International Journal of Globalisation and Small Business
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International Journal of Globalisation and Small Business (12 papers in press)
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to examine the relationship between the firms' ownership and control structure, in particular the presence of foreign capital, and its profitability. The relation between profitability and ownership and control structure is a topic less studied in the literature. This paper uses a balanced panel data of 5.722 firms for the period 2010-2017, researching if the presence of foreign capital influences financial performance. Possible nonlinear effects or moderating and interaction roles between variables are also tested. Our results evidence that, despite foreign firms' higher levels of profitability, the degree of foreign ownership and institutional difference generally showed a non-significant relation with profitability. Nevertheless, there seems to exists a nonlinear relation between the development level of the country of origin of the share capital and profitability, with the results indicating that firms with share capital originated from more advanced countries attain a higher financial performance.
Keywords: ownership structure; profitability; small and medium enterprises; SMEs; manufacturing sector; foreign investment.
Professional specialist networks: the key to policy success
by Dale Putland, Neal Ryan
Abstract: Public policy literature identifies policy networks as a significant contributor to the formulation, implementation and evaluation of government policies. However, policy work involves a broad spectrum of policy actors, operating at different levels and in different parts of government. This paper argues that middle and junior ranking technical officers within agencies, such as land use planners, transport engineers, environmental scientists, health professionals and other professional specialists, have an important role in the development of policy implementation strategies and in the formulation of new policies. While many professional specialists rely heavily on networks to assist in policy work, the use of networks is not universal and varies widely amongst policy actors. This paper uses accounts of professional specialists that were collected during case study research to examine some of the aspects/elements which make policy networks effective within the public service and calls for more research into this previously neglected area aimed at getting the balance between technical content specialists and policy specialists.
Keywords: Public Policy;Policy Development; Policy Work; Professional Specialists; Networks; Networking;Policy Networks.
The Business Model for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises A Systematic Literature Review
by Patrizia Di Tullio, Lara Tarquinio
Abstract: Academic literature recognizes the strategic importance of the Business Model (BM) for a firm's performance. However, only recently, the BM of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) has aroused growing interest in academic research, though a systematic literature review on it is still lacking. This paper fills a gap of the literature proposing a systematic and comprehensive examination of SMEs BM and identify potential avenues for future research. Moreover, this study integrates all the aspects of SMEs BM coherently in a designed conceptual framework. It links them to BMs topics and assists practitioners in assessing and defining the SMEs' BM.
Keywords: SMEs; Business Model; Systematic Literature Review; Internationalisation; Collaboration; Innovation; Sustainability.
Growth dynamics and emotions in limited growth and a non-structured family business group: the case of Tunisia
by Rym Bouderbala
Abstract: The family business (FB) literature highlights two main factors underlying the issue of limited growth: cognitive and emotional. This study aims to better understand the influence of the emotional dimension on the growth dynamics of FBs over time. Based on the founder centrality, this research uses the growth state approach and the Component Process Model from the appraisal theory of emotion, to understand how discrete emotions impact FB's growth decision making. A qualitative study of six Tunisian founders of 24 Non-Structured Family Business (NSFB) groups who deliberately decided to limit growth was conducted. Findings show that the growth dynamic is based on two transition sequences each lasting more than two decades: from the creation to a high growth state, then from a high growth state to a plateaued growth state. Fear, anger, and sadness recognition in transitioning to the plateaued growth state indicate the situations that are causing blockages in the founder's ability to achieve his goals, low coping potential and doubts about the future expectations of the NSFB Group.
Keywords: Family Business; Growth state; Plateaued state; Emotional dynamic; Negative emotions; Tunisia.
Antecedents and consequences of work family conflicts: Italian women entrepreneurs experiences
by Sara Poggesi, Michela Mari, Luisa De Vita
Abstract: This paper aims at unveiling the work-family conflict construct experienced by women entrepreneurs, by testing an all-inclusive model that considers work and family antecedents and consequences of WFC. The study is grounded on Europe and data from 511 Italian women entrepreneurs have been collected mailing a survey of 45 multiple choice questions. Opposing arguments either for the within- and cross-domain hypotheses in relation to antecedents, or for the matching and cross-domain hypotheses in relation to the WFC consequences faced by women entrepreneurs have been tested. Findings show that the within-domain hypothesis is supported in relation to the antecedents as well as the matching and the cross-domain hypothesis in relation to the consequences. The contribution of this work is twofold: it enhances the understanding of women entrepreneurs WFC; it enriches the still limited and US centric academic literature on the issue by analysing data collected in South Europe.
Keywords: Work-Family Conflict (WFC); Women Entrepreneurs; Work Antecedents; Family Antecedents; Satisfaction.
Exploring the Challenges for Entrepreneurship Business Incubator Hubs in the United Arab Emirates
by Naveed Yasin, Zeinab Khansari, Kaiser Tirmizi
Abstract: Business incubator Hubs (BIs) play an integral role in the entrepreneurial ecosystem, and thus contribute to the overall economic growth and sustainability of nations. However, there is a dearth of studies that explore the qualitative challenges and experiences among business incubators, as providers, for their effective performance and operations. To this end, an exploratory research design model has been adopted by developing multiple case studies to explore the challenges for BI providers in the emirate of Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE). This study adopts qualitative methods of inquiry through twenty-five semi-structured interviews with executive members of seven UAE based business incubators. The data were analysed using NVIVO to perform a qualitative thematic analysis (Template Analysis approach). The findings resulted in the identification of five key thematic areas of challenges, which comprised (1) financial challenges, (2) market barriers, (3) entrepreneurial infrastructure challenges, (4) socio-cultural barriers, and lastly, (6) restrictive legislation. The motive-related overlaps between financial challenges and sociocultural barriers were also identified. The results of this research provide initial empirical insights for academics and recommendations for policymakers. The implications of this study serve as an initial foundation for further empirical investigation to reinforce the reliability of these emergent themes for statistical purposes in the UAE.
Keywords: Business incubator; Start-up; SMEs; Enterprising ecosystem; Entrepreneurship; Dubai.
Special Issue on: WWS 2018 Innovation and Sustainability to Compete in the International Arena – What Are the Key Success Drivers in the Wine Industry?
by Thoukis Georgiou, Demetris Vrontis, Ioanna Papasolomou, Alkis Thrassou
Abstract: Undoubtedly, two of the most critical drivers for business competitiveness are innovation and sustainability. Businesses and especially small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) are facing many challenges in an increasingly dynamic and volatile marketing environment. In such an environment, innovation and sustainability become strategic tools for competitiveness and future development. Faced with major new challenges in a rapidly evolving world market, SMEs operating in the wine sector and especially those that are family-owned, need to reconsider their strategic options in terms of succession, since their unique nature and characteristics pose challenges for their sustainability. Sixteen in-depth semi-structured face-to-face interviews with representatives from six Cypriot family-owned wineries were carried out with the aim of understanding whether family wineries engage in formal and strategic succession planning in order to sustain their market share and foster innovation and growth. The study revealed that succession is a fundamental factor for the sustainability of the family wineries and in general the growth of the Cyprus wine sector.
Keywords: succession process; family-owned wineries; sustainability; innovation; successor; incumbent; case study; small and medium sized enterprise; SMEs; Cyprus.
Economic sustainability of quality wine districts in the South of Italy. The case of Vulture
by Biagio Perretti
Abstract: The paper presents an analysis of economic performance and long-term sustainability of the quality wine production in the Vulture District, in the South of Italy. This case is considered as it is representative of many Italian quality wine districts that produce a very large variety of high quality wines, and present, in almost all cases, a fragmented structure in small and micro farms. The analysis aims to two objectives. First is the assessing of current financial profitability of micro grape wine farms. Second is the analysing of the feasibility and impact of process innovations and structural adjustments. According to the results of the analysis, a large majority of grape wine farms are currently producing with negative returns on the investment. Financial and economic sustainability could be improved at least for a share of them with the available process innovations, combined with consolidation of the farm structures to reduce land fragmentation. The results are relevant for the design of public policies and private investment strategies.
Keywords: quality wine districts; economic sustainability; investment analysis; process innovation; South of Italy viticulture.
