International Journal of Vehicle Information and Communication Systems (20 papers in press)
A novel approach of remotely calibrating the active phased array antenna using pulse network analyser
by Momina Syed, M. Sandhana Mahalingam, B. Seetha Ramanjaneyulu
Abstract: This paper presents a novel approach of remotely calibrating the active phased array antenna using the Pulse Network Analyser (PNA). Phased array antennas are usually calibrated at the factory, using near field range calibration. However, when these antennas are used in the field, owing to the presence of solid state components, their characteristics may change over time. Owing to these changes, the requirement arises to recalibrate the array in the field. Calibration is necessary to know the element-wise transmitting power, receiver gain, attenuation, element failures and characteristics of phase shifters. A proper calibration will ensure the desired antenna pattern and system accuracy. In this work, a technique that is suitable for calibration in both transmit and receive paths of phased array antennas, using the far field method, is developed. A suitable setup was established for implementing the above technique using the PNA. Remote control of the setup was done using Matlab software. Results obtained indicate the successful calibration of the system.
Keywords: active phased array antenna; transmit/receive modules; pulse network analyser; calibration of active array; recalibration; far-field calibration.
Improving the connectivity of junction-based routing in city scenarios of VANETs
by Khalid Zahedi, Yasser Zahedi, Abdul Samad Ismail
Abstract: In this work, a new protocol exclusively designed for improving the connectivity of junction-based routing in vehicular ad hoc networks is introduced. Its main characteristic is eliminating the dependency on traffic density during the process of routing path construction in city environments. In particular, the proposed protocol employs a multi-metric junction selection mechanism to select the optimal next candidate junction. The novelty of the proposed mechanism is its exploitation of road-side units as one of the selection metrics. Results have shown an increase in the packet delivery ratio and a decrease in the end-to-end delay of the proposed protocol compared with other junction-based protocols.
Keywords: VANETs; junction-based; routing paths; junction selection; traffic density; connectivity; RSUs.
Evaluation of driver status in autonomous vehicles: using thermal infrared imaging and other physiological measurements
by Shinji Kajiwara
Abstract: This review examines whether thermal infrared imaging is a possibility for evaluating the state of drivers in autonomous vehicles. Functional thermal infrared imaging is considered to be a promising future methodology for evaluating driver status. Observations of a drivers emotional state rely on muscle activity, subcutaneous blood flow, and sweating pattern, all driven by the sympathetic nervous system. The selection of appropriate baselines, autonomous nature of thermal prints, experimental setup, methodological problems, limitations, and future directions are all discussed. This paper thus outlines the possibility of monitoring drivers of autonomous vehicles using thermal infrared imaging.
Keywords: autonomous vehicles; driver health; preventive safety; psychology; facial temperature change.
Special Issue on: Impacts of Vehicle Information and Communication Systems
Range frequency based distance computation technique for positioning in vehicular ad-hoc network
by P. Mohamed Shakeel, S. Baskar
Abstract: The intent of VANET (Vehicular Ad-hoc Network) is to allow efficient information dissemination aimed at the safety and comfort of passengers and drivers and to safeguard them from risk. Several fascinating and wide ranging potential applications that aid travellers are driver assistance, collision detection, internet access, map location and so on. The most precarious one is collision detection and avoidance. A collision happens when the distance between neighboring vehicles rapidly decreases. Thus, a precise and accurate knowledge about the distance between vehicles has to be determined to allow a robust collision avoidance service. Hence, in this paper, a Range Frequency based Distance Computation (RFDC) technique is proposed to provide distance estimation between every vehicle that approximates to the actual distance. The performance of the proposed approach is analysed in terms of delay, energy used, accuracy and received signal strength, and compared with the existing MDS (multi beacon signal).
Keywords: VANET; distance; range frequency; received signal strength.
Special Issue on: ICACCE 2018 Information Technology and Intelligent Transportation
A conceptual framework and architecture for mobile governance
by Shailendra Mishra, Mayank Singh
Abstract: Mobile governance (M-governance) mainly facilitates government to public (G2P) and public to government (P2G) communication for better public service in terms of information transmission and dissemination. This research aims to develop an M-governance framework and architecture for mobile governance for educational institutions to access communication services. The proposed M-governance framework is built up on the basis of a technology acceptance model (TAM) and 15 enablers, including perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, perceived access, interpersonal influence, perceived trustworthiness, perceived mobility, transparency of governance, compatibility, flexibility, perceived security, perceived enjoyment, network provider service, completeness of service, location influence in the service and emergency management. The proposed application architecture for M-governance is beneficial because it allows administrators of the affiliated colleges to use the mobile device of their choice but Android, and it offers a simple solution.
