International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing (24 papers in press)
Effects of Employee Training on Job Satisfaction Outcomes Among Sport Ticket Sellers
by Nels Popp, Jason Simmons, Chad McEvoy
Abstract: As the primary revenue generators for sports organizations, salespeople play a critical role in the sport industry. Research regarding salesperson effectiveness and well-being, however, is scant within the sport management literature, and little has been empirically investigated related to the salespersons role in sport organizations. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between sales training on both job satisfaction and turnover intent measures among professional sellers within sport organizations. No significant differences were found between the amount of initial sales training received and measures of job satisfaction and intent to leave the organization. Significant differences were found, however, on two measures of on-going sales training (amount and quality) with both job satisfaction and turnover intent. The findings suggest a relationship between training and occupational satisfaction, which has important managerial implications as sport sales positions traditionally have a high rate of job turnover.
Keywords: Sales Management; Training; Job Satisfaction; Turnover.
Sport Pro = Twitter Pro? How Soccer Stars Use Twitter at the Height of Their Career
by Christoph G. Grimmer, Galen Clavio
Abstract: This paper examines the usage of Twitter by professional soccer clubs and players in the context of a major sporting event. The study focuses on the UEFA Champions League Final in 2013, which featured two German football clubs. Nearly 300 tweets were coded via eight variables (author, content, date, language, media, mood, person, team). The results reveal considerable differences between the levels of activity and the players Twitter performance. The clubs accompanied the season highlight in a communicatively extensive manner, but use Twitter in a strongly event-related manner. Concerning the players activity, a classification into five categories was possible, based upon their overall levels of Twitter use. Numerous differences between each athletes usage of Twitter were observed.
Keywords: Twitter; Content Analysis; Soccer; Social Media; Champions League; Bayern Munich; Borussia Dortmund.
Ambush Marketing and the Olympic and Paralympic Marks Act: A National Sponsor Perspective
by Dana Ellis, Philippe Patry, Benoît Séguin, Norm O'Reilly
Abstract: With one of the most sophisticated and successful sponsorship programs in sports, the Olympic Movement generates billions in revenues. The IOC has therefore mandated host countries and cities to enact new laws (i.e., event-specific legislations) that offer supplementary protection against ambush marketing. Through a qualitative case study, this research explores the perspective of the National Partners of the 2010 Vancouver Olympic Games on the subject of anti-ambush marketing legislation. Semi-structured interviews were conducted reporting that: (1) event-specific legislation may contribute to sponsors' confusion around ambush marketing; (2) sponsors showed only moderate awareness of the legislation suggestive of a lack of consultation; (3) sponsors recognized both positive and negative impacts of anti-ambush marketing legislation; and (4) sponsors perceived a level of powerlessness to stop ambush marketing and a need to focus on activation for true protection and increasing the remedies available through such measures.
Keywords: Olympic Games; Olympic marketing; legislation; ambush marketing; sponsorship protection; stakeholder management.
Exploring Consumer Responses to a Nationwide Breast Cancer Awareness Campaign: The Case of the National Football Leagues Crucial Catch Campaign
by Dae Hee Kwak, Joon Sung Lee, Youngbum Kwon, Kathy Babiak
Abstract: During the month of October, the National Football League (NFL) activates a breast cancer awareness campaign Crucial Catch - in which players, referees, and coaches wear pink apparel and gear to promote its cause. Given that more than 17 million people in the U.S. watch NFL games every Sunday, this campaign reaches a broad audience. Using a representative sample of U.S. adults (N = 600), this study examined differences in demographic variables (age, gender, and race) and domain-specific personal variables (television viewership, cause involvement) on various campaign-related outcomes including cause-related outcomes (i.e., breast cancer perception and donation intentions to support the campaign) and organization-related outcomes (i.e., perceived motives of the NFL, attitude toward the NFL, and behavior toward the NFL). Findings show how consumers demographic, lifestyle, and psychographic characteristics influence their responses to the campaign.
Keywords: corporate social responsibility; breast cancer awareness; professional sports; consumer segmentation.
