International Journal of Business Environment (8 papers in press)
Impact of Social Media on Brand Commitment: Testing the mediation Role of Perceived Value and Brand Image
by Homa Kavousi, Mojtaba Ramezani, Reza Rostamzadeh
Abstract: Today distinguishing brands by traditional methods has been difficult for firms, because branding is not only a companys share in the market, but it also contributes its share in customers mind and memory and this is the main pivot of experimental marketing. Given that media encourages members to deep levels of engagement in the society, this leads to creation of trust and commitment of the members and it is beneficial for brand community. Therefore, according to media importance in brand commitment, the goal of this research is to evaluate the impact of social media on brand commitment by emphasizing the mediation role of perceived value and brand image. Target sample of this research is the customers of LG Company. For evaluation of reliability and validity of this research, Cronbachs alpha and composite reliability indices used which have been obtained greater than 0.8 and 0.5 respectively for all variables which show that they are in standard and acceptable level. Study results confirmed that the proposed models fitness for evaluation of media social impact on brand commitment according to mediation role of perceived value and brand image. In addition, results indicated that brand commitment is significantly influenced by perceived value and brand image.
Keywords: Social media; brand commitment; perceived value; brand image.
Export diversity and the relevance of different forms of market experience
by Marco Alvarado, Esteban Lafuente, Ronald Mora-Esquivel
Abstract: This study evaluates how different forms of human capitali.e., formal management studies, labor market experience and experience in multinational businessesexplain the export diversity of SMEs, defined as the number of foreign market destinations where the business sells its goods or services. The proposed hypotheses are tested using negative binomial regression models on a unique sample of 117 Costa Rican SMEs for 2017. The findings reveal that labor experience in multinational firmsin particular, experience in managerial positionsis a relevant source of human capital that equip entrepreneurs with specific know-how that is conducive to export diversity, in terms of number of market destinations. Results also show that firm size, age and online sales (e-commerce) are positively correlated to export diversity. Beyond canonical export-related measures, this study offers insights on the importance of including the number of foreign markets (market destinations) in the evaluation of the export performance of SMEs.
Keywords: Export diversity; market destinations; human capital; SMEs; Costa Rica.
Network-based bootstrapping and performance in SMEs: The moderating role of entrepreneurship training
by Krisztina Horváth
Abstract: This study evaluates how the use of financial bootstrappingi.e., cash management techniques which are linked to the exploitation of different networksand human capital components impact employment growth of small and medium-sized enterprises. The proposed hypotheses are tested on a sample of 70 Hungarian small and medium sized businesses. Results reveal that the effect on employment growth of network exploitation via bootstrapping techniques is conditioned by the presence of entrepreneurial training. While bootstrap finance related to suppliers is positively associated with employment growth, it was found that entrepreneurial training positively moderates the relationship between employment growth and bootstrapping techniques related to business and customer networks. The results of this study offer relevant theoretical and managerial implications.
Keywords: Financial bootstrapping; bootstrap finance; entrepreneurship training; networking; employment growth; small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs); business performance; Hungary.
Productization as the reverse side of the servitization strategy.
by Luna Leoni
Abstract: The main aim of this paper is to report the state-of-the-art in productisation research together with its relationship with the servitisation concept. In order to do so, the systematic literature review method has been used to collect the relevant journal publications related to productisation. The 35 identified articles have been analysed through both descriptive and mixed thematic analyses. The findings provided a detailed definition of the productisation strategy and an understanding of what kind of relationship exists between productisation and servitisation strategies. Moreover, the results of the study contribute to both the scholarly and practitioner debates, on the manufacturing and service industries. Referring specifically to this last point, the paper advocates a merging of manufacturing and service companies in order to co-create a solution offering. This study represents the first attempt to explicitly combine productisation and servitisation strategies into a convergence model, aspiring to move forward the body of knowledge on both.
Keywords: servitisation; convergence; strategy; solution; systematic literature review; thematic analysis; productisation.
