International Journal of Vehicle Information and Communication Systems (21 papers in press)
A novel approach of remotely calibrating the active phased array antenna using pulse network analyser
by Momina Syed, M. Sandhana Mahalingam, B. Seetha Ramanjaneyulu
Abstract: This paper presents a novel approach of remotely calibrating the active phased array antenna using the Pulse Network Analyser (PNA). Phased array antennas are usually calibrated at the factory, using near field range calibration. However, when these antennas are used in the field, owing to the presence of solid state components, their characteristics may change over time. Owing to these changes, the requirement arises to recalibrate the array in the field. Calibration is necessary to know the element-wise transmitting power, receiver gain, attenuation, element failures and characteristics of phase shifters. A proper calibration will ensure the desired antenna pattern and system accuracy. In this work, a technique that is suitable for calibration in both transmit and receive paths of phased array antennas, using the far field method, is developed. A suitable setup was established for implementing the above technique using the PNA. Remote control of the setup was done using Matlab software. Results obtained indicate the successful calibration of the system.
Keywords: active phased array antenna; transmit/receive modules; pulse network analyser; calibration of active array; recalibration; far-field calibration.
Improving the connectivity of junction-based routing in city scenarios of VANETs
by Khalid Zahedi, Yasser Zahedi, Abdul Samad Ismail
Abstract: In this work, a new protocol exclusively designed for improving the connectivity of junction-based routing in vehicular ad hoc networks is introduced. Its main characteristic is eliminating the dependency on traffic density during the process of routing path construction in city environments. In particular, the proposed protocol employs a multi-metric junction selection mechanism to select the optimal next candidate junction. The novelty of the proposed mechanism is its exploitation of road-side units as one of the selection metrics. Results have shown an increase in the packet delivery ratio and a decrease in the end-to-end delay of the proposed protocol compared with other junction-based protocols.
Keywords: VANETs; junction-based; routing paths; junction selection; traffic density; connectivity; RSUs.
Evaluation of driver status in autonomous vehicles: using thermal infrared imaging and other physiological measurements
by Shinji Kajiwara
Abstract: This review examines whether thermal infrared imaging is a possibility for evaluating the state of drivers in autonomous vehicles. Functional thermal infrared imaging is considered to be a promising future methodology for evaluating driver status. Observations of a drivers emotional state rely on muscle activity, subcutaneous blood flow, and sweating pattern, all driven by the sympathetic nervous system. The selection of appropriate baselines, autonomous nature of thermal prints, experimental setup, methodological problems, limitations, and future directions are all discussed. This paper thus outlines the possibility of monitoring drivers of autonomous vehicles using thermal infrared imaging.
Keywords: autonomous vehicles; driver health; preventive safety; psychology; facial temperature change.
Accurate estimation of DOA and MAI mitigation in the presence of channel impairments at low signal-to-noise ratio
by Ehab M. Shaheen, Ahmed Amin, Mohammed Samir
Abstract: Environmental effects may cause antenna array element positions to become disturbed, introducing array shape uncertainties. The presence of these uncertainties causes a rapid degradation in the detection, resolution and estimation performance of array processing algorithms. In this paper, the performance of the Multiple Signal Classification Direction of Arrival (MSC DOA) algorithm for estimating the direction of the incident angles of all the received signals impinging on the antenna array elements is analysed at low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The investigation is achieved under different scenarios, such as changing the number of antenna array elements at different values of SNR. The root mean square error of the estimated angles is computed and compared with the true angles of the desired user. The simulation results assure that in the presence of the reference signal, the DOA algorithms can identify the direction of the desired user with high accuracy and high resolution. Moreover, the Affine Projection Algorithm (APA) is implemented to enhance the accuracy of the estimated direction in order to generate a main beam towards the desired user and nulls towards interference.
Keywords: APA; DOA; MUSIC; SDMA; adaptive beam-forming.
Research on distributed dynamic traffic data mining based on vehicular ad hoc network
by Jian Gao
Abstract: There are some problems with current traffic data mining methods, such as poor accuracy, high energy consumption, high packet loss rate and long time-consuming. A distributed dynamic traffic data mining method based on vehicular ad hoc network is proposed. Before mining, congestion, routing changes, data channel errors and connection interruptions in vehicular ad hoc networks are detected respectively. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is introduced to realise traffic data classification mining based on vehicular ad hoc networks under network coding and clustering fusion. The simulation results show that the method has high accuracy and efficiency, low energy consumption and packet loss rate, and high feasibility.
Keywords: vehicular ad hoc network; distributed; traffic data; mining.
