World Review of Intermodal Transportation Research (17 papers in press)
From Technology to Market: A Bibliometric and Integrative Review on Autonomous Vehicles
by Joao Paulo Nascimento Silva, Rodrigo Marçal Gandia, Joel Yutaka Sugano, Cledison Carlos Oliveira, Fabio Antonialli, Gabriel Alexandre Lopes Pedrosa, Luiz Guilherme Rodrigues Antunes, Bruna Habib Cavazza
Abstract: The present study aims to understand the direction that research on Autonomous Vehicles (AVs) has taken in the academy, in order to bring to surface and detail gaps on the disruptive aspect of this innovative sector. A bibliometric revision was used to map the research present in the Clarivate Analytics Web of Science database, followed by a systematic integrative review to structure the evolution of the research and present the main aspects. Five categories that show the evolution of the research on AV technology were retrieved, such as a new focus on the users of technology. We also identified gaps in each category on how this technology should reach the market. Additionally, it was also possible to draw a global view of the technology development landscape by the analysis of both academic and market data, according to the KPMG Report, and also to identify the recent market trend of Mobility as a Service (MaaS).
Keywords: Autonomous Vehicles; Terrestrial Mobility; Bibliometric Review; Integrative Review.
The impact of logistics performance on exports, imports and foreign direct investment
by Sandra Luttermann, Herbert Kotzab, Tilo Halaszovich
Abstract: Logistics performance (LP) is strongly connected to trade and investment, and gains growing importance in describing the competitiveness of countries. Increasing world trade simultaneously requires continuous progress in logistics or transport technologies so that the performance of logistics infrastructure becomes a necessary condition for foreign investors to operate efficiently. The aim of this paper is to examine how LP contributes to trade and foreign direct investment (FDI). This question has been empirically analysed by performing a panel data analysis using secondary data on 20 Asian countries. Our results prove a statistically significant relationship between LP and trade as well as FDI. So far, LP is rarely considered in explaining the attractiveness of countries as trading partners or as an investment target. The paper fills the gap in the literature by analysing the relationship between LP and trade as well as FDI.
Keywords: logistics performance; foreign direct investment; international trade; export; import.
ASYMMETRIC CAUSALITY FROM COMMODITY PRICES TO SHIPPING MARKETS: AN EMPIRICAL RESEARCH ON ISTFIX REGION
by Abdullah Acik, Sadik Ozlen Baser
Abstract: Demand for dry bulk cargo transportation is derived demand and it is strongly influenced by the demand for the commodities being transported. Many factors affect the demand for these commodities, but the prices of the commodities are among the most important of these factors. Therefore, interactions between commodity prices and freight rates are inevitable. However, there is not much study on this relation in maritime literature and information asymmetry is not taken into account in the studies. In this context, the aim of this study is to examine the asymmetric causality from the prices of the commodities mostly transported in ISTFIX region to the freight rates by an asymmetric causality test developed by Hatemi-J (2012). The data set consists of 122 observations on a monthly basis covering the dates between January 2008 and February 2018. Commodities are composed of coal, wheat and steel, while freight rates are composed of ISTFIX general index and sub data sets based on ship dimensions. According to the general results obtained, positive and negative shocks in coal and steel prices are symmetrically causes of the positive and negative shocks in ISTFIX. However, negative shocks in wheat prices are cause of positive shocks in the index, and positive shocks in the commodity are the causes of negative shocks in the index. It is hoped that this study will provide a new perspective on the maritime literature and these results may be useful to stakeholders in the maritime sector in terms of developing commercial strategies by following the market conditions of the commodities they are targeting.
Keywords: Asymmetric causality; commodity prices; freight market.
