Forthcoming articles


International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing


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International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing (26 papers in press)


Regular Issues


  • Challenges to sport development and sport participation from sport managers' perspectives   Order a copy of this article
    by Popi Sotiriadou, Kevin Filo, Thilo Kunkel 
    Abstract: This study addresses the need to advance knowledge on sport participation from the perspective of managers and complement studies that examine this phenomenon from participants perspectives. Using the case of basketball in Australia, data were collected from selected managers via two focus groups and 24 interviews in Queensland, Australia. Results demonstrated that managers believed basketball offers opportunities for participants to achieve an active and social way of living, and overcome challenges related to climate (i.e., sun safety, rain) and population density, obesity among youth, integration and cultural diversity, and community members increasingly busy lifestyles. Whilst some of these findings reflect global trends (e.g., promoting healthy lifestyles), others manifest more local challenges (e.g., skin cancer protection). These findings enable more informed decisions on policy direction and program design and in promoting sport-specific attributes to address participant-specific challenges. These actions encourage integrated and comprehensive solutions to sport development issues.
    Keywords: sport development; sport policy; sport participation; basketball; sport managers; internalisation model.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSMM.2017.10011184
  • The Dynamics of Image Repair Strategy on Sport Celebrity Scandal: How University Students Attitudes are Shaped according to Scandal Type, Perceived Credibility, and Sport Involvement   Order a copy of this article
    by Geumchan Hwang, Kyu-soo Chung 
    Abstract: Scandals involving sport celebrities are detrimental to the celebrities images, as they negatively influence the publics attitudes of those celebrities. This study examines how university students attitudes regarding a sport celebrity would be shaped differently according to three types of image repair strategies (mortification/denial/combination) and two levels of the celebritys credibility (high/low). These dynamics are compared between a sex scandal and a doping scandal. Participants are 186 students from a Midwestern university. They answered questions about the perceived effectiveness of the different strategies after being randomly exposed to one of six scenarios in either scandal. Results show that, in repairing a sport celebritys image tarnished by a sex scandal, the most effective strategy was that of mortification, regardless the level of credibility attached to the celebrity. In the doping scandal, no significant differences were found. The study suggests a customisation of an image-repairing strategy according to the scandals situational factors.
    Keywords: sport scandal; sport celebrity; image repair strategy; credibility; crisis communication; sport public relations; university students.

  • Profiling sports spectators in emerging markets: role of sports involvement as a segmentation tool   Order a copy of this article
    by Neena Sondhi, Rituparna Basu 
    Abstract: Globalization of sports with consequent maturation of the sector offers a huge marketing opportunity in the Emerging markets. The relevance of a sports consumers commitment and involvement with a particular sport comes into play with respect to his consumption intentions. The present paper attempts to understand the current status and future prospect of football as a sport in India with reference to its existing spectator base and their level of involvement and intent to engage with mega sporting events related to football. Exploratory factor analysis revealed that involvement was a multi-dimensional construct, encompassing football (game) involvement; team (club) involvement and individual (player) involvement. Further a Non-hierarchical cluster analysis on a group of 486 football enthusiasts in urban India revealed the existence of four discrete clusters of football spectators basis their level of involvement with the sport. These clusters were identified and named as team involved; player involved; game involved and medium team-game involved. The study goes on to detail the level of engagement of the four groups with football; as well as their sports merchandise purchase behavior. Thus, the study has distinct academic as well as managerial implications for segmenting and targeting sports spectators in Emerging markets.
    Keywords: spectator sports; sports marketing;emerging markets;cluster analysis; sports involvement; sports merchandise.

