Forthcoming articles

International Journal of Technology, Policy and Management

International Journal of Technology, Policy and Management (IJTPM)

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International Journal of Technology, Policy and Management (24 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Tools for state support of research institutions at the regional level: the German experience and Russia's approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Igor Monakhov 
    Abstract: In the article the author studies the cases of the German regions (the L
    Keywords: research institutions; science policy; Länder; Germany.

  • Optimization Evaluation on Material Distribution Systems: From the Perspective of Automobile Manufactures   Order a copy of this article
    by Qun Wu, Ying LIao, Kun Liao, Bo Li 
    Abstract: Due to the rapid growth of competition in the automobile industry and the wide variety of customer demands, automobile manufacturers supply chain management must have higher standards in terms of efficiency and effectiveness of their logistics distribution. Given the current practical challenges of materials distribution in the mixed-model assembling line system in the automobile industry, this study uses DEA-CCR analysis to compare the Set Parts System (SPS) model with the traditional models, and found that the SPS distribution model is superior to the traditional models in terms of distribution service quality, investment cost, distribution cost, distribution efficiency, and distribution continuity delivery punctuality and delivery staff. This research not only provides a systematic analysis of distribution models, but also offers a number of future research and implementation opportunities to scholars and practitioners in this field.
    Keywords: Automobile manufactures; Material distribution; DEA-CCR; SPS; Optimization evaluation.

  • Similarity based comparison of good governance among the countries of the world and examining Irans development status   Order a copy of this article
    by Mona Ahani, Morteza Mousakhani, Reza Najafbagy, Mohammad Ali Afshar Kazemi 
    Abstract: The study of good governance over the past two decades has been at the forefront of the world's scientific and international circles, especially in developing countries. As one of the prestigious international institutions, the World Bank has identified six indices of good governance which include: Control of corruption, Government effectiveness, Political stability and absence of violence, Regulatory quality, Rule of law, Voice and accountability. In this study, World Bank appraisals and statistics on the six-fold good governance indicators published each year are used to analyze 186 countries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the status of countries based on good governance and determine the ranking of Iran among other countries, using clustering techniques. In order to select an appropriate clustering method and the appropriate number of clusters, the Silhouette coefficient for each K-Means, Two Step and Kohonen method was calculated for the number of different clusters of each. Based on an assessment of these findings, the K-Means 12 cluster method was selected. Using the clustering method, calculating good governance and frequency of co-accumulation, the deviance of Iran from other countries of the world was revealed. The research findings show that, among the four countries of the world having common clusters with Iran in terms of the level of human development, Iran ranks among the Low-level developing countries and Moderate developing countries. This issue highlights the importance of improving the level of good governance indicators in the country in order to achieve a higher level of development.
    Keywords: Good Governance; World Bank; Clustering; K-Means; Silhouette.

  • Constraint Tree Analysis: Anticipating Risk to Policy Implementation   Order a copy of this article
    by Gregory Falco 
    Abstract: There is always a risk that a public policy will be unsuccessful. Policy failure can be the result of poorly written policy whose implementation measures are not aligned with the intended goals. It can also be a result of unexpected constraints that impede policy implementation. There are many guides offering advice on how to write good policy and establish policy goals, yet there is no established preemptive method for anticipating policy implementation constraints or other barriers to policy success. This article proposes a new method called constraint tree analysis for evaluating the obstacles to policy implementation before a policy is enacted. The method builds on an established mechanism in aerospace engineering and computer science that enumerates possible failure points or attack vectors of systems. Constraint tree analysis is illustrated in this article by using it to identify possible implementation obstacles of U.S. Executive Order 13636 Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity.
    Keywords: Cybersecurity; Technology Policy; Security Policy; Policy Implementation; Risk Management; Critical Infrastructure.

  • Exploring the profit model of servitizing manufacturers-a resource-based perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Jing Hua Li 
    Abstract: Servitization is a kind of business model innovation, and the profit model of servitization is the core elements of this innovation. In this paper, a comparative case study of two servitizing manufacturers was carried out through analyzing and cross-comparing different types of servitization profit models for different product-service offerings within both firms. We classify servitization profit models into four categories, and then delineating basic profit model elements and finally exploring the relationships between these elements and a firms resources, capabilities and product-service offerings. The conclusions are that, the effective integration of resources is the prerequisite to foster key capabilities so to build relevant revenue streams, thus forming appropriate servitization profit models. Understanding the basic logic between elements within the servitization profit model and the relationship between resources, capabilities and business offerings is critical when the manufacturer is seeking successful transition towards servitization.
    Keywords: servitization; profit model; resource-based view; case study.

