International Journal of Technology Transfer and Commercialisation (22 papers in press)
A systematic review of sports analytics
by Rakshit Bhatnagar, Mridul Babbar
Abstract: The interest from both academics and practitioners in the application of big data analytics (BDA) in sports has been rapidly growing which has resulted in the increasing need to research, develop and explore new techniques. This review proposed a framework that provides a full picture of current literature on where and how Analytics has been applied within the sports industry. We will try to present an overview of major analytical tools and technologies creating value in the sports industry, with the major focus on soccer, basketball, and cricket. Unlike other sports, cricket is yet to see more researches from a perspective of sports analytics.
The researches reviewed in this paper employs various techniques to measure and improve players performance such as developing a players ranking model, visual analysis to identify movement patterns and study numerical metrics during important events of the game.
The present paper discusses how big data and modern Business Intelligence tools & technologies may help to address the big data issues and aid in developing a theoretical model for tactical decision making in team sports. Use of Business Intelligence and Analytics (BI&A) in competitive sports is still emerging, we identify a set of avenues for future research that will stimulate further development in sports analytics.
Keywords: Sports; Analytics; Business Intelligence; Big data; Predictive Analytics.
Macro Level Framework of Information Systems Success and Effectiveness: Measuring IS/IT Project success and Organisational Readiness
by Yasser Saleh
Abstract: The introduction of information systems (IS) and information technology (IT) in the business environment generated the need for a means of measuring the success and effectiveness of these information systems. Different approaches were adopted in an attempt to produce a practical and plausible method of measurement; however, a conclusive method of measurement is yet to be found. In addition, organisations complain of implementing expensive IT/IS projects that ends up in failure due to lack of suitable organisational environments. This paper introduces a conceptual framework of IS success and effectiveness measurement. It also set the ground for a model of organisational readiness in implementing an IS/IT project based on GQM model. The framework introduces IS/IT success and effectiveness measurement on three levels.
Keywords: Information systems; information technology; IS/IT project; organisational Readiness.
A bibliometric history of the journal International Journal of Technology Transfer and Commercialisation between 2002 and 2021
by Meghna Chhabra, Monika Agarwal
Abstract: This study examines the pattern of publications, using a bibliometric analysis, of the International Journal of Technology Transfer and Commercialisation for the period between 2002 and 2021. In terms of citations, the journals influence has grown over time, with 73.45 percent of published papers earning at least one citation. In terms of the number of publications, the most contributing author to IJTTC is Ravi K. Jain; whereas, the most contributing country is the United States and the most contributing year is 2008. The study identified the following contemporary keywords signifying the contemporary research themes in the field of technology transfer and its commercialisation; technology transfer office, SMEs (small and medium enterprises), technology transfer strategy, sustainable development, entrepreneur, technological innovation, knowledge management, and spin-off. These subject areas present clear opportunities for research related themes for the IJTTC.
Keywords: literature review; International Journal of Technology Transfer and Commercialisation; bibliometric; VOS viewer; clustering; citation analysis; keyword analysis.
Integrating lean startup tools in the technology transfer process: the Develop+Protect+Commercialize model
by Antonios D. Livieratos, Yiannis Dimitrakopoulos, Christos Tsinopoulos
Abstract: The Develop+Protect+Commercialize model (D+P+C) presented here integrates lean startup principles in the Technology Transfer process. D+P+C captures the process from lab to market and systematizes feedback loops from an early stage to mitigate risks and increase the chances of commercialization success. Targeting both the researcher and the TT officer, it consists of three parallel streams connected through a series of feedback loops: Develop, Protect, Commercialize. Each stream is composed of a sequence of steps, which generate options, and, in turn, lead to decisions. D+P+C was developed in the framework of an action research project, and its main purpose is to guide researchers looking to commercialize their work. By applying the model, four key lessons are offered: a) break the silos of the lab, b) obtain feedback and iterate within and across all streams, c) tolerate failure and d) fail fast, learn fast.
Keywords: Technology transfer; Research commercialization; Lean startup; Intellectual property; Open innovation; University Technology Transfer Office.