  • Parents Interactions with Contextual Factors in Youth Sport Participation: The Case of Korean Immigrants in the United States   Order a copy of this article
    by Kyu-soo Chung, Matthew Bowers 
    Abstract: Parents interact with their surrounding environment as they support their childrens sport activities. Family ecological theory suggests that these interactions occur at various levelsthe micro-, meso-, exo-, and macrosystems. In trying to understand how Korean immigrant parents support their childrens sport participation, this study conducts in-depth interviews with a total of 17 Korean immigrant parents. This study finds that the variety of contextual factors they interact with include family, neighbourhood, school, sport organisations, work, policy and system, and cultures. The study also finds how the parents interact differently with these contexts according to their gender and childrens level of sport. Free of the education fever that engulfs nearly all parents in Korea, the immigrant parents found themselves at liberty to interact more actively with the values and customs of American society to support their childrens sport participation.
    Keywords: ecological theory; youth sport; parents; sport participation; sport development; immigrants; contextual factors; education fever; culture; elite sport.

  • Like it but dont comment: Manipulating the engagement of sports fans in social media   Order a copy of this article
    by Anand Agrawal, Anil Gupta, Anish Yousaf 
    Abstract: Marketers have embraced social media to connect with their customers and fans, but due to lack of sufficient research in this area, they are struggling to manipulate customers responses and their engagement levels. We categorized the recent Facebook posts of the four most popular teams in a popular cricket league in India into different types of updates, forms of messages, and message orientations using Interaction Process Analysis (IPA), to study their impact on different levels of engagement, in terms of likes (low engagement), shares (medium engagement) and comments (high engagement). Result revealed that different combinations of these variables generate significantly different growth in numbers of likes, shares and comments. Insights from this study are useful for practitioners in devising a method to analyse and design social media messages to manipulate the levels of customer engagement in social media.
    Keywords: Social media; customer engagement; Facebook; Interaction Process Analysis (IPA); sports marketing; tags; socio-emotional; sports fans; sports marketers; sports teams; message orientation.

  • Mind the gap: an analysis of competitive balance in the English football league system   Order a copy of this article
    by Daniel Plumley, Girish Ramchandani, Rob Wilson 
    Abstract: Competitive balance of league competitions is an important component of sport economics. Evidence suggests that a less attractive product might struggle to command a high market value. Thus, it is imperative that sport leagues remain competitively balanced with a degree of uncertainty of outcome. This paper analyses competitive balance within the English football league system since the inception of the English Premier League (EPL) in 1992. It examines variations in overall competitive balance within and between the EPL and the three divisions that make up the Football League. Competition for the title, promotion and relegation is also analysed. The results indicate a reduction in competitive balance in the EPL over time and that the EPL is less balanced overall relative to the Football League, which is partly influenced by the higher financial disparity between teams in the EPL. Nonetheless, fan interest in the EPL and the value of broadcasting deals do not appear to be negatively influenced.
    Keywords: competitiveness; English Premier League; English Football League; football finance.

    by Damien Whitburn, Adam Karg, Paul Turner 
    Abstract: This study used an exploratory approach to examine how Australian Sport National Governing Bodies (NGBs) initiate, implement, and adopt e-promotion strategies. A conceptual framework was developed based on two models; the systems process model of organisational performance and an e-marketing orientation (EMO) framework. The framework was applied to a sample of five NGBs. The resources required for successful adoption of an e-promotion strategy and the goals NGBs attempt to obtain were identified and a suite of contemporary e-promotion activities and their uses synthesised. The research showed a higher level of e-promotion adoption and e-marketing orientation is likely to facilitate critical outcomes shown for NGB success. As such, the study provides guidance on how to develop strategy and achieve outcomes for both NGBs and wider sport and not-for-profit organisations.
    Keywords: e-promotion; sport; marketing; communications; organisations; NGBs.