  • Country size and technology innovation A comparative study of countries based on different levels of economic development   Order a copy of this article
    by Qi Chen, Wilfred Vincent Huang, Jiaojiao Mo 
    Abstract: By using PVAR model and panel data of 40 countries from 2001 to 2016, this paper empirically studies the influence of country size on technology innovation of developing and developed countries from three dimensions: population size, market size and trade size. The research shows that under the conditions of different development levels, country size plays a huge role in technology innovation. Among them, for the developed countries, the market size plays an important role in promoting their technology innovation, followed by the trade size. For the developing countries, the trade size is the key factor for the promotion of their technology innovation. The market size has little effect and the population size has a negative impact. On this basis, this paper puts forward some suggestions for the large developing countries to promote technology innovation based on the country size.
    Keywords: country size; technology innovation; PVAR model; different levels of economic development.

  • Study on Investment Return System of PPP Wastewater Treatment Projects based on system dynamics   Order a copy of this article
    by Tong Dai, Qinghua Wang, Bixiang Shi, Xiaokun Sun 
    Abstract: This paper aims to study on investment return system of PPP wastewater treatment projects based on system dynamics. On the basis of the analysis of the factors influencing the VFM evaluation and the prediction system of the rate of return on investment, a system dynamics method is used to establish a prediction model for investment income based on VFM quantitative evaluation. The software of Vensim PLE is used to simulate the newly built PPP wastewater treatment project. Results show that the selection of discount rate and PPP projects transaction cost have significant effect on the VFM and the present value and the rate of return on investment in the franchise period. This study can be used as a reference for the fair and equitable cooperation between the government and the private business.
    Keywords: wastewater treatment projects; Public Private Partnership (PPP); Value for Money (VFM); investment income; system dynamics.

  • Performance Evaluation Framework of Highway PPP Project based on Stakeholders Perspectives and Linguistic Environment   Order a copy of this article
    by Shuai Geng, Yu Yin 
    Abstract: Most of performance evaluation index systems of highway PPP project just reflected governments strategic goal, did not publics and social capitals. Moreover, if considering the strategic goals of social capital and public in the performance evaluation index system, it will inevitably involve a number of qualitative criteria, which increase the uncertainty of expert evaluation information. Uncertainty mainly exists in two aspects: ①qualitative performance evaluation value; ②evaluation criterion weight. To this end, we proposed the evaluation index system of highway PPP project from the perspectives of stakeholders, which can not only reflect the overall performance level, but also reflect the performance level of highway PPP project on the strategic goals of government, public and social capital. In order to deal with the uncertainty problems, this study proposed a corresponding evaluation model based on linguistic terms and the trapezoidal interval type-2 hesitant fuzzy number (TIT2HFN). With such evaluation model, it was more convenient for experts to express their evaluation preferences while maintaining the minimum amount of decision information loss. In addition, this evaluation model was designed based on the maximizing deviations principle to handle the interval weights. Finally, a case of China is studied demonstrates the effectiveness of performance evaluation framework.
    Keywords: highway project; public-private partnership (PPP); performance evaluation index system; evaluation model; trapezoidal interval type-2 hesitant fuzzy number (TIT2HFN); maximizing deviations principle.

  • Winners from the Changing Trends of Energy Intensities among 115 Countries   Order a copy of this article
    by Yu Sang Chang, NeiHei Park, Jinbae Kim 
    Abstract: Many countries in the world have been experiencing vastly different rates of changes in their energy intensity (EI). The rate of change in EI for each country was estimated from the progress ratio (PR) of experience curve (EC). We ranked all 115 countries according to their PRs. The averaged PR of 90.21% estimated for the total 115 countries indicates a globally decreasing trend of EI. This means that each doubling of cumulative energy consumption has reduced energy intensity by 9.79%. On the other hand, 40 countries have experienced an increasing trend with an average PR of 119.41%. When two different types of EC, classical and kinked, were used,, 81 countries displayed a kinked slope with an average PR of 84.98%. Analyzing both the type of trend and slope of EC indicates that as many as 70 countries may have the best or better chances to improve their PRs in the futurern Implications from these findings will be discussed.rn
    Keywords: Energy Intensity; Progress ratio; Experience curve; Increasing trend; Decreasing trend; Classical slope.

