J. for International Business and Entrepreneurship Development (15 papers in press)
Understanding the National Innovation System: a bibliometric analysis approach
by Shiwangi Singh, Sanjay Dhir, Viput Ongsakul
Abstract: This paper aims to understand the evolution and different perspective of the National Innovation System (NIS) studies. The extant literature on the quantitative development of the is scant. Therefore, it becomes necessary to encapsulate the periodical trends and development of the national innovation system. Bibliometric analysis can be used to analyse divergent views and trace the evolution of topic. This study provides a comprehensive overview of NIS studies using the Scopus database for 31 years from 1990 to 2021 in the 'Business, Management, and Accounting' area for 736 articles. This study identifies the most studied keywords and keyword co-occurrences, which further helped to group them into four clusters, namely antecedents, industry, region, and output/impact. It is suggested that once in a decade, the analysis could be performed to trace their development and impact. The result of this study will help in the advancement of the field.
Keywords: National Innovation System; bibliometric analysis; innovation clusters; global knowledge; antecedents; output.
Perception and attitude toward applying e-learning in workplace training: an empirical study in Ho Chi Minh City enterprises
by Cam-Tu Tran Hoang, Nhu-Ty Nguyen, Tien-Minh Nguyen
Abstract: Nowadays, many organizations evaluate corporate training as a valuable tool to provide knowledge and skills for their employees and enhance competitiveness. Moreover, the bloom of information technology and the revolution of Industry 4.0 has changed almost enterprises' activities in the 21st century, including reshaping workplace training. This exploratory study investigates the perception and attitude of 193 enterprises in Ho Chi Minh City about applying technology for workplace training. Firstly, research results showed that around 50% of enterprises have positive attitudes towards technology transformation despite hesitation. Secondly, through exploratory factor analysis, the perception of advantages was grouped into convenience and cost-effectiveness and employees motivation, while disadvantages of e-learning in corporate training were classified into benefits and drawbacks for individuals and organizations. In addition, the research pointed out that with the current status of e-learning applications, there is a difference in perception and attitude between companies towards the transformation of workplace training.
Keywords: workplace training; corporate training; e-learning; attitude; perception.
Fostering organisational high performance through leadership and organisational learning: evidence from tourism firms in Vietnam
by Ngoc Khuong Mai, Thanh Tung Do, Tri D. Le
Abstract: The restrictions of the COVID-19 pandemic have threatened the survival of tourism organisations in developing countries. Previous research has explored the role of leaders and learning in supporting organisations enhanced performance and response to the crisis. This paper endeavoured to investigate how complexity leadership and organisational learning contribute to the achievement of high performance in tourism firms in Vietnam, using a quantitative approach with 474 survey responses collected from tourism firms in Vietnam and Smart-PLS to perform partial least squares structural equation modelling statistical techniques. The findings revealed that complexity leadership and factors of organisational learning both directly and indirectly affect organisational high performance. This study contributes to research on leadership, organisational learning and high performance by offering a comprehensive model that combines these fields. As conceptual and empirical studies are lacking in these areas, this paper offers important theoretical and managerial implications for industry leaders, researchers and policymakers alike.
Keywords: high performance; high performance organisation; complexity leadership; organisational learning.
Special Issue on: Innovative Solutions for Achieving Maximum Impacts in Various Global Markets
Deciphering organisational culture: case study of a diversified conglomerate in Saudi Arabia
by Salem Al Ghamdi, Azhar Kazmi, Abdullah Al Ghamdi
Abstract: Organisational culture refers to common assumption and beliefs guiding employee practices and behaviours. It is important for managers to be able to assess their organisation culture since it is one of the most difficult subjects to address. The purpose of this study is to decipher the organisation culture of a large, diversified conglomerate based in Saudi Arabia. The theoretical framework used to decipher the organisation culture is that of Robbins et al. (2005). This study follows the work of Jaghargh et al. (2012), done in the Iranian context. A survey questionnaire sent to 180 participants elicited 97 responses. Overall, the assessment results show an overall positive culture with some dimensions showing slightly negative perception. This paper demonstrates the use of an assessment technique as an important tool for managers to understand where the organisation culture requires improvement. The paper makes some recommendations for the dimensions where organisations can make improvements.
Keywords: organisation culture; corporate culture; deciphering organisational culture; Saudi Arabia; Stephen Robbins.
Returns and volatilities of cotton futures markets: impacts of participants contract positions
by Orhan Özaydin, Serkan Cankaya, Najiba Benabess
Abstract: This study examines how the positions (short or long) of hedgers, speculators, and index investors in futures markets influence the returns and volatilities of cotton futures markets. Previous work in futures returns and volatility has typically focused on energy and agriculture commodities, with little work dealing with cotton. We use autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (ARCH) effect on 10 years (20092018) return data. Our study demonstrates that both long contract positions of non-hedgers and short positions of hedgers are positively correlated with futures returns; and further, while long positions do not have an impact on volatility of futures returns, short positions of hedgers do. We recommend that market participants trading cotton consider the type of contract position in their forecasting analysis of future cotton prices.