  • Impact of Facebook Marketing on Lebanese Athletes Decision-Making Process   Order a copy of this article
    by Lindos Daou, Nada Sarkis, Youssef Nader 
    Abstract: This article tackles the impact of Facebook marketing on the Lebanese sports community. It explores the different components of social media marketing tools while stressing on Facebook as a mean of influencing athletes decision-making process. Hypotheses were generated to analyze the relationships between the following three factors of Facebook marketing: athlete Facebook Interaction, Daily Exposure, and ads including Brand Ambassadors and the consumers decision-making process. Our study was carried out on a sample of 385 athletes affiliated to sports clubs, NGOs, sports associations, sports communities and sports brand ambassadors. The results of the empirical study revealed a positive relationship between Facebook marketing and the decision-making process of the Lebanese sports society. Furthermore, it stressed on the importance of Facebook Interaction as it deemed to be a catalyst to brands image, and has an indirect impact on sales. Ads including sports brand ambassadors were shown to play an important role as well as in enhancing brands sales. Our work could be extended in the future to cover a larger sample, and to include other factors and traits such as gender, age region, type of sport and time of the year.
    Keywords: Facebook marketing; decision-making process; social media; Lebanon brand ambassadors; exposure; interaction; sports.

  • Development of a Scale to Measure Gamer Experiences in Sport Video Games   Order a copy of this article
    by Ho Keat Leng, Do Young Pyun 
    Abstract: The aim of this study is to develop a scale to measure gamer experiences in sport video games. A two-phase data analysis was conducted with 400 respondents randomly assigned to one of two phases. In each phase, respondents were tasked to play a sports car racing game and complete a survey instrument. The study identified six dimensions of sports video games based on gamer experience. These are Challenge, Competence, Flow, Immersion, Enjoyment and Negative Affect. Using this scale, it will be possible to examine differences in gamer experience across sports video games. More importantly, it will be possible to examine the relationship between gamer experience and sponsorship effectiveness in future studies using this scale.
    Keywords: sport video games; game experience; scale development; reliability; validity.

  • The Expropriation of Goodwill and Migrant Labour in the Transition to Australian Footballs A-League   Order a copy of this article
    by Kieran James, Rex Walsh 
    Abstract: This article explores ethical and financial issues in connection with the cancellation of Australias National Soccer League (NSL), at the end of the 2003-2004 season, and its replacement with the corporatist A-League competition which excluded the ethnic clubs which had made up the bulk of the NSL. These ethnic clubs had been formed by and revolved around Croatian, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Macedonian, Jewish, Polish, Serbian, and Yugoslav ethnic communities based in Australias major cities. Many commentators were of the opinion that one of the aims of the A-League and its ground-zero or scorched-earth ideology was to institute exclusion of the ethnic clubs that had formed the backbone of the NSL for 30 years. Interview responses from ethnic club administrators and supporters are our primary data source. We conclude that fans and volunteer labour forces of the ethnic clubs have been alienated, in the Marxist sense, from the A-League; the A-League clubs; and the ruling clique that controls Football Federation Australia (FFA). There are lessons to be learned here for sports industry marketers and managers. Extreme solutions enforced in a top-down manner, combined with ground-zero ideology, can create disenfranchised groups. These groups, resentful of being written out of both history and the future, store their grievances up only to agitate again years later when the environment appears less hostile.
    Keywords: Alienation; Australian football; Croatian Diaspora: Croatian nationalism; Football hooliganism; Marxism; Soccer history; Soccer sociology.

  • Residents Perception of the 2014 Sochi Olympic Games: Comparison of Pre- and Post-Impacts   Order a copy of this article
    by Alexandr Vetitnev, Nadezhda Bobina 
    Abstract: This study purported to the understanding the temporal changes of residents perception of the 2014 Sochi Olympic Games. Two surveys were conducted in 2013 (n=1048) and 2014 (n=853). The research questionnaire based on approaches of Fredline and Faulkner (2002) and Zhou and Ap (2009) was developed. Results indicated that local residents perceptions of the Olympics impacts have significantly improved through the year after the Games. All of positive incomes except increased employment opportunities were found significantly higher and negative issues became significantly lower than before the Games. An exploratory factor analysis has shown the change of perception structure after the Games: three positive groups (sustainable development of destinations, positive economic impact on travel destinations and improving the quality of resident life) and one negative group of impact items were found. A positive residents attitude toward the Olympics has transformed into supportive behaviour.
    Keywords: Sochi Olympic Games; residents’ perception; temporal changes.

  • The Impact of Endorsement on a Sport-Based Social Marketing Campaign   Order a copy of this article
    by Shima Behnoosh, Michael Naylor, Geoff Dickson 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to understand the effects of endorsers on young adults attitudes towards a social marketing advertisement. A pre-test was implemented to select a credible endorser and a social marketing advertisement for use in the main experiment. The main study employed a sequential explanatory design including both quantitative and qualitative elements. Differences between the experimental and control groups were uncovered. Compared to the control group, those in the treatment group reported more positive attitudes towards the social marketing advertisement. Psychological connection to sport measured using the involvement construct - was included as a covariate but was not significant. Thematic analysis was used in conjunction with data generated from focus groups and supported findings from the experiment. This study suggests that an endorsed advertisement promoting sport and physical activity will elicit more favourable attitudes in young adults than an unendorsed advertisement. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.
    Keywords: Social marketing; celebrity athlete; endorsement; sport and physical activity.

  • IN QUEST OF GOLD: OLYMPIC GOLD QUEST (OGQ)   Order a copy of this article
    by Siddhartha Rastogi 
    Abstract: Olympic Gold Quest (OGQ) is a unique organization from India due to its aim and structure. The aim of the organization is to win gold medals for India in the summer Olympics as well as in other international tournaments of repute. However, it does not represent any government agency, is privately held and promoted, and earns no revenue through its activities except goodwill. Since the government agencies have proven to be a failure as far as Indias international sporting performance is concerned, OGQ represents a unique experiment. The present case studies the origin, the evolution, the challenges, and the first decade of its existence. There are various sports management and leadership insights. Given an emerging economy aspect, the case is also relevant for drawing policy lessons for government agencies for better sports performance management.
    Keywords: Summer Olympics; Gold Medal; Sports Management; Private Promotion; Indian Sports.

  • The role of human capital, psychological capital, social capital and leadership capital in building an athletes global brand image   Order a copy of this article
    by Yuliani Suseno, Denise Gengatharen 
    Abstract: This conceptual paper offers a new perspective on developing an athletes global brand image. In addition to human capital, the framework considers the theoretical lenses of psychological capital, social capital and leadership capital. Human capital is based on the dimensions of an athletes physical attributes, performance and marketable lifestyle. Psychological capital is illustrated in the form of an athletes self-efficacy, hope, optimism and resilience. Athletes also need to utilise their social capital through exploiting the brokerage opportunities in linking the networks of sponsors and fans and through their role in developing trust in the relationships between sponsors and sport consumers. Leadership capital is illustrated through the provision of opportunities and resources arising from the relationship between athletes and sport leaders. The proposed framework extends studies on brand management of sport celebrities by holistically considering the various forms of capital in building an athletes global brand image. The implications for the theory and practice of sports marketing and branding are discussed.
    Keywords: athlete; global brand image; human capital; psychological capital; social capital; leadership capital; sport marketing.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSMM.2017.10011552
  • The effect of perceived CSR on team identification and team loyalty in professional football in Korea   Order a copy of this article
    by Jongchul Park, Shane Kerr, Il-Gwang Kim 
    Abstract: This study aimed to examine how the perceived fit of professional football teams CSR activities (fan-teams CSR and team-teams CSR) influences team identification and team loyalty. Participants were 208 spectators attending a professional football match in South Korea. For the study, Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and Structural Equation Model (SEM) were conducted to analyse the data. Findings showed that the perceived fit between the fans and the teams CSR significantly affected team identification, but the perceived fit between the team and the teams CSR had no significant effect on team identification. Team identification positively influenced team loyalty. In addition, the study found that team identification was an important mediating variable between the perceived fit of the fan-teams CSR activities and team loyalty. Lastly, contributions and limitations were presented.
    Keywords: corporate social responsibility; CSR; perceived fit; identification; loyalty; professional football; sport marketing; Korea.

  • Effects of Employee Training on Job Satisfaction Outcomes Among Sport Ticket Sellers   Order a copy of this article
    by Nels Popp, Jason Simmons, Chad McEvoy 
    Abstract: As the primary revenue generators for sports organizations, salespeople play a critical role in the sport industry. Research regarding salesperson effectiveness and well-being, however, is scant within the sport management literature, and little has been empirically investigated related to the salespersons role in sport organizations. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between sales training on both job satisfaction and turnover intent measures among professional sellers within sport organizations. No significant differences were found between the amount of initial sales training received and measures of job satisfaction and intent to leave the organization. Significant differences were found, however, on two measures of on-going sales training (amount and quality) with both job satisfaction and turnover intent. The findings suggest a relationship between training and occupational satisfaction, which has important managerial implications as sport sales positions traditionally have a high rate of job turnover.
    Keywords: Sales Management; Training; Job Satisfaction; Turnover.

  • Sport Pro = Twitter Pro? How Soccer Stars Use Twitter at the Height of Their Career   Order a copy of this article
    by Christoph G. Grimmer, Galen Clavio 
    Abstract: This paper examines the usage of Twitter by professional soccer clubs and players in the context of a major sporting event. The study focuses on the UEFA Champions League Final in 2013, which featured two German football clubs. Nearly 300 tweets were coded via eight variables (author, content, date, language, media, mood, person, team). The results reveal considerable differences between the levels of activity and the players Twitter performance. The clubs accompanied the season highlight in a communicatively extensive manner, but use Twitter in a strongly event-related manner. Concerning the players activity, a classification into five categories was possible, based upon their overall levels of Twitter use. Numerous differences between each athletes usage of Twitter were observed.
    Keywords: Twitter; Content Analysis; Soccer; Social Media; Champions League; Bayern Munich; Borussia Dortmund.

  • Ambush Marketing and the Olympic and Paralympic Marks Act: A National Sponsor Perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Dana Ellis, Philippe Patry, Benoît Séguin, Norm O'Reilly 
    Abstract: With one of the most sophisticated and successful sponsorship programs in sports, the Olympic Movement generates billions in revenues. The IOC has therefore mandated host countries and cities to enact new laws (i.e., event-specific legislations) that offer supplementary protection against ambush marketing. Through a qualitative case study, this research explores the perspective of the National Partners of the 2010 Vancouver Olympic Games on the subject of anti-ambush marketing legislation. Semi-structured interviews were conducted reporting that: (1) event-specific legislation may contribute to sponsors' confusion around ambush marketing; (2) sponsors showed only moderate awareness of the legislation suggestive of a lack of consultation; (3) sponsors recognized both positive and negative impacts of anti-ambush marketing legislation; and (4) sponsors perceived a level of powerlessness to stop ambush marketing and a need to focus on activation for true protection and increasing the remedies available through such measures.
    Keywords: Olympic Games; Olympic marketing; legislation; ambush marketing; sponsorship protection; stakeholder management.

  • Exploring Consumer Responses to a Nationwide Breast Cancer Awareness Campaign: The Case of the National Football Leagues Crucial Catch Campaign   Order a copy of this article
    by Dae Hee Kwak, Joon Sung Lee, Youngbum Kwon, Kathy Babiak 
    Abstract: During the month of October, the National Football League (NFL) activates a breast cancer awareness campaign Crucial Catch - in which players, referees, and coaches wear pink apparel and gear to promote its cause. Given that more than 17 million people in the U.S. watch NFL games every Sunday, this campaign reaches a broad audience. Using a representative sample of U.S. adults (N = 600), this study examined differences in demographic variables (age, gender, and race) and domain-specific personal variables (television viewership, cause involvement) on various campaign-related outcomes including cause-related outcomes (i.e., breast cancer perception and donation intentions to support the campaign) and organization-related outcomes (i.e., perceived motives of the NFL, attitude toward the NFL, and behavior toward the NFL). Findings show how consumers demographic, lifestyle, and psychographic characteristics influence their responses to the campaign.
    Keywords: corporate social responsibility; breast cancer awareness; professional sports; consumer segmentation.