Keywords: mobile governance; M-governance; technology acceptance model; interpretive structural modelling; remote monitoring agent.
Special Issue on: Big Data Innovation For Sustainable VANET Management
QoS-based routing for free space optical mobile ad hoc networks
by Salma Fauzia, Kaleem Fatima
Abstract: Quality of Service (QoS) provisioning during routing in mobile ad-hoc networks has long been an exigent task for researchers. The challenges such as node mobility and route maintenance during topology changes and link characteristics become more sophisticated if the scenario requires maintaining a clear Line of Sight (LOS) between the transmitter and receiver. Similar is the case of a Free Space Optical Mobile Ad Hoc network (FSO MANET), which was originally designed for military applications and delay-tolerant networks. Routing for successful delivery of data and efficient use of network bandwidth remains a challenging issue in such networks. A routing protocol should take care of the directional nature of transmission and LOS requirement in a transceiver pair in FSO MANET. In this work, the traditional routing protocol Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) is implemented in an FSO MANET to satisfy the QoS bandwidth requirement. The results showed an improvement in throughput if bandwidth is pre-specified as a QoS parameter. The performance is evaluated by varying node speeds and varying the number of nodes in the network.
Keywords: routing protocols; AODV; QoS; FSO.
Reconfigurable hardware architecture of public key crypto processor for VANET and wireless sensor nodes
by Leelavathi Gopalakrishna, Shaila Kalanath, K.R. Venugopal
Abstract: This work proposes encryption of text and image data, embedding as elliptic curve point. Finite field arithmetic is used efficiently in this reconfigurable crypto system. Pre-computation for text data and image input conversion is done using MATLAB. This architecture is tailored for cryptographic applications and VANET using Xilinx Spartan-xc3s100e-4-fg320 FPGA with Verilog coding. Total encryption and decryption time results around 10.09021 microsecond for 100 x 100 image, 22.091 microsecond for 256 x 256 image and 0.029 microsecond for a message. The message size varies with different stream size, and dynamic mapping of input data and a cipher image with high randomness indicate good security, i.e., less vulnerable to attacks. An entropy statistical analysis is performed on plain and encrypted images to assess the strength of the proposed method. The encryption throughput rate is 450 Mbps and area throughput is 3.63, which is a good improvement over previous implementations.
Keywords: elliptic curve cryptography; entropy; ElGamal; FPGA; mapping; public key cryptography; VANET.
Queue size estimation of nodes in a heterogeneous ocean network with multiple priority traffic
by Simi Surendran, Maneesha Vinodini Ramesh, Ushakumari P V
Abstract: Fishing is a major occupation for millions of people in coastal states of India and other developing countries. Fishing vessels go beyond 100 km from the shore in search of fish and the existing offshore communication technologies can provide connectivity only up to 20 km. Ocean network is a heterogeneous wireless network of fishing vessels at sea to provide low-cost communication to the shore. The information exchange between fishing vessels involves many types of message with varying priorities. We consider prioritisation of emergency data, normal data, voice and video messages between fishing vessels. As the connectivity is intermittent, it is necessary to select the most appropriate message from the transmission queue for forwarding. This paper focuses on designing a queuing model with multiple priorities to estimate the queue size of each type of message in a node. Solving the steady state equations give the number of emergency packets, data packets, audio packets and video packets waiting in the node to be transmitted. Hence the message dissemination algorithm can select the appropriate queue for transmitting the message to maximise the available resources with fairness.
Keywords: wireless network; queuing model; message prioritisation; quasi birth death process; data dissemination.