Determinants affecting start-up funding: Evidence from Greece
by Christos Ziakis, Maro Vlachopoulou, Konstantinos Fouskas
Abstract: Start-up funding has been identified as a significant factor determining op-erational viability. Since start-up viability is ethnocentric and cul-ture-specific, the factors that propel sufficient funding vary significantly between different countries. This research aims to examine the implications of each determinant of funding and to identify any similarities in charac-teristics shared by start-ups funded by similar sources. A literature review was conducted to assess the diverse categories of start-up funding and the factors influencing it. Moreover, 240 start-ups founded by Greek start-uppers were surveyed. According to the results, information and communications technology (ICT) related start-ups with intellectual proper-ties, a complete business plan, and tax residency outside of Greece were more likely to receive funding from venture capitals. The studys findings have significant implications for policymakers who wish to develop a na-tional entrepreneurship strategy that will actively enhance entrepreneurial actions and can lead to national economic growth.
Keywords: Start-up; Funding; Venture Capital; Angel Investors; Bootstrapping; Entrepreneurial Policy.
A comprehensive overview of the ICT sector in Kosovo: Challenges & Recommendations
by Dillon Berjani, Flamur Breznica
Abstract: The ICT sector in Kosovo has experienced augmented growth over the past 10 years that has embedded the sector into political and academic agendas. This growth gave the sector the epithet of the designated motor for potential economic growth & innovation. However, although the sector seemingly experienced growth in the last few years, the magnitude of this growth has barely been researched. This has often led to impromptu measures attempting to assist the sector, be that on political, institutional or business level. This paper aims to examine the ICT sector in Kosovo and offer a comprehensive overview of the sector, followed by an overview of the challenges for the sector, accompanied by apt recommendations on how to address them. The study will make use of primary data collected through surveys and questionnaires and secondary data from key institutions who have studied the sector previously. The key objective is to offer recommendations to political actors, businesses and other key institutions on how to accelerate sustainable and organic sector growth. rn
Keywords: ICT; Entrepreneurship; Kosovo; Emerging Economies; Outsourcing; Product Developmentrn.
Effectuation, Business Group Affiliation and R&D Adoption of New Ventures in Africa
by George Acheampong
Abstract: This study explores how new ventures in Africa use effectuation and business group affiliation as well as their interaction to survive the uncertain African business environment. We test our hypotheses with cross-country survey data from several African countries from the World Bank Enterprise Surveys. The data is analyzed using OLS regression and the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition. The study finds that effectual entrepreneurial strategy improves R&D adoption through the utilization of firm means and adopting affordable loss as risk mitigation strategy. The study also provides support for claim that the contingency component of effectuation strategy has a negative effect on R&D adoption. However, this relationship is dampened when a new venture also adopts business group affiliation as a strategy in dealing with institutional voids.
Keywords: Effectuation; R&D; Business Group Affiliation; Entrepreneurship; Small Business; Africa.
The Rise of the Posh-preneurs: A teaching intervention on social class and entrepreneurship.
by Robert Smith
Abstract: In introducing students to born-versus-made arguments relating to entrepreneurial proclivity it can be difficult to introduce the topic to students who have no particular interest in the topic. Teaching interventions using newspaper articles are a useful method of form of knowledge production and transfer to overcome the problem. This teaching intervention introduces students to a newspaper article written by British journalist Jessica Fellowes which posits the sociologically contentious notion of the Posh-Preneur which confronts, and challenges accepted, socially constructed and class-based theories of the entrepreneur as being exclusively from working-class or middle-class backgrounds. The article presented the micro-case stories of four Aristocratic Entrepreneurs James Middleton, Maria Balfour, Marcus Waley-Cohen and Alex Findley profiling their business portfolios. When used in classroom settings, it generates resistance amongst students who refuse to accept that aristocrats and the upperclasses are deserving of the title entrepreneur. This intervention encourages students to challenge accepted class-based constructs.
Keywords: Class-based entrepreneurship theory; Aristocratic Entrepreneurs; Posh-preneurs; Social Class.
Overcoming the liability of foreignness through international business incubators: an empirical analysis of the Chinese environment
by Antonio Crupi, Nicola Del Sarto, Alberto Di Minin, Giacomo Frigo
Abstract: Firms interested in becoming multinational companies must face additional costs, labelled by scholars as the liability of foreignness. These costs are: spatial distance and geography, lack of roots in the local environment, lack of legitimacy because of economic nationalism and the high cost of information acquisition for foreign firms. These liabilities are particularly strong for companies interested in entering China, a massive economy with high growth rates. To help enterprises overcome such liabilities, international business incubators emerged in the 1980s, offering a set of services to firms interested in pursuing internationalisation strategies. However, studies on such kinds of actors are limited, particularly the dynamics underlying the support that these programmes offer to firms. Through case studies of seven international business incubators located in China, we highlighted how these programmes help start-ups overcome the liability of foreignness, and determined the dimensions that are relevant to improving the success of international firms.