  • The Effect of Funding Agencys Choices: Empirical Evidence from Large-scale R&D Projects in Koreas Automotive Industry   Order a copy of this article
    by HYOUNG RYUL MA, Debra Dwyer 
    Abstract: There has been rising concern over the performance of government-sponsored R&D projects, particularly in Korea where government spending on R&D has been on a sharp and steady incline for a decade. A funding agency, as a crucial agent in the government-sponsored R&D system, makes funding choices to enhance the output or outcome of the R&D projects in which it invests. Because of the focus on R&D in Korea, their funding agencies face higher pressure to demonstrate budget efficiency. This paper examines the impact a Korean funding agency can have to drive the output of R&D projects. Using a data set of 147 government-sponsored large-scale R&D projects, this study tests how choice variables of a funding agency or R&D consortium affect technological output. This study finds that a funding agencys choice variablesthe amount of funding, duration, and the intensity of monitoringare quite influential on the success score and the number of publications of R&D projects, but do not significantly impact the number of patent applications. On the other hand, an R&D consortiums choice variablesthe collaboration structure and commitment to commercializationhave a more significant causal effect on the number of patent applications. The results suggest that it is in the funding agencys interest to encourage the formation and success of R&D consortiums, given it has an ultimate interest in the commercialization of the technological output of R&D projects. In sum, this study sheds light on the effective role of the funding agency in efficient investments in R&D. As an innovation facilitator, the funding agency needs to expand its entrepreneurial activities, including consulting toward commercialization, besides its traditional tasks related to project evaluation and management.
    Keywords: R&D projects; Technological output; Funding agency; Consortium; Choice variable; Funding; Duration; Monitoring; Publication; Patent application.

  • An empirical study on the entrepreneurial team and entrepreneurial performance   Order a copy of this article
    by Fang Bian, Sang-Bing Tsai 
    Abstract: The relationship between the entrepreneurial team and performance has been a focus of intensive study over the past years. However, it is still inconclusive if entrepreneurial team promotes or inhibits entrepreneurial performance. In this study, we used 421 samples from 20 entrepreneurial teams to build a mediated moderation model from the conflict management perspective. We used this model to test the role of team diversity and team environment in modulating the relationship between the entrepreneurial team and performance. The results showed that conflict management plays an important role in modulating the relationship between the entrepreneurial team and performance, and the effect of the mediation is significant. In addition, team heterogeneity and team environment have a significant impact on the relationship between the entrepreneurial team and performance. Importantly, this modulatory effect is mediated through conflict management. Specifically, the relationship between the entrepreneurial team and performance is positively regulated by task-related diversity.
    Keywords: entrepreneurial performance; entrepreneurial team; information; information education; technology education; team heterogeneity.

  • A Study on the Relationship between Entrepreneurship Education and Entrepreneurial Intention   Order a copy of this article
    by Fang Bian, Lin Meng, Sang-Bing Tsai 
    Abstract: Based on the cognitive theory and theory of planned behavior, this paper analyzes the influence of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial intention and the effect of entrepreneurial risk perception and entrepreneurial self-efficacy on the undergraduates experiences. The results show that entrepreneurial education can effectively promote the formation of entrepreneurial intention. The three dimensions of entrepreneurship education (i.e., entrepreneurial cognition, entrepreneurial ability, and innovative spirit) have a positive impact on entrepreneurial intentions. Entrepreneurial risk perception and entrepreneurial self-efficacy have an intermediary effect on entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial intention. The research results reveal the effective boundary of entrepreneurship education, explore and prove the specific mechanism of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial intention, and help to find effective ways for entrepreneurship education to promote entrepreneurship.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship Education; Entrepreneurial Risk Perception; Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy; Entrepreneurial Intention.

  • A text mining-based approach for modeling technical knowledge evolution in patents   Order a copy of this article
    by Geng Li, Zuhua Jiang, Xinyu Li 
    Abstract: This paper proposes a knowledge evolution method for portraying the evolution of patent technical knowledge (PTK) and provides enterprises with an understanding of the evolution of a specific field. The paper proposes a text mining-based knowledge evolution modeling method. Based on weighted factors, PTKs are obtained from the bibliographic title, abstract and claims (TAC) data on granted patents. Then, PTK clusters are captured by Affinity Propagation (AP) and expressed with the PTK topics extracted via Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA). Furthermore, an association measurement for PTK is proposed, and a long-term evolutionary process for a specific field is revealed by an alluvial diagram. A case study of the new energy vehicles (NEV) industry is presented, and the results indicate that the proposed method can be used to automatically obtain technical knowledge from patent documents and to better measure and analyze the evolution of PTK relative to traditional evolution methods. Thus, the proposed approach can be further utilized to offer decision-making support to R&D management professionals in several areas in the midst of excessive volumes of technical documents available from academic institutions, innovative enterprises, and automobile manufacturers, etc.
    Keywords: Text mining; Knowledge evolution; Patent technical knowledge (PTK); Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA).