Marketing Investments in Sport Venue Naming Rights and the Market Value of the Firm
by David M. Goldberg, Jason K. Deane, Terry R. Rakes, Loren P. Rees
Abstract: Sport venue naming rights agreements represent monumental long-term marketing investments to increase brand awareness and improve a firms image. These agreements require enormous expenditures, highlighting the importance of understanding their impact on the firms market value. Questions of the wisdom of such investments today, which types of sport venues are most appropriate, and whether full corporate names or truncated ones are equally successful are of more than academic interest. Prior research has presented only a limited window into the efficacy of these deals. Results from the well-known event study methodology show improved stock market returns based on 122 announcements of naming rights deals, although it is found that market reactions have soured since 2001, when several firms investing in naming rights experienced insolvency. Investments in naming Major League Baseball or multi-sport venues have been particularly wise. Somewhat surprisingly, we observe that longer sport venue names are preferred to other name lengths.
Keywords: Event Study; Sponsorship; Sports; Investments; Advertising.
On the relationship between passion, word-of-mouth behaviour and eudaimonic wellbeing
by Christopher White, Yi-Ting Yu
Abstract: This study proposes a dualistic model of passion, with impacts on positive word-of-mouth (WOM) behaviour and eudaimonic wellbeing. Neither passion nor eudaimonic wellbeing attracts sufficient attention in sport consumer literature, despite their promise in related fields. The parsimonious model, with its strong theoretical justification, reveals that harmonious passion (HP) and obsessive passion (OP) explain substantial variance in both outcome variables. Specifically, higher levels of OP are associated with lower levels of positive WOM, and consumers exhibiting HP tend to be strong, positive WOM ambassadors. In addition, higher levels of eudaimonic wellbeing mitigate adverse effects of OP. Considering the prominent role of passion for peoples identity, it offers an attractive segmentation variable.
Keywords: Passion; eudaimonia; word-of-mouth; identification; well-being.
Management in Sport for Development: Examining the Structure and Processes of a Sport Diplomacy Initiative
by Marlene Dixon, Arden Anderson, Robert Baker, Pamela Baker, Craig Esherick
Abstract: Sport continues to demonstrate an important role in bolstering the development of diplomatic, peace-building efforts through Sport for Development and Peace (SDP) initiatives. Although many have claimed strong outcomes from their programs, these assessments rely on largely anecdotal evidence to support these claims. In particular, the literature has provided evidence of effectiveness for SDP programs, yet lacked the capacity to link specific active or passive program components to the outcomes and to frame those outcomes both theoretically and practically. Thus, the purpose of this study was to conduct a theoretically guided case study of an SDP program and its activities to help support the analysis of mechanisms and processes toward program effectiveness. Based upon this analysis, theoretical implications and suggestions for future research and practice are discussed.
Keywords: Sport For Development; Sport for Development and Peace; Case Study; Management.
Becoming Fans Abroad: A Qualitative Study of Soccer Fan Socialisation
by Elizabeth Delia, Matthew Katz
Abstract: Although much is known about how individuals are socialised into sport fandom during their youth (via family and peer groups), little is known about individuals socialised into sport fandom as adults. Recognising globalisation and the increasing popularity of soccer as a spectator sport worldwide, in the current study we conducted focus groups with adults in the United States to understand how they became soccer fans. We found that those socialised into fandom as adults did so via exposure to the sport while travelling to places where the sport was central to the local sport culture. For these individuals, becoming a soccer fan via cultural immersion provided them a sense of belonging and uniqueness while travelling. While maintaining fandom once returning from travel is a challenge for some, the socialisation via travel finding has important implications for sport teams and leagues looking to expand their global reach.
Keywords: consumer behaviour; focus groups; soccer; socialisation.
Mass participant sport event brand associations: An analysis of two event categories
by Jason A. Rice, Marion Hambrick, T. Christopher Greenwell
Abstract: As the mass participant sport event (MPSE) market evolves and growth slows, event producers are challenged to distinguish themselves from competitors. Interestingly, limited research has investigated the current state of the market as viewed by potential and existing consumers of MPSEs. The purpose of this study was to investigate MPSE brands from the perspective of these two unique consumer groups by analysing their brand associations of two event categories, traditional and non-traditional MPSEs. Results reveal valuable perspectives on why current consumers are involved with their events, such as social benefits, while also providing insight into why non-participants may presently refrain from participation (i.e. lack of specific rewards associated with certain events). Organizers of each event type are encouraged to implement results in developing new products / services to generate new revenue streams and effective marketing communications.
