J. for International Business and Entrepreneurship Development (13 papers in press)
The role of social commerce in online purchase intention: mediating role of social interactions, trust, and electronic word of mouth
by Amirreza Konjkav Monfared, Mohammad Ghaffari, Mohammadreza Barootkoob, Milad Mohebali Malmiri
Abstract: Given the technological development in the current world, social commerce is very important for business. Social commerce paves the way for the easy shopping and thereby consumers trust to the online purchases can be increased. As a result, consumers intention to word of mouth and online purchase will be increased. This is why the present study aims to develop a model for business success in the online environment. In particular, the study aims to investigate the effect of social commerce and social interactions on consumers trust, electronic word of mouth, and purchase intention. For this purpose, 300 consumers of Digikala Company were surveyed. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was used for analysing the research data. For this purpose, both SPSS and SMART-PLS were used. Our findings revealed that ratings and reviews, as one of the constructs of social commerce, significantly affect social presence, informational support, closeness, and familiarity and do not affect emotional support and purchase intention significantly. Recommendations and referrals, as the second construct of social commerce, affect social presence, informational support, closeness, familiarity, and purchase intention significantly. In addition, social presence, informational support, emotional support, closeness, and familiarity affect trust significantly. Another part of our findings showed that emotional support affects trust significantly; trust affects the electronic word of mouth significantly; electronic word of mouth affects purchase intention significantly; informational support does not affect purchase intention significantly. The results of this study can be helpful for electronic marketing professionals in terms of consumer online purchase process management.
Keywords: social commerce; social intersections; electronic word of mouth; trust; online purchase intention.
Diversity, institutions, and entrepreneurship
by Abu H. Ayob
Abstract: Recent trends in globalisation have shown significant human migration. Subsequently, diversity in society changes local demographics. Although much research has discussed the effect of diversity on various domestic affairs, little is known about the real impact on business activities, particularly how institutional factors might affect the interaction. This study examines the impact of ethnic, religious, and linguistic diversity on the rate of entrepreneurial entry by considering the institutional context, both formal and informal, as the boundary conditions. Analysing multisource data from 88 countries aggregated between years 2010 and 2014, we found that ethnic and linguistic diversity impedes business formation, in contrast to religious diversity which spurs entrepreneurial entry. In addition, institutional variables of control of corruption, trust, and entrepreneurial culture are positively related to entrepreneurship. Lastly, the effects of diversity on entrepreneurship are moderated by some but not all institutions. This study provides important insights for all stakeholders to address contemporary issues such as labour mobility and migration.
Keywords: ethnic diversity; religious diversity; linguistic diversity; control of corruption; trust; entrepreneurial culture; entrepreneurship.
Exploring the influence of home country factors on rapid internationalisation of emerging multinational companies
by Osama Al-Kwifi, Shatha Obeidat, Abdulla Hamad M A Fetais
Abstract: This research explores home country influence on successful internationalisation of emerging multinational companies. We considered Qatar Airways and Emirates Airways as two companies from different countries with similar economic structures. Interviews with five experts in the airline industry revealed that four home country factors have produced significant competitive advantages, allowing both carriers to rapidly internationalise their activities and become key players in the global aviation industry. These home country factors are the location of the country, rapid economic development, government support, and influence of related industries.
Keywords: emerging economies; emerging multinational companies; home county effect; government support; economic development; competitive advantage.
Entrepreneurial intention among female university students in Oman
by Abdelghani Echchabi, Mohammed Mispah Said Omar, Abdullah Mohammed Ayedh
Abstract: The aim of the study is to identify the factors that influence the entrepreneurial intention among female students in Oman. The study used a survey questionnaire to collect data for a sample of 384 respondents in Oman. The study ensured that the major country regions and universities are covered. The collected data was analysed using partial least square (PLS) method as well as basic descriptive statistics. The findings revealed that perceived behavioural control and personal attitude were the main factors that influence Omani female students entrepreneurial intention. Attitude to risk, facilitating conditions and subjective norm were found to have no significant impact on entrepreneurial intention. The focus on female entrepreneurship is both timely and necessary worldwide and particularly in Oman. The findings have significant theoretical and practical implications that would certainly improve the entrepreneurship activities among female undergraduate students in Oman.
Keywords: entrepreneurial intention; EIQ; theory of planned behaviour; Oman.
