International Journal of Technology, Policy and Management (24 papers in press)
Impact of environmental cost information on reducing bank risk: An applied Study
by Salih Ibrahim Younis
This paper aims at explaining how environmental cost information supports the rational decisions related to granting bank credit and following it up to reduce risks. Further, to know the relationship of cause and effect between environmental cost information and the degree of credit risk through a statistical analysis of data in Iraqi banks.
This paper uses the concepts of cost and managerial accounting concerning environmental costs and the reflection of its information on decisions to grant bank credit and reduce its risks. Furthermore, the researcher has used the descriptive and induction approaches to formulate the theoretical background of this issue by reviewing the related literature. Deductive and analytical approaches were used through empirical testing.
The main findings of this paper are the increase in credit risks due to the inefficiency of credit analysts in diagnosing the weaknesses and threats of the entity requesting credit, especially related to environmental protection. Profit is no longer the only criterion in judging the success of companies but the commitment to laws of environmental protection. It found that Iraqi banks did not adopt the environmental cost information in decisions of granting bank credits to reducing the risks. It is found that the analytical results have demonstrated a statistical significance of the effect of disclosing environmental information to reduce the risk of credit
The finding of this work will have significant implications to urge Iraqi banks to take environmental costs and laws into consideration when providing bank credits, especially those companies that have negative environmental impacts.
The research suffers from the study sample size, where it has been designed for only one Iraqi province; however, it has a large number of banks that provide very wide services for various activities, including industrial.
Keywords: Environmental costs; Bank risks; Bank credit; Environmental protection; Environmental pollution.
Coordinated development of industries in the Beijing-Tianjin- Hebei region
by Weidong Wang, Jiawei Zheng, Rongmian Huo
Abstract: Coordinated development of industries is an important part of regional economic sustainability. This article takes the coordinated development of industries in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region of China as a research object. Based on an analysis of the status of industrial development in BTH region, the pattern and trend of the spatial shift of industries, and the difficulties in industrial transformation and upgrading located in this region are revealed referring to indicators such as level of regional relative specialisation and inter-regional specialisation, industrial spatial concentration. Policy recommendations for the coordinated industry development in BTH region are proposed with regard to industrial gradient transfer, optimisation of spatial layout, and regional innovation cooperation.
Keywords: regional economic sustainability; coordinated industrial development; industrial division of labor; spatial layout; Beijing; Tianjin; and Hebei.
Perceived barriers to information and communication technology (ICT) adoption in Ivorian SMEs
by N'DOLI GUILLAUME ASSIELOU, MARIO BOURGAULT
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to identify the barriers to ICT adoption, and to explain their influence in the context of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in C
Keywords: ICT adoption; SMEs; T-O-E-I-E; Barriers; Côte d’Ivoire.
Sustainable Governance: Social Media and Voter Realignment, the Case of Ghana.
by Adasa Nkrumah Kofi Frimpong, Ping Li, Samuel Adu-Gyamfi, Millicent Amoah
Abstract: The study attempts to show why sustainable governance is desirable governance since it is both created and supported by the idea of Citizen Centrism, which becomes activated by an inevitable "social contagion" via the shared experiences of desperate citizens on the Internet. Such social gatherings can unite people in offering them surprising new personal choices while at the same time benefiting them from the knowledge of the body politic. Through established methodology, this study will show how such a system could work well in third world countries, not only in Western democracies and countries, where technology is quite developed. However, the results suggest that such electronic gatherings (Social Contagion), cum causa, may very well lead to a more educated voter in Sub-Saharan Africa, using 1198 responses from Ghana. The results figured forth from the research suggest that there exists interdependence between sustainable governance, social-media-use, voter realignment, online/offline political participation. The political use of SM and government information affects voter realignment, online and offline political participation. We found a positive association between SM and access to government information.
Keywords: Sustainable Governance (SG); Social Media (SM); Voter Realignment; Ghana; Simultaneous Equations.