Keywords: brand equity; brand associations; brand perception; participatory sport; marketing communications; endurance events.
Residents' perception of the 2014 Sochi Olympic Games: comparison of pre- and post-impacts
by Alexandr Vetitnev, Nadezhda Bobina
Abstract: This study is related to understanding the temporal changes of residents' perception of the 2014 Sochi Olympic Games. Two surveys were conducted in 2013 (n = 1,048) and 2014 (n = 853). The research questionnaire based on approaches of Fredline and Faulkner (2002) and Zhou and Ap (2009) was developed. Results indicated that local residents' perceptions of the Olympics impacts have significantly improved through the years after the games. All of the positive incomes except 'increased employment opportunities' were found significantly higher and negative issues became significantly lower than before the games. An exploratory factor analysis has shown the change of perception structure after the games: three positive groups ('sustainable development of destinations', 'positive economic impact on travel destinations' and 'improving the quality of resident life') and one negative group of impact items were found. A positive residents' attitude toward the Olympics has transformed into supportive behaviour.
Keywords: Sochi Olympic Games; residents' perception; temporal changes.
The impact of endorsement on a sport-based social marketing campaign
by Shima Behnoosh, Michael Naylor, Geoff Dickson
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to understand the effects of endorsers on young adults' attitudes towards a social marketing advertisement. A pre-test was implemented to select a credible endorser and a social marketing advertisement for use in the main experiment. The main study employed a sequential explanatory design including both quantitative and qualitative elements. Differences between the experimental and control groups were uncovered. Compared to the control group, those in the treatment group reported more positive attitudes towards the social marketing advertisement. Psychological connection to sport, measured using the involvement construct, was included as a covariate but was not significant. Thematic analysis was used in conjunction with data generated from focus groups and supported findings from the experiment. This study suggests that an endorsed advertisement promoting sport and physical activity will elicit more favourable attitudes in young adults than an unendorsed advertisement. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.
Keywords: social marketing; celebrity athlete; endorsement; sport and physical activity.
In quest of gold: Olympic Gold Quest
by Siddhartha Kumar Rastogi
Abstract: Olympic Gold Quest (OGQ) is a unique organisation from India due to its aim and structure. The aim of the organisation is to win gold medals for India in the Summer Olympics as well as in other international tournaments of repute. However, it does not represent any government agency, is privately held and promoted and earns no revenue through its activities except goodwill. Since the government agencies have proven to be a failure as far as India's international sporting performance is concerned, OGQ represents a unique experiment. The present paper studies the origin, the evolution, the challenges, and the first decade of its existence. There are various sports management and leadership insights. Given an emerging economy aspect, the case is also relevant for drawing policy lessons for government agencies for better sports performance management.
Keywords: Summer Olympics; gold medal; sports management; private promotion; Indian sports.
The role of human capital, psychological capital, social capital and leadership capital in building an athlete's global brand image
by Yuliani Suseno, Denise Gengatharen
Abstract: This conceptual paper offers a new perspective on developing an athlete's global brand image. In addition to human capital, the framework considers the theoretical lenses of psychological capital, social capital and leadership capital. Human capital is based on the dimensions of an athlete's physical attributes, performance and marketable lifestyle. Psychological capital is illustrated as an athlete's self-efficacy, hope, optimism and resilience. Athletes also need to utilise their social capital, exploiting the brokerage opportunities in linking the networks of sponsors and fans and developing trust in their networks. Leadership capital is illustrated through the provision of opportunities and resources arising from the relationship between athletes and sports leaders. The proposed framework extends studies on brand management of sports celebrities by holistically considering the various forms of capital in building an athlete's global brand image. The implications for the theory and practice of sports marketing and branding are discussed.
Keywords: athlete; global brand image; human capital; psychological capital; social capital; leadership capital; sports marketing.