Entrepreneurial intention among female university students: examining the moderating role of entrepreneurial education
by Imran Anwar, Imran Saleem, K. M. Baharul Islam, Prabha Thoudam
Abstract: In the present study, the authors have endeavoured to cognise the phenomenon of entrepreneurial intention among female university students of India through the application of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) adding an additional variable named entrepreneurial education (EE). Furthermore, the authors have attempted to examine the moderating role of entrepreneurship education on the relationships between ATE, PBC, and entrepreneurial intention (EI). A data sample of 387 female students was collected, using convenience sampling technique, from three different universities of India, namely AMU, CSJMU, and KMCUAFU, using an entrepreneurial intention questionnaire developed and published by Linen and Chen in 2009. After going through data screening process, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modelling (SEM) techniques were used for analysing the data. Results of hypotheses testing (SEM) revealed that basic antecedents of TPB have been found to have significant impact on EI of female students, while the additional variable EE was also found to be positively affecting EI with a low coefficient. The results of this study will help in understanding the phenomenon of EI among female university students. The findings cannot be applied for students of other streams, arts, science, technology, etc., as this study is based on the sample of female business and management students. A similar study could be carried out with students from other streams and of both genders. Other contextual variables can also be used in the future for conducting other research.
Keywords: entrepreneurial intention; theory of planned behaviour; entrepreneurial education; moderating effect; female university students.
Bringing back the discourse on entrepreneurial orientation construct: further clarifications on its dimensions
by Tahseen Arshi, Paul Burns, Usha Ramanathan, Michael Zhang
Abstract: The nomological validity of entrepreneurial orientation (EO) construct is re-examined as the current conceptualisation lacks precise articulation of the construct and its measurement. The validity concern is caused primarily by the innovation dimension. We adopt a critical lens to evaluate the dimensions and associated measures of EO, and contribute to the ongoing conversation on EO, by empirically testing its indicators and measures. Data collected from 404 firms in Oman are analysed using a two-step approach, initially conducting EFA and CFA tests, followed by structural equation modelling. The results suggest that innovation orientation significantly improves the clarity of the innovation dimension and is more congruent with EOs conceptualisation. The study further clarifies that EO consists of enabling measures that contribute to generation of entrepreneurial outputs in corporate firms. The five-factor EO construct is specified formatively and a comprehensive list of measures is drawn from multiple scales associated with EO research.
Keywords: entrepreneurial orientation; corporate entrepreneurship; innovation; innovation orientation; validity; modelling.
Traits and entrepreneurial intention: testing the mediating role of entrepreneurial attitude and self-efficacy
by Imran Anwar, Mohd Tariq Jamal, Imran Saleem, Prabha Thodam
Abstract: Entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial intention phenomenon had been a subject-matter across the world of academia and many of the researches have been undertaken to unfold the mystery of entrepreneurial intention. While hypothesising the theoretical framework, in this study, authors have endeavoured to instrument entrepreneurial traits and the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) with the application of mediation mechanism. Cross-sectional study design was adopted to collect the data from 663 students (368 male and 295 female) of three different universities of India using the convenience sampling technique. Convergent and discriminant validity of the data, along with its model fitness, were ensured and tested using CFA while for testing the hypotheses, SEM technique was employed. Results revealed that traits and underlying factors of TPB are having a direct and positive relationship with the entrepreneurial intention. Moreover, entrepreneurial traits were found significantly affecting entrepreneurial attitude and self-efficacy directly while having significant indirect relationship with the entrepreneurial intention through the mediation of entrepreneurial attitude and self-efficacy. This study makes significantly contributes to the existing literature in the domain of entrepreneurial intention by cognising the mediating role of entrepreneurial attitude between traits and entrepreneurial intention.
Keywords: entrepreneurial intention; risk-taking propensity; locus of control; innovativeness; theory of planned behaviour; mediation analysis.
Cultural intelligence and the internationalisation of SMEs: a study of the manufacturing sector in Egypt
by Hadia Fakhreldin
Abstract: This study analyses the relation between cultural intelligence and the internationalisation of Egyptian SMEs in the manufacturing sector, using the Resource-Based View, the Market View, the Network View combined with the Social Cognitive Theory of Motivation and Behaviour, to develop a framework of SME internationalisation. It adopts the survey method and analyses the information received from a stratified sample of Egyptian manufacturing SME managers using hierarchal regression, binary logistic regression and dominance analysis. The findings suggest that the cultural intelligence of the SME managers affects the internationalisation of Egyptian SMEs in the internationalisation intention phase more than in the actual internationalisation stage. The internationalisation motivators and specific entrepreneur and firm characteristics have a significant impact during the two phases. The study concludes that certain aspects of cultural intelligence should be cultivated and enhanced to achieve and maintain SME internationalisation. The empirical results contribute theoretically and practically to the development of a unifying framework for SME internationalisation.
Keywords: cultural intelligence; internationalisation; SMEs; manufacturing; Egypt.
The transaction cost approach to collaborative innovation in family firms: a process of internal collaboration through integration of human assets
by Feranita Feranita
Abstract: Prior research has shown that family firms can innovate despite investing less in R&D. But research on how family firms effectively turn innovation input to innovation output is scant. Using a qualitative single case study of a family firm needing to constantly innovate to keep up with the competition and government regulations, this paper examines how a family firm collaborates internally through integration of human assets to achieve innovation. Using a transaction cost economics approach, an inductive analysis from process research suggests that the process of economising non-family employees involves identifying the 'specificity' and 'deployability' of human assets in assessing new ideas for new product development. Failure to identify the deployability of human assets would result in high transaction costs, thus hampering innovation. This study contributes to existing literature about how family firms can do more with less by economising highly specified non-family human assets through the operationalisation of transaction cost economy.