Keywords: international business incubators; liability of foreignness; China; technology transfer.
Transfer of technology on tree rich biobooster to Irular tribes in forest fringe villages of Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu (India): an alternate source of livelihood support
by Natchiappan Senthilkumar, Devaraj Suresh Babu, Govindaraj Divya, Ramasamy Sumathi, Kannappan Subramanian Rathinam
Abstract: Developing reasonably priced nutrient-rich organic potting media for healthy seedling production potentially results in reduction of fertilisation, irrigation rates and also decrease in nursery costs is a major aspect of the present investigation. It was achieved by the nutrient enrichment techniques adapted and it enhanced the nutrients availability of the growing media for improved seed emergence and healthy quality seedlings for out planting. With the promising outcome of the result end up with the development of a product 'tree rich biobooster - an organic growth promoter' a nutrient enriched potting medium made up of an eco-friendly low cost organic materials like coir pith, flower and vegetable wastes compost which are available in plenty locally as municipal solid wastes.
Keywords: potting mixture; coir pith; waste compost; biobooster; organic growth media; transfer of technology; commercialization; irular tribes; municipal solid wastes; India.
Are workplace spirituality and engagement gendered? An empirical investigation
by Rupa Rathee, Vandana Sharma
Abstract: The purpose of this research paper was to examine the impact of workplace spirituality (WPS) on employee engagement (EE) and to know whether WPS and EE are gendered. A quantitative cross-sectional descriptive research design employing convenience sampling technique was utilised. One hundred fifteen valid responses were collected from faculty members working in higher educational institutions of Haryana, India and statistical methods correlation, regression and t-test were applied. Results indicated a partial support for the relationship between WPS and EE. WPS dimensions: meaningful work and inner life significantly influenced EE. The analyses further revealed that there was a significant difference for workplace spirituality among men and women employees of the organisations. Men are found to have strong effect of WPS on engagement than women. The results of the study have implications for organisations as spirituality impacts engagement for both men and women which can be used as a tool to enhance the engagement in their work.
Keywords: workplace spirituality; employee engagement; gendered; meaningful work; inner life; conditions for community; vigour; dedication; absorption; collectivist; India.
A study of demographics and investment preference among entrepreneurs of Karnataka, India
by Pradeep K. Gupta, Sanjay S. Hanagandi
Abstract: Almost everyone owns a portfolio of investments. Numerous avenues of investment are available today. The portfolio of an investor is structured based on his investment preferences. Further, investment preference depends on various factors. Hence, in this study, an attempt is made to determine the influence of demographic profile of entrepreneurs on investment preference. To achieve the objectives of the study, primary data was collected through a structured questionnaire by using a multistage random sampling method. Further, data were analysed using independent samples test and ANOVA. The results suggest that the investment preference of the respondents varies significantly based on demographic factors. This research attempts to assess the investment preference of entrepreneurs. However, the choice and preference keep changing, and this response of the selected respondents may change at a different point of time and especially during emergency time. The findings of this study can provide valuable inputs for asset management companies to understand the needs of potential investors and prepare their marketing strategy accordingly.
Keywords: investment; portfolio; investment avenues; capital market; liquidity; entrepreneur.
Legally-informed information disclosure in early-stage ventures
by William Newell, Jacqueline S. Walsh
Abstract: Entrepreneurs face unique challenges during the formation of new ventures, including how to balance the tension between sharing and protecting confidential information with potential investors and customers while also ensuring the effective development of these relationships. To address this challenge, we suggest that new ventures employ the concept of legally-informed information disclosure (LID). We define LID as the sharing of sensitive and valuable information through means that, with the legal and relational environments in mind, clearly indicate its value and confidential nature before and during the process of disclosure. This conceptual paper argues that LID lies at the intersection of relational governance, contractual governance, and the legal perspective of breach of confidence. We propose a theoretical framework to illustrate this three-way relationship. Introducing the legal perspective to an established body of literature allows for an actionable framework that is inter-disciplinary, and legally and theoretically supported.
