International Journal of Technology, Policy and Management (19 papers in press)
Diffusion of Innovative Technology in U.S. Oil and Gas Industry- An Empirical Study
by Ronald Salazar, Rupak Rauniar, Carlo Mora
Abstract: This paper presents the results of our attempt to validate the theory of diffusion of innovation (Rogers 1962, 2003) employing survey methodology. We find that complexity, trialability, and observability exhibited correlation with innovation diffusion while the impact of remaining constructs are not supported. Innovation and technology have been long considered important drivers of organizational success. Once a decision to acquire and adopt a new technology has been made, a successful transfer of such technology within the organization is often measured by the extent of diffusion of the newly adopted technology. Understanding the drivers of successful diffusion of innovative technologies in the US Oil and Gas (O&G) industry is critical since the industry overall is facing economic hardship and actively seeking operational efficiency and excellence in exploration, production, and distribution costs. Rogers (1962, 2003) theory of Diffusion of Innovation or DoI is used in identifying and operationalizing key variables that affect diffusion of innovation. This paper elucidates diffusion of innovation (DOI) in the U.S. O & G industry. It broadens understanding of how the industry has responded to the presence of multiple, important new technologies and how the diffusion of these technologies can be explained by the application of the DOI model. Using primary data, the current study empirically tests DoI in the context of todays US O&G industry. The contribution of the current study to both researchers and practitioners, limitations, as well as suggestions for future studies are also provided.
Keywords: diffusion of innovation; innovative technology; US Oil and Gas industry.
An Efficiency Analysis of Turkish Railways Using Data Envelopment Analysis - Comparison study
by Ghanem Osman, Li Xuemei
Abstract: The aim of this study is to examine whether Turkey as a candidate for the EU membership, utilizes its railway performance. To investigate the Turkish railways efficiency and identify its current situation, the efficiency of Turkish and EU railway are evaluated by applying DEA output-oriented model of CRS (CCR) and VRS (BCC) analysis. In this research, each country is considered as a decision-making unit called DMU; every efficiency country is calculated and compared to the other country. In conducted analysis, there are five inputs taken into consideration, along with two outputs distinguished by two forms of transport: passengers and freight transport. The evidence from this study seems to suggest that the technical efficiency of Turkish railway equals 0.89, and sale efficiency equals 0.98, indicating obtained suitability in inputs and outputs for reaching the efficiency boundary.
Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis; Efficiency; performance measurement; Turkish Railway; EU.
Transitional challenges cycle of service offshoring delivery centres in Central and Eastern Europe.
by Damian Kedziora, Jerzy Lewandowski
Abstract: Business process offshoring has been a vital element of global sourcing transitions across the past decades, and in the last few years its rapid growth has been observed in the region of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). It had vital impact on the organizational level of global corporations and workers employed in the industry, as well as the policy and economic situation of the transition economies from the CEE area. The paper provides a descriptive, interpretative analysis of problems affecting managerial community of service offshoring industry in Poland, identified across the cycle of its three core phases: pre-transition, transitional project, post-transition.
Keywords: service; offshoring; outsourcing; transition; challenges; cycle; transfers; central; europe.
The use of mobile phone data in transport planning
by Shin Lee
Abstract: The paper offers a historical review of the emergent use of individual location data from mobile phones in the field of transport planning that occurred over the past two decades. It identifies four key areas of development: 1) providing traffic information, 2) replacing the traditional data for transport planning, 3) enhancing our understanding of travel behaviour, and 4) validating transport models. It assesses the appropriate roles for mobile phone data in transport planning and suggests that the extraction of traffic information, the construction of origin-destination data, and transit route design have particularly practical implications for cities in the developing countries.
Keywords: mobile phone data; four stage transport planning; transport data for developing countries; non-traditional transport data.
DIGITALISATION OF INDUSTRIES A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS FROM AUSTRALIA AND FINLAND
by Pekka Leviäkangas, Osmo Kauppila
Abstract: This paper features a two-country study on digitalisation: Australia and Finland. The empirical data was acquired from the national accounts for 19952015 in Australia and for 19982012 in Finland. This data was averaged for a cross-sectional comparison of industries and then for the two countries. Different industries advancement in digitalisation seems to follow approximately the same pacing in both countries. Financial and insurance services, telecommunications and media, and professional, technical and scientific services are the most active digitalisers. The empirical testing of the a priori assumption that digitalisation over a long period of time leads to greater productivity shows that the observed correlation between ICT investment and productivity is weak. The results partly confirm Solows productivity paradox.
Keywords: digitalisation; productivity; investment; ICT; Finland; Australia; industry.
Tools for state support of research institutions at the regional level: the German experience and Russia's approach
by Igor Monakhov
Abstract: In the article the author studies the cases of the German regions (the L
Keywords: research institutions; science policy; Länder; Germany.
