J. for International Business and Entrepreneurship Development (7 papers in press)
The role of social commerce in online purchase intention: mediating role of social interactions, trust, and electronic word of mouth
by Amirreza Konjkav Monfared, Mohammad Ghaffari, Mohammadreza Barootkoob, Milad Mohebali Malmiri
Abstract: Given the technological development in the current world, social commerce is very important for business. Social commerce paves the way for the easy shopping and thereby consumers trust to the online purchases can be increased. As a result, consumers intention to word of mouth and online purchase will be increased. This is why the present study aims to develop a model for business success in the online environment. In particular, the study aims to investigate the effect of social commerce and social interactions on consumers trust, electronic word of mouth, and purchase intention. For this purpose, 300 consumers of Digikala Company were surveyed. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was used for analysing the research data. For this purpose, both SPSS and SMART-PLS were used. Our findings revealed that ratings and reviews, as one of the constructs of social commerce, significantly affect social presence, informational support, closeness, and familiarity and do not affect emotional support and purchase intention significantly. Recommendations and referrals, as the second construct of social commerce, affect social presence, informational support, closeness, familiarity, and purchase intention significantly. In addition, social presence, informational support, emotional support, closeness, and familiarity affect trust significantly. Another part of our findings showed that emotional support affects trust significantly; trust affects the electronic word of mouth significantly; electronic word of mouth affects purchase intention significantly; informational support does not affect purchase intention significantly. The results of this study can be helpful for electronic marketing professionals in terms of consumer online purchase process management.
Keywords: social commerce; social intersections; electronic word of mouth; trust; online purchase intention.
A comprehensive model of factors influencing green entrepreneurial intentions in the Jordanian context
by Sara Haddadin, Mohammad Al Khasawneh
Abstract: This research aimed to provide a better understanding related to the factors that affect entrepreneurs' decisions to start a new green business. Limited research, to the best of our knowledge, has been done regarding green entrepreneurial intention (GEI), therefore, this research will fill this particular gap within the existing entreprenurship literature. The newly developed model consists of 11 independent variables and one dependent variable; the model is theoretically based and leads to new relationships regarding GEI. A quantitative data collection method has been used. A five-point Likert scale survey was distributed to students of universities in Jordan. Data was analysed by using SEM run by AMOS software program. The findings of this research showed that eight variables (personal attitude, green environmental awareness, PBC, self-efficacy, perceived advantage, complexity, perceived feasibility, and green entrepreneurial support) have a significant influence on GEI in the Jordanian context. In contrast, the research found that the remaining three variables (prior experience, moral obligation, and observability) do not have impact on GEI. The newly developed model is theoretically based and creates new GEI relationships.
Keywords: entrepreneurship; intention; green entrepreneurial intention; students; Jordan.
Diversity, institutions, and entrepreneurship
by Abu H. Ayob
Abstract: Recent trends in globalisation have shown significant human migration. Subsequently, diversity in society changes local demographics. Although much research has discussed the effect of diversity on various domestic affairs, little is known about the real impact on business activities, particularly how institutional factors might affect the interaction. This study examines the impact of ethnic, religious, and linguistic diversity on the rate of entrepreneurial entry by considering the institutional context, both formal and informal, as the boundary conditions. Analysing multisource data from 88 countries aggregated between years 2010 and 2014, we found that ethnic and linguistic diversity impedes business formation, in contrast to religious diversity which spurs entrepreneurial entry. In addition, institutional variables of control of corruption, trust, and entrepreneurial culture are positively related to entrepreneurship. Lastly, the effects of diversity on entrepreneurship are moderated by some but not all institutions. This study provides important insights for all stakeholders to address contemporary issues such as labour mobility and migration.
Keywords: ethnic diversity; religious diversity; linguistic diversity; control of corruption; trust; entrepreneurial culture; entrepreneurship.