Context Matters: A Global Bibliometric Review of Regional Innovation Systems
by Pedro López-Rubio, Norat Roig-Tierno, Francisco Mas-Verdú
Abstract: The concept of the regional innovation system (RIS) has received substantial attention from the scientific community, public administrations, and international organizations. This article presents a systematic quantitative review of RIS research using bibliometric techniques and the Web of Science Core Collection database up to and including the year 2017. Four periods were examined to track the evolution of the RIS concept. The results show that RIS research has grown considerably since 2010, becoming a central research theme in countries focused on a systemic approach toward innovation and in decentralized countries, especially in Western Europe. Innovation, Europe, technology, networks, and firms have been the core themes of RIS research since the concept arose in 1992. Entrepreneurship was the major emerging research theme in the 2010s. Since 2010, other emerging topics have appeared, namely collaboration, organization, triple helix, China, perspective, knowledge bases, and governance. Smart specialization and creation have been major themes since 2015.
Keywords: Regional innovation systems; entrepreneurship; smart specialization; bibliometrics; Web of Science; VOSviewer; SciMAT.
Exploring determinants of consumer purchase intention of halal labeled food: Marketing from the Islamic perspective
by Faheem Gul Gilal, Aamir Ali Gopang, Rukhsana Gul Gilal, Naeem Gul Gilal
Abstract: Drawing from self-determination theory and the theory of planned behavior, the present study aims to explore the effect of attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation on purchase intention of halal labeled food. To this end, we recruited N = 309 foreign students studying in China and the proposed relationships were tested using an exploratory factor, analysis, and standard multiple, regression analysis in SPSS 24.0. Results suggest that when attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation were assessed, the subjective norm was found to have the greatest effect on the purchase intention of halal labeled food, followed by extrinsic motivation and attitude. Customers perceived behavioral control, intrinsic motivation, and amotivation had a trivial effect on the purchasing intention of halal labeled food. Finally, the implication for research, policy, and future research avenues are discussed in great detail.
Keywords: Purchase intention of halal labeled food; self-determination theory; theory of planned behavior; customers’ motivation.
Unravelling the fourth industrial revolution: A comparative study of a label
by Dominique Nijssen, Roger Bemelmans, Harro Van Lente
Abstract: It is a commonplace to claim we are on the brink of a new technological revolution; many actors share such expectations and persuasive visions. This paper is concerned with the label of the fourth industrial revolution, a term re-coined in 2016 by Klaus Schwab of the World Economic Forum. We aim to unravel the fourth industrial revolution by connecting such visions to concrete technological developments. First, we identified influential visionary individuals; second, we distilled the most promising technologies from their visions and, third, we traced these technologies back in research, development and innovation agendas of governments. As a fourth step we monitored the evolution of 33 promising technologies for the period 2000-2019 Based on this analysis, we can conclude that the promising technologies being mentioned in the visions of influential individuals, governments and science differ in priority and have a different meaning.
Keywords: fourth industrial revolution; technology forecasting; emerging technologies; technological futures; innovation.
Analysis of the Relationship between Competency-Based Factors of Competitive Advantages: A Case of the Insurance Industry
by Samad Rahimiaghdam, Reza Babazadeh, Meisam Shamsi
Abstract: This research studies the relationship between the sustainable competitive advantage competency-based factors in Iran insurance companies. The first section of this study is descriptive and qualitative, carried out based on documentary studies and the Delphi method. The sampling is done as purposeful, and the snowball method is used for the identification of the specialists. Applying the Delphi method extracts six major factors, including technical knowledge, organizational commitment, flexibility, creativity, job satisfaction, and occupational ethics as the main human resources pivotal factors to achieve competitive advantage in the insurance industry. rnThe relationship and sequence of these factors are determined by fuzzy Interpretive Structural Modeling (FISM). Since the intensity (the impact and influence) between some factors is not clear in FISM and some of them are placed near the border point, so, the fuzzy DEMATEL method is utilized to deal with this shortcoming of FISM. According to the role of intangible strategic resources in creating sustainable competitive advantage, this research can solve the problems of the chief mangers in the expansion of the human resources competencies aligned.
Keywords: Competency; Delphi method; Resource based view; sustainable competitive advantage; Fuzzy Interpretive Structural Modeling; Fuzzy DEMATEL.
