Middle East J. of Management (42 papers in press)
Do Family Firms Pay More to Their CEOs?
by Anam Tasawar, Mian Sajid Nazir, Farooq Anwar
Abstract: The present study sheds light on the potential dominance of family ownership and its control on CEO compensation in Pakistani family and non-family firms by using data of 132 firms during 2009 to 2015. This study contributes toward new milestone in prior research regarding to developing eastern economies with family dominance in businesses, with respect to impact of family control on CEO compensation. The literature in corporate finance points out that the family firms scrub the level of compensation, which reveals that larger family shareholders play active monitoring role as well as regulate the pay structures of top management. The current study establishes a support for alignment hypothesis of agency theory and does not support the corroboration of managerial rent extracting behavior in family firms. Moreover, the financial institutions have positive effect on CEO compensation; however, the role of institutions in deciding CEO perks becomes negative in case of family firms as compared to non-family firms.
Keywords: CEO compensation; family ownership; firm performance; board independence; institutional ownership.
Testing for Temperature Anomaly in Capital Markets of Pakistan and India
by Mian Sajid Nazir, Hammad Hassan Mirza, Arslan Shaukat, Ayesha Liaqat
Abstract: This study shows temperature-based indicator impact on trading decision and stock returns to financial investors. By using disaggregated data, we showed that stock markets deviate (anomalies) from fundamentals and contradicts the rule of efficient market hypothesis. Among other anomalies, temperature anomaly is said to be driven through psychological factor of investors moods which can influence their trading decisions. We find a statistically significant but negative relationship between Karachi temperature and KSE-100 index returns for the period of January 02, 2006 to Dec 31, 2015. However, Mumbai temperature seems to have no impact on BSE-100 index for the period of our research. Using GARCH methodology, the study incorporates daily temperature data from two South Asian financial hubs and their respective impact on stock returns. The findings of this paper can be further extended to analyze whether other economic sectors are influenced by the temperature based stock market anomalies.
Keywords: temperature anomaly; weather; moods; Pakistan Stock Exchange; Mumbai Stock Exchange.
Leadership Competencies of Middle Managers and Employees' Job Performance: Evidence from a Palestinian Media Channel
by Wasim Al-Habil, Mohammed Aboramadan, Essam Zaqout
Abstract: This paper aims to examine the relationship between leadership competencies and job performance at Al-Aqsa TV channel. A descriptive analytical design was adopted in this study. A total number of two hundred and eighty-eight questionnaires were distributed to Al-Aqsa TV channel employees. One hundred and eighty-one questioners were returned and were usable for statistical analysis. In this study, the Leadership Competency Model was used to measure the leadership competencies at Al-Aqsa TV channel. The results showed that middle managers at Al-Aqsa TV possess leadership competencies at a medium level. The results also demonstrated a positive relationship between leadership competences and performance at Al-Aqsa TV channel. Job performance was mainly influenced by three competencies which are: building coalitions or communications, business acumen and leading change. The paper suggests that building coalitions/communications, business acumen, and leading change, leading people, results driven competencies must be considered while developing job performance development plans. Finally, this paper contributes to the media management empirical literature as the topic is not well developed in developing countries and especially in Palestine.
Keywords: Media Management; Leadership Competencies; Job Performance.
Compensation systems attributes and teachers performance: Mediating effect of Psychological contract fulfillment
by Rana Nadir Idrees, Imran Haider Naqvi, Asma Imran, Muhammad Ismail
Abstract: Higher education institutions (HEIs) play a role in building a knowledge economy, but doing so requires dedicated, well-educated and well-performing teachers, so teachers performance (TP) has become an issue for developing countries. This research evaluates the impact of compensation system schemes on teachers performance in the universities of Pakistan in order to explain the mediating role of psychological contract fulfilment (PCF). A nationwide survey of 52 HEIs in Pakistan was conducted using the random sampling probability technique. After the data collection, mediation was checked using quantitative research methods, including correlation, regression,
multiple mediation, and process. This study analyses the importance of psychological contract fulfilment in mediating the relationship between compensation systems attributes (CSAs) and teachers performance and suggests that psychological contract fulfilment mediates the relationship between compensation system attributes and teachers performance. This study confirms and extends existing empirical evidence concerning the basis of the CSAs-PCF-TP relationships. The current study helps higher-education authorities and other policymakers to realign their compensation systems to
create stronger relationships between compensation and psychological contract fulfilment to teachers performance, which will help them to attain their sustainable development plans.
Keywords: tenure track system; TTS; performance; appraisal; psychological contract fulfilment; PCF; higher education; socio-economic indicators; university; faculty; human Resource; human capital; ranking.
Eco-friendly and Healthy Consumption of Young Saudis: Its Stimuli and Welfare.
by Maher Toukabri, Odai Falah Mohammad AlGhaswyneh
Abstract: This study intends to discover the determinants of healthy consumption in the Saudi market. It equally intends to fill the rift caused by the absence of studies investigating the healthy consumption process and the benefit brought to the Saudi youth.
The literature background allows us to design a model of the healthy consumption of young Saudis, and the hypotheses to test. The quantitative part presents two samples of young consumers in the Saudi market. For this, we interviewed consumers, visitors of four restaurants in Arar Mall, located in KSA. The first sample was used in the exploratory study and the second one was collected to confirm the measurements, test the hypotheses, and validate and specify the developed model.
This study aimed at providing deeper insights into the healthy consumption of young Saudis. Hence, we specifically concentrated on youth healthy intention purchase antecedents, their willingness to pay mediation, and past behavior moderation.