Enhanced cluster-based stable path for load balancing and reducing overhead using artificial bee colony in MANETS
by Ramadass Sundar, Ayyaswamy Kathirvel
Abstract: A routing overhead plays a vital role in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET). This overhead affects the nature of the whole system. A cluster-based route discovery process along with load balancing the cluster head (CH) is the primary constraint in a routing protocol. In previous algorithms, the main focus is on a stable path between starting and ending points, without considering the overhead of initial route discovery during the transmission period and also the member of balanced CH. The path fails in a route and again re-initiates the discovery process which may lead to additional overhead, increased delay and waste of resources. This paper proposes a new algorithm that reduces the routing overhead for Cluster-Based initial Route Discovery and Data Transmission using Artificial Bee Colony (CBRT-ABC) with Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV). This calculation uses the conduct of honey bees' calculation to discover high adequate neighbour node for initial route discovery based on average residual power, average signal strength and minimum broadcasting delay, and a path has been established. The available path will be tested for failure prior to the data transmission. If a path is going to fail in the near future, then handoff technique is implemented to avoid the existing path failure. This process will eliminate re-route discovery process and then reduce the additional routing overhead also. Another problem that is overcome by this algorithm is the load balancing in each CH. This CH controls and shares the information with all its members more effectively. As a result, the CH maintains a long period of processing time and produces a reliable path. Whenever the optimal path is retained then the additional route discovery overhead is removed. This projected algorithm is computed in the NS-2 simulator and, with estimating through the FTMPR, it diminishes the transmission delay routing overhead and improves the packet delivery ratio. The results show that resources are used effectively.
Keywords: artificial bee colony; route discovery; residual power; signal strength; minimum broadcasting delay; routing overhead.
DESR: differential evolutionary secure routing protocol for mobile ad-hoc networks
by Shashi Prabha, Raghav Yadav
Abstract: A mobile ad-hoc network is an infrastructure-less spontaneously formed wireless environment that is deployed without any centralised unit. All the nodes in this kind of network are assumed to be trustworthy but, in the real scenario, a few can be malicious and therefore a secure and reliable route for data transmission is always a matter of question. This paper presents an effective routing solution for mobile ad- hoc networks with differential evolution. The proposed algorithm is termed as differential evolution secure routing (DESR) protocol for mobile ad-hoc networks with an effective fitness function. The component metrics for the fitness function are the trust factor, residual battery power, and node stability, which are intended to select the most promising routes through the proposed differential secure routing algorithm. The simulation is carried out in various scenarios to evaluate the performance of the DESR algorithm with packet delivery ratio, average end-to-end delay, and throughput. Results are compared with two algorithms PSO and TSR.
Keywords: differential evolution; mutation; crossover; trust factor; fitness function.
Special Issue on: Intelligent Technology for the Internet of Vehicles
Study on internet of vehicle traffic congestion detection algorithm based on big data
by Minglei Song, Lihua Liu, Rongrong Li, Binghua Wu
Abstract: In order to improve the traffic congestion detection capability of the vehicle network, a vehicle network congestion detection algorithm based on big data is proposed. The algorithm uses the Small-World model to construct a traffic distributed internet, and uses RFID tag reading technology to sample and fuse big data in the vehicle network, and to extract the inherent modal feature quantity of the vehicle traffic big data internet and the road traffic network. The overall state information is reorganised, according to the modal feature extraction results inherent in the vehicle traffic data interconnection network. The vehicle path is optimally scheduled, and according to the big data analysis results, the linear traffic planning algorithm is used to detect the vehicle traffic congestion network. The simulation results show that the proposed method has higher accuracy in vehicle traffic jam detection, and the detection time is below 10 s, and the efficiency is higher. The method can improve the anti-congestion capability of the vehicle and has a strong traffic diversion capability, thereby effectively improving the traffic effect of the vehicle in the network environment.
Keywords: big data; internet of vehicles; traffic; congestion detection.
Intelligent matching method of vehicle navigation map information based on vehicle networking technology
by Qun Le, Kun Jiang, Feng Zhang
Abstract: In order to improve the intelligent matching of vehicle navigation map information, an intelligent matching method of vehicle navigation map information based on vehicle networking technology is proposed, in order to construct an intelligent matching and information scheduling algorithm of vehicle navigation map information in vehicle networking based on information fusion and correlation matched filtering detection and a data transmission channel model for intelligent matching of vehicle navigation map information in vehicle networking, and analyse the multi-path characteristics of vehicle navigation map information transmission channel. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has better intelligence in vehicle navigation map information matching, better channel equalisation and better adaptive performance in vehicle networking communication.
Keywords: vehicle networking technology; vehicle navigation; map information; intelligent matching.