Transferring AI Technology in Medical Supply Chain: A Disruptive Approach at Addressing Political, Socioeconomic, and Environmental Dilemma in Developing Economies
by Anthony Ayakwah, Isaac Sakyi Damoah
Abstract: The paper posits that artificial intelligent drone technology could be transferred and adopted to medical supply chain to offer political, socioeconomic and environmental effects in developing economies. There is a knowledge gap in developing countries such as Ghana concerning using drones to solve various problems. Therefore, we address this knowledge gap by conceptualising the study through adoption of innovation and knowledge transfer theories and conducting in-depth semi-structured interviews with an AI drone technology company, government agencies and institutions and health care practitioners. Our evidence shows that despite the developing economy peculiarities, a systematic knowledge transfer process was adopted with the support of enabling factors such as political will, skilled personnel and institutional cooperation. This ensured that there was fluidity in the application of the technology, resulting in socioeconomic, environmental and political benefits.
Keywords: Artificial intelligence; knowledge transfer; disruptive innovation; medical supply chain; drones; developing economies.
Development of models for prediction of water distribution pipeline failures for isolated settlement using artificial neural networks
by Paul Amaechi Ozor, Solomon Onyekachukwu Onyedeke, Charles Mbohwa
Abstract: The development of artificial neural network (ANN) models for the prediction of failure of water pipelines in rural communities is undertaken. The objective is to provide a robust maintenance framework that can improve water distribution and management. The research used analytical procedures to develop the models. This approach was illustrated using a 10-year primary water pipeline failure data taken from a typically isolated settlement: the University of Nigeria Nsukka community. Four ANN models were established; three models were based on specific material type and an all-encompassing combinatorial or global model. Validation of the models on unseen data faired very well based on the performance indices employed for the study. The sensitivity analysis carried out shows that the pipe thickness impacts the model output most, whereas the pipe installation year had the least relative importance in predicting pipeline failures in the studied location. The developed models were used to predict failure parameters in the water distribution system; and to determine the benefit index, which allows the elaboration of a strategy for prescribing realistic maintenance planning and control policies. The study shows that the ANN supported with EPANET software can provide a good means of analyzing pipeline failures and optimizing the maintenance function.
Keywords: Maintenance policies; water pipeline failure; artificial neural network; sensitivity analysis; benefit index.
The Impact of Electronic Medical Record Systems on Hospital Efficiency
by C. Christopher Lee, Heechang Shin, Caroline Klimm, Christopher Palmero, Stephanie Hughes
Abstract: The main objective of this study is to gain insight into whether hospitals across the United States that have implemented electronic medical record (EMR) systems are more efficient than hospitals that have not implemented EMR systems and to examine other factors affecting hospital efficiency. A voluntary survey was distributed to all 6,300 hospitals that American Hospital Association identifies as open and operating hospitals. We used the four inputs including hospital beds, operating expenses, full-time physicians, and full-time registered nurses. We used the four outputs including operating revenue, operating margin, outpatient visits, and inpatient visits. We used location type, teaching hospital status, ownership status and region as control variables. We used data envelopment analysis (DEA) to measure the efficiency of hospitals using electronic medical record systems. We grouped the data into two groups: group one includes hospitals with no EMR implementation while group two includes hospitals with partial or full EMR implementation. The evidence showed that hospitals with larger bed counts, hospitals in metropolitan areas, teaching hospitals, non-governmental institutions, for-profit organizations, and hospitals in the Northeast with partial or full EMR systems are more efficient than the other groups. This research shed a light on how EMR systems impact hospital efficiency and what factors were most likely to determine efficiency.
Keywords: Electronic Medical Records; Hospital Efficiency; Size; Location; Teaching Status; Ownership Type; Region.
The Digitalization Trap of Russian Regions
by Alexey Molchan, Liudmila Osadchuk, Olga ANICHKINA, Sergey PONOMAREV, Natalia KUZMENKO
Abstract: The purpose of the study is to identify the "digitalization trap" of regions as the cause of Russia's digital lag in the global world order. The authors identified the structural components of the digitalization trap of Russian regions: existing digital gaps between regions resulting from different levels of digital infrastructure formation, gaps in the implementation of opportunities for the long-term development of regions using digital technologies, as well as inefficient regional digitalization policy. The authors proposed a methodology for assessing the structural components of the digitalization trap. The calculation of the overall integral indicator of the effectiveness of regional digital development allowed the authors to rank the regions of Russia and propose effective measures to overcome the "digitalization trap". The author's methodology for assessing the "digitalization trap" of regions can be used to improve the state policy of digital development in developing countries.
Keywords: digitalization; region; digitalization trap; digital gaps; regional policy; Russia.