Research status of behaviour decision-making for intelligent vehicles
by Di Tan, Shuaishuai Liu, Ruixian Li, Kun Yang
Abstract: The replacement of human driving with the intelligence of intelligent vehicles is gradually increasing, which is one of the necessary ways to solve the traffic accidents and traffic congestion caused by incorrect driving of human. The behaviour decision-making system of intelligent vehicles is the core part of intelligent vehicles. This system determines whether intelligent vehicles can produce driving behaviour of reason, and plays a vital role in the safety of intelligent vehicles. The research status of behaviour decision-making methods of intelligent vehicles at home and abroad and the different behaviour decision-making methods used in different scenarios of intelligent vehicles are summarised in this paper. The difficulties in behaviour decision-making of intelligent vehicles are summarised and the future development direction of decision-making of intelligent vehicles is discussed.
Keywords: intelligent vehicles; behaviour decision-making; intersections; urban areas; expressways; automatic lane-changing.
Special Issue on: Impacts of Vehicle Information and Communication Systems
Range frequency based distance computation technique for positioning in vehicular ad-hoc network
by P. Mohamed Shakeel, S. Baskar
Abstract: The intent of VANET (Vehicular Ad-hoc Network) is to allow efficient information dissemination aimed at the safety and comfort of passengers and drivers and to safeguard them from risk. Several fascinating and wide ranging potential applications that aid travellers are driver assistance, collision detection, internet access, map location and so on. The most precarious one is collision detection and avoidance. A collision happens when the distance between neighboring vehicles rapidly decreases. Thus, a precise and accurate knowledge about the distance between vehicles has to be determined to allow a robust collision avoidance service. Hence, in this paper, a Range Frequency based Distance Computation (RFDC) technique is proposed to provide distance estimation between every vehicle that approximates to the actual distance. The performance of the proposed approach is analysed in terms of delay, energy used, accuracy and received signal strength, and compared with the existing MDS (multi beacon signal).
Keywords: VANET; distance; range frequency; received signal strength.
Special Issue on: ICACCE 2018 Information Technology and Intelligent Transportation
A conceptual framework and architecture for mobile governance
by Shailendra Mishra, Mayank Singh
Abstract: Mobile governance (M-governance) mainly facilitates government to public (G2P) and public to government (P2G) communication for better public service in terms of information transmission and dissemination. This research aims to develop an M-governance framework and architecture for mobile governance for educational institutions to access communication services. The proposed M-governance framework is built up on the basis of a technology acceptance model (TAM) and 15 enablers, including perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, perceived access, interpersonal influence, perceived trustworthiness, perceived mobility, transparency of governance, compatibility, flexibility, perceived security, perceived enjoyment, network provider service, completeness of service, location influence in the service and emergency management. The proposed application architecture for M-governance is beneficial because it allows administrators of the affiliated colleges to use the mobile device of their choice but Android, and it offers a simple solution.
Keywords: mobile governance; M-governance; technology acceptance model; interpretive structural modelling; remote monitoring agent.
Prediction and avoidance of real-time traffic congestion system for Indian metropolitan cities
by Mayank Singh, Viranjay M. Srivastava
Abstract: The expansion of sensors and data is the catalyst for traffic simulators to help monitor and manage transportation systems in real time to improve key performance metrics and overall efficiency. As a specific instance, consider vehicle tracking. The future path of an arbitrary driver on a road network is uncertain, while the benefit of using this knowledge grows each year. The number of accidents has rapidly increased in Indian perspective over the past few decades. Owing to the accidents, a large number of infrastructure, resource and human losses occur. Government and researchers are working hard to find the solution to reduce the number of road accidents. In this paper, we have proposed an architectural framework for an Indian urban transport system to gather, store, and mine data, to get information to avoid traffic accidents and congestion and to predict alternative routes in real time. A combination of machine learning and data mining techniques are used to implement the proposed system. The implemented system will help in the reduction of traffic accidents and will suggest alternate routes to avoid the traffic congestion for an Indian urban transport network operation in real time. Real-time data is fed into a traffic simulation, which generates future states of the road network and alternative routes to avoid congestion. Because the results of the system need to be both faster than real-time and accurate, the acceleration of the simulation execution and the accuracy of the prediction models are critical.
Keywords: congestion avoidance; congestion prediction; real-time traffic monitoring; road accident avoidance.