Keywords: commodity futures; futures market; futures; cotton market; derivative market participants.
Filling the market orientation-business performance: the mediating Effects of social media, business ties and political ties
by An Thi Hong Nguyen, Phuong Nguyen, Phuong Uyen Dinh
Abstract: Small-medium enterprises (SMEs) in emerging countries are experiencing intense competition arising from a constantly changing market and business environment. In this context, it is necessary for these firms to devise effective strategies in order to improve performance. This paper aims to investigate the effect of market orientation on the performance of SMEs in Vietnam, as well as whether this relationship is mediated by the development of social media adaption and managerial ties. A conceptual model incorporating the mentioned relationship was formulated on the basis of the resource-based view theory. In order to test the research hypotheses, quantitative data was collected from 177 managers at SMEs in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam using questionnaire surveys. The data were then processed and analysed via the partial least square-structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) method. The findings revealed that market orientation has a positive relationship with the business performance of SMEs in Vietnam. Both social media and political ties positively mediate the relationship between market orientation and business performance. However, the study fails to provide evidence of the mediating effect of business ties. Overall, the findings imply that SME managers should develop market orientation strategies while exploiting social media and political relations to access valuable information and external knowledge to support sustainable development.
Keywords: market orientation; customer orientation; competitor orientation; social media; managerial ties; business ties; political ties.
Effect of sexual appeal in marketing communication on aggression and sexual aggression: a theoretical perspective and future research directions
by Karnika Bains, Prem Dewani
Abstract: Advertisements use sexual appeal to attract viewer attention and increase their effectiveness. Research on the subject has focused on advertisement effectiveness and brand effects. However, secondary effects of the appeal remain unexplored. We explore the little-known effects of advertisement sexual appeal on society, especially adolescents, with focus on aggression and sexual aggression as result of media portrayals. The paper reviews extant marketing and psychology literature to analyse media effects from the perspective of aggression and related theories, viz. anti-social behaviour model, media priming, and script theory. Findings suggests that repeated exposure to sexual cues in advertising desensitizes audiences, leading to increased explicit appeals. Objectification and dehumanization in advertisement portrayals may foster sexual attraction to demeaning portrayals and attitudes, that support sexually aggressive behaviours. Further, we discuss the ethical implications of using sexual appeal in advertising and elaborates on future research ideas, managerial implications and recommendations for policy makers.
Keywords: advertisements; sexual appeal; adolescents; aggression; sexual aggression.
Revival of the Kashmiri saffron industry: an exploratory study
by Asifat Shafi, Parvez Mir
Abstract: Saffron is the king of all spices and Kashmir has a proud privilege of producing the world's best quality saffron (Crocus sativas).This study analyses the ways through which saffron industry can be revived in Kashmir. Currently, this industry is facing problems such as decreased production, adulteration, lack of entrepreneurial intention, unawareness among all stakeholders and inability to compete globally. In this exploratory study, in-depth interviews were conducted to elicit information from the respondents, observations were also noted. The results revealed that this industry can be revived and can develop a competitive edge by cultivating entrepreneurial intention, introducing public-private partnership and creating awareness among all stakeholders. Moreover, governments effort of creating a saffron spices park will help in shortening the distribution channel and will promote high-quality Kashmiri saffron by creating a brand image at the global level. Revival of this industry will greatly influence the development of the Indian economy and entrepreneurship.
Keywords: saffron; entrepreneurial intention; revival strategy; Kashmir.
Firm resources and internationalisation performance
by Nejat Capar
Abstract: The relationship between firm resources and internationalisation has long been an interest to researchers in international business. In other words, how do firm resources affect the internationalisation efforts of firms and consequently their performance? It has generally been argued that internationalisation affects firm performance positively. However, a major deficit of most existing studies has been the failure to incorporate firm resources in examining the relationship between internationalisation and performance. Owing to the importance of firm resources, this study examines whether the potential performance effects of internationalisation are due to firm resources. The present study has tested this alternative hypothesis by examining US manufacturing firms from various industries. Results indicate that firms must possess certain firm resources in order to benefit from internationalisation.
Keywords: firm resources; internationalisation; performance.
Special Issue on: Managing, Governing, Performing and Strategizing in Various Contexts and Areas Ex Ante And Ex Post Conceptual and Empirical Responses to COVID-19 Pandemic
A holistic perspective of football industry stakeholders
by George Yiapanas, Alkis Thrassou, Demetris Vrontis
Abstract: Football clubs strive to remain competitive and sustainable in a multifaceted industry which involves a plethora of stakeholders. Consequently, it is imperative to comprehend the industry structures, identify the stakeholders, and implement processes to manage every relationship. Although numerous studies have applied stakeholder theory in the specific field, they tend to focus on stakeholders as broad categories, overlooking the fact that various sub-categories exist as diverse entities. The aim of this study is to identify every football industry stakeholder and develop a strategic stakeholder framework from the club perspective. Methodologically, the research relies on an extensive theoretical examination of stakeholder theory, through the explication and evaluation of its development over the last forty years. The findings enhance the theory itself in a context that until now was in its infancy and provide solid foundations to practitioners to delineate the synergies and implement principles on how to constructively manage these relationships.
