World Review of Intermodal Transportation Research (17 papers in press)
Travel Time Variability Analysis Based on Level of Service: A Case Study of Mixed Traffic Urban Arterial Corridors
by Krishna Saw, Gaurang Joshi, Bhimaji Katti
Abstract: Since the Indian urban traffic is characterized by heterogeneity with the dominance of two-wheelers (2Ws), three-wheelers (3Ws) and precarious traffic impedance, travel time is often highly unstable and varies significantly which entails additional cost due to delays. Travel time variation not only leads to wasting of productive time but also increase the stress level of the commuters. In addition, variable travel time leads to the reduction in satisfaction level which influences commuters travel decision such as route and departure choice etc. With this in the background, an attempt has been made to study the travel time variability of urban arterial corridors focusing on Level of Service (LoS) as the criteria for reference of travel time. The study probes into various attributes of traffic, composition, road side friction and intersection for their impact on travel time by employing Multiple- Linear Regression (MLR) Technique. The proposed Travel Time Variability Index (TTVI) based on LoS speed suggested as better reliability indicator against Buffer Time Index (BTI) or Planning Time Index (PTI).
Keywords: Travel Time Variation; Recurring Attributes; Level of Service; Travel Time Variability Index.
Analysis of freight mode choice decisions of shippers and forwarders; pre-liberalisation survey
by Hulya Zeybek
Abstract: Liberalisation of rail markets has been in progress in the EU since the beginning of 2007. This allows any licensed EU incumbent or non-incumbent railway company with the necessary safety certification to apply for capacity and offer freight services by rail throughout the EU. The experiences of the liberalized rail markets demonstrate that the majority of the new rail freight services providing companies have drawn customers from incumbents and very few companies have been successful in attracting new ones. Thus, unleashing competition by opening the market requires the incumbents to understand customers' mode and carrier choice behaviour as a first step, if they are to avoid dramatic and rapid losses of market share. This study provides an assessment of the influences on the transport mode choice of shippers and forwarders highlighting the important factors driving freight mode choice before the rail market liberalisation. The analysis is based on the findings of the survey conducted by interviewing shippers and forwarders. The results of the research revealed that cost is the main factor in determining the modal choice of both shippers and forwarders demonstrating that they are price sensitive in transport service procurement.
Keywords: mode choice; rail freight; pre-liberalisation; Turkey.
Power Plant Allocation Using Transportation model and Economic Dispatch Considering Emissions
by Wahyuda , Budi Santosa, Ahmad Rusdiansyah
Abstract: This paper proposes a hybrid of Transportation and Economic Dispatch (TED) model to perform a joint optimization of both production and transmission of the power plant. By this model, we aim to reduce the total cost of power allocation. The model is applied to solve a problem of electricity allocation in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. The main problems of electricity in East Kalimantan are the power outages, high prices, and high emission despite the abundance of gas and coal. The proposed model attempts to reduce these problems altogether. Four scenarios are applied to find the best possible solution. The scenarios are using power generated by 1) the State Electricity Company (SEC), 2) the SEC and the Independent Power Producer (IPP), 3) the SEC and a rental power plant (Rent), and 4) the SEC and a private company (PC). The experiments show that using power generated by SEC + IPP produces the cheapest fuel cost and minimum outages. While SEC + Rent produces the smallest emissions and outages. There is no scenario that can reduce outages, prices, and emissions simultaneously
Keywords: power plant allocation; economic dispatch; transportation model; single echelon; electricity.
Potential improvements for access management in intermodal freight terminals: designing and testing a service for small road haulers
by Stefan Jacobsson
Abstract: To lower the environmental impact in freight transportation, road haulage activities need to be drastically improved. Road haulage, such as when road haulers access intermodal freight terminals, can be improved by using different access management services. The purpose of this paper is to design an access management service and test it in real-life situations to potentially improve road haulage activities. This case study was conducted through two workshops, one telephone group meeting, three semi-structured interviews, 25 observations and interviews with truck drivers, and 198 hours of time measurements of road haulage activities. The main result is an information-exchange framework on which the service is based. It categorises the most relevant information attributes (e.g. container status and queueing status) and provides guidance for how these are exchanged in real time depending on the type of intermodal freight terminal accessed and whether the containers are exported or imported. By exchanging these attributes, which have never been exchanged in real time, the two most significant unnecessary road haulage activities (waiting and administration times) may be reduced and, in turn, lead to reduced environmental impact.
Keywords: access management; road haulage activities; intermodal freight terminals; services; real-time information exchange.