  • Revisiting the theoretical evolution of Industry 4.0: a thematic analysis of research focus   Order a copy of this article
    by Kübra Şimşek Demirbağ, Nihan Yıldırım 
    Abstract: Industry 4.0 (I40), which has been mentioned frequently in recent years, is a collective concept used to express that the developing industry is now in its fourth phase. Enterprises, industries, and even governments are developing strategies and building technology roadmaps for I40. Also, it has occupied a prominent place in the literature, but the comprehensive and systematic studies related to the position of I40 are very limited. Therefore, we aim to investigate the I40 literature and to carry out thematic analysis to reveal the research trends and gaps. The study includes 786 articles on the Scopus database. As a result, articles are mostly based on new tools, technologies and the application of them to manufacturing, while the human dimension is ignored. On the contrary, the technical aspect of I40 is ignored while the effect of I40 on human and social dimensions is focused on the studies prepared by Russian academics.
    Keywords: I40; Industry 4.0; fourth industrial revolution; literature review; thematic analysis; smart manufacturing; IoT; internet of things; CPPS; cyber physical production systems.

  • Analysis of Science, Technology and Innovation Policy using a Mixed Approach ; Case Study of Iran   Order a copy of this article
    by Jafar Bagherinejad, Mohammad Mirkazemi Mood 
    Abstract: The science, technology and innovation (STI) policies are the most important initiatives of governments to support scientific and technological activities for national development. In Iran, as one of the developing countries, advancement in science, technology and innovation has attracted much attention of policy makers and different practices have been done, but regarding the effectiveness of the STIs policies, there are doubts. This study tries to analyze these policies based on experts` opinions and present modeling of STI's policy analysis in Iran, using a mixed approach. To achieve this goal, a Meta-synthesis analysis has been followed. First relevant literature and successful experiences in STI of several countries are reviewed thoroughly. By using a qualitative study required elements and dimensions for the STI policy analysis model of Iran have been recognized. Then, through a field study and testing the validity of proposed model dimensions, including actors, strategies, laws, resources and evaluation systems, the expert opinions on the position of Iranian STI policies have been investigated. Gathering data through questionnaire and designing structural equation modeling framework for analyzing them by LISREL software approved the proposed model. The results indicate that the STI policies of Iran are at the middle position in terms of all five suggested determinants of the proposed model of this study. Finally, based on overall findings, several policy implications have been offered to improve the positions of dimensions of the STI policy analysis model of Iran.
    Keywords: Science; technology and innovation policy; Policy analysis model; Actors; Strategies; Laws; Resources; Evaluation systemsrnrn.

  • New Business Models with Industrie 4.0 in the German Mittelstand   Order a copy of this article
    by Patricia Kraft, Roland Helm, Michael Dowling 
    Abstract: Medium-sized enterprises called the Mittelstand are an important pillar of the German economy. However, these firms have not been as quick to develop new digital business models that characterise a shift to digital manufacturing, which is called Industrie 4.0 or the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) in Germany. In this paper, we analyse different types of digital business models, including important external drivers (technology, security, and standards) and internal drivers (business processes, organisation forms, inter-firm cooperation, and human resources strategies). We show that the complexity and the chances of success of new business models with Industrie 4.0 increases with the integration of players from the respective ecosystem and a focus on the system rather than the product. To illustrate such business models in detail, we analyse a German Mittelstand manufacturer that is currently implementing Industrie 4.0.
    Keywords: Digital Business Models; Digital Manufacturing; Industrie 4.0; Industrial Internet of Things; German Mittelstand; Germany; Technology; Hybrid Products; Case Study.

  • A group decision-making model for important power user risks based on cloud model and set pair analysis: A case study in China   Order a copy of this article
    by Jicheng Liu, Xiaoxu Fu, Fangqiu Xu, Suli Yan 
    Abstract: The safe and stable operation of important power users plays an important role in the harmonious development of society and economy. