money services. Quantitative methodology was employed in the study with a focus on mobile money users. The study administered a survey as a hard copy to the community that comprises students and workers in Nigeria with (n = 151) participants. The study combined performance expectancy, effort expectancy users experience, and security to predict mobile money users satisfaction, while performance expectancy is the highest predictor of users satisfaction. The insight from this study suggests to mobile money managers to strategies how to optimise the mobile money platform to enhance the mobile money users experience and satisfaction.
Keywords: mobile money; user experience; user satisfaction; service design.
Requirements Analysis of Security and Privacy of Mobile Payments Indian Context
by Thiruvaazhi Uloli, G. Sudha Sadasivam, Arthi R
Abstract: Mobile payments, while displaying improved adoption, are limited by security and privacy concerns. An appropriate treatment of these risks has the potential to further spur up the utility of the system. The essential step towards this is to systematically analyse the security and privacy requirements. This paper presents the outcome of a systematic risk analysis both from the perspective of reported attacks, as well as from the inherent vulnerabilities of the mobile application software. Attack probabilities, its impact, analysis of the code and permissions of the mobile payment app and its comparison with that of spyware designed to compromise privacy, have all been used in this process. Given that identity and authentication are necessary to derive the utility, and pure anonymity cannot be of help in this context, the need is to provide the necessary utility while addressing the security and privacy risks. The requirements towards security and privacy that need to be met, to design such a system has been arrived from this and presented for the mobile payment ecosystem, and the same has the potential to be used appropriately in related contexts.
Keywords: utility; security; privacy; digital payments; mobile payments; risk assessment.
Factors determining behavioral intention of nursing students to use mobile learning: An application and extension of the UTAUT model
by Cheng-Min Chao, Wei-Ru Chen
Abstract: Mobile learning (m-learning) promotes not only the quality of learning process but also learning performance. Therefore, this study proposed a theoretical framework model to predict the factors affecting behavioural intentions of nursing students to use m-learning. We evaluated the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) model and extended it to include attitude, mobile self-efficacy, and motivation, with mobile literacy as the moderating factor. For this purpose, the structural equation model was used to analyse data from an online survey of 792 nursing students from six universities in Taiwan. The results confirm that (1) attitude was an important determinant of the behavioural intention of nursing students to use m-learning; (2) amongst the four major constructs of UTAUT, performance expectancy had the most significant impact on behavioural intention; (3) M-SE and motivation were important external factors of PE and effort expectancy, and (4) mobile literacy had a significant moderating effect on the relationship among PE, facilitating conditions, and behavioural intention. The results of this study provide support for an extended UTAUT model and significant practical recommendations for researchers, nursing students, and coherent education units, in order to improve the feasibility of m-learning.
Keywords: mobile learning; nursing students; mobile literacy; mobile self-efficacy.
How channel integration and customer experience touchpoints affect omnichannel shopping behaviors
by Jung-Yu Lai, Yu-Xin Chen, Yen-Ching He
Abstract: To increase attractiveness, retailers have integrated physical shops, online stores, and social media channels to improve communication and contacts with consumers, gradually evolving into an omnichannel. Such a channel can provide customers with a more complete and seamless shopping experience. However, facing intensive competition in the retail market, integrating various channels and touchpoints for customers is an urgent issue for omnichannel practitioners. This study thus explores how channel integration (CI) affects perceived value (PV) and touchpoint positivity (TP), thereby influencing channel selection intention (CSI). Results show that CI has a positive and significant impact on both TP and PV. PV and TP have a significant positive relationship with CSI. These results can serve as a guide for strategy development for retailers in and can be used as the theoretical basis for omnichannel-related research.
Keywords: channel integration; CI; omnichannel; touchpoint.
Factors Influencing Utilitarian and Hedonic Mobile Shopping Experiences: Taobao as an Example
by Ge Gao, Shihyu Chou, Chi-Wen Chen, Harris Wu., Tianyong Wang
Abstract: The past decade has witnessed the rapid growth of mobile shopping application usage. However, utilitarian and hedonic shopping experiences in the context of mobile shopping applications have seldom been studied. Drawing on the user experience (UX) design, this study establishes a research model to examine how the UX design factors, including visual design, interaction design, content design, and security design, influence utilitarian and hedonic shopping experiences on mobile shoppers. The results contribute to the existing limited knowledge of shopping experiences in the context of mobile shopping applications, elucidate the important implications for practice, and provide a fundamental framework for future research to conduct more comprehensive studies.
Keywords: user experience; hedonic shopping experience; utilitarian shopping experience; mobile shopping applications.
An improved communication strategy in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks: Adaptive Game theoretic modeling approach
by Sumana Sinha, Snehanshu Saha
Abstract: The vehicular ad hoc network a special type of MANET is adopted for better transportation system which can help to avoid the hazardous conditions and infotainment application while moving at high speed due to high mobility of these networks various challenges such as connectivity, link break and frequent disconnection which leads towards a degraded communication performance. So, conventional short range communication techniques are not able to support high mobility. However, several clustering schemes were introduced for improving the network performance. But, existing VANET clustering protocols do not show desired performance and thus to overcome the issues of existing approaches, we present an end-to-end routing mechanism where first of all, we apply a novel approach for clustering using game theory and later, relay node selection process was applied which helps to improve the communication by reducing the packet drop. Finally, link reliability computation matrix is computed by applying probability distribution function according to the velocity of vehicle for establishing the connection between vehicles. Compared with state-of-art techniques which shows that proposed approach can obtain the improved performance in terms of QoS metrics.
Keywords: vehicular ad hoc networks; VANETs; payoff function; utility function; Pareto optimality; link reliability.
Comparing the accuracy of estimated time of arrival in mobile navigation applications
by Chloe Thong, Wing Ging Too, Abdul Rahman Jalil, Chit Su Mon, Chiw Yi Lee, Lee Yen Chaw
Abstract: Accuracy of estimated time of arrival (ETA) for mobile vehicle tracking applications (apps) remains as a key issue to be discussed. Most of the mobile vehicle tracking apps such as WAZE is using GPS to track the current location of the vehicles. However, the accuracy of data provided by the mobile apps and factors affecting the accuracy remain as an area that is unexplored. This study examines the ETA accuracy by comparing ETA of a self-developed vehicle tracking app namely UCSITravel and a popular navigation app namely WAZE. The comparison test is performed by using t-test to determine if there is a statistically significant difference between the means of the datasets. Factors that affecting ETA accuracy are determined in this study. The comparison results show that UCSITravel which uses mean-value calculation (MAP) produces as accurate ETA as WAZE which calculates ETA based on historic and real-time crowdsourced traffic data. The results shed light to mobile application developers to explore and understand more options of prediction models in developing mobile vehicle tracking app. In addition, this study has demonstrated several factors that were found to affect the accuracy of ETA in both apps as in line with literature. The results yield theoretical and practical implications.
Keywords: estimated time of arrival; ETA; global positioning system; GPS; mobile navigation applications; apps; accuracy.
Artificial intelligence-based preimplementation interventions in users continuance intention to use mobile banking
by RongRong Lin, Yong Zheng, Jung-Chieh Lee
Abstract: Artificial intelligence (AI) technology has been applied in mobile banking (M-banking); however, the way that AI features influence users continuance intention (CI) to adopt mobile banking remains unknown. To address this research gap, two AI-based constructs, namely, perceived intelligence (PInt) and perceived anthropomorphism (PAnt), are added to the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) as pre-implementation intervention variables to explore users M-banking CI. A survey research design via a convenience sampling method is utilised, and 318 valid samples are collected for analysis. The primary results show that PInt can increase PAnt and both PInt and PAnt foster users CI by increasing their performance expectancy (PE) and facilitating conditions (FC). This study contributes to the literature by showing that intelligence and anthropomorphism are critical AI features for users M-banking CI. Banks should design and offer AI-based intelligent and anthropomorphic applications to promote users CI in M-banking.
Keywords: mobile banking; perceived intelligence; perceived anthropomorphism; UTAUT; continuance intention.
Digital divide and socio-economic differences in smartphone information security behaviour among university students: Empirical evidence from Pakistan
by Naurin Farooq Khan, Naveed Ikram, Sumera Saleem
Abstract: Protection of smartphone devices is a capital-enhancing activity that is rooted in the safe and secure use of these devices. However, the socio-economic and digital disparities affect such protective behaviour specifically in developing nations where such differences are rife. This study explores the information security behaviour of smartphone users through digital and socio-economic disparities along with demographic characteristics. A survey questionnaire was administered to 306 students in universities of Pakistan employing a stratified multi-stage sampling technique. Analysis was carried out using frequencies and Pearsons Chi-square statistics. The findings suggest that students show lax smartphone information security behaviour. Digital divide and socio-economic differences reveal that students with greater Internet access and higher socio-economic status exhibited better behaviour in using smartphone settings and disaster recovery mechanisms. The study provides relevant institutes and government departments with insights to develop interventions, strategies, policies and specific training programs to better users information security behaviour.
Keywords: smartphone use; information security; digital divide; socio-economic status; developing countries; Pakistan.
Predicting eBook Purchases of Heterogeneous Social Groups in a Social Network Site Using Network Metrics
by Jongtae Yu, Dongyop Oh, Triss Ashton, Yang Wang
Abstract: This study examines users social influence on e-book purchases within a social network drawing on the structural equivalence model. Structural equivalence holds that higher social influence levels exist among socially equivalent people (Burt, 1987). Using structural equivalence, network users were classified as either equivalent or inequivalent. Given that measurement data on social relationships among people within a network are often limited, to assign users to groups, link estimation utilised product choices to calculate network measures. With that framework, purchasing behaviours were predicted using various algorithms. Consistent with structural equivalence, the findings demonstrate that the average accuracy under the various algorithms is significantly higher in equivalent than inequivalent networks. Finally, comparing results with and without the network measurement variables suggests that failing to consider social equivalence may mislead prediction results by overestimating the social influence effect in low equivalent groups or underestimating the effect of high social equivalent groups.
Keywords: social influence; social network analytics; structural equivalence; classification; sales prediction; algorithm testing; biased predictions; network prediction performance.
Unpacking Mobile Learning in Higher Vocational Education During the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Zheng Li, A.Y.M. Atiquil Islam, Jonathan Spector
Abstract: Mobile learning in higher education has become more popular than ever during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the presence of mobile learning in Chinese higher vocational education is unexplored. Therefore, the aim of this research is to extend the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) by incorporating three sub-dimensions of self-efficacy for measuring students acceptance of mobile learning in Chinese higher vocational education. A total sample of 900 students from higher vocational colleges were selected to participate in this study and their responses were analysed using structural equation modelling to validate the extended UTAUT. The results provide significant evidence of the sub-dimensions of self-efficacy and confirm the validity of extended UTAUT. The results also show that students effort and performance expectancies, social influence and facilitating condition were directly affected by their self-efficacies to use mobile learning.
Keywords: mobile learning; higher vocational education; UTAUT; structural equation modelling; self-efficacy.
Tourism experience and quality of life: the roles of autobiographical memory and social networking service posting behavior
by Hee Chung Chung, Sung-Byung Yang, Namho Chung
Abstract: With an increasing number of people who enjoy leisure time to improve their present quality of life (QOL), this study attempts to investigate the relationship between tourism experience and QOL. As tourists leave their destinations, on-site experiences are recorded as memories, which are constantly recalled in daily life and can affect the QOL of tourists. Thus, this study is to understand the mechanism of the relationship among tourism experience, autobiographical memory, and QOL. Our findings show all dimensions of the tourism-experience economy positively affect autobiographical memory, except for entertaining experience. Moreover, our interesting results show that, at the moment when tourists can be actively immersed, the behaviour (i.e., SNS posting) to record the tourism experience becomes a factor that obstructs the memory.
Keywords: tourism experience; experience economy; autobiographical memory; social networking service; SNS; SNS posting; tourist satisfaction; quality of life.
Performance of Cooperative Relay Protocol in 5G Mobile Communication Network over Rayleigh Fading Channel
by Akinyinka Olukunle Akande, Cosmas Kemdirim Agubor, Ahmed Wasiu Akande, Olalekan Ogunbiyi, Olusola Kunle Akinde
Abstract: This paper presents the performance of a new cooperative relay protocol in mobile network over Raleigh environment. Characteristically, the 5G network at 28 GHz covers short distances due to its shorter wavelength. Extending network coverage area and improvement of signal quality is a necessity. In this work, high performance hybrid relay nodes were proposed to improve quality of the signal and increase the signal coverage distance. Mathematical expression was successfully derived for new hybrid decode amplify forward (HDAF) protocol. The destination node combines received symbols from hybrid relay nodes and source node using maximal ratio combiner (MRC) for optimal performance. The performance of the developed model was evaluated using bit error rate (BER), outage probability (Pout) and processing time (Ptime) at different signal to noise ratio (SNR). Comparatively the developed HDAF protocol performed better than DF and AF by having a lower BER, Pout and Ptime values. The result also shows that HDAF relay protocol has the potential to mitigate signal interference and extend the coverage area in 5G network.
Keywords: 5G network; amplify-forward; bit error rate; BER; mobile network; maximal ratio combiner; MRC; outage probability; processing time; Raleigh.