Optimization Evaluation on Material Distribution Systems: From the Perspective of Automobile Manufactures
by Qun Wu, Ying LIao, Kun Liao, Bo Li
Abstract: Due to the rapid growth of competition in the automobile industry and the wide variety of customer demands, automobile manufacturers supply chain management must have higher standards in terms of efficiency and effectiveness of their logistics distribution. Given the current practical challenges of materials distribution in the mixed-model assembling line system in the automobile industry, this study uses DEA-CCR analysis to compare the Set Parts System (SPS) model with the traditional models, and found that the SPS distribution model is superior to the traditional models in terms of distribution service quality, investment cost, distribution cost, distribution efficiency, and distribution continuity delivery punctuality and delivery staff. This research not only provides a systematic analysis of distribution models, but also offers a number of future research and implementation opportunities to scholars and practitioners in this field.
Keywords: Automobile manufactures; Material distribution; DEA-CCR; SPS; Optimization evaluation.
Similarity based comparison of good governance among the countries of the world and examining Irans development status
by Mona Ahani, Morteza Mousakhani, Reza Najafbagy, Mohammad Ali Afshar Kazemi
Abstract: The study of good governance over the past two decades has been at the forefront of the world's scientific and international circles, especially in developing countries. As one of the prestigious international institutions, the World Bank has identified six indices of good governance which include: Control of corruption, Government effectiveness, Political stability and absence of violence, Regulatory quality, Rule of law, Voice and accountability. In this study, World Bank appraisals and statistics on the six-fold good governance indicators published each year are used to analyze 186 countries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the status of countries based on good governance and determine the ranking of Iran among other countries, using clustering techniques. In order to select an appropriate clustering method and the appropriate number of clusters, the Silhouette coefficient for each K-Means, Two Step and Kohonen method was calculated for the number of different clusters of each. Based on an assessment of these findings, the K-Means 12 cluster method was selected. Using the clustering method, calculating good governance and frequency of co-accumulation, the deviance of Iran from other countries of the world was revealed. The research findings show that, among the four countries of the world having common clusters with Iran in terms of the level of human development, Iran ranks among the Low-level developing countries and Moderate developing countries. This issue highlights the importance of improving the level of good governance indicators in the country in order to achieve a higher level of development.
Keywords: Good Governance; World Bank; Clustering; K-Means; Silhouette.
Constraint Tree Analysis: Anticipating Risk to Policy Implementation
by Gregory Falco
Abstract: There is always a risk that a public policy will be unsuccessful. Policy failure can be the result of poorly written policy whose implementation measures are not aligned with the intended goals. It can also be a result of unexpected constraints that impede policy implementation. There are many guides offering advice on how to write good policy and establish policy goals, yet there is no established preemptive method for anticipating policy implementation constraints or other barriers to policy success. This article proposes a new method called constraint tree analysis for evaluating the obstacles to policy implementation before a policy is enacted. The method builds on an established mechanism in aerospace engineering and computer science that enumerates possible failure points or attack vectors of systems. Constraint tree analysis is illustrated in this article by using it to identify possible implementation obstacles of U.S. Executive Order 13636 Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity.
Keywords: Cybersecurity; Technology Policy; Security Policy; Policy Implementation; Risk Management; Critical Infrastructure.
Exploring the profit model of servitizing manufacturers-a resource-based perspective
by Jing Hua Li
Abstract: Servitization is a kind of business model innovation, and the profit model of servitization is the core elements of this innovation. In this paper, a comparative case study of two servitizing manufacturers was carried out through analyzing and cross-comparing different types of servitization profit models for different product-service offerings within both firms. We classify servitization profit models into four categories, and then delineating basic profit model elements and finally exploring the relationships between these elements and a firms resources, capabilities and product-service offerings. The conclusions are that, the effective integration of resources is the prerequisite to foster key capabilities so to build relevant revenue streams, thus forming appropriate servitization profit models. Understanding the basic logic between elements within the servitization profit model and the relationship between resources, capabilities and business offerings is critical when the manufacturer is seeking successful transition towards servitization.
Keywords: servitization; profit model; resource-based view; case study.
Country size and technology innovation
A comparative study of countries based on different levels of economic development
by Qi Chen, Wilfred Vincent Huang, Jiaojiao Mo
Abstract: By using PVAR model and panel data of 40 countries from 2001 to 2016, this paper empirically studies the influence of country size on technology innovation of developing and developed countries from three dimensions: population size, market size and trade size. The research shows that under the conditions of different development levels, country size plays a huge role in technology innovation. Among them, for the developed countries, the market size plays an important role in promoting their technology innovation, followed by the trade size. For the developing countries, the trade size is the key factor for the promotion of their technology innovation. The market size has little effect and the population size has a negative impact. On this basis, this paper puts forward some suggestions for the large developing countries to promote technology innovation based on the country size.
Keywords: country size; technology innovation; PVAR model; different levels of economic development.
Study on Investment Return System of PPP Wastewater Treatment Projects based on system dynamics
by Tong Dai, Qinghua Wang, Bixiang Shi, Xiaokun Sun
Abstract: This paper aims to study on investment return system of PPP wastewater treatment projects based on system dynamics. On the basis of the analysis of the factors influencing the VFM evaluation and the prediction system of the rate of return on investment, a system dynamics method is used to establish a prediction model for investment income based on VFM quantitative evaluation. The software of Vensim PLE is used to simulate the newly built PPP wastewater treatment project. Results show that the selection of discount rate and PPP projects transaction cost have significant effect on the VFM and the present value and the rate of return on investment in the franchise period. This study can be used as a reference for the fair and equitable cooperation between the government and the private business.
Keywords: wastewater treatment projects; Public Private Partnership (PPP); Value for Money (VFM); investment income; system dynamics.
Performance Evaluation Framework of Highway PPP Project based on Stakeholders Perspectives and Linguistic Environment
by Shuai Geng, Yu Yin
Abstract: Most of performance evaluation index systems of highway PPP project just reflected governments strategic goal, did not publics and social capitals. Moreover, if considering the strategic goals of social capital and public in the performance evaluation index system, it will inevitably involve a number of qualitative criteria, which increase the uncertainty of expert evaluation information. Uncertainty mainly exists in two aspects: ①qualitative performance evaluation value; ②evaluation criterion weight. To this end, we proposed the evaluation index system of highway PPP project from the perspectives of stakeholders, which can not only reflect the overall performance level, but also reflect the performance level of highway PPP project on the strategic goals of government, public and social capital. In order to deal with the uncertainty problems, this study proposed a corresponding evaluation model based on linguistic terms and the trapezoidal interval type-2 hesitant fuzzy number (TIT2HFN). With such evaluation model, it was more convenient for experts to express their evaluation preferences while maintaining the minimum amount of decision information loss. In addition, this evaluation model was designed based on the maximizing deviations principle to handle the interval weights. Finally, a case of China is studied demonstrates the effectiveness of performance evaluation framework.
Keywords: highway project; public-private partnership (PPP); performance evaluation index system; evaluation model; trapezoidal interval type-2 hesitant fuzzy number (TIT2HFN); maximizing deviations principle.
Winners from the Changing Trends of Energy Intensities among 115 Countries
by Yu Sang Chang, NeiHei Park, Jinbae Kim
Abstract: Many countries in the world have been experiencing vastly different rates of changes in their energy intensity (EI). The rate of change in EI for each country was estimated from the progress ratio (PR) of experience curve (EC). We ranked all 115 countries according to their PRs. The averaged PR of 90.21% estimated for the total 115 countries indicates a globally decreasing trend of EI. This means that each doubling of cumulative energy consumption has reduced energy intensity by 9.79%. On the other hand, 40 countries have experienced an increasing trend with an average PR of 119.41%. When two different types of EC, classical and kinked, were used,, 81 countries displayed a kinked slope with an average PR of 84.98%. Analyzing both the type of trend and slope of EC indicates that as many as 70 countries may have the best or better chances to improve their PRs in the futurern Implications from these findings will be discussed.rn
Keywords: Energy Intensity; Progress ratio; Experience curve; Increasing trend; Decreasing trend; Classical slope.
The Effect of Funding Agencys Choices: Empirical Evidence from Large-scale R&D Projects in Koreas Automotive Industry
by HYOUNG RYUL MA, Debra Dwyer
Abstract: There has been rising concern over the performance of government-sponsored R&D projects, particularly in Korea where government spending on R&D has been on a sharp and steady incline for a decade. A funding agency, as a crucial agent in the government-sponsored R&D system, makes funding choices to enhance the output or outcome of the R&D projects in which it invests. Because of the focus on R&D in Korea, their funding agencies face higher pressure to demonstrate budget efficiency. This paper examines the impact a Korean funding agency can have to drive the output of R&D projects. Using a data set of 147 government-sponsored large-scale R&D projects, this study tests how choice variables of a funding agency or R&D consortium affect technological output. This study finds that a funding agencys choice variablesthe amount of funding, duration, and the intensity of monitoringare quite influential on the success score and the number of publications of R&D projects, but do not significantly impact the number of patent applications. On the other hand, an R&D consortiums choice variablesthe collaboration structure and commitment to commercializationhave a more significant causal effect on the number of patent applications. The results suggest that it is in the funding agencys interest to encourage the formation and success of R&D consortiums, given it has an ultimate interest in the commercialization of the technological output of R&D projects. In sum, this study sheds light on the effective role of the funding agency in efficient investments in R&D. As an innovation facilitator, the funding agency needs to expand its entrepreneurial activities, including consulting toward commercialization, besides its traditional tasks related to project evaluation and management.