Keywords: Health consciousness; Subjective norm; Perceived behavioral control; Past healthy eating behavior ; Willingness to pay for green; Healthy eating intention.
Linking Ability-enhancing HR practices, Customer Satisfaction and Emotional Intelligence: Insight from Banking Sector
by Sarah Azhar, Syed M. Imran Haider Naqvi, Muhammad Amir Rashid, Asma Imran
Abstract: This study defines and expounds the relationship between ability-enhancing HR practices (A-HRM) and customer satisfaction (CS). Ability-enhancing HR practices comprise recruitment & selection (R&S) and training (TR). The mediating role of emotional intelligence (EI) is tested within the relationship of A-HRM and CS. The study was conducted on a group of 467 employees and same number of customers from 126 bank branches operating in Punjab, Pakistan. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used in the process of statistical analysis. The research confirmed a significant
statistical relationship between all studied variables: A-HRM, EI and CS. It was
concluded, on the basis of the analysis, using SEM, that AHRM has an indirect influence on CS, through EI. A cross-sectional design and use of self-reported questionnaire data are limitations of this study. This study theoretically confirms that emotional intelligence has a positive impact on customer satisfaction and a mediating effect on the relationship between ability-enhancing HR practices and customer satisfaction. The results of this research extend the knowledge in the area of customer service outcomes, with reference to HR practices and emotional intelligence in the organisations.
Keywords: ability-enhancing HR practices; A-HRM; emotional intelligence; structural equation modelling; SEM; customer satisfaction.
The antecedents of student-university identification: An investigation into the Egyptian higher education sector
by Hisham Hawass
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of the quality of interaction between students and professors, and university reputation on student-university identification in the public Egyptian higher education context. It also examines the mediating effect of the student\'s passion to learn on the above mentioned relationships. The study uses a questionnaire which consists of valid and reliable measurement scales. A structure equation modeling has been conducted in order to empirically examine the hypothesized relationships. The findings reveal that university reputation is directly associated with student-university identification. The student\'s passion to learn partially mediates the relationship between reputation and identification. Moreover, the passion to learn fully mediates the association between the quality of interaction and identification.
Keywords: Student-university identification; quality of interaction between academics and students; university reputation; and the passion to learn.
Developing Entrepreneurial Intentions: What Matters?
by Saaed Mujahid, Muhammad Shujaat Mubarik, Navaz Naghavi
Abstract: This study aims to identify the major personality traits and their impact on entrepreneurial intentions of Pakistani business students, specifically in terms of perceived support and perceived barriers. The study used a close ended questionnaire adopted from previous studies to collect data from 200 business students studying in business schools of Karachi, Pakistan, and applied the Partial Least Square (PLS) method to analyze the relationships. Results revealed that attitude, innovativeness and risk taking ability have a profound effect on entrepreneurial intentions. Furthermore, study analyzed results by dividing students into two categories education system i.e. matric system and Cambridge system. Interestingly, risk taking ability and innovativeness were high among those students who studied from matric system which is contrary to perceived wisdom. Based on these findings, our study suggests devising awareness programs aimed at fostering students attitude toward entrepreneurship and nurturing their creativity. For an in-depth analysis, study suggests focusing on high risk taking, innovative individuals to further understand what drives them.
Keywords: Entrepreneurial intention; Partial Least Square (PLS); Attitude towards entrepreneurship; Psychological formation; Risk taking; Innovativeness; Creativity ; Perceived wisdom; Awareness.
Examining the Indirect Effect of Corporate Social Responsibility on Firm Performance: An Empirical Study in Lebanon
by Tamara Kasamani, Rania Mostafa
Abstract: The current study examines a mediated model to understand the link between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and firm performance (FP). Based on the research findings from a sample of 110 respondents from Lebanese firms, the results suggest that the CSR and FP association is an entirely mediated relationship. In particular, CSR is positively linked to firm financial performance indirectly through the enhancement of reputation, customer satisfaction, and competitive advantage. Hence, the findings reduce ambiguity around CSRs direct role, and reveal that CSR promotes firm performance indirectly through building intangible assets (reputation, customer satisfaction, and competitive advantage) that are essential to the survival of a firm.
Keywords: competitive advantage; corporate social responsibility; customer satisfaction; firm performance; Lebanon; reputation.
AN ANALYSIS ON SUSTAINABILITY REPORTING PRACTICES OF THE TURKISH BANKING SECTOR
by Ahmet Mentes
Abstract: Stakeholders increasingly expect firms to disclose their activities and the effects of these activities on environment and society. Banks and other financial institutions are no exception and face similar pressure from all stakeholders to be more transparent. This study uses Global Reporting Initiative guidelines to explore the sustainability reporting practices of the Turkish banking sector. All of the fifty two banks that operate in Turkey as of 2015 are included in the study. Results exhibit that only nine banks release sustainability reports. The economic (EC) dimension indicators of sustainability reports have the highest disclosure rate among reporting banks. On the other hand Financial Services Sector (FS) supplement has the lowest disclosure rate among reporting banks compared to other dimensions of sustainability reporting. Findings also indicate that the asset size of sustainability report releasing banks add up to more than seventy five percent of the banking sector in Turkey.
Keywords: Finance; Banking; Sustainability; Sustainability Reporting; Banking; Turkey; Global Reporting Initiative; Governance; Voluntary Disclosure; Corporate Strategy.