Exploring the influence of home country factors on rapid internationalisation of emerging multinational companies
by Osama Al-Kwifi, Shatha Obeidat, Abdulla Hamad M A Fetais
Abstract: This research explores home country influence on successful internationalisation of emerging multinational companies. We considered Qatar Airways and Emirates Airways as two companies from different countries with similar economic structures. Interviews with five experts in the airline industry revealed that four home country factors have produced significant competitive advantages, allowing both carriers to rapidly internationalise their activities and become key players in the global aviation industry. These home country factors are the location of the country, rapid economic development, government support, and influence of related industries.
Keywords: emerging economies; emerging multinational companies; home county effect; government support; economic development; competitive advantage.
Entrepreneurial intention among female university students in Oman
by Abdelghani Echchabi, Mohammed Mispah Said Omar, Abdullah Mohammed Ayedh
Abstract: The aim of the study is to identify the factors that influence the entrepreneurial intention among female students in Oman. The study used a survey questionnaire to collect data for a sample of 384 respondents in Oman. The study ensured that the major country regions and universities are covered. The collected data was analysed using partial least square (PLS) method as well as basic descriptive statistics. The findings revealed that perceived behavioural control and personal attitude were the main factors that influence Omani female students entrepreneurial intention. Attitude to risk, facilitating conditions and subjective norm were found to have no significant impact on entrepreneurial intention. The focus on female entrepreneurship is both timely and necessary worldwide and particularly in Oman. The findings have significant theoretical and practical implications that would certainly improve the entrepreneurship activities among female undergraduate students in Oman.
Keywords: entrepreneurial intention; EIQ; theory of planned behaviour; Oman.
Entrepreneurial intention among female university students: examining the moderating role of entrepreneurial education
by Imran Anwar, Imran Saleem, K. M. Baharul Islam, Prabha Thoudam
Abstract: In the present study, the authors have endeavoured to cognise the phenomenon of entrepreneurial intention among female university students of India through the application of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) adding an additional variable named entrepreneurial education (EE). Furthermore, the authors have attempted to examine the moderating role of entrepreneurship education on the relationships between ATE, PBC, and entrepreneurial intention (EI). A data sample of 387 female students was collected, using convenience sampling technique, from three different universities of India, namely AMU, CSJMU, and KMCUAFU, using an entrepreneurial intention questionnaire developed and published by Linen and Chen in 2009. After going through data screening process, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modelling (SEM) techniques were used for analysing the data. Results of hypotheses testing (SEM) revealed that basic antecedents of TPB have been found to have significant impact on EI of female students, while the additional variable EE was also found to be positively affecting EI with a low coefficient. The results of this study will help in understanding the phenomenon of EI among female university students. The findings cannot be applied for students of other streams, arts, science, technology, etc., as this study is based on the sample of female business and management students. A similar study could be carried out with students from other streams and of both genders. Other contextual variables can also be used in the future for conducting other research.
Keywords: entrepreneurial intention; theory of planned behaviour; entrepreneurial education; moderating effect; female university students.
Bringing back the discourse on entrepreneurial orientation construct: further clarifications on its dimensions
by Tahseen Arshi, Paul Burns, Usha Ramanathan, Michael Zhang
Abstract: The nomological validity of entrepreneurial orientation (EO) construct is re-examined as the current conceptualisation lacks precise articulation of the construct and its measurement. The validity concern is caused primarily by the innovation dimension. We adopt a critical lens to evaluate the dimensions and associated measures of EO, and contribute to the ongoing conversation on EO, by empirically testing its indicators and measures. Data collected from 404 firms in Oman are analysed using a two-step approach, initially conducting EFA and CFA tests, followed by structural equation modelling. The results suggest that innovation orientation significantly improves the clarity of the innovation dimension and is more congruent with EOs conceptualisation. The study further clarifies that EO consists of enabling measures that contribute to generation of entrepreneurial outputs in corporate firms. The five-factor EO construct is specified formatively and a comprehensive list of measures is drawn from multiple scales associated with EO research.
Keywords: entrepreneurial orientation; corporate entrepreneurship; innovation; innovation orientation; validity; modelling.