International Journal of Business Environment (20 papers in press)
Effect of Consumer Innovation Process on Green Consumption Behavior: An Application of Planned Behavior Theory
by Bagher Asgarnezhad Nouri, Parisa Emkani
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to applying the planned behavior theory in order to investigate the effects of consumer innovation process on green consumption behavior among young consumers in Iran. The population includes the students in universities of Ardabil province in Iran. Sample size is determined according to Morgans table which equals 379 and the participants are selected by convenience sampling method. Standard questionnaire was used for data collection. Data analysis is done by partial least squares with Smart PLS. Results showed that consumers innovation has positive effects on attitude, observed behavior control and mental norms of the consumers compared to the intention for green consumption. In addition, consumers attitude has positive effects on mental norms and the intention for green consumption. Intention for green consumption is also a good predictive for green consumption behavior. However, the effect of attitude and mental norms on intention for green consumption was not confirmed.
Keywords: Green Marketing; Green Consumption; Theory of Planned Behavior; Consumer Innovation.
Influence of network partners on SMEs' innovation activities
by Susanne Durst, Serdal Temel, Christoph Hinteregger
Abstract: Even though previous research has repeatedly highlighted the critical role of network partners on innovation activities, it lacks a dedicated discussion about small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and their approaches to network partners for realizing innovation initiatives. This study responds to this situation and, drawing upon a data set from 1,315 Turkish SMEs, empirically conceptualizes a typology of strategic types of networkers and explores the influence of these strategic types on marketing and product innovation as well as process and organizational innovation in SMEs. Results show that apart from supply-chain networkers, there are significant positive relationships between all types of network collaborations and SMEs innovation activities. Additionally, increasing the breadth and depth of network collaboration with external partners will strengthen the positive effects of SMEs innovation activities even more.
Keywords: innovation; network partners; SMEs; marketing innovation; process innovation; organizational innovation; typology.
A factorial decomposition analysis of the rate of work accidents in Europe during 2008-2015: Analysis of the relevance of work safety mechanisms and economic performance
by Gimena Sánchez
Abstract: This study evaluates the connection between economic productivity (GDP per worker) and work accident rates in Europe, while acknowledging the role of work safety controls operationalized via labor inspections and the inspectorate at country level. The results of the factorial decomposition model applied on a sample of 24 European countries during 2008-2015 reveal that, at country level, economic activity and work accidents follow a pro-cyclical trajectory: work accident rates fall when the economy shrinks, while in periods of economic growth the variation in the rate of work accidents slows down or stagnates. The findings also indicate that the positive effect of safety controls (inspections and inspectors) on work accidents is conditional on the state of the economy, which suggests the need to introduce reforms that improve the functioning of the work-safety system in Europe.
Keywords: Labor productivity; work accidents rate; economic cycle; work inspections; Europe.
Sector productivity and geographical diversification as export enhancing factors: the case of Portugal
by Nuno André
Abstract: An investigation of the relationship between productivity growth and exporting is vital to understand whether productivity-enhancing policies or those of export promotion are more adequate for economic progress. This article considers the relationship between exporting and productivity for thirty-two economic activities, in Portugal, from 2005 to 2017. It is found that economic activities with high productivity levels are systematically likelier to register higher export levels than less productive ones. This result corroborates the self-selection theory. Furthermore, the effect of geographical diversification on the volume of exports is tested, as well as the presence of diminishing returns in this association. For both cases significant results are found, suggesting that economic activities enlisting more export destinations tend to possess higher export volumes, but also that after a certain threshold the negative effects of geographical diversification offset the associated positive benefits.
Keywords: Economic activities; Exporting; Productivity; Self-selection; Geographical diversification; Diminishing returns; Portugal.