Linking Elements of Entrepreneurial Orientation and Firm Performance: Examining the Moderation of Environmental Dynamism
by Imran Shafique, Munazza Saeed
Abstract: This research is designed to examine the impact of elements of entrepreneurial orientation (EO) on firm performance by considering environmental dynamism as a potential moderator. Data was gathered from 143 textile and leather manufacturing small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Pakistan. Partial least square (PLS) was employed to analyze the hypotheses. The findings reveal that EO elements positively affect firm performance directly, except in the case of proactiveness. However, the nexus between the elements of EO and firm performance are also positively moderated by the environmental dynamics. Managers can exploit the EO elements according to the environmental situation of the industry. Further, scholars can comprehend better the EO-firm performance link by considering the environmental dynamism of the industry. Innovativeness, proactiveness and risk-taking as distinctive EO elements are hypothesized and their individual effects on firm performance analyzed considering the environmental dynamism as a potential moderator.
Keywords: entrepreneurial orientation (EO); innovativeness; proactiveness; risk-taking; environmental dynamism; firm performance,.
Local decision-making within the concept of governance in Jordan
by Anan Abu Hummour
Abstract: Present study determines how public policy is made at local level in the countrys public sector. The primary data was gathered in the form of questionnaire responses from 281 randomly selected personnel working in local administration within the Kingdom of Jordans public sector. The findings indicate that there are various actors involved in the public policy process in Jordan. These actors include local councils, municipal councils, governorate councils, and executive councils as well as citizens, local donors, foreign aid, and civil society organizations. Furthermore, inflexibility, mystery, unresponsiveness, and centralization are the most common characteristics that overwhelmingly dominate local planning in Jordan. The finding also shows that there is a significant association between roles of actors on local decision-making at ( 0.05). The existence of the effect is statistically significant at the level of significance = ( 0.05) for the actors roles (local citizens, local donors, foreign aid, and civil society organization) related to roles affecting local decisions-making
Keywords: Keywords: governance; public policy; decision-making process; local administration; Jordanian public sector; councillor.
Role of leaders in the development and maintenance of organizational culture through artifacts
by Asma Khalid, Bakhtawar Bibi, Ch. Shoaib Akhtar
Abstract: The present research explores the role of leaders in the development and maintenance of organizational culture by studying artifacts a part of organizational culture. To understand the culture of organizations, ethnographic approach is used. Primary data was gathered through twenty-eight semi-structured interviews, non-participant observation and studying and analyzing of different documents. For the study, two organizations belonging to insurance sector of Rawalpindi, Pakistan were taken as case studies. Data analysis included primarily with simple coding, followed by line by line coding and then themes were generated. Artifacts of organizational culture are discussed according to Schein Model of Culture (1990; 2004). Findings of this research suggest that artifacts such as tangible assets, logo, employees as asset, respect are important in organizations to be successful in the market. The other important finding is that leaders play a significant role in the development and maintenance of organizational culture through artifacts and bring success to the organizations.
Keywords: Leaders; organizational culture; artifacts; ethnographic research; Schein model of culture.
IMPACT OF PERCEIVED ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS ON JOB ATTITUDES IN HEALTH SECTOR OF PAKISTAN: THE MODERATING ROLE OF ISLAMIC WORK ETHIC
by Hira Khan, Ma Zhiqiang, ABDUL AZIZ IBN MUSA, Thomas UDIMAL
Abstract: This research study investigated two manifold objectives. The first objective is to inspect the impact of perceived organisational politics on job attitudes (job satisfaction, job involvement and organisational commitment) and second objective aims to explore the moderating impact of Islamic work ethic on the association between perceived organisational politics and job attitudes. Data was collected from 310 nurses employed in health division of different cities in Pakistan through systematic random sampling. This was done through self-administered questionnaire. Convergent validity of studied constructs and associations were tested through measurement model and structural equation modelling respectively. The results revealed that perceived organisational politics is significantly and negatively related to job satisfaction and organisational commitment. However, the findings did not support the negative effect of perceived organisational politics and job involvement. Moreover, the result indicated that Islamic work ethic weakens the negative association between perceived organisational politics and both job satisfaction and organisational commitment. The current study provides a new perspective for employees attitude that result in organisations accomplishment. Limitations and suggestion for future research are discussed
Keywords: perceived organisational politics; POP; Islamic work ethic; IWE; job attitudes; job satisfaction; job involvement; organisational commitment.
Debunking the Myths of Workplace Fun
by Elif Bilginoğlu
Abstract: Some of the myths of workplace fun which are formed in the minds of some people either get in the way of creating a fun work environment or cause people to feel guilty or judge others, when they are having fun at work. In order to eliminate these myths, this paper explains why conclusions that appear to be facts can truly be myths about workplace fun. Each myth presented in this paper is followed by a discussion of related research on workplace fun and its implications for organizations, managers and employees. Thus, this paper attempts to clarify a number of issues about this concept and aims to offer a factual report which corrects the myths surrounding workplace fun by making us become more aware of what research has to say about it. A number of widely held beliefs about workplace fun are examined in the context of research findings and a literature review that demythologize them with alternative perspectives. The key to understanding that the workplace fun has positive organizational effects, than most of us have been led to believe; is to dispel these myths, so that we have a better understanding of the concept.
Keywords: Workplace fun; myths; fun at work.