Reviewing the challenges of port authority business model innovation
by Louise Kringelum
Abstract: The port industry is in a state of flux which is affecting the roles of port authorities. Applying a business model perspective to explore this qualitative shift in competition, this paper argues that port authorities are increasingly managing multiple multisided business models. This is analyzed through an integrative review of port research which identifies four challenges for port authorities: 1. diversification of port customers, 2. requirements for new value creation, 3. changing possibilities and constraints of value capture and 4. network effects, clusters and strategic partnerships. The review contributes to literature by exploring how managing port authority business model innovation requires changing the underlying business logic, the activities and resources and the configurational fit with other port actors business models. This proposition is based on the interplay between the macro level port industry, the meso level rule structures within port systems and the micro level of port authority organizations.
Keywords: port authority; business model; business model innovation; diversification; value creation; value capture; network effects; clusters; strategic partnerships; business logic; configurational fit; macro; meso; micro.
Issues and solutions in air-traffic infrastructure and flow management for sustainable aviation growth: a literature review
by Heungjo An, Nelson King, Sung Ook Hwang
Abstract: The demand for air transportation has continuously increased over the past few decades and is expected to grow at 2% per annum over the next 20 years. However, airspace is physically limited, and expanding even the ground infrastructure may be insufficient to meet this demand. In order to investigate issues associated with overcoming the limited air-traffic resources, this paper systematically reviews literature on the air-traffic system with a particular focus on both air and ground infrastructure management. First, major issues in the air-traffic system, problem structures, and solution methods were characterized and categorized. This showed that the air-traffic system is transitioning from addressing static, complicated, and large-scale problems to variability, event-propagation, uncertainties, and integration of several areas. Finally, necessary and promising future research topics are proposed for sustainable aviation growth.
Keywords: air traffic; infrastructure; flow management; issues; solutions; aviation growth.
The non-linear relationship between air transport development and economic growth: the cases of Chile and Uruguay
by Juan Gabriel Brida, Bibiana Lanzilotta, Fiorella Pizzolon
Abstract: The relationship between air transport development and economic growth has been recently analyzed in the economic literature. Most of the empirical research focuses in the identification of linear linkages and causalities between these variables (controlling or not by other macro variables). Previous research performed for a set of Latin-American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay) suggests that for the last two countries, non-linear long-run cointegration relationships exist between transport and economic growth. The present study focuses on the identification of the non-linearities underlay in those relationships, and proposes a model to represent them. The methodology used in this paper combines cointegration concepts with asymmetric adjustment threshold models. In both cases, the non-linearity is modeled on the dynamics of the adjustment to the long-run cointegration path between the variables, from transitory situations of disequilibrium. It is shown that M-TAR adjustment mechanism to the long-run equilibrium is suitable to describe the long-run relationship in the case of Uruguay. However, in the case of Chile, the evidence founded is not clear in favor to a non-linear model with asymmetric adjustment.
Keywords: transport and growth; cointegration and thresholds adjustment; M-TAR models; Chile and Uruguay.
Manufacturing reshoring in the fashion industry: a literature review
by Luciano Fratocchi, Cristina Di Stefano
Abstract: Manufacturing reshoring is the decision to relocate to the home country production activities earlier off-shored (independently of the implemented governance mode, in- vs. out-sourcing). This topic has attracted the attention of practitioners and policy makers; in recent decades the attention of scholars has also grown quite rapidly. Following the suggestions of earlier scholars, this paper adopts a contingency approach, focusing attention on the fashion industry, which is considered one of the most relevant in terms of evidence for relocation strategies. rnMore specifically a structured literature review is conducted by analyzing 24 articles, book chapters and conference papers indexed on Elsevier Scopus and published up to December 2017. Extant literature is classified and analyzed adopting the 5W and 1H set of questions (namely, What, Who, Why, Where, When and How). Based on collected evidence, a comparison with findings that emerged in previous reviews regarding the whole reshoring extant literature is performed, and the specificities of the fashion industry are shown and discussed. Finally, avenues for further research are presented and discussed.rn
Keywords: reshoring; backshoring; systematic literature review; offshoring; 5W & 1H.
The influence of consumer mobility concerns on electric vehicle adoption
by Gabriel Pedrosa, Helena Nobre
Abstract: Although electrical vehicles (EVs) have considerably evolved in the past decade and are a viable option for most of the drivers needs, adoption remains small when compared to conventional fuel vehicles. Mobility concerns remain one of the most important barriers to EV adoption. This study explores variables that influence the mobility concerns from a consumer perspective: the preference on the type of charging point, the availability of a second conventional car, and the presence of advanced range management systems. We complemented the literature review with results from 17 in-depth interviews with conventional fuel vehicle drivers concerning their perceptions and attitudes on EVs in order to build a set of propositions of study. The study further analyses gaps in the EV literature and discusses new venues for future research. Additionally, findings provide recommendations for practice in improving EVs adoption.
Keywords: electric vehicle; EV; charging station; personal charging point; workplace charging point; conventional second car; multi-car household.