Analysis of the attributes to decision-making process of the urban freight vehicle choice for Brazilian scenario
by Larissa Almeida Matias De Lima Batista, Lara Braide Rocha, Bruno Bertoncini, Leise Kelli Oliveira
Abstract: The largest cities in Brazil are experiencing a crisis in their urban mobility model. It increases the complexity of the urban distribution process, which requires a considerable effort in decisions such as vehicular choice for urban freight transport. Some attributes might influence the commercial vehicle choice by the decision makers, and they may be related to aspects of the vehicle, the cargo, the delivery area, the freight vehicle restrictions resulting from public policies and the requirements from the operation, as just-in-time production systems. Recognizing this challenge, the key attributes that influence the urban freight vehicle choice were identified through a systematic literature review and their adherence to the Brazilian reality was evaluated through a Survey. Also, a stated preference survey was carried out to measure the relationship between decisions on the choice of commercial vehicular mode and the main attributes in this process. The results indicated that the attributes that most influence the urban freight choice are vehicle capacity and operational cost. Moreover, the responses from the stated preference survey indicate that the vehicle age and the vehicle size were the most important variables. The results could support urban transport planners in the development of effective public policies that consider the operation of carriers, and, in this way, improve urban mobility.
Keywords: urban freight transport; urban freight vehicle choice; stated preference; Brazil.
Ant Colony Optimization For Solving Real-World Pickup And Delivery Problems With Hard Time Windows
by Anna Syberfeldt, Henrik Smedberg
Abstract: This paper compares the performance of the classic Genetic Algorithm with the more recently proposed Ant Colony Optimization for solving real-world pickup and delivery problems with hard time windows. A real-world problem that is present worldwide waste collection is used to evaluate the algorithms. As in most real-world waste collection problems, many of the waste bins have time windows. The time windows stem from such things as safety regulations and customer agreements, and must be strictly adhered to. The optimization showed that the Genetic Algorithm is better than the Ant Colony Optimization when utilizing standard implementations of both algorithms. However, when the algorithms are enhanced with a local search procedure, the Ant Colony Optimization immediately becomes superior and achieves improved results. Local search seems to be a drawback for the Genetic Algorithm when hard time windows are involved. Various implementations of the local search procedure are evaluated in this paper using five different test sets. Recommendations for future implementations are given as well as additional enhancements which could improve the performance of the Ant Colony Optimization.
Keywords: Ant Colony Optimization; Pickup And Delivery Problem; Hard Time Windows.
A combined approach of multiple-criteria decision analysis and discrete-event simulation: lessons learned from a fleet composition study
by Luis Filipe Figueira De Faria, Luíze Fernandes De Asevedo, José Geraldo Vidal Vieira, João Eduardo Azevedo Ramos Da Silva
Abstract: This study proposes a framework for a decision of the fleet composition problem based on a set of qualitative and quantitative criteria, which is a hybrid method for decision-making support that combines MCDA and simulation techniques in a multicriteria scenario for fleet composition. The proposed framework is able, using simulations, to address the complexity of criteria considered in a fleet composition problem in order to increase the preciseness of the decision-making process. From the solutions evaluated, there was a change in the preference of the alternative initially chosen after simulation, which is considered to refine the solution provided by the MCDA method. Considering only the MCDA method, the cost is prioritized and the solution uses exclusively high capacity trucks. Using the simulation and a different weighing process, the service level has a greater importance and a percentage of smaller trucks is admitted as part of the fleet.
Keywords: combined approach; fleet composition; multiple-criteria decision analysis; discrete-event simulation; framework; decision making; operational research; hybrid method; heterogeneous fleet; solution evaluation.