Perceived Non-work Social Support and Employee Engagement: The Mediating Role of Self-Efficacy
by Mohammad Azim, Faisal Al-Halawani
Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the relationship among perceived non-work social supports (NWSS), self-efficacy, and employee job engagement. It is a cross-sectional, quantitative study based on a survey among the Saudi male and female Nurses through a structured questionnaire. The sample size was 146. Data were analyzed using Partial Least Square based Structural Equation Model, Smart-PLS version 3.0. The study findings indicate an absence of a statistically significant relationship between perceived NWSS and employee job engagement. However, it is revealed that NWSS indirectly contributes to the higher level of engagement through increased self-efficacy. The result suggests that the support from family and friends increases employees self-efficacy, which in turn motivates them to engage in work. It bridges the gap in research on non-work social support and organizational issues, viz. job engagement, in this case. The study points to the fact that the organizations have to adopt family-friendly policies so that the employees can maintain work-life balance and ensure an approving relationship with their social networks. It also implies that organizations should enhance employee self-efficacy through organizational arrangements, such as training, mentoring, transformational leadership and positive feedback.
Keywords: Employee Engagement; Nursing; Self-efficacy; Social support; Organizational support.
Designing Jihadi Management Model
by Alireza Naderifar, Masoud Pourkiani, Mohsen Zayandeh Roodi, Ayoub Sheikhi
Abstract: This study attempts to propose a new model of management (jihadi management model). The statistical population includes knowledgeable experts and senior staff and managers of organizations. The sample size (n=50) is determined based on the Snowball method. To collect information, library studies and semi-structured interviews are carried out. Moreover, Delphi method is used along with the researcher-made questionnaire. Likewise, to evaluate the research questions, the statistical methods of single sample t-test and confirmatory factor analysis are used. For data analysis, SPSS version 23 is also used. Based on the results, the Jihadi management model includes 76 indicators categorized in four sub- components of the roles, the duties, the skills, and the abilities of the manager and in two aspects (behavioral and cultural). The indicators of the behavioral dimension emphasize the type of manager's behavior, and his / her failures to follow them signalize his/ her weakness in individual management, so that in general, all managers of the modern age should equipped with such features. On the other hand, the cultural dimension indicators have a cultural, value, and spiritual significance, which should be obeyed and practiced by a jihadi manager, and their ignorance, would in turn weaken the jihadi character of the management.
Keywords: Management; Jihad; Jihadi Management; Management Model; Jihadi Management Model.
Proposing a Model for Work Meaningfulness Concept at Business and Technology Incubators
by Gholamreza Malekzadeh, Alireza Khorakian, Mohhamad Amin Malekzadeh
Abstract: This article considers conceptualising work meaningfulness at business and technology incubators as a fundamental solution for the expansion of knowledge-based businesses, in order to contribute to the building of a broader and more balanced theoretical framework for job crafting in this kind of organisations despite its complexity. Data are reported from semi-structured interviews with 20 managers of business and technology incubators and analysed by using a grounded theory approach. The article recognises central phenomenon dimensions, causal, contextual and intervening conditions, strategies and consequences, and proposes a theoretical model for work meaningfulness at these incubators. These findings contribute to both academic research and practical implications, such as redesign, development of plans and supporting the programs of enterprises and management styles, redefine jobs at business and technology incubators, and theoretical approaches from academic disciplines are linked to the dominant viewpoints in the literature.
Keywords: emerging organisations; work meaningfulness; work attitude; business and technology incubator; BTI.
Customer engagement in collaborative innovation: investigating consumer motivation for participating in value co-creation
by M. Sadiq Sohail
Abstract: Firms engage customers to tap into product-related innovative ideas for future product development. This engagement of customers in co-creation activity provides unprecedented opportunities to create value offerings to customers. However, there is a dearth of understanding on what motivates customers to participate in co-creation activity. Based on the self-determination theory, this study proposes a model and investigates consumers intrinsic and extrinsic motivators to participate in co-creation. The model was tested on a survey data from 235 respondents from Saudi Arabia. Results reveal that the intrinsic motivator, enjoyment, predicted attitudes towards co-creation as well as willingness to participate in co-creation. The extrinsic motivators, showcasing of personal ideas and monetary reward also predicted attitudes towards co-creation and willingness to participate. An interesting finding is that gaining knowledge is not directly associated with willingness to participate,
unless it is also associated at the same time with attitude towards co-creation.
Keywords: co-creation; intrinsic; extrinsic; motivation; willingness to engage; attitude.
The influence of brand romance on Iranian youths loyalty towards Fast-Moving Consumer Goods
by Amir Khazaei, Farhad Hanifi, Mohammad Javad Taghipourian, Vahid Reza Mirabi
Abstract: Brand romance is considered as an important construct in marketing especially in brand area leading to the occurrence of some behaviors in consumers; however, a few types of research have been conducted on the importance of brand romance in fast-moving consumer goods. This study aim to identify sub dimensions of brand romance through depth interview and then analyzing the data by exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Iin qualitative phase, depth interview have been conducted by consumers (48 samples) and in quantitative phase questionnaire have been distributed among consumers of fast-moving consumer goods (400 samples) in Mazandaran province (north of Iran). Data were analyzed using SPSS to measure exploratory factor analysis and Lisrel to test the hypotheses. This study has presented a 38-item scale with seven distinct dimensions, including pleasure, uniqueness, intimacy, arousal, liking, connection and indifference. Also, structural equation modelling shows that brand romance has positive effect on cognitive, affective, conative and behavioural loyalty. So, brand romance is a good predictor for customer loyalty.
Keywords: brand romance; cognitive; affective; conative; behavioral; loyalty.
