International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing (22 papers in press)
Effects of Employee Training on Job Satisfaction Outcomes Among Sport Ticket Sellers
by Nels Popp, Jason Simmons, Chad McEvoy
Abstract: As the primary revenue generators for sports organizations, salespeople play a critical role in the sport industry. Research regarding salesperson effectiveness and well-being, however, is scant within the sport management literature, and little has been empirically investigated related to the salespersons role in sport organizations. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between sales training on both job satisfaction and turnover intent measures among professional sellers within sport organizations. No significant differences were found between the amount of initial sales training received and measures of job satisfaction and intent to leave the organization. Significant differences were found, however, on two measures of on-going sales training (amount and quality) with both job satisfaction and turnover intent. The findings suggest a relationship between training and occupational satisfaction, which has important managerial implications as sport sales positions traditionally have a high rate of job turnover.
Keywords: Sales Management; Training; Job Satisfaction; Turnover.
Sport Pro = Twitter Pro? How Soccer Stars Use Twitter at the Height of Their Career
by Christoph G. Grimmer, Galen Clavio
Abstract: This paper examines the usage of Twitter by professional soccer clubs and players in the context of a major sporting event. The study focuses on the UEFA Champions League Final in 2013, which featured two German football clubs. Nearly 300 tweets were coded via eight variables (author, content, date, language, media, mood, person, team). The results reveal considerable differences between the levels of activity and the players Twitter performance. The clubs accompanied the season highlight in a communicatively extensive manner, but use Twitter in a strongly event-related manner. Concerning the players activity, a classification into five categories was possible, based upon their overall levels of Twitter use. Numerous differences between each athletes usage of Twitter were observed.
Keywords: Twitter; Content Analysis; Soccer; Social Media; Champions League; Bayern Munich; Borussia Dortmund.
Ambush Marketing and the Olympic and Paralympic Marks Act: A National Sponsor Perspective
by Dana Ellis, Philippe Patry, Benoît Séguin, Norm O'Reilly
Abstract: With one of the most sophisticated and successful sponsorship programs in sports, the Olympic Movement generates billions in revenues. The IOC has therefore mandated host countries and cities to enact new laws (i.e., event-specific legislations) that offer supplementary protection against ambush marketing. Through a qualitative case study, this research explores the perspective of the National Partners of the 2010 Vancouver Olympic Games on the subject of anti-ambush marketing legislation. Semi-structured interviews were conducted reporting that: (1) event-specific legislation may contribute to sponsors' confusion around ambush marketing; (2) sponsors showed only moderate awareness of the legislation suggestive of a lack of consultation; (3) sponsors recognized both positive and negative impacts of anti-ambush marketing legislation; and (4) sponsors perceived a level of powerlessness to stop ambush marketing and a need to focus on activation for true protection and increasing the remedies available through such measures.
Keywords: Olympic Games; Olympic marketing; legislation; ambush marketing; sponsorship protection; stakeholder management.
Exploring Consumer Responses to a Nationwide Breast Cancer Awareness Campaign: The Case of the National Football Leagues Crucial Catch Campaign
by Dae Hee Kwak, Joon Sung Lee, Youngbum Kwon, Kathy Babiak
Abstract: During the month of October, the National Football League (NFL) activates a breast cancer awareness campaign Crucial Catch - in which players, referees, and coaches wear pink apparel and gear to promote its cause. Given that more than 17 million people in the U.S. watch NFL games every Sunday, this campaign reaches a broad audience. Using a representative sample of U.S. adults (N = 600), this study examined differences in demographic variables (age, gender, and race) and domain-specific personal variables (television viewership, cause involvement) on various campaign-related outcomes including cause-related outcomes (i.e., breast cancer perception and donation intentions to support the campaign) and organization-related outcomes (i.e., perceived motives of the NFL, attitude toward the NFL, and behavior toward the NFL). Findings show how consumers demographic, lifestyle, and psychographic characteristics influence their responses to the campaign.
Keywords: corporate social responsibility; breast cancer awareness; professional sports; consumer segmentation.