Digital marketing strategies in the Italian wine sector
by Vladi Finotto, Christine Mauracher
Abstract: The diffusion of digital instruments as means to communicate and sell products and services attracted the interest of academics and professionals in recent years. Digital marketing strategies are seen as beneficial in the wine industry, especially for small wineries, given the richness they allow in the communication of products and terroirs, their purported affordability vis-à-vis traditional marketing strategies, and the access they provide to international markets. Consensus on the importance of digital marketing is high, but the reality is sober: many wineries are lagging behind in adopting digital tools. Based on an exploratory study of 113 small and medium sized Italian wineries, the paper identifies organisational factors that influence the use of digital tools in marketing strategies: size, familiarity with various areas of digital marketing, number of employees and longevity of the firm.
Keywords: digital marketing; digital maturity; Italian wineries; social media; digital marketing strategy; small and medium sized enterprise; SMEs.
Special Issue on: EURAM 2019 Female Entrepreneurship Myths, Established Knowledge and Future Perspectives
by Roberto Cervelló-Royo, Ismael Moya-Clemente, Rosario Perelló Marín, Gabriela Ribes Giner
Abstract: The economic situation worldwide has led to a global rise in female entrepreneurship. Furthermore, entrepreneurial activity has become very important and is considered fundamental to adopt measures that encourage and correct deficiencies. To this end, the purpose of this work is to study the financing of this venture from a gender perspective by taking a sample of entrepreneurs from a Spanish Mediterranean region. We analysed factors of capital structure, company ownership and funding sources (formal and informal), among other aspects, with a sample of 192 surveyed entrepreneurs. By multivariate analysis techniques, the statistically significant differences that appeared between male and female entrepreneurs were studied. This study is important and might be useful because it provides an overview of the current situation of entrepreneurs and funding sources in not only the studied Mediterranean region, but also in similar Mediterranean and/or Spanish regions.
Keywords: entrepreneurship; gender; finance; capital structure; company ownership; venture; funding sources; region; entrepreneurial activity.
A contextual approach to womens entrepreneurship in Latin America: Impacting research and public policy
by Rocío Ruiz-Martínez
Abstract: The field of women in entrepreneurship is getting growing attention from public policy and academia. However, the literature has been dominated by models and frameworks that were developed mostly in developed economies with a set of particular characteristics that do not match the Latin American reality. This conceptual paper identifies five contextual conditions to consider while analyzing womens entrepreneurship in Latin America compared to the Northern Hemisphere; 1) high rates of womens entrepreneurship, 2) high rates of informality, 3) Traditional culture and self-expression, 4) low rates of innovation-based ventures, and 5) developing ecosystems. We discuss how these contextual conditions interact with the COVID-19 pandemic and economic crisis. Finally, both a research agenda and a public agenda are suggested. This article calls for a Latin American research perspective on women entrepreneurs and suggests that promoting women into sustainable entrepreneurship contributes to regional development, impacts economic activity, improves income distribution, reduces poverty and fosters gender equality.
Keywords: women entrepreneurs; entrepreneurial context; regional development; Latin America and The Caribbean; emerging economies.
Entrepreneurship education and gender: The man made entrepreneur
by Maria Aggestam, Caroline Wigren-Kristoferson
Abstract: As the literature on entrepreneurship education grows, the issue of equality in entrepreneurship education has been raised; i.e., whether students are educated to become entrepreneurs equally. This article provides a critical and thought-provoking analysis of a portfolio of practices that, on the surface, appear to be successful in training entrepreneurs. To this purpose, we initiate a debate on what entrepreneurship education programmes tend to omit. We provide an argument within entrepreneurship scholarship that takes into consideration the diversity and complexity of gender in entrepreneurship. We present an insightful example of what we do in our university classrooms whilst calling for a more encompassing perspective of gender within present-day teaching practice. We acknowledge that academic entrepreneurship education is gendered (Ahl, 2006) and we show how hegemonic masculine-framed foundations of entrepreneurship influence the vocabulary of teaching and learning in Sweden. The paper provides insights into how both teachers and students, unluckily, fail to identify the masculinisation of entrepreneurship education.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship education; gender; critical study.