Sensory properties, purchase attributes and usages of date-syrup by expatriate consumers in Oman
by Shahid Bhuian, Irfan Butt, Maha Al Balushi, Amanat Ali
Abstract: In general, the research on consumers preferences for date-syrup is scarce. Knowing and incorporating an understanding of consumers preferences in the development and promotion of date syrup is crucial for developing a world market for date syrup. The present study was conducted to investigate the sensory properties, purchase attributes and usages of date-syrup among the expatriate consumers in Oman. A total of 140 expatriate consumers, from various ethnical and regional backgrounds living in Oman, participated in this study. The study questionnaire used included sensory tests, rank order of brands tests and rating of purchase related attributes tests to evaluate the consumer preferences for date-syrup. The results showed that the preferred sensory properties among expatriate consumers were the best tasting, least thick and moderately sweet date-syrup. The main uses of date-syrup included as toppings on ice cream, toast, bagel, waffle and pancake. The purchase attributes were mainly based on taste, no added sugar, reasonable price and good packaging. The results indicated that the consumers of different ethnical backgrounds and coming from different regions of the world had different preferences for purchase-related attributes. These findings indicate that the businesses striving to promote date syrup as an alternative sweetener in the world market should pay greater attention to customer-preferred sensory properties, usages and purchase-related attributes.
Keywords: Date syrup; sensory properties; purchase attributes; expatriate consumers; Oman.
Elucidation of the concept of organizational silence
by M.M. Sulphey
Abstract: Organisational silence is defined as the motivation to withhold or express ideas, information and opinions about work-related improvements. This study discusses the conceptual, theoretical and methodological aspects of the elusive concept and its importance in the organisational setup. Fear, embarrassment, narrow conceptions of ethical responsibility, lack of opportunity for voice, lack of organisational political skills, etc. are factors that are identified as leading to silence. It has also been seen that a host of socio-cultural, political and structural characteristics within organisations could hamper the space for exercising voice and result in silence. The paper also, based on theoretical and empirical evidences, analyses the factors that lead to silence in organisations, it effects and outcomes. The paper has succeeded in identifying the gaps in literature and makes certain suggestion that could facilitate further examination of the concept in an objective manner.
Keywords: silence; organisational silence; employee silence; voice.
Technological innovation and strategic Financial performance: The Case of Jordan
by Haneen Allataifeh, Fuad Al-Shaikh
Abstract: This research aimed at investigating the level of technological innovation in in Jordanian companies and its the impact on corporate financial performance of these companies. It also aimed at exploring whether size, age and structural complexity of the firm have moderating effects on the relationship between technological innovation and financial performance of these firms. The study sampled 113 industrial and service companies out of 125 listed companies on the Amman Stock Exchange. The researchers utilized a quantitative approach in examining the relationship using Levs model to measure technological innovation inputs, and financial ratios to measure strategic financial performance. Inferential analysis was conducted afterward. Results of the study showed low levels of technological innovation in the sampled companies, and a statistically insignificant relationship was found between technological innovation and financial performance. Slight positive moderation effects were found for organisational size, age and structural complexity on the relationship between technological innovation and performance, yet the relationship remained insignificant. An attempt was made to interpret the results and come up with some recommendations in light of the findings.
Keywords: Technological Innovation; Performance; Jordan; Lev's Model.
DETERMINING HEDONISTIC MALL SHOPPERS: A SEGMENTATION APPROACH
by Mehmet Haluk Koksal
Abstract: The main purpose of the study is to investigate hedonic shopping motivations in Lebanon, which is one of the Middle Eastern countries, and to cluster them based on those shopping motivations. The study also explores the characteristics of the customers in each segment. The data were collected from main shopping malls in Beirut in September 2017. Respondents were chosen by employing convenience sampling due to time and budget constraints in the study. Out of 550 people approached, only 450 surveys were collected. Factor analysis with varimax rotation was applied to hedonic shopping motivations. Based on factor analysis results, the hedonic shopping motivations were grouped under five headings: adventure and gratification shopping, idea shopping, value shopping, role shopping, and social shopping. Two-step cluster analysis is applied after factor analysis and identified four mall shopper segments, specifically, role, recreational, social and apathetic shoppers. Each segment was profiled in terms of hedonic shopping motives, mall attributes, shopping outcomes, visiting patterns, and demographics.
Keywords: Mall shopping; hedonic shopping motivations; shopping outcomes; mall visiting patterns; Middle East; Lebanon.
International Collaboration and Knowledge Creation: The Moderating Role of Absorptive Capacity
by Mahmoud Fallatah
Abstract: The study extends previous research on the knowledge creation literature. It discusses the impact of International Collaborative Partnerships Portfolio (ICPP) on knowledge creation at the group level. I propose a contingency perspective by considering the moderating role of absorptive capacity. Using a sample from the academic industry (i.e. colleges), I find that for colleges from developing countries, collaborating with international partners is positively related to knowledge creation. Additionally, when collaborating with international partners, colleges from developing countries with higher absorptive capacity are more likely to create new knowledge than those with lower levels. The paper concludes with managerial implications and directions for future research.
Keywords: Knowledge Creation; Absorptive Capacity; International; collaboration; strategic alliances; Saudi Arabia.
Protean career attitude, perceived internal employability and perceived external employability: Does self-efficacy make a difference?
by Razia Sultana, Omer Farooq Malik
Abstract: This research examines the mediation of self-efficacy on the linkages between protean career attitude, perceived internal employability, and perceived external employability. The study proposes that self-efficacy facilitates protean individuals to develop high perceived internal and external employability. Using a stratified random sampling method, a sample of 241 faculty members was drawn from ten major universities of Pakistan. Research findings confirmed the expectation of full mediation of self-efficacy on perceived internal employability. Yet partial mediation was noted for protean career attitude and perceived external employability relationship. The study provides fresh insight to managers and practitioners of contemporary careers.
