International Journal of Water (6 papers in press)
Investigating the effect of climate change on inflow into Karun-4 dam based on IPCC's fourth and fifth reports
by Afshin Mansouri, Babak Aminnejad, Hassan Ahmadi
Abstract: In the present paper, fluctuations of inflow into Karun-4 dam under different climate change scenarios for the future period of 2021-2050 have been investigated. For this purpose, the outputs of HadCM3 model under the scenarios of B1 (optimistic) and A2 (pessimistic) were used for the IPCC fourth assessment report. Additionally, the outputs of the ensemble model under RCP 2.6 (optimistic) and RCP 8.5 (pessimistic) scenarios were used for the IPCC fifth assessment report. Furthermore, to estimate discharge in the future period, artificial neural network (ANN) was considered as a rainfall-runoff model. Results indicated that the average annual precipitation in the five study stations under B1 and RCP 2.6 scenarios increased by 15% and 5%, respectively, and showed a decrease equal to 8% and 6%, respectively, under A2 and RCP 8.5 scenarios. Moreover, the average annual temperature in all scenarios showed increases, which were at least 1.06 oC under B1 scenario and 1.89 oC under RCP 8.5 scenario. Examining the inflow into the Karun-4 dam showed that under both B1 and RCP 2.6 scenarios, the annual inflow would increase by 1.8% and 1.5%, respectively, and under the two scenarios A2 and RCP 8.5, the annual inflow would decrease by 10.4% and 9.8%, respectively.
Keywords: HadCM3 model; ensemble model; optimistic scenarios; pessimistic scenarios.
Sustainable urban development through a blue and green network approach focusing the protection of water resources: the case of the Belo Horizonte Metropolitan Region, in Brazil
by Nilo Nascimento, Julian Eleuterio, Heloisa Costa, Brigitte Vinçon-Leite, Ana Mourao, Diomira Faria, Roberto Monte-Mor
Abstract: This paper explores the potentialities offered by blue-green approaches to promote protection of water resources at the metropolitan scale and to contribute to structuring territorial development. An ongoing experience of regional planning and land use regulation in the Belo Horizonte Metropolitan Region (BHMR), in Brazil, is here a reference. With a population of 5.8 million inhabitants and territory of 10,000 km2, the BHMR offers a rich example of land use diversity that highlights the complexity of metropolitan territorial planning and management. In the first part of the paper, blue-green concepts are developed emphasising their role for the protection of water resources. This is followed by the methods and results of applying these concepts to the BHMR. We then evaluate whether blue-green approaches are sufficient to protect water resources and discuss the potentialities of additional tools such as the payment for environmental services with the same objectives.
Keywords: metropolitan areas; water resource protection; metropolitan development planning; blue-green approach; metropolitan zoning; participatory process; participatory planning; drinking water supply; sources of drinking water; green corridors.
Frictional head loss relation between Hazen-Williams and Darcy-Weisbach equations for various water supply pipe materials
by Rehan Jamil
Abstract: This research presents the analytical relationship between the frictional head loss obtained by two of the most common equations, Darcy-Weisbach and Hazen-Williams, considering plastic and metallic pipe materials as major categories. A wide range of hydraulic situations have been covered for the water supply system for buildings through five models for each pipe material category, based on water temperatures ranging from 20 oC to 60 oC, pipe diameters from 15 mm to 50 mm and volume flow-rates from 0.25l ps to 2l ps. The head loss values obtained by both equations were used to establish the correlation between them by using statistical techniques. The analysis showed reliable results with a combined correlation coefficient of 0.981 between the two equations for plastic and metallic pipes, while the R2 value for the trend line of head loss values obtained by these equations was found to be 0.9978. This relationship will prove to be very useful for the water supply pipe manufacturers and designers for the mutual conversion of frictional head loss values obtained by these equations.
Keywords: Darcy-Weisbach; Hazen-Williams; analytical relation; water supply; pipe materials; fluid dynamics; regression analysis.
The effects of climate change on crop yields using RCP scenarios with SWAT agro-hydrological model in Maharloo basin, Fars Province, Iran
by Fatemeh Moazami Goudarzi, Amirpouya Sarraf, Hassan Ahmadi
Abstract: Climate change is one of the most important issues that have been raised in water sources and agriculture limiting the crop production. In this study, the northern part of the Maharloo Lake in the central plateau of Iran is simulated using a semi-distributed SWAT model during 1980-2013. Then, using the LARS-WG, future climate information is obtained based on RCP 4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. Furthermore, assessment of the effects of climate change showed that the average annual temperature of the basin in the future period (2021-2040) will increase about 1.5
Keywords: Maharloo Lake; LARS-WG downscaling model; semi-distributed SWAT model; Maharloo Basin.
General assessment of Shatt Al-Arab River, Iraq
by Safaa Al-Asadi
Abstract: During the last four decades, changes in the hydrological system of Shatt Al-Arab River have led to significant shifts in both the quantity and quality parameters in the river water. Therefore, the levels of surface water and the current velocity, water discharge, total dissolved solid and major ions in the river water at four sites have been measured in order to provide the general assessment of water flow in the river. The study indicates that there are spatial and temporal variations of mixing process between freshwater and seawater within Shatt Al-Arab River. Therefore, the dynamics of the hydrochemical system is often a complex heterogeneous along the river, and the exact measurement of the net water discharge is a very complicated process.
Keywords: current velocity; water discharge; water quality; seawater intrusion; Shatt Al-Arab.
Exploring the certainty of reciprocal relationship with outcome expectations in water conservation efforts among generation Y: social cognitive theory approach
by Ganesh Ramasamy, Rajat Subhra Chatterjee
Abstract: Sustainable water conservation and water management among each individual is a crucial factor for better living standards in the present and future. Even though water supply is generally exercised with a countrys government administration, the conservation of water among the public and their attitude and emotional factors with social cognitive behaviour will play an essential role for present and future generations. In the concentrated context of social cognitive theory, this empirical study were conducted in relation to generation Y in Kuala Lumpur metropolitan city, Malaysia. A sample size of 265 generation Y population was used with convenience sampling method in identifying their attitude and behaviour. The finding revealed that generation Y outcome expectancy has significant positive effect on water conservation. The outcome expectancy was predicted by environmental factors, personal factors and perceived self-efficacy. According to the model evaluation, the adjusted R2 was .78, which explain almost 78% of the variance in outcome expectancy in determining behaviour in water conservation among generation Y in Kuala Lumpur metropolitan city. In reciprocal identifications, the variables were tested with correlation and all variables achieved positive strong correlation.
Keywords: social cognitive theory; reciprocal determinism; water conservation; generation Y; behavioral practice.