RETHINKING INDUSTRY 4.0: IS THERE LIFE BEYOND MANUFACTURING?
by Xavier Ferràs-Hernández
Abstract: Industry 4.0 is a concept born within the business and institutional domain. As a result of its popularity, it has been a focus of academic research since 2012. Industry 4.0 is the result of the convergence of different digital technologies in industrial productive systems. It refers to a digitized model of manufacturing, but there is no consensus on what exactly Industry 4.0 is, where its borders are, what organizational domains it comprises, or what technologies support this model. In practical terms, any company operating under an Industry 4.0 framework is subjected to intense technological change. Therefore, Industry 4.0 must be understood as a dynamic and evolving concept. From the academic perspective, it is necessary to clarify the term, understand the underlying factors and connect Industry 4.0 with other management research streams, such as digital transformation, open innovation or corporate venturing. At the crossroads between Industry 4.0 and these fields, new research opportunities appear.
Keywords: Industry 4.0; Digital Transformation; Advanced Manufacturing; Internet of Things; Artificial Intelligence; Open Innovation; New Business Models; Corporate Venturing.
Servitisation in manufacturing: Proposal of an ontology
by Noelia Gonzalo-Hevia, María-Luz Martín-Peña
Abstract: Research on servitisation in manufacturing began three decades ago. Since then, contributions to the field have continued to grow, with scholars adopting approaches from different knowledge areas. This broad growth has created terminological and conceptual confusion, curtailing the development of this scientific field. The aim of this paper is to establish order in the disparate terminology used in servitisation research by proposing a conceptual foundation based on theoretical and practical approaches. An ontology of servitisation is proposed to identify the key concepts in the field and the relationships between these concepts through a controlled vocabulary under a formal logic. This ontology also identifies where and to what extent each existing conceptualisation may be used, as well as highlighting the differences between terms. The foundations for the structure of the scientific field of servitisation are thus laid.
Keywords: servitisation; servitization; services; manufacturing; ontology; scientific field.
E-commerce Adoption in ASEAN: Testing on Individual and Country-level Drivers
by Abu H. Ayob
Abstract: E-commerce adoption is one core strategic measure of the Association of Southeast Asia Nations (ASEAN) Economic Community Blueprint 2025. However, such an effort faces great challenges due to the socio-economic heterogeneity across the member states. This paper integrates individual and country-level drivers to empirically test the model of e-commerce adoption among citizens in ASEAN. The model examines the relationships between four key drivers: demand, supply, infrastructure and regulation, on individual online purchasing behavior. To advance, we embed and we examine the role of national trust in the model. Using data from 5883 individuals in six ASEAN countries in 2017, the findings show, ceteris paribus, demand, supply, infrastructure and trust are positively associated with e-commerce adoption. This study sends a strong signal that e-commerce adoption in ASEAN can be enhanced through improvements in the institutions of each member country.
Keywords: e-commerce adoption; ASEAN; institutions; national trust.
Inventory pooling technique from the car rental industry: Now and in the autonomous future
by KuangNen Cheng, Byunghoon Jin
Abstract: This investigation studies the current car rental industrys inventory pooling technique to understand its potential impact on the industrys future survival and success possibility once autonomous vehicles (AVs) requiring no human input. The research utilizes live pricing data from the U.S. car rental and ridesharing industry to detect 1) how players from the car rental industry apply pricing strategy to reduce inventory shuttling activities and balance the demand with supply; 2) whether the current pooling model can be transferred into the future assuming the business model and pricing strategy of the future robotaxi market is similar to those of todays ridesharing industry. Data reveals that between locations within a pool, pricing fluctuations correlate to weekends or weekdays demand pending on its discrete or complimentary relationship. Hypotheses are developed; consequently, determinants impacting inventory pooling are utilized to analyze their compatibility in the future robotaxi market.
Keywords: Autonomous vehicles; car rental industry; complementary demand; inventory pooling; robotaxi.
ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF HIGH VOLTAGE POWER LINES ON THE VALUE OF PROPERTIES IN ENVIRONMENTS OF HIGH ECOLOGICAL VALUE AND RURAL TOURISM: THE CASE OF THE LECRIN VALLEY (GRANADA - SPAIN)
by Daniel Arias Aranda, Agustín López-Sánchez, Gustavo F. Bautista-Carrillo
Abstract: Plenty of studies analyse the impact of the passage of high voltage power lines (HVPLs) through areas of high ecological and tourist value in specific ecosystems. However, there are no similar studies conducted in Spain especially with regard to the impact on the value of proximate properties as well as the loss of business to tourist establishments and commerce in areas with high environmental value. This study analyses the case of the Lecr
Keywords: High Voltage pylons; environmental impact; property values; local economies; tourism management; rural tourism.
Toward Economic Sustainability: How to Shape Fashion Industry Development in Taipei
by Tai-Shan Hu
Abstract: The rise of the creative economy over the past decade has not only encouraged sustainable industrial development, but also created a new wave of prosperity and employment opportunities that improve the overall living environment. The fashion industry is regarded as an emerging sector for achieving urban retail development. From the perspective of local innovation systems, the key factors of promoting sustainable operations management in this industry are the complete chain network as well as the formation of an ambience and space environment for encouraging creative talent, and providing network cohesion. Therefore, this investigation collects questionnaires and analyzes the answers to identify the essential elements of shaping fashion industry formation from the different viewpoints of consumers and fashion retailers. The study is based on five fashion retail districts in Taipei City, Taiwan. Analytical results confirm positive impacts of physical environment on fashion retail aggregations, such as convenient transportation, great price and proximity to other business districts. Moreover, the factor of atmospheric environment is also considered as the important factors by consumers and fashion retailers. The fashion industry requires unique regional factors to forming a unique creative atmosphere that encourages workers to disseminate knowledge. Additionally, the connection of chain network through infrastructures provision, business Collaboration and government and non-government supports could promote fashion industry development. Governments also have to notice the talent training and flow for a sustainable creative innovation process.
Keywords: Sustainability; Fashion retail districts (FRDs); urban space; local conditions; chain network.
Competitive Efficiency in Catalonia: A non-parametric study of the Competitiveness Index based on Data Envelopment Analysis
by Rigoberto Zavala
Abstract: Building on the Resource Based View (RBV) theory of the firm, this study proposes an analysis of competitive efficiency based on the configuration of different competitive pillars that shape competitiveness. The empirical application uses non-parametric frontier methods (Data Envelopment Analysis, DEA) on a unique sample of 171 Catalan businesses. The results show that different strategies adopted by businesses impact their competitiveness level. It was found that competitive efficiency is conditioned by the heterogeneous configuration of competitive pillars, and that this effect varies across industries. The industry-level findings reveal that competitiveness and competitive efficiency are two inter-connected constructs that not always follow the same trajectory. Additionally, the findings indicate that the optimal configurations of competitive pillars are heterogeneous across industries, which suggests that competitive strengths and weaknesses also vary across industries.
Keywords: Competitiveness; index number; data envelopment analysis; Catalonia.
The impact of financial bootstrapping techniques on perceived performance: An empirical analysis of Costa Rican SMEs
by Yuqi Li, Marco Alvarado
Abstract: In this study we evaluate how different financial bootstrapping techniquesthat we link to the access to financial resources, the relationship with customers and suppliers, and cooperation with other businessesimpact perceived performance among Costa Rican small businesses. The results of the regression analysis on a sample of 120 Costa Rican SMEs for 2017 show that bootstrapping techniques related to customers and suppliers have a significant positive impact on perceived performance, while bootstrapping practices linked to access to finance are negatively correlated to perceived performance levels. The findings also show that labor market experience and business size are positively correlated to perceived performance. This study offers insights on the relevance of including cash-flow managerial practices (i.e., financial bootstrapping techniques) in the performance evaluation of SMEs in developing settings.
Keywords: Financial bootstrapping techniques; perceived performance; Costa Rica.
The Determinants Of Purchasing Local Food: Price Transparency And Customer Expertise Role
by Maher Toukabri
Abstract: Currently, there is a postmodern society characterized by the emergence of new consumer aspirations, a greater societal challenge of companies and a requirement to adapt marketing practices. Thus, the ethical practices has become a driving force. Then, we deduct that competitiveness is inherent to the societal orientation. Additionally, it is better to maintain and retain a customer than to recruit a new one. Furthermore, a lost customer is expensive than acquiring a new one.
In this study we concentrate on the purchasing local food antecedents within the proximity and confidence in traceability system. Likewise, this research test the moderating roles of the consumer's expertise and price transparency in the purchasing process of local food.
The results of an empirical study directed among two samples of local food consumers, allowed us to validated the measurements and to check the research hypotheses. Therefore, we deduct that consumer expertise plays a positive moderating role in a local product consumption. Similarly, the relationship between confidence in traceability system and the intention to purchase local food is stronger when the consumer is offered not only a low price but also price transparency concerning the products in question.
Hence, this research has improved the theoretical background related to local and healthy food. Moreover, it provides marketers with the real tools to promote local food consumption. Specifically, this work inspects the Arabic culture. Besides, it integrates constructs that may affect the prospects of this market.
Keywords: Consumer expertise; Confidence in traceability system; Price transparency; Proximity; Local food.
Special Issue on: ICBS 2018 Advancements in Industrial Marketing Exploring Product-Service Innovation Strategies for Sustainability
Limited evidence for servitization in UK Publishing: an empirical analysis
by Alexander Kharlamov, Glenn Parry
Abstract: Servitization is a strategic transition of firms towards the creation of additional value through services. In this study we adopt a data-driven approach and assume that company activity descriptions are representative of their activity and partly reflect the adopted strategy. We hypothesise that if there is a trend of traditional publishing firms adopting servitization strategies, this should emerge from textual analysis of company descriptors. Relying on data-driven analysis of publicly available company information for UK and Ireland, we find no significant evidence of strategic diversity as a single group emerges from diverse clustering methods. Our results show either that the publicly available dataset is not representative of the publishing strategy in industry or that there is no real evidence of servitization in the publishing sector. Implications for theory and for industry are discussed.
Keywords: Servitization; publishing; manufacturing; service; servitization; product-service systems; value added; unsupervised.
Place leadership in emerging product-service systems
by Marco Bellandi, Erica Santini
Abstract: Some manufacturing systems are entering trajectories of territorial servitization. In such cases, traditional business actors might be replaced by new ones, such as the providers of knowledge intensive business services. The dis-alignment of interests between traditional firms and the new entrants increases the risks of high transaction costs. Here, an appropriate place leadership would play an important role and trigger territorial servitization trajectories. This paper proposes a conceptual framework that seeks to unveil how different types of place leadership could support territorial servitization processes and contribute to achieve sustainable (effective) product-service system configurations. An open place leadership would support strong territorial servitization opportunities and coordinated solutions among conflictual views and interests. If instead place leadership is weak or based on a closed club of private interests, weak or unstable trajectories amid lock-ins and impending decline become more probable.
Keywords: territorial servitization; place leadership; local productive systems; lock-in condition; rerouting.
Measuring the impact of digital capabilities on product-service innovation in Spanish industries
by Alberto De La Calle, Inmaculada Freije, Jose V. Ugarte, Miguel A. Larrinaga
Abstract: Digital capabilities play a relevant role in servitisation strategy for manufacturing companies. Using logistic regression models with a sample of more than 2000 Spanish manufacturing companies, this paper studies the relationship between digital capabilities and servitisation within Spanish industries. This research considers both manufacturing and connecting digital capabilities, along with, training and software skills. The findings can be used by companies and policy makers to boost servitisation. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) are not found to have a positive or significant impact on servitising, except when combined with the use of digital capabilities for Internet-based marketing. Significant space also exists for improvements in staff training in information and communication technologies (ICTs) because of their potential contribution to product-service innovation. Finally, the relationship between firm size and servitisation indicated by previous research is confirmed.