Keywords: protean career attitude; PCA; self-efficacy; perceived internal employability; perceived external employability.
FACTORS AFFECTING STORE LOYALTY OF RETAIL SUPERMARKET STORES: CUSTOMERS PERSPECTIVE
by Mohamed Ismail Mujahid Hilal
Abstract: Retailers are now changing their retails shops into self-selection stores which are similar to supermarket so called retail supermarket stores. The main objective of the study was to examine the factors such as store image, store environment, store convenience, service quality on the creation of store loyalty of retail supermarket stores in the East Coast of Sri Lanka. The questionnaire survey among 389 respondents was used to collect the data. SMART PLS3 was used for analysis. Findings suggest that the structural model containing store image, store convenience, store environment, store attractiveness and service quality influence on the creation of store loyalty.
However, store image, store environment, and service quality do not support the hypotheses formulated in this study. Service quality, service environment, and store image attributes also need more focus by the retailers to improve the loyalty and customer stores satisfaction.
Keywords: store image; retail supermarkets stores; convenience; environment; store loyalty; retailing; store attraction.
Expatriate Spouse Adjustment: An Analysis of Challenges Facing Western Female Expatriate Spouses in the United Arab Emirates
by Rizwan Tahir
Abstract: Researchers have debated at length the impact of accompanying expatriate spouses on the success of international assignments, yet very few studies have systematically applied existing expatriate adjustment frameworks to the understanding of the spousal cross-cultural adjustment process in the host country. The present study endeavors to strengthen the existing knowledge by investigating factors impacting the adjustment process of the western female expatriate spouses of the expatriates on their international assignments in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). We have conducted a qualitative research with fifteen western expatriate female spouses who were relocated due to their husbands international assignments in the UAE. Regardless of the very exploratory nature of this study, it is apparent that most MNCs failed to support expatriate spouses in the UAE. Additionally, the respondents considered that corporate support and cross-cultural training (CCT), if offered, were inadequate. The core findings reinforce the results of previous studies and this should be viewed as a warning signal for MNCs trying to expand their operations in the Middle East and in the UAE in particular. In this region, MNCs need to initiate support practices for expatriate spouses, as failure to do so could jeopardize their expansion activities in countries like the UAE. This has implications for training as well as for the management of foreign assignments and it creates new avenues for research on expatriate management.rnrn
Keywords: Expatriate female spouses; international assignments; multinational companies and United Arab Emirates.
Early Internationalisation and Networking: An Inquiry into Born-Global Firms in Pakistan
by Manzoom Akhter, Joseph Omoloba, Christophe Estay
Purpose - The paper aims to examine the role of networks in the resource acquisition of Pakistani born-global firms, and the strength of ties that entrepreneurs use during critical stages of the early internationalization.
Methodology/approach - The paper adopted both semi-structured interviews with a panel of experts and a collection of SMEs cases to explore whether findings from developed countries are applicable to small firms in developing countries and to give evidence of the born-global phenomenon in a developing country like Pakistan.
Findings - The findings of our studies reveal that Pakistani SMEs, in their quest to become born-global firms, also use their networks to overcome the constraints related to rapid internationalisation. The paper found that an efficient network consists of both strong and weak ties, because different types of ties provide different resources.
Practical implications - Since internationalization of firms has different contexts in terms of access to foreign markets and opportunities recognition, entrepreneurs and businesses should become more cognizant of the opportunities that these potential markets crete and look to generate wealth for these niches through social innovation. The paper provides a better understanding of born global firms, entrepreneurs can develop their business ventures through social networks and acquire resources for the development and survival of their business.
Originality/Value - The research approach helps identify a distinct category of experts who have extensive knowledge on the subject as the respondents significantly increase the authenticity and reliability of the findings.
Keywords: Keywords Born-global, International new ventures, International entrepreneurship, Internationalisation of SMEs, Network, Pakistani SMEs.
Influence of transformational leadership on innovative work behaviour, and mediating role of teachers self efficacy and innovative climate: insight from engineering institutions
by Sajid Khan, Asma Imran, Muhammad Nafees
Abstract: The aim of this research is to examine the influence of transformational leadership (TL) on innovative work behaviour (IWB) and mediating effect of teacher's self-efficacy (TSE) and innovative climate (IC). A quantitative research paradigm was employed using a questionnaire survey method; the data was collected from 112 academicians of engineering schools in the universities. Data has been analysed through Pearson correlation and linear regression tests. Results revealed that a positive relationship between transformational leadership and innovative work behaviour. The ordinary least square (OLS) method results supported the relationship between transformational leadership and innovative work behaviour via one mediating variable teachers self efficacy, but innovative climate does not mediates the relationship between transformational leadership and innovative work behaviour. The study contributes to the current knowledge regarding transformational leadership (TL) on innovative work behaviour (IWB) and mediating effect of teachers self efficacy (TSE) and innovative climate (IC).
Keywords: transformational leadership; TL; innovative work behaviour; IWB; teachers self efficacy; TSE; innovative climate; IC.