Keywords: family business; collaborative innovation; innovation; human assets; transaction cost; non-family employees.
Social bricolage in the arts: Cheongna International City Culture Art Academy case
by Ji Hyon Park, Hyung-Deok Shin
Abstract: Social bricolage literature suggests how social entrepreneurs can survive in managing socially beneficial firms under scare resources (Di Domenico et al., 2010). This study applies six principles of social bricolage suggested by Di Domenico et al. (2010) to understand how Cheongna International City Culture Arts Academy has developed its path in resource-scarce arts management environments in South Korea. We found (1) making do was possible owing to direct control of the founder with deep understanding in the arts, (2) refusal to be constrained by limitation was made by using legal advantages for students who participate in the orchestra to attract more members, (3) improvisation was possible by establishing various affiliated groups that fit the needs of residents, (4) social value creation was made by providing an educational service to local students, (5) stakeholder participation was made by making networks with local governmental institutes, and (6) persuasion was made to secure practice rooms.
Keywords: social bricolage; bricolage in the arts; arts entrepreneurship; arts organisation; arts management; South Korea; Cheongna.
Entrepreneurial mindset as predictor of start-up desire: consideration of social cause interest
by Rob Kim Marjerison, Yinan Lin, Rongjuan Chen
Abstract: Theoretical models in the field of entrepreneurship study indicate that personal entrepreneurial desire is a strong factor in predicting future business behaviour, but there is little in the existing research about entrepreneurial mindset as a predictor of actual activity. With the emerging concept of social entrepreneurship in China, this paper aims to examine the relationship between entrepreneurial mindset, individual intention to start an enterprise, the likelihood of actually starting a business and personal interest in social causes. Based on the results of an online survey with 590 respondents, the role of entrepreneurial mindset as predictor is analysed using correlation, linear regression and multiple regression analysis. The findings of this research contribute to the future development of societal entrepreneurial programs, and to the role and assessment of the entrepreneurial mindset of potential social entrepreneurs. The study also provides insight into the perspective of the individual towards the concept of social responsibility.
Keywords: social entrepreneurship; entrepreneurial mindset; entrepreneurial desire; likelihood of starting a business; new venture; social causes; China.
Role of gender and exposure on entrepreneurial attitudes of Omani university students
by Suhail M. Ghouse, Dennis Barber III, Michael Harris, Shanan Gibson
Abstract: This study adds the Oman context to our knowledge base investigating the entrepreneurial attitudes and intentions of university students across multiple nations. This individual level study examines how gender and the previous work exposure are associated with the entrepreneurial attitudes of the Omani university students. The Entrepreneurial Attitudes Orientation (EAO) survey instrument (with four subscales) was used to measure the entrepreneurial attitudes of 144 Omani students. Exposure was measured through current or previous small business ownership, previous work exposure and family exposure. The research adds to the literature in the cultural and regional context and contributes to the existing knowledge by suggesting a theory-based understanding of the role of attitudes in the formation of entrepreneurial intentions The study proposes how the policy-makers can support young entrepreneurs to start novel business ventures in the region by creating a comprehensive entrepreneurial ecosystem which can contribute in the socio-economic development of the Sultanate of Oman.
Keywords: gender; exposure; entrepreneurial intentions; entrepreneurial attitudes; entrepreneurship; Oman.
Multi-dimensional aspects of risk-taking in entrepreneurs: a global study
by Shilpi Sharma
Abstract: This paper presents in-depth analyses of five distinct risk dimensions, in relation to age, gender, country of origin and entrepreneur in family. A unique aspect of this study is the repeated analyses for the same hypotheses, using data from three independent rounds of data collection. This design allowed to identify inconsistencies in any data trends. Individuals who had an active enterprise had significantly higher scores for risk-taking propensity and profit-contingent risks, than aspiring and non-entrepreneur groups, across all three rounds of data collection. On the other hand, entrepreneurs did not have significantly different scores for risk aversion than the other two groups. A series of linear regression analyses indicated that younger males, from a developing country, and who had an entrepreneur in the family, had significantly higher risk-taking propensities. Inconsistencies in results for risk-enjoyment and creative risk dimensions may be better understood through a qualitative, longitudinal research.
Keywords: entrepreneurs; risk-taking; multi-dimensional risk-taking; risk taking in entrepreneurs; global research in entrepreneurship; personality research; risk-taking research in entrepreneurs; personality of entrepreneur; effect of age on entrepreneur risk-taking; effect of gender on entrepreneur risk-taking.