Keywords: information sharing; IP protection; trust; control; relationship governance; inter-organisational relationships; entrepreneurship; breach of confidence; legally-informed information disclosure; LID.
Special Issue on: ICBM-2019 Disruptions in Business - Embracing the Age of Digitalisation
AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION AND RURAL POVERTY IN ETHIOPIA
by Aynalem Shita, Nand Kumar, Seema Singh
Abstract: Poverty is the major problem of the developing world. Hence, development of the agriculture sector is considered as a pertinent strategy for insuring food security and alleviation of poverty since it is the major source of income for the larger share of the population of developing countries. This article evaluates the poverty reduction effect of agricultural technology in Ethiopia. To achieve its objective primary data has been collected from 400 farm households in Awi zone, Ethiopia. The results were estimated by using Propensity Score Matching technique. The estimated results revealed that adoption of fertilizer and improved seeds resulted in a positive and significant (at 1%) increment on households per adult consumption expenditure ranging from Birr 1700-1818 but reduces poverty by 18.8-20.0% based on different matching algorithms. Therefore, the government, financial institutions, and farmers cooperatives should be coordinated to enhance farmers adoption of agricultural technologies in order to reduce rural poverty.
Keywords: Agricultural Technology; Impact; Poverty; Propensity Score Matching; Ethiopia.
Special Issue on: BAVT-2019 Commercial Applications of Technology
Potential factors influencing Sports Fan Team Identification
by Avtar Singh, Rahul Sharma
Abstract: The birth and growth of many different sports leagues in the past decade had been witnessed by people in India. The sports sector in the country is one of the emerging sector and is continuously experiencing a number of developments. The increasing sports leagues popularity and organizing different sports at regular intervals deliver abundant opportunities in business for corporates. The purpose of this study is to identify factors motivating people to associate themselves with any sports league/leagues. The present study is quantitative in nature and the results of this study bring several different factors that would help the marketers to strategize and become more audience-specific in their marketing activities.
Keywords: Sports League; Factors; Fans; Identification; Sports Teams/Team.
Special Issue on: ICBMIS 2020 Challenges in Sustainable Business Innovation and Technology Management
Impact of Artificial Intelligence in Manufacturing and Logistics: an exploratory study
by Ibrahim Alotaibi
Abstract: Despite the hype created by artificial intelligence is believed by many private and public institutions that it can change the standard way of performing. It remains as a phenomena of science fiction and still there are conversations regarding AI, what that meant to integrate this technology with the present scenarios. Over the years, AI has expanded its efficiency in industrial automation sectors. Companies are investing very huge in AI towards their industrial process automation with the support of machine learning and deep learning. Hence, this research is an attempt to understand artificial
intelligence, the factors and elements that are involved, knowledge that is required for the implications. AI has reached a stage where it is ready for scaling and implementation will this adoption continue in the future throughout the world, the challenges, and reasons for this adoption.
Keywords: technology; big data; deep learning; machine learning; robotics; industrial; artificial intelligence; AI; smart manufacturing; automation; logistics; internet of things; IOT; manufacturing; management.
Special Issue on: Social Commerce and Technological Applications for Enhancing Consumer and Business Interactions Opportunities and Challenges
Investigating Shopper Motivations for Purchasing on Instagram
by Courtney Chrimes, Rosy Boardman
Abstract: This article investigates shopper motivations and subsequent electronic word-of-mouth (eWoM) intentions when purchasing fashion items via Instagram. A quantitative survey was distributed via social media channels and collected 205 valid respondents from females aged 18-43. Numerous preliminary analyses were conducted before undertaking Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) to test the hypothesised model. The study found that both hedonic (i.e. latest trends) and utilitarian (convenience and information availability) motivations positively affected consumers intention to search for fashion products on Instagram. However, cost (utilitarian) and authority (hedonic) were found to have no effect on consumers search intentions. The findings further suggest that there is a significant link between searching for fashion items on Instagram and purchase intentions and that users who search for fashion items on Instagram are also prone to undertaking eWoM by sharing fashion products with their friends and commenting on product posts.