An IoT based Dynamic Traffic Management System in Perspective of Bangladesh
by Sadman Sadi, Saifur Sabuj, Altab Hossin
Abstract: In this article present a traffic management system, that dynamically micro-manages
city traffic by keeping track of the precise number of stationary vehicles at every
intersection. It can be implemented quickly at a relatively low cost. Through the
use of localized computing, a trilateration system, integration of Internet of Things
(IoT) and development of an algorithm which manages the green signal timing
on a per lane basis we create a system which is not only cost effective, but also
provides vehicle security and public notification of citywide traffic congestion. It
is capable of working in conjunction with both human driven vehicles of today as
well as the self-driving vehicles of tomorrow. We simulate overall effectiveness of
the system in Matlab for worst-case scenario and have nonetheless found favorable
(5-10% improvement) results.
Keywords: OFDM; trilateration; IoT; V2I; traffic management; tracking security.
From Technology to Market: A Bibliometric and Integrative Review on Autonomous Vehicles
by Joao Paulo Nascimento Silva, Rodrigo Marçal Gandia, Joel Yutaka Sugano, Cledison Carlos Oliveira, Fabio Antonialli, Gabriel Alexandre Lopes Pedrosa, Luiz Guilherme Rodrigues Antunes, Bruna Habib Cavazza
Abstract: The present study aims to understand the direction that research on Autonomous Vehicles (AVs) has taken in the academy, in order to bring to surface and detail gaps on the disruptive aspect of this innovative sector. A bibliometric revision was used to map the research present in the Clarivate Analytics Web of Science database, followed by a systematic integrative review to structure the evolution of the research and present the main aspects. Five categories that show the evolution of the research on AV technology were retrieved, such as a new focus on the users of technology. We also identified gaps in each category on how this technology should reach the market. Additionally, it was also possible to draw a global view of the technology development landscape by the analysis of both academic and market data, according to the KPMG Report, and also to identify the recent market trend of Mobility as a Service (MaaS).
Keywords: Autonomous Vehicles; Terrestrial Mobility; Bibliometric Review; Integrative Review.
The impact of logistics performance on exports, imports and foreign direct investment
by Sandra Luttermann, Herbert Kotzab, Tilo Halaszovich
Abstract: Logistics performance (LP) is strongly connected to trade and investment, and gains growing importance in describing the competitiveness of countries. Increasing world trade simultaneously requires continuous progress in logistics or transport technologies so that the performance of logistics infrastructure becomes a necessary condition for foreign investors to operate efficiently. The aim of this paper is to examine how LP contributes to trade and foreign direct investment (FDI). This question has been empirically analysed by performing a panel data analysis using secondary data on 20 Asian countries. Our results prove a statistically significant relationship between LP and trade as well as FDI. So far, LP is rarely considered in explaining the attractiveness of countries as trading partners or as an investment target. The paper fills the gap in the literature by analysing the relationship between LP and trade as well as FDI.
Keywords: logistics performance; foreign direct investment; international trade; export; import.
ASYMMETRIC CAUSALITY FROM COMMODITY PRICES TO SHIPPING MARKETS: AN EMPIRICAL RESEARCH ON ISTFIX REGION
by Abdullah Acik, Sadik Ozlen Baser
Abstract: Demand for dry bulk cargo transportation is derived demand and it is strongly influenced by the demand for the commodities being transported. Many factors affect the demand for these commodities, but the prices of the commodities are among the most important of these factors. Therefore, interactions between commodity prices and freight rates are inevitable. However, there is not much study on this relation in maritime literature and information asymmetry is not taken into account in the studies. In this context, the aim of this study is to examine the asymmetric causality from the prices of the commodities mostly transported in ISTFIX region to the freight rates by an asymmetric causality test developed by Hatemi-J (2012). The data set consists of 122 observations on a monthly basis covering the dates between January 2008 and February 2018. Commodities are composed of coal, wheat and steel, while freight rates are composed of ISTFIX general index and sub data sets based on ship dimensions. According to the general results obtained, positive and negative shocks in coal and steel prices are symmetrically causes of the positive and negative shocks in ISTFIX. However, negative shocks in wheat prices are cause of positive shocks in the index, and positive shocks in the commodity are the causes of negative shocks in the index. It is hoped that this study will provide a new perspective on the maritime literature and these results may be useful to stakeholders in the maritime sector in terms of developing commercial strategies by following the market conditions of the commodities they are targeting.
Keywords: Asymmetric causality; commodity prices; freight market.