A percolation theory-based street network connectivity model for feeder transit services
by Shailesh Chandra, Vinay Kumar
Abstract: In this paper, we present a street network connectivity probabilistic model for feeder transit by applying concepts and theories from percolation processes. The primary motivation of this research is based on strong similarities that are observed between behaviors of transportation networks and networks formed from physical processes such as fluid flows in a porous media. Streets act as the medium of propagation of vehicular flows and bonds and sites within a porous media act as the medium of propagation of fluid flows. Connectivity is pertinent both within the context of streets as well as fluid flows since failure of a street link or bond can occur in either of them when flow exceeds capacity. In this paper, percolation-based street network connectivity is studied for two types of networks from transit systems - first, networks from a fixed route transit (FRT) and second, networks from a flexible route transit (FXRT). Application examples with Route 121 from Long Beach Transit for FRT shows that the connectivity of a section of the Route analyzed is up to 67%. With FXRT example using five Call-n-Ride (CnR) Denver RTD, the connectivity is found to be the highest for Interlocken with street connectivity up to 14.4%. The street network from all the five CnR system appeared to be poorly connected for drop-off or pick-up of passengers. This research would serve as a benchmark to studying several other percolation-based properties of porous media that can be successfully applied to modeling network connectivity of other modes of transportation such as rail and freight trucks.
Keywords: percolation; connectivity; transportation networks; feeder transit.
Public-private partnerships in airports: The Turkish experience
by Ferhan Kuyucak Sengur
Abstract: Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) have become a prevalent method to fund transport infrastructure around the world. PPPs have emerged in airports as an alternative to public airports and complete privatization of airports. PPPs in airports have a history of 25 years in Turkey. This paper aims to provide an up-to-date review of PPP experiences in Turkish airports. With a case study design, PPPs in Turkish airports are examined in the context of policy, legal grounds, and implementations. PPPs are the main method adopted especially in the funding and operation of new airports and/or terminals in Turkey. Besides the successes, there are also areas to be improved regarding PPP design and implementation. More transparent, comprehensive, and structured contract terms, proper risk assignment, more accurate demand forecasting, and efforts to overcome certain public interest concerns are identified as the main requirements for future policy actions.
Keywords: airport public-private partnerships; airport privatization; airport management; air transportation; airport business; PPPs.
Human or machine driving? Comparing autonomous with traditional vehicles value curves and motives to use a car.
by Fabio Antonialli, Bruna Habib Cavazza, Rodrigo Marçal Gandia, Isabelle Nicolaï, Arthur De Miranda Neto, Joel Yutaka Sugano, André Luiz Zambalde
Abstract: This study aims at drawing new value curves for Autonomous Vehicles (AVs) over Traditional Vehicles when considering AVs as a Product-Service System (PSS) as well as discussing the main reasons to use an AV over a traditional car. The data were collected based on primary data (with AVs specialists in France, Belgium and Brazil) and secondary data. The results show the arrival of AVs would include: different ownership forms; free time for users (no driving required); infotainment; social integration of elders and handicapped people. We realize that AVs have in their business model several attributes that fit them into a new market perspective compared to the current mobility scenario. Also, we observed that as automation levels increase, machine driving components of the vehicle also increase. As conclusions, the reasons to use a car are likely to change with decrease on symbolic and affective attributes and increase instrumental ones.
Keywords: Autonomous Vehicles; Automated Driving Systems; Value Curve; Four Action Framework; Car-use motives.
Solving a routing problem of collect infectious healthcare waste with stochastic demand: case of Sfax Governorate in Tunisia
by Rim Daoud, Manel Kammoun, Wafik Hachicha
Abstract: This paper deals with a real stochastic infectious healthcare waste (IHW) collection problem. The waste was collected from private and public hospitals in the governorate of Sfax (Tunisia) to a disposal centre to be incinerated. The reduction of gas emissions and medical infectious waste represent a challenge for Tunisia's commitments in healthcare institutions. This problem is considered as a Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem with Stochastic Demand (CVRPSD). To solve this problem, two combined approaches are proposed include the following. (1) A combination of exact method with a Monte Carlo simulation. (2) A combination of the same simulation tools with Clarke and Wright (C&W) saving heuristic. These proposed approaches provide a large set of solutions which help the decision-makers of the Sfax municipality to perform an adequate IHW transportation routing system. The approaches results show that there is one common solution (route) that appears with a high frequency using an exact method despite the stochastic character of demands. The (C&W) heuristic provides good results in a reasonable time. The use of such heuristic in this problem is very significant since it helps to minimise the number of used vehicles.