The effect of perceived CSR on team identification and team loyalty in professional football in Korea
by Jongchul Park, Shane Kerr, Il-Gwang Kim
Abstract: This study aimed to examine how the perceived fit of a professional football team's CSR activities (fan-team's CSR and team-team's CSR) influences team identification and team loyalty. Participants were 208 spectators attending a professional football match in South Korea. For the study, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation model (SEM) were conducted to analyse the data. Findings showed that the perceived fit between the fans and the team's CSR significantly affected team identification, but the perceived fit between the team and the team's CSR had no significant effect on team identification. Team identification positively influenced team loyalty. In addition, the study found that team identification was an important mediating variable between the perceived fit of the fan-team's CSR activities and team loyalty. Lastly, contributions and limitations are presented.
Keywords: corporate social responsibility; CSR; perceived fit; identification; loyalty; professional football; sport marketing; South Korea.
Special Issue on: Sports Marketing Agenda Revisited
An Advancement in the Study of Marketing Partnership Longevity: Analyzing Sport Sponsorship Survival
by Jonathan A. Jensen, David Head
Abstract: Naming rights agreements are some of the most high profile, and costly, sponsorships in the world. Yet, while growth in investments in these multimillion-dollar partnerships has recently outpaced that of traditional marketing approaches, sponsorship revenue forecasting still largely relies on a decades-old methodology, the renewal rate. Thus, this research seeks to assist the major stakeholders involved in the relationships between sport organizations and sponsoring brands by applying survival analysis methodologies to the study of sport sponsorships, utilizing 205 naming rights sponsorships of facilities based in North America and Europe. Consistent with exchange theory, results indicate that these sponsorships are more susceptible to dissolution earlier in the relationship, and results vary based on the type of facility and location. This research advances our understanding of the dynamics of naming rights sponsorships and demonstrates the importance of providing managers with more advanced methodologies to assist in the organizations sponsorship revenue forecasting activities.
Keywords: Sport marketing; corporate sponsorship; analytics; survival analysis; revenue forecasting; naming rights.
The brand attachment and consumer behavior in sports marketing contexts: the case of football fans in Portugal
by Carla Barbosa Vieira, Bruno Sousa
Abstract: Sport transcends both cultural and social settings and is played in numerous contexts throughout the world. Football teams, when considered as economic organizations, are expected to achieve their objectives without consuming excess resources. Sports marketing is a dynamic subject area linking academic research, marketing practitioners and public policy planners. To provide an experience that meets or exceeds a spectator's expectations, it is important to understand consumer behavior (e.g. behavioral intentions) and the brand attachment in specific sports marketing contexts (e.g. portuguese football supporters). The main purpose of this study is to analyze how brand attachment relates to other relevant variables (brand loyalty, brand commitment, brand satisfaction, brand trust) in consumer's behavior applied to football fans in Portugal. This study included 477 participants The data was collected through online surveys. The results have shown that football fans in Portugal are severely attached and loyal to their teams. This suggest that sports marketing managers should work on the consumers attachment to the team, once higher attachment to the team also meant higher loyalty, commitment and trust on the team. The brand attachment to a football team influences all the variables included in the research conceptual model. The results also demonstrated that brand attachment, brand commitment, brand trust and brand satisfaction influence brand loyalty. This means that a football fan with higher attachment to the team is usually more satisfied, trust full and committed to his/her team and consequently his/her loyalty to the team is also higher. A just a few studies had analyzed the relation between brand attachment and other variables, so this study is groundbreaking relatively to this subject. Implications for future research are also presented.
Keywords: Brand attachment; Sports Consumer's Behavior; Sports Marketing; Trust.