Keywords: R&D projects; Technological output; Funding agency; Consortium; Choice variable; Funding; Duration; Monitoring; Publication; Patent application.
An empirical study on the entrepreneurial team and entrepreneurial performance
by Fang Bian, Sang-Bing Tsai
Abstract: The relationship between the entrepreneurial team and performance has been a focus of intensive study over the past years. However, it is still inconclusive if entrepreneurial team promotes or inhibits entrepreneurial performance. In this study, we used 421 samples from 20 entrepreneurial teams to build a mediated moderation model from the conflict management perspective. We used this model to test the role of team diversity and team environment in modulating the relationship between the entrepreneurial team and performance. The results showed that conflict management plays an important role in modulating the relationship between the entrepreneurial team and performance, and the effect of the mediation is significant. In addition, team heterogeneity and team environment have a significant impact on the relationship between the entrepreneurial team and performance. Importantly, this modulatory effect is mediated through conflict management. Specifically, the relationship between the entrepreneurial team and performance is positively regulated by task-related diversity.
Keywords: entrepreneurial performance; entrepreneurial team; information; information education; technology education; team heterogeneity.
A Study on the Relationship between Entrepreneurship Education and Entrepreneurial Intention
by Fang Bian, Lin Meng, Sang-Bing Tsai
Abstract: Based on the cognitive theory and theory of planned behavior, this paper analyzes the influence of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial intention and the effect of entrepreneurial risk perception and entrepreneurial self-efficacy on the undergraduates experiences. The results show that entrepreneurial education can effectively promote the formation of entrepreneurial intention. The three dimensions of entrepreneurship education (i.e., entrepreneurial cognition, entrepreneurial ability, and innovative spirit) have a positive impact on entrepreneurial intentions. Entrepreneurial risk perception and entrepreneurial self-efficacy have an intermediary effect on entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial intention. The research results reveal the effective boundary of entrepreneurship education, explore and prove the specific mechanism of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial intention, and help to find effective ways for entrepreneurship education to promote entrepreneurship.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship Education; Entrepreneurial Risk Perception; Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy; Entrepreneurial Intention.
A text mining-based approach for modeling technical knowledge evolution in patents
by Geng Li, Zuhua Jiang, Xinyu Li
Abstract: This paper proposes a knowledge evolution method for portraying the evolution of patent technical knowledge (PTK) and provides enterprises with an understanding of the evolution of a specific field. The paper proposes a text mining-based knowledge evolution modeling method. Based on weighted factors, PTKs are obtained from the bibliographic title, abstract and claims (TAC) data on granted patents. Then, PTK clusters are captured by Affinity Propagation (AP) and expressed with the PTK topics extracted via Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA). Furthermore, an association measurement for PTK is proposed, and a long-term evolutionary process for a specific field is revealed by an alluvial diagram. A case study of the new energy vehicles (NEV) industry is presented, and the results indicate that the proposed method can be used to automatically obtain technical knowledge from patent documents and to better measure and analyze the evolution of PTK relative to traditional evolution methods. Thus, the proposed approach can be further utilized to offer decision-making support to R&D management professionals in several areas in the midst of excessive volumes of technical documents available from academic institutions, innovative enterprises, and automobile manufacturers, etc.
Keywords: Text mining; Knowledge evolution; Patent technical knowledge (PTK); Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA).
Revisiting the Theoretical Evolution of Industry 4.0: A Thematic Analysis of Research Focus
by Kübra ?im?ek Demirba?, Nihan Yildirim
Abstract: Industry 4.0 (I40), which has been mentioned frequently in recent years, is a collective concept used to express that the developing industry is now in its fourth phase. Enterprises, industries, and even governments are developing strategies, building technology roadmaps, and taking action for the fourth industrial revolution. Also, I40 has occupied a prominent place in the literature as well, but the comprehensive and systematic studies related to the position of I40 in the literature are very limited. Therefore, we aim to investigate the I40 literature and to carry out thematic analysis to reveal the research trends and gaps. The study includes 786 articles, which were written between 2013 and 2019, on the Scopus database. As a result of the analysis, it has been noticed that articles for I40 are mostly based on new tools, technologies and the application of these technologies to manufacturing. Unfortunately, the number of studies regarding the "human" dimension is insufficient. One of the most surprising findings, contrary to the general findings, is that the technical aspect of Industry 4.0 is ignored while the effect of Industry 4.0 on human and social dimensions is focused on the studies prepared by Russian academics.
Keywords: industry 4.0; fourth industrial revolution; literature review; thematic analysis; smart manufacturing; IoT; CPPS.