Special Issue on: Big Data Innovation For Sustainable VANET Management
QoS-based routing for free space optical mobile ad hoc networks
by Salma Fauzia, Kaleem Fatima
Abstract: Quality of Service (QoS) provisioning during routing in mobile ad-hoc networks has long been an exigent task for researchers. The challenges such as node mobility and route maintenance during topology changes and link characteristics become more sophisticated if the scenario requires maintaining a clear Line of Sight (LOS) between the transmitter and receiver. Similar is the case of a Free Space Optical Mobile Ad Hoc network (FSO MANET), which was originally designed for military applications and delay-tolerant networks. Routing for successful delivery of data and efficient use of network bandwidth remains a challenging issue in such networks. A routing protocol should take care of the directional nature of transmission and LOS requirement in a transceiver pair in FSO MANET. In this work, the traditional routing protocol Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) is implemented in an FSO MANET to satisfy the QoS bandwidth requirement. The results showed an improvement in throughput if bandwidth is pre-specified as a QoS parameter. The performance is evaluated by varying node speeds and varying the number of nodes in the network.
Keywords: routing protocols; AODV; QoS; FSO.
Reconfigurable hardware architecture of public key crypto processor for VANET and wireless sensor nodes
by Leelavathi Gopalakrishna, Shaila Kalanath, K.R. Venugopal
Abstract: This work proposes encryption of text and image data, embedding as elliptic curve point. Finite field arithmetic is used efficiently in this reconfigurable crypto system. Pre-computation for text data and image input conversion is done using MATLAB. This architecture is tailored for cryptographic applications and VANET using Xilinx Spartan-xc3s100e-4-fg320 FPGA with Verilog coding. Total encryption and decryption time results around 10.09021 microsecond for 100 x 100 image, 22.091 microsecond for 256 x 256 image and 0.029 microsecond for a message. The message size varies with different stream size, and dynamic mapping of input data and a cipher image with high randomness indicate good security, i.e., less vulnerable to attacks. An entropy statistical analysis is performed on plain and encrypted images to assess the strength of the proposed method. The encryption throughput rate is 450 Mbps and area throughput is 3.63, which is a good improvement over previous implementations.
Keywords: elliptic curve cryptography; entropy; ElGamal; FPGA; mapping; public key cryptography; VANET.
Queue size estimation of nodes in a heterogeneous ocean network with multiple priority traffic
by Simi Surendran, Maneesha Vinodini Ramesh, Ushakumari P V
Abstract: Fishing is a major occupation for millions of people in coastal states of India and other developing countries. Fishing vessels go beyond 100 km from the shore in search of fish and the existing offshore communication technologies can provide connectivity only up to 20 km. Ocean network is a heterogeneous wireless network of fishing vessels at sea to provide low-cost communication to the shore. The information exchange between fishing vessels involves many types of message with varying priorities. We consider prioritisation of emergency data, normal data, voice and video messages between fishing vessels. As the connectivity is intermittent, it is necessary to select the most appropriate message from the transmission queue for forwarding. This paper focuses on designing a queuing model with multiple priorities to estimate the queue size of each type of message in a node. Solving the steady state equations give the number of emergency packets, data packets, audio packets and video packets waiting in the node to be transmitted. Hence the message dissemination algorithm can select the appropriate queue for transmitting the message to maximise the available resources with fairness.
Keywords: wireless network; queuing model; message prioritisation; quasi birth death process; data dissemination.
Enhanced cluster-based stable path for load balancing and reducing overhead using artificial bee colony in MANETS
by Ramadass Sundar, Ayyaswamy Kathirvel
Abstract: A routing overhead plays a vital role in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET). This overhead affects the nature of the whole system. A cluster-based route discovery process along with load balancing the cluster head (CH) is the primary constraint in a routing protocol. In previous algorithms, the main focus is on a stable path between starting and ending points, without considering the overhead of initial route discovery during the transmission period and also the member of balanced CH. The path fails in a route and again re-initiates the discovery process which may lead to additional overhead, increased delay and waste of resources. This paper proposes a new algorithm that reduces the routing overhead for Cluster-Based initial Route Discovery and Data Transmission using Artificial Bee Colony (CBRT-ABC) with Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV). This calculation uses the conduct of honey bees' calculation to discover high adequate neighbour node for initial route discovery based on average residual power, average signal strength and minimum broadcasting delay, and a path has been established. The available path will be tested for failure prior to the data transmission. If a path is going to fail in the near future, then handoff technique is implemented to avoid the existing path failure. This process will eliminate re-route discovery process and then reduce the additional routing overhead also. Another problem that is overcome by this algorithm is the load balancing in each CH. This CH controls and shares the information with all its members more effectively. As a result, the CH maintains a long period of processing time and produces a reliable path. Whenever the optimal path is retained then the additional route discovery overhead is removed. This projected algorithm is computed in the NS-2 simulator and, with estimating through the FTMPR, it diminishes the transmission delay routing overhead and improves the packet delivery ratio. The results show that resources are used effectively.