Co-Evolution of an Entrepreneurial Ecosystem and Technology Entrepreneurship in a Transforming Economy
by Mikhail Nazarov, Nadezhda Butryumova, Sergey Aleksandrovsky, Dmitry Sidorov
Abstract: The paper addresses the question of how technological entrepreneurial companies co-evolve with the entrepreneurial ecosystem in the context of transforming economy and emerging of new institutions.
Employing a co-evolutionary approach and case study design we have studied 15 technology enterprises established in the Russian region in 1990s, 2000s, and 2010s. As a result, we have found out two types of entrepreneurs: 1. Wild entrepreneurs, more typical for early stages of transition, are independent and relying on informal institutions. 2. Tamed entrepreneurs become more common during the transition progress, prefer clear and developed formal institutional environment.
Also we have discovered that the entrepreneurial ecosystem dynamics is a joint outcome of entrepreneurs intentionality, environment, and institutional effects. Premature formalization of institutes in conditions of weak informal institutions may lead to a growing dependence of entrepreneurs and their business on an increasingly rigid environment, and thus to the generation of weaker entrepreneurs.
Keywords: entrepreneurial ecosystem; technology entrepreneurship; transforming economy; co-evolution; Russia.
Simulation of Research & Development collaborations as complex socio-technical systems using a hybrid of Agent-based modeling and System Dynamics
by Mohammad Mirkazemi Mood, Ali Mohaghar, Yaser Nesari
Abstract: Today, organizations collaborate to use more resources and reduce the risk of technological activities. The result of these collaborations is complex systems with socio-technical characteristics that, despite the many benefits, bring new and different problems and challenges for them. The current research intends to study these collaborations not as a static phenomenon but as a dynamic and heterogeneous system with various socio-technical characteristics, contrary to the prevailing practice in research in this field. Therefore, System Dynamics and Agent-based modeling are used to model an R&D collaboration system. Validation tests and comparison of simulation results with the actual behavior of the system show success in recognizing and representing the system under study. Findings show that using a socio-technical perspective and its methods help to capture and structure the complexity and problems of systems and the interrelationships of these problems in a holistic view.
Keywords: socio-technical approach; Research & Development collaborations ; System Dynamics; Agent-based modeling; Anylogic software; modeling methods; simulation; cooperation; innovation; startups; Applications.
The role of government in the innovation ecology of high-tech industries: A case study of Chinas new energy vehicle industry
by Xuefeng Liu, Wangxing Liu, Yuying Xie, Guowei Lai
Abstract: The new energy vehicles (NEVs) are an important direction of technological and industrial development and the new energy vehicle industry (NEVI) is heavily supported by governments around the world. Not only is replacing fossil-fuel-powered vehicles with NEVs an important measure to deal with the energy and environmental challenges in China but the development of the NEVI is also an important strategy to leap forward in the larger automotive industry. Based on the analysis of the development process and industrial policy changes in Chinas NEVI, this paper reveals the evolution of industrial development under the dynamic financial and non-financial policy support. It also identifies the unique role and effective mechanism of the government in the development process of NEVs from technology incubation to large-scale market application. Learning from the governments prior successes and failures in the NEVI innovation ecology, we make recommendations on how the government can better support the development of NEVI.
Keywords: industrial policy; high-tech industries; innovation ecology; the NEVI.
Determinants to the Success of MSMEs in India: Policy vs Technology Perspective
by Vikas Kumar, Pooja Nanda
Abstract: Indian MSME sector is extremely diverse in size, variety of products, service areas, and types of technology being used. It supports the industrial development of rural and backward areas, decreasing provincial discrimination and assuring better unbiased delivery of national revenue and capital. This paper explores the various aspects of the development of MSMEs in India from the perspective of technology and policy. Specific roles of the technology along with the domestic and international policies have been analyzed to identify their impact on the development of MSMEs. Internet, E-Commerce, Mobile Communication, Online Payment Systems, Computer Aided Designing and Social Media have been identified as the most important technological determinants to the success of MSMEs. Whereas the impact and provisions of a number of Govt schemes and initiatives have been presented with their role in development of specific categories of MSMEs.
Keywords: Micro Small and Medium Enterprises; Technology Integration; Govt Policy; Digital India.