Marketing Investments in Sport Venue Naming Rights and the Market Value of the Firm
by David M. Goldberg, Jason K. Deane, Terry R. Rakes, Loren P. Rees
Abstract: Sport venue naming rights agreements represent monumental long-term marketing investments to increase brand awareness and improve a firms image. These agreements require enormous expenditures, highlighting the importance of understanding their impact on the firms market value. Questions of the wisdom of such investments today, which types of sport venues are most appropriate, and whether full corporate names or truncated ones are equally successful are of more than academic interest. Prior research has presented only a limited window into the efficacy of these deals. Results from the well-known event study methodology show improved stock market returns based on 122 announcements of naming rights deals, although it is found that market reactions have soured since 2001, when several firms investing in naming rights experienced insolvency. Investments in naming Major League Baseball or multi-sport venues have been particularly wise. Somewhat surprisingly, we observe that longer sport venue names are preferred to other name lengths.
Keywords: Event Study; Sponsorship; Sports; Investments; Advertising.
On the relationship between passion, word-of-mouth behaviour and eudaimonic wellbeing
by Christopher White, Yi-Ting Yu
Abstract: This study proposes a dualistic model of passion, with impacts on positive word-of-mouth (WOM) behaviour and eudaimonic wellbeing. Neither passion nor eudaimonic wellbeing attracts sufficient attention in sport consumer literature, despite their promise in related fields. The parsimonious model, with its strong theoretical justification, reveals that harmonious passion (HP) and obsessive passion (OP) explain substantial variance in both outcome variables. Specifically, higher levels of OP are associated with lower levels of positive WOM, and consumers exhibiting HP tend to be strong, positive WOM ambassadors. In addition, higher levels of eudaimonic wellbeing mitigate adverse effects of OP. Considering the prominent role of passion for peoples identity, it offers an attractive segmentation variable.
Keywords: Passion; eudaimonia; word-of-mouth; identification; well-being.
Management in Sport for Development: Examining the Structure and Processes of a Sport Diplomacy Initiative
by Marlene Dixon, Arden Anderson, Robert Baker, Pamela Baker, Craig Esherick
Abstract: Sport continues to demonstrate an important role in bolstering the development of diplomatic, peace-building efforts through Sport for Development and Peace (SDP) initiatives. Although many have claimed strong outcomes from their programs, these assessments rely on largely anecdotal evidence to support these claims. In particular, the literature has provided evidence of effectiveness for SDP programs, yet lacked the capacity to link specific active or passive program components to the outcomes and to frame those outcomes both theoretically and practically. Thus, the purpose of this study was to conduct a theoretically guided case study of an SDP program and its activities to help support the analysis of mechanisms and processes toward program effectiveness. Based upon this analysis, theoretical implications and suggestions for future research and practice are discussed.
Keywords: Sport For Development; Sport for Development and Peace; Case Study; Management.
Becoming Fans Abroad: A Qualitative Study of Soccer Fan Socialisation
by Elizabeth Delia, Matthew Katz
Abstract: Although much is known about how individuals are socialised into sport fandom during their youth (via family and peer groups), little is known about individuals socialised into sport fandom as adults. Recognising globalisation and the increasing popularity of soccer as a spectator sport worldwide, in the current study we conducted focus groups with adults in the United States to understand how they became soccer fans. We found that those socialised into fandom as adults did so via exposure to the sport while travelling to places where the sport was central to the local sport culture. For these individuals, becoming a soccer fan via cultural immersion provided them a sense of belonging and uniqueness while travelling. While maintaining fandom once returning from travel is a challenge for some, the socialisation via travel finding has important implications for sport teams and leagues looking to expand their global reach.
Keywords: consumer behaviour; focus groups; soccer; socialisation.
Mass participant sport event brand associations: An analysis of two event categories
by Jason A. Rice, Marion Hambrick, T. Christopher Greenwell
Abstract: As the mass participant sport event (MPSE) market evolves and growth slows, event producers are challenged to distinguish themselves from competitors. Interestingly, limited research has investigated the current state of the market as viewed by potential and existing consumers of MPSEs. The purpose of this study was to investigate MPSE brands from the perspective of these two unique consumer groups by analysing their brand associations of two event categories, traditional and non-traditional MPSEs. Results reveal valuable perspectives on why current consumers are involved with their events, such as social benefits, while also providing insight into why non-participants may presently refrain from participation (i.e. lack of specific rewards associated with certain events). Organizers of each event type are encouraged to implement results in developing new products / services to generate new revenue streams and effective marketing communications.
Keywords: brand equity; brand associations; brand perception; participatory sport; marketing communications; endurance events.