  • Marketing Investments in Sport Venue Naming Rights and the Market Value of the Firm   Order a copy of this article
    by David M. Goldberg, Jason K. Deane, Terry R. Rakes, Loren P. Rees 
    Abstract: Sport venue naming rights agreements represent monumental long-term marketing investments to increase brand awareness and improve a firms image. These agreements require enormous expenditures, highlighting the importance of understanding their impact on the firms market value. Questions of the wisdom of such investments today, which types of sport venues are most appropriate, and whether full corporate names or truncated ones are equally successful are of more than academic interest. Prior research has presented only a limited window into the efficacy of these deals. Results from the well-known event study methodology show improved stock market returns based on 122 announcements of naming rights deals, although it is found that market reactions have soured since 2001, when several firms investing in naming rights experienced insolvency. Investments in naming Major League Baseball or multi-sport venues have been particularly wise. Somewhat surprisingly, we observe that longer sport venue names are preferred to other name lengths.
    Keywords: Event Study; Sponsorship; Sports; Investments; Advertising.

  • On the relationship between passion, word-of-mouth behaviour and eudaimonic wellbeing   Order a copy of this article
    by Christopher White, Yi-Ting Yu 
    Abstract: This study proposes a dualistic model of passion, with impacts on positive word-of-mouth (WOM) behaviour and eudaimonic wellbeing. Neither passion nor eudaimonic wellbeing attracts sufficient attention in sport consumer literature, despite their promise in related fields. The parsimonious model, with its strong theoretical justification, reveals that harmonious passion (HP) and obsessive passion (OP) explain substantial variance in both outcome variables. Specifically, higher levels of OP are associated with lower levels of positive WOM, and consumers exhibiting HP tend to be strong, positive WOM ambassadors. In addition, higher levels of eudaimonic wellbeing mitigate adverse effects of OP. Considering the prominent role of passion for peoples identity, it offers an attractive segmentation variable.
    Keywords: Passion; eudaimonia; word-of-mouth; identification; well-being.

  • Management in Sport for Development: Examining the Structure and Processes of a Sport Diplomacy Initiative   Order a copy of this article
    by Marlene Dixon, Arden Anderson, Robert Baker, Pamela Baker, Craig Esherick 
    Abstract: Sport continues to demonstrate an important role in bolstering the development of diplomatic, peace-building efforts through Sport for Development and Peace (SDP) initiatives. Although many have claimed strong outcomes from their programs, these assessments rely on largely anecdotal evidence to support these claims. In particular, the literature has provided evidence of effectiveness for SDP programs, yet lacked the capacity to link specific active or passive program components to the outcomes and to frame those outcomes both theoretically and practically. Thus, the purpose of this study was to conduct a theoretically guided case study of an SDP program and its activities to help support the analysis of mechanisms and processes toward program effectiveness. Based upon this analysis, theoretical implications and suggestions for future research and practice are discussed.
    Keywords: Sport For Development; Sport for Development and Peace; Case Study; Management.