Keywords: Shopper Motivations; Social Media; Social Commerce; S-commerce; Instagram; Fashion; word-of-mouth; eWoM; user-generated content; purchase intention; Hedonic; Utilitarian; consumer behaviour; Social shopping; Structural Equation Modelling.
Social media, S-Commerce and social capital: A netnography of football fans and organizations
by Alex Fenton, Chris Procter, Rachel McLean, Anabel Quan-Haas
Abstract: Social media channels allow brands to establish meaningful social relations with customers. This paper evaluates the role of social capital in building these online relationships for the benefit of commercial value and s-commerce for brands. Extensive empirical data was collected over a two-year netnography study using the social media channels of a football club in the UK as a vehicle for the study. A multimethod design was employed that included online participant observation, social network analysis, and semi-structured interviews with football fans and social media managers. rnrnThe majority of brand social media followers are often weakly connected. Finding ways to strengthen social capital with customers has significant brand and commercial implications. Positive interactions with customers are critical to building social capital to strengthen and sustain the brand. Social capital can be successfully built and nurtured through engaging content and positive interactions through social media channels.
Keywords: Netnography; Social Capital; Social Media; S-Commerce; Lurkers; Social Network Analysis; Cyberbalkanisation.
Understanding sporting brands and entrepreneurship using netnography and social network analysis
by Alex Fenton, Keith Parry, Wasim Ahmed, Simon Chadwick
Abstract: Social media offers a wealth of data to help inform and enlighten SMEs on a global scale. This study aims to demonstrate that data derived from social media networks can enhance entrepreneurship in SMEs, providing tools and guidance for entrepreneurs. We present a double case of two sporting SMEs and utilise a distinctive blend of quantitative data from social network analysis using NodeXL, followed by a qualitative analysis using Netnography to gather data. We propose that using social media data in this way can create new insights for social commerce in order for SMEs to better understand consumer interactions.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Social media; Interpretivism; Social network analysis; Twitter; sport; digital; netnography.
Online Branding Strategies of Saudi Arabian Bakeries: A Qualitative Approach
by Raghdah Aljuwaiser, Panayiota Alevizou
Abstract: This paper reports on qualitative research that sheds light on online retail branding in the bakery sector. This paper highlights owner-managers (OMs) perceptions of branding, as well as their online branding approaches. We adopted an interpretivist enquiry, and as such, we conducted semi-structured interviews with seven OMs of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Saudi Arabia, as the OM is considered pivotal in developing and operationalising the online branding strategy. Our findings highlight a threefold OM perspective of branding, which implies an abstract rather than strategic view of branding. Our findings also indicate a fragmented and inconsistent use of online branding strategies amongst bakery OMs, which may be clouding their brand identity and creating additional resource requirements. The paper contributes to the knowledge on SMEs online branding through a qualitative approach and from an owner-manager perspective.
Keywords: SME communication; online branding; social media; influencers; owner manager.
Social Commerce promotes Sharing Economy: A Case Study of Mercari, Japan
by Mitsunori Hirogaki
Abstract: In Japan, the peer-to-peer sales platforms on smartphones have been overwhelming the traditional internet auction sites. However, only a few quantitative analyses have explored why these social commerce sites are attracting Japanese consumers. This study investigated what factors motivated Japanese consumers to participate in peer-to-peer sales platforms. Questionnaires were distributed to 1,000 respondents randomly selected from all districts. The logistic regression analysis was used to identify consumer motives while observing different factors that affect the said motives independent of controlled variables. The results showed that demographic factors and the motivation to participate in a sharing economy significantly affect the motives when engaging in peer-to-peer sales platforms. Interestingly, the study found that income had no significant effect when engaging in peer-to-peer sales platforms. These results will be useful for the effective entry of social commerce businesses and marketing strategies.
Keywords: C to C; social commerce; electronic commerce; Japanese online market; social media; peer-to peer sales platforms.
Exploring the Role and Significance of Consumer Relationship Quality and Participation within Online Fashion Brand Communities
by Myriam Caratù, Daniella Ryding, Erqi Li, Gianpaolo Vignali
Abstract: This study contributes towards the online value co-creation debate, by examining key theories within the relationship marketing literature for building online brand communities in a fashion context (Chae and Ko, 2016; Vargo and Lusch, 2004;
Keywords: luxury fashion; millennials; online brand community; relationship quality; social media; value co-creation.