Assessment of interregional divides in digital development as a basis for the policy of overcoming the Russias digital lag
by Evgeniya Karpunina, Olga V. Zabelina, Svetlana V. Lupacheva, Farida I. Mirzabalaeva, Patimat R. Alieva
Abstract: Purpose of the article is the identification and assessment of divides in digital development between Russian regions as the reasons for the country\'s digital lag in the international space, as well as the formation of the conceptual foundations of the state policy of interregional digital alignment. A method for calculating the digitalization coefficient allows authors to assess the level of digital development of Russian regions. It is proved that the level of regional digitalization affects the human potential realization by almost 50%, while the link between the level of digitalization and knowledge is weak. The digital divide, the knowledge divide, and the divide in the human potential realization between the regions of Russia are estimated using a decile scale. It is argued that the methodology for assessing existing divides between regions should be the basis for the policy of interregional digital alignment.
Keywords: digital lag; region; divide in digital development; digital divide; divide in the human potential realization.
MANAGING TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER AND UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY LINKAGE IN A DEVELOPING COUNTRY: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM NIGERIA
by Caleb Muyiwa ADELOWO, Wilie Owolabi Siyanbola, Dan-Azumi Mohammed Ibrahim
Abstract: Knowledge institutions are key drivers of national competitiveness. The expectations from these institutions now include knowledge transfer to support industrial development. To coordinate these efforts, technology transfer offices (TTOs) become plausible strategy. In Nigeria, these offices are mandated to manage intellectual property assets, create IP awareness and engage industry for research uptakes. This paper provides a baseline assessment of how TTOs have performed in Nigeria, including key challenges confronting them. Primary data were collected with the aid of a structured questionnaire. Results show that IP sensitization, IP strategy promotion and collation of completed and on-going R&D outputs were prominent activities of these offices. Industry visitation and technology open day strategies were deployed to promote technology transfer. Some TTOs performed better than others in IP assets creation, while five of them reported six spin-off products. The paper concludes with key challenges confronting them and propose appropriate policy recommendations for effective management.
Keywords: Technology transfer; industrial linkage; Innovation; knowledge institutions; Commercialisation.
Industrial Policy and Cluster Development: A Literature Review
by Liu Xuefeng, Zhang Ao, Xie Yuying
Abstract: The cluster policy plays an important guiding and supporting role in the development of industrial clusters. We first review and summarize the relevant research on policies relating to the development of industrial clusters, divide them into resource-provision policies and environment-improvement policies, and identify the impacts of the different policies on industrial clusters. Then, we summarize the important factors that influence the outcome of the policies in different circumstances. Last, inspired by the prior studies, we propose a dynamic comprehensive policy formation process that can enhance the effectiveness of policy support and strengthen the sensitivity and responsiveness of the policy to the dynamic changes in the rapid development of industrial clusters.
Keywords: policy; industrial policy; cluster; innovation.
ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION ON ENVIRONMENTAL AND FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF CHINESE TEXTILE MANUFACTURING COMPANIES
by Yuanyuan Zhou, Andrew Agyemang, Ibrahim Osman Adam, Angelina Twum
Abstract: In the context of increasing global economic development, there is a need to consider industrial upgrading, which steadily promotes the Chinese economys sustainable and high-quality development. This calls for constant technological innovation that will boost operational efficiency and increase the financial performance of firms. As the leader of green technological advancement, China has implemented policies and strategies for companies to use green technological innovations in their production line. Earlier studies focused on the investment in technological innovation, innovation-driven policies, and the relationship between competitiveness and technological innovation. There is a literature gap in examining the effect of technological innovation on environmental and financial performance for textile manufacturing companies listed in China. This study therefore seeks to address the literature gap by analyzing the impact of technological innovation on environmental and financial performance for textile manufacturing companies listed in China. Panel data for sixty-one textile manufacturing companies from 1990 to 2020 was used for the empirical analysis. The authors utilized the Generalized Methods of Moments (GMM) estimator. The findings from the study revealed a positive but insignificant relationship between technological innovation investment and environmental performance. In addition, an inverse but insignificant relationship was found between green technological innovation and return on investment. Contrarily, a positive and statistically significant relationship was found between green technological innovation and environmental performance and technological innovation investment and return on investment. Also, return on investment and environmental performance was found to have a positive slope relationship. The findings from our study highlights how technological innovation is contributing to environmental and financial performance of firms.
Keywords: Technological Innovation; Environmental Performance; Financial Performance; Textile Manufacturing Companies; China.