Analysis of the attributes to decision-making process of the urban freight vehicle choice for Brazilian scenario
by Larissa Almeida Matias De Lima Batista, Lara Braide Rocha, Bruno Bertoncini, Leise Kelli Oliveira
Abstract: The largest cities in Brazil are experiencing a crisis in their urban mobility model. It increases the complexity of the urban distribution process, which requires a considerable effort in decisions such as vehicular choice for urban freight transport. Some attributes might influence the commercial vehicle choice by the decision makers, and they may be related to aspects of the vehicle, the cargo, the delivery area, the freight vehicle restrictions resulting from public policies and the requirements from the operation, as just-in-time production systems. Recognizing this challenge, the key attributes that influence the urban freight vehicle choice were identified through a systematic literature review and their adherence to the Brazilian reality was evaluated through a Survey. Also, a stated preference survey was carried out to measure the relationship between decisions on the choice of commercial vehicular mode and the main attributes in this process. The results indicated that the attributes that most influence the urban freight choice are vehicle capacity and operational cost. Moreover, the responses from the stated preference survey indicate that the vehicle age and the vehicle size were the most important variables. The results could support urban transport planners in the development of effective public policies that consider the operation of carriers, and, in this way, improve urban mobility.
Keywords: urban freight transport; urban freight vehicle choice; stated preference; Brazil.
Ant Colony Optimization For Solving Real-World Pickup And Delivery Problems With Hard Time Windows
by Anna Syberfeldt, Henrik Smedberg
Abstract: This paper compares the performance of the classic Genetic Algorithm with the more recently proposed Ant Colony Optimization for solving real-world pickup and delivery problems with hard time windows. A real-world problem that is present worldwide waste collection is used to evaluate the algorithms. As in most real-world waste collection problems, many of the waste bins have time windows. The time windows stem from such things as safety regulations and customer agreements, and must be strictly adhered to. The optimization showed that the Genetic Algorithm is better than the Ant Colony Optimization when utilizing standard implementations of both algorithms. However, when the algorithms are enhanced with a local search procedure, the Ant Colony Optimization immediately becomes superior and achieves improved results. Local search seems to be a drawback for the Genetic Algorithm when hard time windows are involved. Various implementations of the local search procedure are evaluated in this paper using five different test sets. Recommendations for future implementations are given as well as additional enhancements which could improve the performance of the Ant Colony Optimization.
Keywords: Ant Colony Optimization; Pickup And Delivery Problem; Hard Time Windows.
A combined approach of multiple-criteria decision analysis and discrete-event simulation: lessons learned from a fleet composition study
by Luis Filipe Figueira De Faria, Luíze Fernandes De Asevedo, José Geraldo Vidal Vieira, João Eduardo Azevedo Ramos Da Silva
Abstract: This study proposes a framework for a decision of the fleet composition problem based on a set of qualitative and quantitative criteria, which is a hybrid method for decision-making support that combines MCDA and simulation techniques in a multicriteria scenario for fleet composition. The proposed framework is able, using simulations, to address the complexity of criteria considered in a fleet composition problem in order to increase the preciseness of the decision-making process. From the solutions evaluated, there was a change in the preference of the alternative initially chosen after simulation, which is considered to refine the solution provided by the MCDA method. Considering only the MCDA method, the cost is prioritized and the solution uses exclusively high capacity trucks. Using the simulation and a different weighing process, the service level has a greater importance and a percentage of smaller trucks is admitted as part of the fleet.
Keywords: combined approach; fleet composition; multiple-criteria decision analysis; discrete-event simulation; framework; decision making; operational research; hybrid method; heterogeneous fleet; solution evaluation.
A percolation theory-based street network connectivity model for feeder transit services
by Shailesh Chandra, Vinay Kumar
Abstract: In this paper, we present a street network connectivity probabilistic model for feeder transit by applying concepts and theories from percolation processes. The primary motivation of this research is based on strong similarities that are observed between behaviors of transportation networks and networks formed from physical processes such as fluid flows in a porous media. Streets act as the medium of propagation of vehicular flows and bonds and sites within a porous media act as the medium of propagation of fluid flows. Connectivity is pertinent both within the context of streets as well as fluid flows since failure of a street link or bond can occur in either of them when flow exceeds capacity. In this paper, percolation-based street network connectivity is studied for two types of networks from transit systems - first, networks from a fixed route transit (FRT) and second, networks from a flexible route transit (FXRT). Application examples with Route 121 from Long Beach Transit for FRT shows that the connectivity of a section of the Route analyzed is up to 67%. With FXRT example using five Call-n-Ride (CnR) Denver RTD, the connectivity is found to be the highest for Interlocken with street connectivity up to 14.4%. The street network from all the five CnR system appeared to be poorly connected for drop-off or pick-up of passengers. This research would serve as a benchmark to studying several other percolation-based properties of porous media that can be successfully applied to modeling network connectivity of other modes of transportation such as rail and freight trucks.
Keywords: percolation; connectivity; transportation networks; feeder transit.