The impact of CRM components system on customer retention in the telecom industry: a case of Y-Telecom in Yemen
by Wail Alhakimi, Abdulsalam Ghaleb
Abstract: This paper aims to identify customer relationship management components (call centre, service centre, and data mining) and their role in influencing customer retention through customer satisfaction in telecom industry. The study used a descriptive analytical method to answer the questions of the study. A questionnaire was used as a tool for data collection. The sample consists of 317 Y-Telecoms' subscribers. The study showed that there is an effect of CRM system components in achieving customer retention. Data mining is deemed the highest component of the technological elements in CRM, which contributed in achieving customer retention. However, the call centre is the lowest component, which requires more work and development. Customer satisfaction - the intervening variable - showed no correlation with customer retention. The study recommends the call centre staff to improve their communication skills and focusing on data mining process to make better services for clients and employ them in marketing to target customers individually.
Keywords: customer relationship management; CRM components; call centre; service centre; data mining; customer satisfaction; customer retention; Y-Telecom; Yemen.
Planning under uncertainty using chess principles, strategies and tactics
by Isam Yahia Al-Filali, Ahmed Attia, Abdo A. Husseiny, Asma Alhamadi
Abstract: The uncertainty and volatility of oil prices and the rise of political uncertainty in the Middle East Region have shifted the ground beneath the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) economies in recent years. The traditional planning methods are strategically blind and inherently short sighted when used by firms under uncertainty. This study provides concepts, analytic tools, and examples of the four levels of uncertainty. The study draws a parallel between the uncertainty in chess game and business and tailored chess principles, processes, strategies and tactics to be used by businesses under uncertainty situations. This study contributes to current knowledge of using chess as metaphor to describe business, finding a connection to the dynamics of chess given the use of its principles, strategy and tactics.
Keywords: chess; strategic planning; uncertainty; strategies; tactics; analytic tools; uncertainty levels; principles of planning; planning under uncertainty; decision-making; competition; Gulf Cooperation Council; GCC; the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; KSA.
The effects of perceived organisational justice and ethical climate on job satisfaction, turnover intention and job performance
by Özgür Kökalan, Ümit Şevik
Abstract: This study aims to determine the moderator role of the organisational justice and the ethical climate perceived by employees on job satisfaction, intention on ceasing the employment, and performance levels. In the light of this aim, questionnaires were used by using the convenience sampling method with 347 employees in İstanbul and Afyonkarahisar. The performance levels of 347 employees were evaluated by their administrators. The results of the questionnaires and the performance evaluation were analysed and interpreted by using descriptive analyses and regression analyses. According to the results obtained in the analyses, the perceived organisational justice was high when the job satisfaction, and performance levels were high when the perceived ethical climate was high; however, there were no significant relations between the turnover intention. It was determined that the perceived ethical climate had a moderator effect only in the relation between the perceived organisational justice, job satisfaction and performance.
Keywords: perceived ethical climate; job satisfaction; turnover intention; job performance; perceived organisational justice.
Providing a framework for evaluating the advertising efficiency using data envelopment analysis technique
by Armin Ejlal, Maysam Shafiee Roodposhti
Abstract: Advertising plays an important role in the marketing strategy and a considerable amount of budgets has been allocated for advertising every year. However, the proportion of advertisement campaign achievements to those designated for their design, or in other words, its efficiency, is questionable. This study was conducted to assess the efficiency of the food industry's advertising brands using data envelopment analysis (DEA). The duration of the campaign and budget as input and brand familiarity, attractiveness of implementation and sale were used as an output for the evaluation. The results of the study indicated that there are inefficiencies in this industry, thus in an attempt to improve the situation of the advertising efficiency, some solutions was provided to managers. Also, the most important variables affecting the efficiency of the food industry was identified by sensitivity analysis.
Keywords: efficiency; data envelopment analysis; DEA; advertising.
Firm-level investment, financing choices and corporate taxation management: evidence from panel of non-financial firms
by Abdul Haque, Ammar Abid, Saira Sundas, Muhammad Ali Jibran Qamar
Abstract: This paper investigates the relationship between firm's financing choices, taxation benefits and investment in Pakistani listed firms. We apply the system generalised method of moments regression estimation on a sample of firms listed on Pakistan Stock Exchange during the period from 2001-2014. Our findings are that there is a positive relationship between leverage and investment accruing from the use of tax shield benefits which also are positively associated with the firm-level investment. Equity is also positively related to investment but the effect of leverage is more pronounced than equity. We also find that the positive relation between leverage and investment is stronger for firms with a medium level of debt, consistent with the trade-off theory argument of the existence of an optimal level of debt. Our results support the hypothesis that firms utilise debt to supplement investment in circumstances where alternate mechanisms of finance are not well developed.
Keywords: firm-level investment; taxation; financial expenses; debt; equity financing.
Multidimensional structure for the effect of innovation culture and knowledge sharing on the new product development process with emphasis on improving new product development performance
by Mohsen Shafiei Nikabadi, Ali Shahrokhnia
Abstract: The main goal of the paper is to study the effect of innovation culture and knowledge sharing on the new-product development (NPD) process with emphasis on improving new-product development performance. The research has been implemented in software developer or producer companies as well as information technology companies in Tehran, Iran. This study is an applied research in the goal view, and contains qualitative variables; also, it is a descriptive-survey and casual-correlation research in the data-gathering view. The validity of the content of the questionnaire posited in this study was confirmed by academic and industrial experts and constructive validity indices. Moreover, the reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed using Cronbach's alpha and composite reliability indicators. Findings have shown that appropriate infrastructure for innovation has the most effect on creating an innovation culture; it was also revealed that there is a positive and meaningful relationship between innovation culture and new-product development performance which is made by the mediation of knowledge sharing and NPD process.