Effects of Rapport on Gaming Disorder in Social Network Games Mediated by Social Presence
by Chang Won Jung
Abstract: This study aims to identify the factors that trigger gaming disorder in social network games (SNG) through a conceptual framework. To achieve this, the study proposes a model using the social-relational constructs of rapport and social presence by analysing data from an online survey of Korean gamers (N = 453). The results revealed that likability and self-disclosure were significantly and positively predictive of rapport, which influenced social presence. Gaming disorder in SNG was found to be significantly and positively influenced by social presence but not by rapport. The results indicate that social presence fully mediated the effect of rapport on gaming disorder in SNG. In an SNG environment, gaming players personal tendencies are essential to building rapport independently from the individuals gaming-oriented knowledge, skill, experience, or behavioural action. The closer gaming players perceive the social distance between their fellow players, the more likely they are to develop a gaming disorder.
Keywords: social network games; SNG; gaming disorder; rapport; social presence.
Pricing the shift towards 5G technology. Economic drivers of spectrum prices in Europe
by Aleksander Mercik, Tomasz Slonski
Abstract: Recent studies have found that the mobile industry increases its contribution into a development of the worlds economy. Setting a fair price for a frequency band reservation becomes an important task for national market regulators. This paper demonstrates that macroeconomic data are key determinants of prices paid for frequency band reservations in auctions organised in Europe. In an empirical analysis, we identified a positive link between log(price of 1 MHz) and log(GDP) and a negative link between log(price of 1 MHz) and log(unemployment rate). To ensure that our results are robust to the choice of the model type, we implemented two estimation methods and used two samples.
Keywords: mobile communications; mobile industry; spectrum management; spectrum pricing; spectrum auction; mo-bile networks; 5G technology; frequency band reservation.
DETERMINANTS OF INDIVIDUALS INTENTION TO USE THE INTERNET OF THINGS (IoT) FOR SMART HOME TECHNOLOGY: A CULTURAL MODERATING EFFECT
by Osaid F. Al-Samarah, Khaled A. Alshare, Peggy Lane
Abstract: This study examines the determinants of customers intention to use the internet of things (IoT) smart home technology. The proposed model extends the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology 2 [UTAUT2] by including mobility, trust, security and the espoused national cultural values of collectivism, masculinity, and uncertainty avoidance. Performance expectancy, mobility, price value, and trust in smart home technology and its providers have significant positive impacts on the customers behavioural intention to use the smart home technology (IoT). The cultural dimensions moderate some of the hypothesised relationships in the proposed model. Security and social influence are strongly associated with trust in smart home technology providers. Effort expectancy and hedonic motivation are positively associated with performance expectancy. Implications for researchers and IoT providers are discussed.
Keywords: internet of things; IoT; smart-home technology; unified theory of acceptance and use of technology 2; UTAUT2; Hofstede cultural dimensions.
Comparative Relation Mining of Online Reviews: A Hierarchical Multi-attention Network Model
by Song Gao, Hongwei Wang, Jiaqi Liu, Yuanjun Zhu, Ou Tang
Abstract: Comparative relations behind online reviews contain rich information concerning customers assessments of different products or services, thereby supporting upcoming consumers purchase decisions, as well as helping to identify enterprises market competitiveness. Instead of using the pattern recognition method, this paper proposes a hierarchical multi-attention network (HMAN) model to extract the comparative relations, in order to greatly reduce the requirements of artificial features and the manual annotation in the relation mining process. Such a model outperforms both traditional classification models and text classification models in terms of accuracy, with its F1-score up to 81%. Besides, the proposed model has a good performance on extracting comparative relations from long texts where comparison information is relatively scattered. In this study, we visualise results of different experiments in order to demonstrate the interpretability of this model, and furthermore explore the mechanism of multi-attention method in comparative relations mining. This study applies the deep learning method instead of pattern recognition to automatically capture deep features of comparative relations, and therefore it redefines the identification process of comparative relations.
Keywords: comparative relation; text classification; deep learning; attention mechanism.
Knowledge Hiding and sharing with mobile social networking applications: an integrated model of antecedents and outcomes
by Yu-Hui Fang, Chia-Ying Li
Abstract: Mobile social networking applications (MSNAs) can support but also frustrate knowledge sharing by strategically hiding knowledge. This study investigates why people share and hide knowledge using MSNAs and subsequent influences (sense of well-being; SWB). Integrating institutional logics with notions of self-affirmation and social face, this study proposes a model to link both the corporate logic (guanxi maintenance and knowledge sharing) and professional logic (territorial protection and knowledge hiding) to SWB, where self-affirmation mediates the relationship between hiding and SWB, and social face moderates both logics. Results from a survey of 593 LINE group users support all proposed hypotheses, except for the direct link between knowledge hiding and SWB. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
Keywords: guanxi; territoriality; self-affirmation; knowledge hiding; mobile social networking applications; social face; knowledge sharing.