Factors Affecting Consumer Repurchase of University Sports Team Merchandise
by Michelle Childs, Robin Hardin, Win (Gi-Yong) Koo
Abstract: Licensed university merchandise is a large and growing market within the United States. This research investigates the impact of consumer-related drivers and attitudes on repurchase intentions of university sports team merchandise to understand what drives repurchase behavior in this sector. Results show that team identification influences consumers identification through apparel and both variables directly impact consumers repurchase intentions behaviors. Further, results indicate that consumers attitude towards the manufacturers brand impacts repurchase intentions and also moderates the relationship between team identification through apparel and repurchase intentions. These findings can assist product developers, retailers, and brand managers in developing more effective strategies to increase customer purchase loyalty behaviors towards licensed university merchandise.
Keywords: Repurchase intentions; university sports team merchandise; team identification; team identification through apparel; manufacturer’s brand attitude.
Key Factors for Ensuring Performance and Attracting Practitioners to Small Sport Clubs
by Fabio Musso, Andre Richelieu, Barbara Francioni
Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to determine which factors small and non-profit sports clubs should consider and implement in order to, first, enhance performance and, second, attract practitioners. To achieve our objective, we carried out a regression analysis on a sample of clay target shooting clubs. Results reveal that factors related to shooting practice, as well as facilities/services supporting practitioners have a positive influence on performance. Moreover, well-defined animation and stimulus policies for members emerged as factors with a positive impact on performance. This study provides an analysis of the connection between infrastructure and organizational features of sports clubs, on the one hand, and performance, on the other. This research also points out which types of services and initiatives should be adopted for enhancing both clubs attractiveness and performance.
Keywords: sport management; strategy; small non-profit organisations; non-profit sport club; infrastructure; organisational features; facilities; performance; clay target shooting; sport marketing.shooting; sport marketing.
Brand Image Transfer from Team to Sponsor: How Effective is it to Sponsor a Football Team with Little Success?
by Manuel Alonso Dos Santos, Ferran Calabuig Moreno
Abstract: We propose to explore the influence of success in sports on the effect of image transfer in sponsorship. We analyzed three football teams based on their historical ranking. The image transfer does not occur with the less successful team. We conclude that sports sponsors need to reconsider their strategic options to align them with their company goals and to promote a return on investment. An ideal strategy to enhance the brand image would be to sponsor more successful sports teams because it has been shown that those teams that have more victories get greater exposure and therefore the ROI for sponsors increase.
Keywords: sponsorship; image transfer; sports; congruence; attitude; multigroup.
Enabling Process of e-WOM and Self-image Congruence in Facebook Page: A Case Study of Passionate Partisanship in the Thai Professional Soccer Team
by Thongchai Srivardhana
Abstract: The main purpose of this research paper is to examine the factors which influence passionate partisanship of users who follow a professional sports teams Facebook (FB) page. This paper specifically sets out to investigate 1) electronic word-of-mouth (e-WOM), 2) self-image congruence (SIC), and 3) passionate partisanship (PP) of users who follow a Thai Premier Leagues FB page. Using e-WOM to develop SIC among users, a teams FB page enables its fans to become one of Thailands largest PP groups. The researchs framework is centered around the following question: How does SIC mediate the impact of e-WOM on users who subscribe to a sports team FB page? The contributions of this paper are at least threefold: 1) The paper provides a quantitative study in social media marketing in the sports business context; 2) This research paper provides research demonstrating the uniqueness of PP as a construct in sports marketing research and practice; and 3) This paper provides research evidencing that e-WOM and its mediatorSICare enablers of PP in a sports team FB page. This paper provides discussion, implications, and limitations together with suggestions for future research before ending with conclusions.
Keywords: passionate partisanship (PP); self-image congruence (SIC); electronic word-of-mouth (e-WOM); Thai Premier League; social media marketing (SMM).
Hidden Subsidies and the Public Ownership of Sports Facilities:
The Case of Levis Stadium in Santa Clara
by Robert Baumann, Victor Matheson, Debra O'Connor
Abstract: Levis Stadium in Santa Clara, California is an example of a private financing / public ownership arrangement. While the stadiums construction resulted in no direct tax increases, this ownership arrangement allows the San Francisco 49ers to avoid many types of taxes on the income generated from Levis Stadium. We estimate the total tax savings to the 49ers at between $106 and $213 million over the first 20 years of Levis Stadium compared with a privately financed and owned option. We argue that tax savings inherent in private financing / public ownership arrangements represent indirect and hidden subsidies.