Keywords: innovation culture; knowledge sharing; new-product development process; new-product development performance.
The impact of job crafting on work engagement: evidence from Jordanian universities
by Yahya S. Melhem
Abstract: Job crafting has emerged as a theoretical approach that expands perspectives on job design to include proactive changes that employees make to their own jobs. This study examines the impact of job crafting on work engagement mediated by autonomy and task independence among university academics in Jordan. Data for this study were collected from 264 academics to explore the effect of job crafting on work engagement. Results indicated that job crafting has positive significant impact on work engagement, and that autonomy and task independence facilitate and enhance job crafting behaviours. Recommendations and suggestions for future research are provided.
Keywords: job crafting; work engagement; autonomy; task independence; academics; Jordan.
The Islamic perspective of environmental sustainability and management
by M.M. Sulphey
Abstract: The study examines the Islamic perspective of Islamic environmental sustainability based on the holy text - the Qur'an, and the sayings of the prophet (peace be upon him) - the hadith. The paper conducts a thorough review of the above two texts and presents the Islamic perspective of the behaviour expected from humans to address environmental sustainability issues. It also attempts to present the duties and responsibilities desired of human beings towards having a self sustaining environment that will be an ideal place for the future generations too. The presentation of the paper is such that it will act as a trigger for further research in this challenging and marvellous area.
Keywords: environmental sustainability; environment management; Islam; Islamic perspective; Quran; hadith.
A test of market efficiency using stock market anomalies: a behavioural approach
by Syed Zain Ul Abdin, Muhammad Waqas, Mumtaz Ahmad
Abstract: Previous researchers study the presence of anomalies in the stock market but very few studies identify the causes that generate anomalies. This study tests the efficient market hypothesis in the context of prospect theory. The main aim of this study is to examine the effect of behavioural factors on different classes of anomalies. Further, the paper investigates the differential effect of prospects components on different classes of anomalies. Data collected from 324 real individual investors of Pakistani Stock Exchange. Structural equation modelling was used to test the hypothesised model using smart PLS 3.0. The results show that mental accounting has a positive significant effect on all anomalies. In short, investors use their own mental account in their decision-making. Loss aversion has a positive significant effect on technical anomalies and regret has a positive significant effect on fundamental anomalies. However, self-control does not have a significant effect on technical and calendar anomalies.
Keywords: prospect theory; behavioural finance; stock market anomalies; fundamental anomalies; technical anomalies; calendar anomalies.
The impact of emotional intelligence on employee performance and employee engagement: mediating role of job satisfaction
by Shumaila Naz, Cai Li, Hira Salah Ud Din Khan, Muhammad Rafiq
Abstract: The aim of the study was to explore the impact of emotional intelligence on employee engagement, employee performance. It also investigated the mediating role of job satisfaction in the relationship of emotional intelligence-employee engagement, and emotional intelligence-employee performance. Data was obtained from 233 employees working in manufacturing sector of the Lahore, Pakistan using convenience sampling through self-administered survey. Theories of ability model of emotional intelligence, affective events theory, and conservation of resources COR theory was underpinned to support proposed research model. Convergent validity of studied variables and relationships were measured through measurement model and structural model of PLS-SEM respectively. The findings revealed that emotional intelligence is significantly and positively associated with employee performance and engagement directly and indirectly through job satisfaction.
Keywords: emotional intelligence; employee engagement; job satisfaction; employee performance.
Factors affecting buyers' trust in e-commerce in Palestine
by Rania Abdullah, Yahya Saleh
Abstract: Electronic commerce (e-commerce) is relatively a new concept and research topic in developing countries including Palestine. In this form of commerce, the first impression that users create about an organisation is often based on the organisation's website's trustworthiness. This has motivated many researchers to investigate the factors that influence buyers' trust in such websites. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the potential factors affecting buyers' trust in e-commerce in Palestine. More specifically, the study embraces a multi-dimensional construct of trust (integrity, benevolence, ability) rather than examining each single dimension of trustworthiness individually. In addition, the effect of independent variables including website design attitudes, reliability, privacy and security attitudes, customer satisfaction and governmental factors on e-commerce's trust dimensions have been mathematically investigated. To this end, relevant data from a random sample of 354 Palestinian citizens who have experienced the online shopping, or who have interest in online purchasing, were collected. Statistical analyses revealed significant effects of all independent variables except reliability on buyers' trust in e-commerce in Palestine. Also, four linear regression models relating the independent variables with e-commerce's trust and its three dimensions (integrity, benevolence, ability) have been built and statistically validated.
Keywords: electronic commerce; e-commerce; trust; integrity; ability; online purchasing; regression; benevolence.
How will increasing the competitiveness of energy sector stimulate the economic growth of Saudi Arabia: 2030 Vision
by Nadia Yusuf
Abstract: The study has identified main factors associated with the increase in competitiveness of energy sector to benefit the country's economy. Quantitative research design was opted to investigate the association between oil prices, carbon emissions, electricity consumption, natural gas production, wind and solar energy, and energy supply of Saudi Arabia. GDP was the variable used to represent economic. The results have shown positive and significant impact of competitiveness of oil production (p = 0.044) and consumption (p = 0.000) on GDP. The competitiveness of gas production is significant and positive on economic growth of the country (p = 0.000). There is 5.8% increase in economic growth of Saudi Arabia. There is a significant impact of new work strategies and creating employment on the economic development of the state, along with the deducing the harmful factors of the growth and progress.
Keywords: carbon dioxide emission; economic growth; energy consumption; energy prices; energy sector.