Keywords: CVRPSD; exact method; Clarke and Right saving; Monte Carlo simulation; stochastic quantities; infectious healthcare waste; Tunisia.
The Emergence of Intelligent Transportation Systems from a Continental and Technological Perspective
by Ilja Bäumler, Herbert Kotzab
Abstract: This article explores the intertwined nature of technologies and progress of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) in North America and in the European Countries. The first ideas for an intelligent use of existing infrastructure for road traffic were developed in the United States in the late 1960s, whereas the first ITS-related technologies were researched in the early 1960s (sensor technology). Our research shows that neither the ideas, nor the technologies on its own led to ITS development. But In the late 1980s, strengthened by international networking and competition thinking, enormous efforts in ITS research were conducted.
Keywords: Intelligent Transportation System (ITS); history; technology development.
Analysis of road mortality in digital age using Bayesian ecological model: The case of Tunisia
by Karim KAMMOUN
Abstract: While awareness of the public health burden represented by road insecurity is recent, the idea that it is developing countries, particularly in Africa, that experience high road mortality, is older. In this context, our paper aims to propose solutions for the decision-making process on road safety in Tunisia through the study of road mortality rate perceived under two respective angles: population density and geographic unit affiliation. The modeling and analysis work will allow identifying better the respective weight of the factors associated with road mortality. Methodologically, our recourse is so the Bayesian ecological regression model to meet our cited goal. The model parameters are adjusted by Gibbs sampling. Econometrically, the hypothesis related to the influence of population density on road mortality has been proved. A new ranking of Tunisian governorates, according to their road mortality rate standardized by population size, is illustrated. The variation in road mortality risk is the highest at the delegation level but is the lowest at the district level and the governorate level, which proves the existence of other responsible factors observed at the regional level. An estimated elasticity of -0.25 at the district level means that a 10 % increase in population density can cause a decrease of 2.5 % in the occurrence of road mortality. Mapping the Bayes relative risk can assist the identification of regions that can be targeted by the national policy. Consequently, this study shows that the analysis models can provide a better overview of the road safety situation and a robust tool for decision-makers.
Keywords: Road safety policy; Regional analysis; Road mortality; Population density; Bayesian method.
Sea cargo revenue management: a scenario-based approach for order acceptance decision
by Chi-Leung Chu, Vincent Li
Abstract: In this paper, we consider a single-leg, single-departure period sea cargo revenue management problem. Since demand is uncertain, the carrier practices overbooking to better utilise capacity in which the overlooking quantity is fixed based on past experience and historical data. Booking requests arrive in a given time window before ship departure. The problem is to determine whether to accept a booking request upon its arrival so as to maximise the total expected profit subject to the limited capacity. To this end, a two-phase scenario-based heuristic is developed for real-time application. This heuristic is intuitive, fast, and easy to understand and implement. The major advantage of the proposed heuristic is that the development is simple enough such that a college graduate with basic knowledge on management science can understand, implement, and maintain. By computational experiment, we find that the heuristic is robust and delivers solutions with consistently high effectiveness.
Keywords: Sea Cargo Revenue Management; Heuristic; Overbooking; Simulation; Multidimensional Knapsack Problem.
Analysing the maritime network of the Port of Algeciras Bay
by Iñigo L. Ansorena
Abstract: Algeciras Bay is located at the Gibraltar Strait, a chokepoint of the worlds main sea routes. The port of Algeciras plays a key role in the western Mediterranean area and this paper aims to shed new light on its maritime network. First, we use a clustering approach (the Louvain method) to reveal well connected groups of ports. Then in the second stage we analyse centralities to determine ports with a special position. The Algeciras network exhibits a scale-free structure (a few dominant ports with many connections and a large number of ports with few connections). We also find six groups of well-connected ports and strong correlations between centrality measures and frequency of nodes. Our findings are important not only from the perspective of shipping companies interested in the design of regular services, but also from the perspective of the port of Algeciras Bay. The Port Authority can use the outcomes of the research to strengthen cooperation with the most relevant ports in the network via twinning agreements.