Keywords: Stadium Construction; Economic Impact; Public Sport Facilities; Public Policy.
Why the mens UEFA Champions League reduces competitive balance in domestic football leagues: An empirical study of the French league
by Gael Raballand, Sebastien Dessus
Abstract: This paper provides some empirical foundation in support of the observation that the mens UEFA Champions League (CL) reduces competitive balance in domestic football leagues. It relies on the assumption that clubs optimal budgets result from win-maximizing strategies, accounting for similarly driven budget decisions from competitors in the domestic league and are thus ultimately determined through a Nash equilibrium process. Using a panel of 23 professional French clubs over nine consecutive seasons (2004/2005-2012/2013), we estimate such optimal budgets, and measure the extent to which access to the Champions League amplifies budget inequalities between clubs. Our results suggest that the CL amplifies inequalities by a magnitude significantly larger than the direct income received from UEFA for participating in the CL.
Keywords: Champions’ League; optimal budget; competitive balance; ligue 1; football club revenues.
Special Issue on: Sports Marketing Agenda Revisited
An Advancement in the Study of Marketing Partnership Longevity: Analyzing Sport Sponsorship Survival
by Jonathan A. Jensen, David Head
Abstract: Naming rights agreements are some of the most high profile, and costly, sponsorships in the world. Yet, while growth in investments in these multimillion-dollar partnerships has recently outpaced that of traditional marketing approaches, sponsorship revenue forecasting still largely relies on a decades-old methodology, the renewal rate. Thus, this research seeks to assist the major stakeholders involved in the relationships between sport organizations and sponsoring brands by applying survival analysis methodologies to the study of sport sponsorships, utilizing 205 naming rights sponsorships of facilities based in North America and Europe. Consistent with exchange theory, results indicate that these sponsorships are more susceptible to dissolution earlier in the relationship, and results vary based on the type of facility and location. This research advances our understanding of the dynamics of naming rights sponsorships and demonstrates the importance of providing managers with more advanced methodologies to assist in the organizations sponsorship revenue forecasting activities.
Keywords: Sport marketing; corporate sponsorship; analytics; survival analysis; revenue forecasting; naming rights.
The brand attachment and consumer behavior in sports marketing contexts: the case of football fans in Portugal
by Carla Barbosa Vieira, Bruno Sousa
Abstract: Sport transcends both cultural and social settings and is played in numerous contexts throughout the world. Football teams, when considered as economic organizations, are expected to achieve their objectives without consuming excess resources. Sports marketing is a dynamic subject area linking academic research, marketing practitioners and public policy planners. To provide an experience that meets or exceeds a spectator's expectations, it is important to understand consumer behavior (e.g. behavioral intentions) and the brand attachment in specific sports marketing contexts (e.g. portuguese football supporters). The main purpose of this study is to analyze how brand attachment relates to other relevant variables (brand loyalty, brand commitment, brand satisfaction, brand trust) in consumer's behavior applied to football fans in Portugal. This study included 477 participants The data was collected through online surveys. The results have shown that football fans in Portugal are severely attached and loyal to their teams. This suggest that sports marketing managers should work on the consumers attachment to the team, once higher attachment to the team also meant higher loyalty, commitment and trust on the team. The brand attachment to a football team influences all the variables included in the research conceptual model. The results also demonstrated that brand attachment, brand commitment, brand trust and brand satisfaction influence brand loyalty. This means that a football fan with higher attachment to the team is usually more satisfied, trust full and committed to his/her team and consequently his/her loyalty to the team is also higher. A just a few studies had analyzed the relation between brand attachment and other variables, so this study is groundbreaking relatively to this subject. Implications for future research are also presented.
Keywords: Brand attachment; Sports Consumer's Behavior; Sports Marketing; Trust.
Perceived motivation in football/futsal practice according to players and coaches approaches: a tool of strategic management
by Dina Miragaia, Francisco Guedes
Abstract: The objectives of this study are to identify the profile of football/futsal players relative to their motivation to play these sports and to verify if coaches have similar perceptions to those expressed by the players. A questionnaire was given to 513 players and 206 coaches. The consumer profiles of the players were analyzed according to their motivations, and cluster analysis was done to identify different player segments. Five distinct clusters were identified, and significant differences between gender and age were found. Differences in motivations were identified between male and female athletes and across ages. Also, the coaches' perceptions of the motivations of athletes did not match those expressed by the athletes. This type of analysis is essential for organizational decision makers because it enables designing more effective marketing plans and adjusting services to suit different types of consumers. In turn, more individualized services can ensure a high level of consumer satisfaction and improved retention rates in sports clubs.