Keywords: football industry; strategic development; stakeholder theory; football management; stakeholder management; stakeholder framework; stakeholder synergy.
Applied strategic management by managers in the hotel and tourism industry in Cyprus and Greece during the COVID-19 pandemic
by Marcos Komodromos, Sameh Abadir, Baker Ahmad Alserhan, Daphne Halkias
Abstract: This qualitative study was conducted to help combat the adverse effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of the study was to offer practical and tactical strategies for navigating the uncertainty and risk prevalent in todays post-pandemic business environment in the hotel and tourism industry in Cyprus and Greece. Preliminary forecasts indicated that the tourism and hotel sectors revenues would drop by 20% to 25% compared to 2019, amounting to four or five billion euros in losses. Data were collected from 32 hotel managers in Cyprus and Greece using a four-item web-based interview tool. It was identified that most SMEs encountered a reduction in sales and customer flow and an increase in the unemployment rate due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The managers proposed adopting business strategies and diversifications to generate sales from different sectors of the hotel business to aid in keeping the business afloat in case of a future crisis.
Keywords: strategic management; crisis; SMEs; tourism and hotel industry; COVID-19; Greece; Cyprus; managers and qualitative study.
Entrepreneurial intentions in times of economic recession: the dual role of environment
by Katerina Voutsina, Giorgos Papagiannakis, Spyros Lioukas
Abstract: Although intentions are considered the most frequently used predictor of entrepreneurial action, little is known about how such intentions are formed under adverse environmental conditions. Given that the disruption of economic activities has become the new normal for business, understanding the influence of a severely resource-poor context on the intention to initiate a new venture is important. Addressing the above concern, the present study explores the impact of the economic recession on entrepreneurial intentions. Drawing upon the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and applying the Structural Equation Modelling design to a sample of 618 university graduates in Greece, we show that recession plays a dual role: it negatively affects subjective norms and self-efficacy while also moderating the attitudesintention relationship. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
Keywords: entrepreneurial intentions; economic recession; theory of planned behaviour; attitudes; subjective norms; self-efficacy.
Corporate governance mechanisms and earnings management
by Dimitrios Balios, Petros Kalantonis, Theodora Zaroulea
Abstract: This article aims to summarise a significant number of previous qualitative and quantitative researches in order for scholars to reconsider their understanding of corporate governance mechanisms. The fundamental purpose of examining corporate governance practices is to define the way earnings management can be reduced. The findings show unclear conclusions concerning the board of directors and the committee's characteristics on earnings management. That is why adopting corporate governance mechanisms strives for reducing the agency problem. Furthermore, researchers can monitor the impact of corporate governance mechanisms by focusing on recent literature (2019, 2020, 2021). Future research in this area is therefore being promoted. Implementing corporate governance in companies is a given, as it can ensure their effectiveness and increase their credibility and prestige. Adopting corporate governance practices mitigates earnings management phenomena, and companies make the right decisions for their smoother operation.
Keywords: corporate governance mechanisms; agency theory; board of directors; audit committee; earnings management; rank journal.
Measuring technical efficiency of Greek Red Suckler cow breeds farms in Central Macedonia region using a data envelopment analysis model
by Maria Tsiouni, Dimitrios Gourdouvelis, Stamatis Aggelopoulos, Demetris Vrontis, Antonino Galati
Abstract: This study aims to estimate the technical efficiency (TE) of a randomly selected sample of Red Greek suckler cow breed farms in the area of Central Macedonia and to identify the most technically efficient characteristics of cow-calf operations. Moreover, this work wants to verify the impact of local and European policies in support of the sector on the estimated efficiency. The research investigates the technical efficiency of 64 suckler cow farms by using the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method. Findings reveal that the most efficient farms were larger, with higher gross revenue, and higher cost of fixed capital than non-efficient farms. In addition, the cost of variable capital, which directly affects profitability, was lower on efficient farms. Efficient farms demonstrate better techno-economic results and managerial practices. This is the first research that studies the Red Greek suckler cow breed, based on original data obtained from a direct survey in a field interview.
Keywords: DEA; technical efficiency; financial indicators; suckler cow farming; Red Greek breed.
Exploring the attitudes and views of pre-primary and primary school teachers for climate change education
by Veronika Andrea, Dafni Petkou
Abstract: The teachers skills in presenting perceptions and views towards climate change play a critical role in the processes of developing pro-environmental attitudes for their students and also in the formation of their students' environmental consciousness in the future. The study aims to examine the pre-primary and primary school teachers' attitudes and views on climate change and subsequently how their perceptions affect them in implementing environmental education programs focused on climate change. Simple random sampling was applied, while the data collection took place with the use of a structured questionnaire and personal interviews. The findings show that, although teachers acknowledge climate change global impacts, there is a need, however, to enhance their environmental literacy, and their pedagogical and scientific skills to be able to help students develop participatory skills in environmental decision making.
Keywords: environmental education; environmental programs; climate change; attitudes and views; primary education teachers; Greece.