Keywords: product-service innovation; servitisation; digital capabilities; Spanish manufacturing companies; logistic regression.
Avatar Journey Mapping For Manufacturing Firms To Reveal Smart-Service Opportunities Over The Product Life-Cycle
by Shaun West, Oliver Stoll, Petra Müller-Csernetzky
Abstract: This paper presents a visual approach to supporting the development of new service opportunities that may have been overlooked in the original product service system design. The design of PSS increases in complexity compared to traditional product design/development since to create value in use, designers have to consider the usage of the product (Rapaccini, West & Mueller- Csernetzky, 2017). Using visual tools provides a common framework for discussions and service discovery (Stickdorn et al., 2018), in particular, identifying the intangible aspects of services. Three use cases were considered over their product life-cycles for the basis of the research: i) glass-processing equipment, ii) printers, and iii) aircraft. The combination of avatars and the journey mapping over different phases of the life-cycle provided a visual tool that revealed new services and provided a common platform for discussions.
Keywords: Product-service system; Innovation; Tools; Digitalization; Servitization.
Exploring 3D printing technology in the context of product-service innovation: case study of a business venture in south of France
by Josip Marić
Abstract: This study explores the novelty of 3D printing technology in the context of product-service innovation. 3D printing, officially known as additive manufacturing, is one of the flagship technologies within the new industrial revolution and Industry 4.0 scholar discourse. However, there is an evident lack of empirical studies that explore the characteristics of consumer-level 3D printing technology in the contexts of servitization of manufacturing, digital transformations and business model innovations. This literature gap motivated our study where we question how entrepreneurs develop their business strategies for challenging 3D printing market, whilst also discussing the servitization features of 3D printing technology. Our findings are drawn from a single case study of a company that pioneered 3D printing in south of France, with a mixture of 3D printing products and services as their core business portfolio. Contributions of this study are directed towards scholar discussions dealing with the consumer segment of 3D printing market, servitization theory, as well as providing useful insights for stakeholders interested in business ventures with 3D printing technology.
Keywords: additive manufacturing; 3D printing; digitalization; servitization; product-service innovation; case study.
Adjusting customer journey mapping for application in industrial product-service systems
by Shaun West, Oliver Stoll, Marika Østerland, Felix Keiderling, Christian Kowalkowski
Abstract: The sales process and the project execution in industrial product-service systems is often complicated; particularly for capital equipment with a long-operational life where there are different actors responsible for the different transactions over the whole life cycle. This is often further complicated as the supplier is not directly selling to the 'end customer'. The introduction of digital solutions around the product-service system bring an additional channel for interactions.
This paper describes how customer journey mapping can support building relationships in a B2B environment for both sales and execution over the operational life of equipment and examine both the products and the services offered throughout the entire journey. Three industrial B2B cases from different segments were investigated. Each journey was mapped, and personas or empathy maps created for each of the key actors. From the cross-case analysis and customer journey mapping a process is derived that provides improved support for industrial firms with customer journey mapping.
Keywords: Customer Journey; Servitization; Product Service Systems; B2B.
Cloud computing for SMEs, servitization through contracts
by Sarfaraz Ghulam Muhammad
Abstract: Cloud computing is a web-based technology available on the internet. In recent years, the internet has enabled several technologies including internet of things (IoT) and cloud applications. Cloud computing is one of those technologies that applies the concept of business servitization, whereby delivered services are derived from physical infrastructures owned by service providers. Cloud computing has several uses in businesses operating at different scale. This paper discusses the application of the cloud in small businesses with relatively small IT setups and infrastructures and their access to state-of-the-art services. It focuses on small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) and how their requirements for various services and applications are addressed by applications hosted on the cloud. Moreover, this paper addresses the role of cloud service and the concept of servitization in cloud computing and highlights the role of governance and contracts as part of the process of service delivery.
Keywords: Cloud Computing; Servitization; SMEs; Cloud Service Provision; IT governance; Cloud governance.