Identification of the information and communication technology (ICT) sector in the city of Medell
by Vanessa García Pineda, Jackeline Andrea Macías Urrego
Abstract: Purpose In recent years, the dynamism of society and the different economic sectors have been forced to change their modes of operation, activities, and functioning due to the emergence of new technologies, which have directly impacted the economy and the different organizations; this phenomenon is known as Industry 4.0. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to identify the level of incorporation of elements and technologies of Industry 4.0 through the innovation capabilities in the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sector.
Design/methodology/approach To achieve the objective of this study, we characterized the ICT sector in the Medell
Keywords: industry 4.0; ICT sector; innovation capabilities; organizational structure.
Development of MSMEs in India: Challenges vs Govt Policies
by Pooja Nanda, Vikas Kumar
Abstract: Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) have been recognized as a global engine for growth and employment. They are a major contributor to Gross Domestic Product (GDP), exports and jobs, playing a crucial role in improving the socio-economic profile of a country. Thus, it is vital to increase the competitiveness of MSMEs through the creation of an efficient legal, regulatory and administrative system. This can enhance their accessibility to finance, technology and skilled human resource. Present work highlights the challenges faced by MSMEs in India and their associated impact. The aspects covered include the technology, human resource, operations and policies. These challenges have been mapped to the policies and schemes of Govt of India, which can contribute to the development of MSMEs. Need for the effective implementation of policies as well as better coverage of MSMEs have been recommended.
Keywords: MSME; Technology Adoption; Govt Policy; Small Business; Make in India.
Profiling regulatory governance framework to strengthen industry performance: Application of the fuzzy analytical hierarchical process
by BRAJESH MISHRA
Abstract: The study proposes a novel regulatory governance profiling technique, using mixed method approach, to strengthen industry performance. This profiling technique, although developed in the context of Indian domestic electronics industry, can be easily adopted to strengthen performance of other industries. The study uses document analysis and thematic analysis to identify eight regulatory governance parameters, eighteen sub-parameters and industry performance indicators, respectively. Next, the study adopts the fuzzy analytical hierarchical process to rank the importance of the identified macro regulatory governance parameters and sub-parameters. The market access and IC ecosystem/supporting infrastructure have emerged as top two crucial parameters. The equitable market access, market distortion, IC ecosystem, R&D supported domestic manufacturing, and foreign direct investments are among top ranked sub-parameters, constituting a combined weights of 60%. Increased focus of policy makers on these five regulatory governance sub-parameters may transform the regulatory governance framework and enhance Indias participation in the global value ecosystem.
Keywords: Regulatory governance; parameters; fuzzy AHP; market access; IC ecosystem; Indian electronics industry.
Research on the Impact of Environmental Decentralization and Environmental Regulations on Agricultural Pollution
by Zhiyong Liu, Weiping Jia
Abstract: Environmental regulation (ER) is critical to achieving emission reduction of agricultural pollution, and environmental decentralization (ED) is the foundation of establishing ER. Based on the panel data of 30 Chinese provinces from 2006 to 2018, this article employs the dynamic panel model to investigate the relationship between ED, ER, and agricultural pollution. It uses the panel threshold model to explore the nonlinear effect of ER on agricultural pollution when ED is greater than or less than a specific threshold value. The results show that, first, ER is very important to restrain agricultural pollution, ED and environmental supervision decentralization (ESD) and environmental monitoring decentralization (EMD) have significant positive effects on agricultural pollution, while environmental administrative decentralization (EAD) has negative impact on agricultural pollutions; second, ED aggravates agricultural pollution and leads to green paradox effect, in which the impact of ESD and EMD is particularly prominent; third, from the regional level, the green paradox effect caused by ED in the central and western regions is significant, while that in the eastern region is not significant; and finally, the impact of ER on agricultural pollution presents threshold characteristics with the change of ED. Therefore, differentiated ED policies should be formulated; EAD should be appropriately expanded; ESD and EMD should be gradually reduced, and ED in the central and western regions should be reduced. At the same time, a long-term and dynamic agricultural pollution monitoring system should be established throughout the country to form a collaborative governance pattern among regions. The measures taken by the Chinese government to control agricultural pollution can provide references for many different areas so that this research can be used in other areas in practice.
Keywords: Environmental decentralization (ED); Environmental regulation (ER); Agricultural pollution.