Keywords: artificial bee colony; route discovery; residual power; signal strength; minimum broadcasting delay; routing overhead.
DESR: differential evolutionary secure routing protocol for mobile ad-hoc networks
by Shashi Prabha, Raghav Yadav
Abstract: A mobile ad-hoc network is an infrastructure-less spontaneously formed wireless environment that is deployed without any centralised unit. All the nodes in this kind of network are assumed to be trustworthy but, in the real scenario, a few can be malicious and therefore a secure and reliable route for data transmission is always a matter of question. This paper presents an effective routing solution for mobile ad- hoc networks with differential evolution. The proposed algorithm is termed as differential evolution secure routing (DESR) protocol for mobile ad-hoc networks with an effective fitness function. The component metrics for the fitness function are the trust factor, residual battery power, and node stability, which are intended to select the most promising routes through the proposed differential secure routing algorithm. The simulation is carried out in various scenarios to evaluate the performance of the DESR algorithm with packet delivery ratio, average end-to-end delay, and throughput. Results are compared with two algorithms PSO and TSR.
Keywords: differential evolution; mutation; crossover; trust factor; fitness function.
Special Issue on: Research Challenges and Emerging Technologies in Autonomous Systems
Design and implementation of smart breaker system for electricity board using autonomous systems
by R. Vanitha
Abstract: According to the statistics of the Indian government, India loses 16.2 billion rupees owing to power theft by the people in all the states, and many of the people dont pay their bills and still use the electricity for free because of the improper existing systems in the use. The Electricity Board in India also experiences lot of troubles in various tasks such as energy auditing, billing, and regulating power in order to keep the system running smoothly. To prevent the above-mentioned problems a smart circuit breaker kit for the Electricity Board is developed with the help of Arduino Uno, Relay, GSM module, Subscribers Identity Module (SIM), and a real time clock. The major problem of power theft can also be prevented through the control over the energy meter. The controlling of energy meter will be easy as the GSM signals become part of daily life as they are available everywhere.
Keywords: automatic billing system; GSM; Arduino; smart breaker system; SIM; RTC; IoT.
Special Issue on: ICCIC2018 Emerging Technologies for Traffic and Transportation Science
Reliable whitelist management technique for warned nodes in MANET
by Jayanthi Kamal, Mohammed Ali Hussain
Abstract: Cluster-based MANETs are preferred to flat-based owing to less overhead as compared with the latter. Once the malicious nodes are detected their certificates need to be revoked. In non-voting-based mechanisms the accuser is put in the whitelist and the accused node is put in the blacklist by the certificate authority. The nodes are judged based on the trust calculation in the blacklist. If the trust value is below the threshold value, the nodes are dropped from the whitelist into the blacklist; otherwise, the nodes are removed from the network by revoking the certificate. The nodes in the whitelist are deprived of accusing the malicious nodes in the network. To enhance reliability, we remove the warned nodes from the whitelist and make them eligible to accuse other nodes. The removal of the nodes is provided by using a threshold value calculated by a certificate authority and trust-based mechanism.
Keywords: MANET; malicious nodes; accuser; revocation; certificate authority; threshold; certificate revocation list; whitelist; blackhole attack; AODV; public key infrastructure.
Effective use of cloud datacentre and allocating user demands to virtual machines using LMRO algorithm
by Madhina Banu, S. Aranganathan
Abstract: Cloud computing is a recent trend for modifying the computing technique strongly, and cloud storage assets will be recurrently accessed. The method works based on a black box method that has difficulty to correlate acquired data for internal resource management techniques. The simulation is not permitted to conduct comparative analysis owing to a huge amount of features required. The Load Maintenance and Resource Optimisation (LMRO) algorithm uses cloud data centres and allocates user demands to virtual machines (VMs). The load balancer keeps track of cloudlets processed by every virtual machine and tries to balance the active load. The method has a main data centre controller and load balancers to collect and analyse the information. Based on experimental evaluation, the proposed LMRO technique reduces 0.065 seconds TRT (Task Request Time), 0.20 seconds DPT (Datacentre Processing Time), 0.0125$ VMC (Virtual Machine Cost) and improves 19.25% TRP (Throughput) compared with conventional techniques.
Keywords: Resource optimization; load balancing; cloud computing; data center process time; virtual machine allocation; virtual machine placement; quality of services; task request time; virtual machine cost; throughput.