Modelling and analysis of factors affecting information perception quality of intelligent vehicle visual environment
by Zichao Huang, Bin Li, Yulin Ma, Xianghui Song, Ling Sun
Abstract: When the existing methods are used to analyse the factors affecting the perception quality of visual environment information of intelligent vehicles, the rationality of the quality evaluation index is poor and the accuracy of the evaluation result is low. A modelling method is proposed to analyse the influencing factors of information perception quality of intelligent vehicle visual environment, and the process of intelligent vehicles acquiring information through visual perception technology. The hierarchical structure model is established based on the selected information quality assessment index, and the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process is used to calculate the weight of the influencing factors, and the impact model of the perception information quality of the intelligent vehicle visual environment is constructed based on the calculation results. The experimental results show that the reasonability of the quality evaluation index of the proposed method is high and the accuracy of the evaluation results is high.
Keywords: intelligent vehicle; visual perception technology; information quality; influencing factors; impact modeling.
Intelligent acquisition model of traffic congestion information in the vehicle networking environment based on multi-sensor fusion
by Kun Jiang, Dan Su, YanFu Zheng
Abstract: Aiming at the problems of low bandwidth, poor anti-interference ability and low detection accuracy of the traditional multi-path coherent vehicle network model, an intelligent acquisition model of traffic congestion information in vehicle network environment based on multi-features is proposed.The model clusters the traffic congestion information in the vehicle network and uses the multi-sensor fusion identification method to mine the traffic flow. In the vehicle networking environment, the vehicle traffic congestion information is analysed by information fusion theory, cross-fusion, text information, location information, image, audio, video and other information-aware technologies, and the coherent matching filter detector is used to realise the traffic detection of traffic congestion information. Data collection is combined with knowledge base and database construction, to achieve intelligent collection and storage of traffic congestion information. The simulation results show that the model has high traffic congestion information acquisition accuracy and good feature matching ability, improves the intelligent acquisition ability, and detects the traffic congestion information in the vehicle network environment, thus guiding traffic scheduling.
Keywords: vehicle networking; traffic congestion information; acquisition; information fusion; data mining.
Control method for communication information transmission rate in passive cluster vehicles of vehicular networking
by Rui Zhang, Zhiwei Guan, Xiaofeng Liu, Tingting Gao
Abstract: Aiming at the problems of high energy consumption and packet loss rate, long delay and poor fault tolerance of existing information transmission rate control methods, a practical vehicle-based passive vehicle communication information transmission rate control method is proposed. The average relative speed of vehicles and the number of neighbouring vehicle nodes are selected as input parameters. The cluster head is selected by using fuzzy logic, and the cluster stability is set to the long duration of the cluster. The effective connection time model of the cluster vehicles communication link is constructed. Taking the effective connection time model and channel capacity as constraints, the Shannon information concept and the maximum utility function are used to obtain the optimal information transmission rate of the current node. Experimental results show that the proposed method has lower energy consumption and delay, less packet loss, and better fault-tolerant performance than the current research results.
Keywords: vehicular networking; communication information; transmission rate; control.
Research on the vehicle-borne information fusion strategy based on big data analysis
by Yingkai Miao
Abstract: In view of the disadvantages of the existing fusion interaction methods for vehicle-borne information, such as low accuracy and poor stability of information interaction, a new vehicle-borne information fusion interaction method based on big data analysis is proposed. Firstly, the noise in vehicle-borne information is filtered by wavelet transform, and then the maximum entropy theory is used for fusion. The fused vehicle-borne information is taken as the interactive sample, and the improved interactive multi-model algorithm is adopted to realise the fused interaction of vehicle-borne information. The experimental results show that the efficiency of the proposed method is above 97.8%, the stability is above 0.942, and the transmission delay is below 0.327 s. Therefore, in the process of vehicle-borne information fusion interaction, the use of big data analysis technology can make the vehicle-borne information interaction more efficient and more stable, and have more information coverage.
Keywords: big data analysis; vehicle-borne information fusion; interaction; maximum entropy theory; CSIMM algorithm.