Keywords: consumer segmentation; consumer profile; sports marketing; motivation; football; futsal; sport affiliation; stakeholders; retention; cluster analysis.
Relationships as strategic assets: A sport fan equity approach
by Young Do Kim, Yukyoum Kim, Marshall Magnusen, Daekwan Kim
Abstract: Despite the importance of customer equity (CE) to the financial success of sport organizations, minimal consideration has been given to this concept by sport scholars, particularly as it pertains to the study of sport fan equity (SFE). The true asset value of the present and anticipated future contributions of a sport fan to a sport team/organization describes SFE. The main objective of this study is to organize, review, and synthesize the extant marketing and sport literatures to propose a new conceptualization of SFE. Specifically, SFE is conceptualized in terms of relationship investment (key predictor), three core components of SFE (i.e., financial value, behavioural value, and psychological value), and the outcome of market performance (i.e., media, sponsorship, licensing, and public investment). The contribution of this study to the advancement of sport marketing is the presentation of a strong foundation for future CE research that stems from a critical review of the relevant CE literature and the development of an original model of SFE.
Keywords: Sport fan equity; financial value; behavioural value; psychological value; customer-oriented paradigm; relationship investment; market performance.
The structure, content and context of achieved celebrity brands: A study of footballers in their brandscapes
by Anna Zarkada, Eugenia Tzoumaka
Abstract: Celebrity athletes are the most prominent achieved celebrity brands with well-noted effects in consumer behaviour. Still, current research is characterised by terminological polyglossia and conceptual overlaps, which results in a lack of clarity regarding the brand structure and content. Moreover, there is no consideration of the brandscape; the team or sports club the player belongs to or has most closely associated his name with.
This paper addresses the current limitations by adopting an exploratory approach. Through qualitative research, namely five focus groups, we empirically investigated the celebrity footballer brand associations as Acknowledgment.
The data demonstrate that the celebrity footballer brand comprises two distinct components proposed by Keller (1993): (1) The professional one, to include product-related associations, further distinguished into individual, organisational and contextual associations and (2) The personal one, which corresponds to non-product-related associations and reflects the balance of a persons perceived virtues and vices. The role of the brandscape emerges as affecting his professional and personal associations both positively and negatively.
Keywords: celebrities; brand associations; brandscape; focus groups; football; human brands; sports celebrities; qualitative research.
The role of patriotism in the city-brand -sport-event relationship
by ILIAS KAPARELIOTIS
Abstract: The importance of mega sports events in relation to city branding has long been recognized by both academics and practitioners from a variety of functional disciplines. This paper links the concepts of city branding and sports events with that of patriotism. The study is based on a systematic literature review that results in a proposition of a conceptual framework, and a synthesis of key findings, which are presented through the proposed conceptual framework. The framework suggests that patriotic feelings enjoyed by citizens of the host city are expected to further develop and intensify in the context of a sports event, while at the same time, positively moderate the impact of the given sports event on the city brand. The implications for practitioners and academics are discussed.
Keywords: city branding; sport event; patriotism; stakeholders.
Perceived Fan Associations with MLB Teams: Bask Inspite of Reflected Failure versus Cut Off Reflected Success
by DongHun Lee, Michael Cottingham, Shannon Powers, Leeseob Maeng
Abstract: While Campbell, Aiken, and Kents (2004) quadruple grid of team identification has received substantial attention in sport literature (Jensen et al., 2016), only a few empirical-based studies looked at deviant fan tendencies, such as Basking In spite of Reflected Failure (BIRF) and Cutting Off Reflected Success (CORS). This study fills the gap by empirically examining two components of team identification perceived by 1,419 MLB fans. Visual maps exhibited a broad pendulum of how fans associate themselves and their orderly relationships compared to BIRFers and CORSers empirical samples. The 16 fan association types can be interpreted as a behavioral gauge sports fans regularly use in their consumption of Major League Baseball (MLB). Regression results suggest marketing insights for MLB operators who target BIRFers or CORSers: focus on non-performance interests of fans including starter players, levels of competition, on-field management and decisionmaking, concessions, and retelling team history as an antecedent to fans psychological connection with teams.
Keywords: BIRF; CORS; team associations.