Perceived motivation in football/futsal practice according to players and coaches approaches: a tool of strategic management
by Dina Miragaia, Francisco Guedes
Abstract: The objectives of this study are to identify the profile of football/futsal players relative to their motivation to play these sports and to verify if coaches have similar perceptions to those expressed by the players. A questionnaire was given to 513 players and 206 coaches. The consumer profiles of the players were analyzed according to their motivations, and cluster analysis was done to identify different player segments. Five distinct clusters were identified, and significant differences between gender and age were found. Differences in motivations were identified between male and female athletes and across ages. Also, the coaches' perceptions of the motivations of athletes did not match those expressed by the athletes. This type of analysis is essential for organizational decision makers because it enables designing more effective marketing plans and adjusting services to suit different types of consumers. In turn, more individualized services can ensure a high level of consumer satisfaction and improved retention rates in sports clubs.
Keywords: consumer segmentation; consumer profile; sports marketing; motivation; football; futsal; sport affiliation; stakeholders; retention; cluster analysis.
Relationships as strategic assets: A sport fan equity approach
by Young Do Kim, Yukyoum Kim, Marshall Magnusen, Daekwan Kim
Abstract: Despite the importance of customer equity (CE) to the financial success of sport organizations, minimal consideration has been given to this concept by sport scholars, particularly as it pertains to the study of sport fan equity (SFE). The true asset value of the present and anticipated future contributions of a sport fan to a sport team/organization describes SFE. The main objective of this study is to organize, review, and synthesize the extant marketing and sport literatures to propose a new conceptualization of SFE. Specifically, SFE is conceptualized in terms of relationship investment (key predictor), three core components of SFE (i.e., financial value, behavioural value, and psychological value), and the outcome of market performance (i.e., media, sponsorship, licensing, and public investment). The contribution of this study to the advancement of sport marketing is the presentation of a strong foundation for future CE research that stems from a critical review of the relevant CE literature and the development of an original model of SFE.
Keywords: Sport fan equity; financial value; behavioural value; psychological value; customer-oriented paradigm; relationship investment; market performance.
Special Issue on: Sports Entrepreneurship and Innovation
Motivation and high performance sports events: An exploratory investigation of the motives underlying repeated participation.
by Konstantinos Koronios, Marina Psiloutsikou, Athanasios Kriemadis, Georgia Gkatsis, Marina Mavromati
Abstract: The aim of this study is to present a theoretical framework of sport entrepreneurship research with a focus on sport participation. Past studies have indicated the consideration about the absence of theoretical expansion within entrepreneurship enquiry and the goal of this research is to bridge the gap between sport participation and entrepreneurship. More specifically, the aim of this research is to investigate the factors influencing participation in high performance sport events and more expressly scrutinizes the capacity of three different ultra-endurance events (marathon and half-marathon running & cycling marathon) to motivate a large proportion of athletes to engage in, based on the attractiveness of each sport activity, the individuals attachment with each high performance sport activity as well as their perceptions about mental and physical health, the socializing opportunities offered in each event and the sportscape in which the events will take place. Furthermore, the present research explores the impact of gender on motivation of athletes as well as the impact of the various type of events. A quantitative method was used and questionnaires were gathered from three different races. A total of 616 questionnaires was achieved, which were then analyzed using SPSS. Regression analysis showed that the intention to participate in future events is explained by the proposed variables; physical and mental health, attachment to the event, and sportscape factors. Moreover, the type of the event was found to have a moderating role.
Keywords: ultra-running; ultra-cycling; motivation; participation; high-performance sport; sport entrepreneurship.
Intellectual Capital Assets and Brand Value of English Football Clubs
by João Leitão, João Baptista
Abstract: This article makes an attempt to assess to what extent the use of intellectual capital assets by football clubs provides added brand value. To accomplish this, a set of selected indicators concerning the distinct dimensions of intellectual capital is analysed, in order to assess its ability to generate added brand value. The data originally collected by Deloitte are based on a sample of thirty-five English football clubs, which participated in the English Premier League, in the 1992 2010 period. A panel data approach is adopted, using both static and dynamic model specifications. The empirical evidence reveals that intellectual capital associated with football clubs, when properly managed, is a critical set of assets that generate added brand value; the final position reached in the national league, salaries of human resources and football clubs gross profit have a positive effect on brand value; whereas long-term debt influences football clubs brand value negatively.
Keywords: Brand Value; Football; Intellectual Capital; Human Capital; Organizational or Structural Capital; Relational Capital.