A cluster-based secured data transmission protocol for efficient data gathering in wireless sensor networks
by Sharmila Pandian, Selwin Mich Priyadharson
Abstract: Nowadays Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) play a major role in wireless networks and are widely used in all surveillance and domestic applications. Secured data gathering becomes a major concern and big challenge in WSN in the presence of intruders. In existing works, secured data transmission was achieved through symmetric or asymmetric cryptographic schemes. However, it still suffers from high overhead and less confidentiality. In this research, a Cluster-based Secured Data Transmission Protocol (CSDTP) is developed to provide efficient data gathering in a network. This protocol contains three modules. In the first module, cluster-based secured routing is established from a Cluster Head (CH) to cluster members by implementing route request, route reply and route assign phase. In the second module, data transmission is initiated based on the communication period and trajectory path computation. High packet delivery is achieved during this module. In the third module, secured data gathering is implemented using symmetric key encryption and decryption algorithm. Data-gathering efficiency is improved and secured in the entire network region using CSDTP. Results of simulations show that the CSDTP provides a high ratio of data gathering, more packet delivery ratio, less end-to-end delay, high packet integrity ratio and less overhead than existing schemes.
Keywords: wireless sensor network; intrusion detection system; trust recommendation; data integrity; clock-based determination; packet delivery ratio; detection efficiency and delay.
Genetic algorithm based road network design for optimising the vehicle travel distance
by N. Shanmugasundaram, K. Sushita, S. Pradeep Kumar, E.N. Ganesh
Abstract: One-way road networks can be designed by aid of computer program. However, the use of genetic algorithms in such design is new. This research paper presents a new approach to search out and determine appropriate travel directions for the one-way road network. The main objective is to minimise the total distance travelled by vehicles. To calculate total distance, a branch-and-bound technique with breadth first search is applied to search for the shortest path between the start point and the end point. Results demonstrate that the genetic algorithm approach can be successfully applied to one-way road network design for two case studies. In the future, the genetic algorithm can be applied to design the one-way road network in general.
Keywords: transportation; genetic algorithm; one-way road network design.
Identity verification based cryptography for detecting intrusion in wireless sensor networks
by Joseph Antony Rajan, E.R. Naganathan
Abstract: IDentity Verification Based Cryptosystem (IDVBC) mechanism is implemented here for providing a novel and secured data transmission among nodes. Token-based node identity verification along with certificates and data encoding mechanism is carried out to reduce the complexity in wireless networks. By applying local identity verification scheme, the communication overheads are reduced and hence the certificate management process is simplified. Each sensor owned a local private key and should get matched with the public key generated by the base station. Encoding process uses hash signature schemes for enhancing the security measures in the network. Source node sends the encrypted or encoded data with the generated local private key and labelled Token ID. Once the Token ID verification is done and the key matches with the global private key generated by the BS, the decrypted or decoded data is received by the receiver. The proposed IDVBC scheme has the ability to detect malicious activity of the node, to provide high level security and able to tolerate several security attacks.
Keywords: cryptosystem; certificate management; token verification; hash signature; WSN.
Special Issue on: ICCIC2018 Emerging Technologies for Traffic and Transportation Science
Fairness-based heuristic workflow scheduling and placement in cloud computing
by Narayani Raman, W. Aisha Banu
Abstract: Cloud computing has become a commercial business environment for small and large scale industries to avail the resources. Resource allocation is a major challenging issue in cloud computing because of virtualisation and high availability. Cloud application requests are processed dynamically to achieve resource utilisation based on the diverse demand for cloud resources. The expected allocation of resources to the application is inequitable. This paper analyses the QoS metrics of cloud services based on user satisfaction and the proposed Fairness-based Heuristic Workflow Scheduling and Placement (FHWSP) algorithm with a new multi-objective function. It minimises the overall profit and time of execution with respect to the characteristics of tasks and physical servers in the datacentre. Optimal solution of the proposed algorithm is achieved in three phases. In the first phase, the classification of user requests is done referring to the QoS metrics. In the second phase, the user requests are scheduled to an available virtual machine. In the third phase, a justice function is used to calculate the justice value of scheduled tasks with respect to characteristics and migrated to a suitable virtual machine for execution. The evaluation of the proposed FHWSP algorithm with the existing traditional algorithms is simulated in a CloudSim environment. The experimental results improve the QoS parameters in terms of 5% in makespan and 3% in total execution cost of the scheduling and placement algorithm in the CloudSim environment.
Keywords: cloud computing; fairness; heuristic; placement; satisfaction; virtualisation.