Revisiting Product and Process Innovations
by Ester Martinez-Ros
Abstract: Since the seminal work of Utterback and Abernathy in 1975, many relevant studies have been developed around the phenomena of product and process innovations. Both activities are placed within the area of technological innovation to differentiate them from non-technological innovation such as organizational or commercial innovation carried out in a company. Traditionally, literature on innovation types has focused on the study of their determinants, however the tendency in current studies is to introduce technological innovations related to the way innovation takes the environment into consideration onto the agenda of companies. Sustainable development and technological innovations must work together to achieve firms competitive goals.
Keywords: product innovation; process innovation; environmental innovation.
Social Networks, Psychological Empowerment, and Work Outcomes: Mediating Role of Psychological Empowerment Dimensions on the Relations between Social Networks, Job Dedication, and Individual Creativity
by Ahmad Adeel, Samreen Batool, Rizwan Ali
Abstract: This study linked social networks with work-related outcomes. We tested dimensions of psychological empowerment as mediators between internal bonding networks, external bridging networks, job dedication, and individual creativity using Mplus 7. With a sample of 317 higher hierarchical level employees and their supervisors, it has been found, competence and self-determination dimensions of empowerment mediate the relationship between internal bonding networks and job dedication and between external bridging networks and job dedication. Meaning, competence, and self-determination dimensions of psychological empowerment mediate the relationship between internal bonding networks and individual creativity and between external bridging networks and individual creativity. Contrary to our prediction, impact dimension of psychological empowerment was not significant with internal bonding networks and external bridging networks. Our findings suggest that membership of social networks enhance empowerment perceptions of employees which in turn enhance their dedication towards job and their individual level creativity.
Keywords: Social Networks; Psychological Empowerment; Individual Creativity; Job Dedication.
Cluster Policy Resilience: New Challenges for a Mature Policy
by James Wilson
Abstract: Cluster policy has proved to be an extremely resilient feature of the regional competitiveness policy landscape over thirty years. To examine why cluster policies have become so widespread, this paper makes a clear conceptual distinction between clusters themselves, cluster policies, and cluster policy instruments. This distinction helps to disentangle the cross-over with other policies and provides the foundations for exploring new directions. Three sets of challenges for what is now a mature policy are highlighted: the links between clusters, cluster policies and territorial strategy processes; more effective evaluation of how different policy instruments influence what happens inside clusters; and harnessing the capacity of clusters to respond to social alongside economic challenges.
Keywords: Clusters; Cluster Policy; Cooperative Dynamics; Regional Competitiveness.
Restructuring for service business development: insights from a machine tool manufacturer
by Bart Kamp
Abstract: The present paper considers how a manufacturing company with product-oriented services was able to redesign its organization to take advantage of service business opportunities. It also looks at the role played in this process by company agents other than top management. For the case study selected, the analysis of initial conditions and subsequent change dynamics is based on action research methods, thus producing a semi-longitudinal case study. The findings are that, contrary to established viewpoints, actors from lower hierarchical levels within the organization do not necessarily behave as opponents to change and can in fact foster the development of organizational solutions to tackle the challenges of servitization. In addition, the case at hand shows that such organizational solutions can build simultaneously upon a dual product/service approach across the firm, upon a reconsideration of front-line and back-end functions, and upon semi-detached or stand-alone structures. As such, it illustrates how multi-faceted organizational restructuring can take shape within the context of servitization. Similarly, it provides a complement to studies that analyze organizational adaptations with a view to servitization in terms of either how to divide responsibilities between the front-line and back-end of the organization or whether the product and service businesses should be handled separately. Moreover, the present study finds that manufacturing companies that prepare for servitization do not necessarily have to limit themselves to internal resources, but can also team up with and incorporate third parties to devise organizational solutions to service business development.
Based on these findings, it can be asserted that senior directors can try to build upon change agents inside the firm to develop a servitization-friendly organizational structure. Similarly, the study highlights that the organizational solutions that servitizing companies implement can contain both internal and external elements.
Keywords: service delivery; organizational change; buyer-seller relationships; servitization.