Keywords: maritime network; graph theory; centrality metrics; degree centrality; Louvain method; liner services.
High speed rail transportation: Key factors for the Australian eastern states
by Koorosh Gharehbaghi, Kerry McManus, Kathryn Robson, David Paterno Paterno, Matt Myers
Abstract: In Australia, where the population is contained mainly in series of widely dispersed centers of population in cities and towns separated by very long distances between centers, the case for High Speed Rail (HSR) has generally been less compelling. Further, the Australian government is continuously investigating the feasibility of HSR with a particular focus on the transit of freight. In addition to transit of freight, this paper also evaluates the consequences and benefits of HSR transportation for Australia as the basis of mass population movement. Subsequently, this research reviews and assesses the implications and advantages of building an HSR passenger-focused transport network in Australia - in particular for the eastern region, where the majority of the nation's population is concentrated. To support this synopsis, European and other HSR systems are reviewed as a capstone precedent for the purpose of lessons to be learned. Accordingly, a careful review of such HSR systems was undertaken. Specific analysis methods were also utilized to further evaluate the importance of HSR for Australia. To support this research, empirical and factor analyses were undertaken. Research presented here indicates that HSR in the Australian context is likely to ultimately achieve the general goals of such transportation infrastructure. It was found that, the Australia HSR would subsequently increase the transportation sustainability and performance, via reduction in travelling time together with more regional zone coverage. Ultimately, such improvements would particularly benefit the Australian regional communities via appropriate transit of passengers.
Keywords: High Speed Rail (HSR); Transportation sustainability; Transportation sustainability and performance.
Special Issue on: VREF 2018 Integrating Urban Freight in Urban Transport Planning
Freight villages and urban goods distribution: Perspectives of freight transport operators, experts, and policymakers from multi-criteria decision analysis
by Beatriz Alves Senna, Lilian Dos Santos Fontes Pereira Bracarense, Leise Kelli Oliveira, Renata Lúcia Magalhães Oliveira
Abstract: A freight village is an option to reduce the externalities of urban freight transport and improve the efficiency of this activity. In this sense, its location is a factor in the accomplishment of the benefits promoted by city logistics solutions. This paper evaluates the use of freight villages for urban goods distribution. We used a multi-criteria decision analysis to identify the viewpoints of stakeholders involved in this solution (carriers, experts and policymakers). We applied this method to a case study in the city of Palmas, Brazil. The results indicate that there are different perspectives on the relevance of the criteria analysed, reinforcing the need for dialogue and participation of various stakeholders in the planning of urban freight transport, to encourage logistical solutions consistent with the requirements of urban freight transport.
Keywords: urban freight transport; urban distribution centre; freight village; freight cluster; multi-criteria decision analysis; analytic hierarchy process; stakeholders.
Where to open maritime containers?: A decision model at the interface of maritime and urban logistics
by Yann Bouchery, Johan Woxenius, Rickard Bergqvist
Abstract: After an era of developing large-scale hinterland access for maritime containers by use of rail and inland waterways, research interest and practice has witnessed a slight shift towards port-centric logistics. The big question is where to open import containers and close and seal the ones for export goods. Is it better done in the port vicinity or should the maritime containers also be used for transport to and from the hinterland? In other words, where is the stuffing and stripping op-erations best located? Focusing on the import of goods loaded in maritime con-tainers, this article provides a model for assessing the options of locating distri-bution centres (DCs) in the vicinity of the port or in the hinterland, or using a combination of the two. The model is illustrated by a case study of import through the Port of Gothenburg, Sweden, comparing a port-centric DC with a lo-cation in Falk
Keywords: Distribution centre; container; hinterland; port; port-centric logistics.