Cooperative collision avoidance algorithm for multi-vehicle based on vehicle networking technology
by Jie Luo, Baichuan Lu, Jin Xu, Zhongping Yang
Abstract: This paper tries to solve the problem of the low success rate of the traditional algorithms for collision avoidance and poor control of parking distance. The vehicle network system is established and the vehicle kinematics model is developed. Accurate estimation of the vehicle driving state in tunnel intranet is based on vehicle sensors and vehicle GPS data. Constraints are established for fast response disturbances, rapid stabilisation, reduced braking acceleration and deceleration, and safe distances in the shop. From the energy point of view, we consider the relative kinetic energy of any two vehicles in the vehicle network, measure the collision risk, establish the objective function, and analyse the relative kinetic energy of all vehicles approaching the preceding vehicle. In this way, a multi-vehicle cooperative collision avoidance method based on vehicle network technology is realised. The experimental results show that the algorithm has strong collision avoidance performance, and the parking distance control is better, which can ensure safety.
Keywords: vehicle networking technology; multi-vehicle; collision avoidance.
Special Issue on: ICCIC2018 Emerging Technologies for Traffic and Transportation Science
Reliable whitelist management technique for warned nodes in MANET
by Jayanthi Kamal, Mohammed Ali Hussain
Abstract: Cluster-based MANETs are preferred to flat-based owing to less overhead as compared with the latter. Once the malicious nodes are detected their certificates need to be revoked. In non-voting-based mechanisms the accuser is put in the whitelist and the accused node is put in the blacklist by the certificate authority. The nodes are judged based on the trust calculation in the blacklist. If the trust value is below the threshold value, the nodes are dropped from the whitelist into the blacklist; otherwise, the nodes are removed from the network by revoking the certificate. The nodes in the whitelist are deprived of accusing the malicious nodes in the network. To enhance reliability, we remove the warned nodes from the whitelist and make them eligible to accuse other nodes. The removal of the nodes is provided by using a threshold value calculated by a certificate authority and trust-based mechanism.
Keywords: MANET; malicious nodes; accuser; revocation; certificate authority; threshold; certificate revocation list; whitelist; blackhole attack; AODV; public key infrastructure.
Effective use of cloud datacentre and allocating user demands to virtual machines using LMRO algorithm
by Madhina Banu, S. Aranganathan
Abstract: Cloud computing is a recent trend for modifying the computing technique strongly, and cloud storage assets will be recurrently accessed. The method works based on a black box method that has difficulty to correlate acquired data for internal resource management techniques. The simulation is not permitted to conduct comparative analysis owing to a huge amount of features required. The Load Maintenance and Resource Optimisation (LMRO) algorithm uses cloud data centres and allocates user demands to virtual machines (VMs). The load balancer keeps track of cloudlets processed by every virtual machine and tries to balance the active load. The method has a main data centre controller and load balancers to collect and analyse the information. Based on experimental evaluation, the proposed LMRO technique reduces 0.065 seconds TRT (Task Request Time), 0.20 seconds DPT (Datacentre Processing Time), 0.0125$ VMC (Virtual Machine Cost) and improves 19.25% TRP (Throughput) compared with conventional techniques.
Keywords: Resource optimization; load balancing; cloud computing; data center process time; virtual machine allocation; virtual machine placement; quality of services; task request time; virtual machine cost; throughput.
A cluster-based secured data transmission protocol for efficient data gathering in wireless sensor networks
by Sharmila Pandian, Selwin Mich Priyadharson
Abstract: Nowadays Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) play a major role in wireless networks and are widely used in all surveillance and domestic applications. Secured data gathering becomes a major concern and big challenge in WSN in the presence of intruders. In existing works, secured data transmission was achieved through symmetric or asymmetric cryptographic schemes. However, it still suffers from high overhead and less confidentiality. In this research, a Cluster-based Secured Data Transmission Protocol (CSDTP) is developed to provide efficient data gathering in a network. This protocol contains three modules. In the first module, cluster-based secured routing is established from a Cluster Head (CH) to cluster members by implementing route request, route reply and route assign phase. In the second module, data transmission is initiated based on the communication period and trajectory path computation. High packet delivery is achieved during this module. In the third module, secured data gathering is implemented using symmetric key encryption and decryption algorithm. Data-gathering efficiency is improved and secured in the entire network region using CSDTP. Results of simulations show that the CSDTP provides a high ratio of data gathering, more packet delivery ratio, less end-to-end delay, high packet integrity ratio and less overhead than existing schemes.
Keywords: wireless sensor network; intrusion detection system; trust recommendation; data integrity; clock-based determination; packet delivery ratio; detection efficiency and delay.