Special Issue on: Sports Entrepreneurship and Innovation

  • Motivation and high performance sports events: An exploratory investigation of the motives underlying repeated participation.   Order a copy of this article
    by Konstantinos Koronios, Marina Psiloutsikou, Athanasios Kriemadis, Georgia Gkatsis, Marina Mavromati 
    Abstract: The aim of this study is to present a theoretical framework of sport entrepreneurship research with a focus on sport participation. Past studies have indicated the consideration about the absence of theoretical expansion within entrepreneurship enquiry and the goal of this research is to bridge the gap between sport participation and entrepreneurship. More specifically, the aim of this research is to investigate the factors influencing participation in high performance sport events and more expressly scrutinizes the capacity of three different ultra-endurance events (marathon and half-marathon running & cycling marathon) to motivate a large proportion of athletes to engage in, based on the attractiveness of each sport activity, the individuals attachment with each high performance sport activity as well as their perceptions about mental and physical health, the socializing opportunities offered in each event and the sportscape in which the events will take place. Furthermore, the present research explores the impact of gender on motivation of athletes as well as the impact of the various type of events. A quantitative method was used and questionnaires were gathered from three different races. A total of 616 questionnaires was achieved, which were then analyzed using SPSS. Regression analysis showed that the intention to participate in future events is explained by the proposed variables; physical and mental health, attachment to the event, and sportscape factors. Moreover, the type of the event was found to have a moderating role.
    Keywords: ultra-running; ultra-cycling; motivation; participation; high-performance sport; sport entrepreneurship.

  • Intellectual Capital Assets and Brand Value of English Football Clubs   Order a copy of this article
    by João Leitão, João Baptista 
    Abstract: This article makes an attempt to assess to what extent the use of intellectual capital assets by football clubs provides added brand value. To accomplish this, a set of selected indicators concerning the distinct dimensions of intellectual capital is analysed, in order to assess its ability to generate added brand value. The data originally collected by Deloitte are based on a sample of thirty-five English football clubs, which participated in the English Premier League, in the 1992 2010 period. A panel data approach is adopted, using both static and dynamic model specifications. The empirical evidence reveals that intellectual capital associated with football clubs, when properly managed, is a critical set of assets that generate added brand value; the final position reached in the national league, salaries of human resources and football clubs gross profit have a positive effect on brand value; whereas long-term debt influences football clubs brand value negatively.
    Keywords: Brand Value; Football; Intellectual Capital; Human Capital; Organizational or Structural Capital; Relational Capital.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSMM.2018.10012990
    by Antti Kauppinen 
    Abstract: Research on subversive entrepreneurship considers the process in which firms outperform rivals when entering the market. Although the research has recognised that firms try to destroy the existing market while creating a new one, it still does not specify the narrative dynamics of subversive market entry. In this study, the market entry was studied in a non-business context (i.e., professional boxing), which widens the view of who could be entrepreneurial individuals. The subversive attributes were measured (applied both in boxing and business) in pre-event narratives that were then related to the competitive aggressiveness in post-event interview narratives. The results show a positive curvilinear correlation between the optimism and competitive aggressiveness content in these narratives and a linear correlation between these same variables. The result of an event moderates this correlation. These results contribute to the sport management literature by offering a perspective of sportsmen as entrepreneurial narrative generators and potential future entrepreneurs.
    Keywords: subversive entrepreneurship; optimism; content analysis; sport management.

  • Like it or not? The differences between and success factors of sports providers use of social networking sites   Order a copy of this article
    by Joris Corthouts, Astrid Denys, Erik Thibaut, Jeroen Scheerder 
    Abstract: The current study seeks to analyse differences in the usage of social networking sites (SNSs) between different sports organisations in Flanders (Belgium), more particularly between sports federations (SFs), fitness centres (FCs), and local sports governing bodies (LSGBs). Second, this study aims to determine which factors make that Facebook posts of SFs, FCs, and LSGBs draw the attention of (potential) sports consumers, depicted by the number of likes per post. For one month, an exploratory desk research on Facebook pages of 82 SFs, 154 LSGBs, and 118 FCs was conducted. The results demonstrate that (i) significant differences exist in SNS usage between the three organisations and (ii) posting atmosphere or feel-good content posts is, among others, beneficial for every sports providers Facebook post. The results of the current study provide employees of sports organisations with information about how a successful SNS policy can be developed to gain attention of current and future sports participants.
    Keywords: social networking sites; social media; likes; Post Popularity; sports federations; local sports governing bodies; fitness centres.