Like it or not? The differences between and success factors of sports providers use of social networking sites
by Joris Corthouts, Astrid Denys, Erik Thibaut, Jeroen Scheerder
Abstract: The current study seeks to analyse differences in the usage of social networking sites (SNSs) between different sports organisations in Flanders (Belgium), more particularly between sports federations (SFs), fitness centres (FCs), and local sports governing bodies (LSGBs). Second, this study aims to determine which factors make that Facebook posts of SFs, FCs, and LSGBs draw the attention of (potential) sports consumers, depicted by the number of likes per post. For one month, an exploratory desk research on Facebook pages of 82 SFs, 154 LSGBs, and 118 FCs was conducted. The results demonstrate that (i) significant differences exist in SNS usage between the three organisations and (ii) posting atmosphere or feel-good content posts is, among others, beneficial for every sports providers Facebook post. The results of the current study provide employees of sports organisations with information about how a successful SNS policy can be developed to gain attention of current and future sports participants.
Keywords: social networking sites; social media; likes; Post Popularity; sports federations; local sports governing bodies; fitness centres.
Psychological contract fulfilment and innovative work behaviours of employees in sport-based SBEs: The mediating role of organisational citizenship
by Christopher Barnhill, Natalie Smith
Abstract: The current study explored the role of psychological contract fulfilment on innovative work behaviours of employees in sport-based small business enterprises (SBEs). Building on literature from both sport and non-sport organizational contexts, a model positing a direct linear relationship between psychological contract fulfilment and innovative work behaviours was proposed. Affective commitment and organizational citizenship behaviours were included in the model as partial mediators. The model was tested using a sample of 216 employees from affiliated Minor League Baseball franchises. Results supported a model where organisational citizenship fully mediated the relationship between psychological contract fulfilment and innovate work behaviours. Affective commitment was predicted by psychological contract fulfilment but was not significantly related to the other variables in the model.
Keywords: Innovative work behaviours; psychological contract fulfilment; organisational citizenship; affective commitment.
EXPLICATING PROFESSIONAL BOXERS NARRATIVE DYNAMICS TOWARDS COMPETITIVE AGGRESSIVENESS AND POTENTIAL MARKET ENTRY
by Antti Kauppinen
Abstract: Research on subversive entrepreneurship considers the process in
which firms outperform rivals when entering the market. Although the research
has recognised that firms try to destroy the existing market while creating a
new one, it still does not specify the narrative dynamics of subversive market
entry. In this study, the market entry was studied in a non-business context (i.e.,
professional boxing), which widens the view of who could be entrepreneurial
individuals. The subversive attributes were measured (applied both in boxing
and business) in pre-event narratives that were then related to the competitive
aggressiveness in post-event interview narratives. The results show a U-shaped
relationship between the optimism and competitive aggressiveness content in
these narratives and a negative linear relationship between these same
variables. The result of an event moderates this effect into a positive one. These
results contribute to the sport management literature by offering a perspective
of sportsmen as entrepreneurial narrative generators and potential future
Keywords: subversive entrepreneurship; optimism; content analysis; sport management.
Topics and research trends of health clubs management: will innovation be part of the fitness industry research interests?
by Dina Alexandra Marques Miragaia, Magda Sousa Constantino
Abstract: With the growth and competitiveness of the fitness industry, the aim of this study is to analyse how the topic of innovation have been incorporated into the research agenda, particularly in the context of gyms and health clubs. A systematic review of the literature was performed through the inclusion of articles published between 1987 and 2015. Based on the selection of the 75 articles, it is possible to identify the journals and the authors who are most interested in the investigation of this organisational context, the articles most cited by the scientific community, and the thematic clusters. Through content analysis, identifying nine clusters was made possible, which are as follows: consumer behaviour, consumer satisfaction, loyalty, quality of service, management and sports policy, innovation, value co-creation, dimensions of the fitness service, and organisational performance. This research provides relevant information, specifically for the managers, to improve their strategic decision making process.
Keywords: health clubs; gym; innovation; entrepreneurship; consumer profile; systematic review; fitness; fitness industry; consumer behaviour; consumer satisfaction; loyalty; quality of service; value co-creation.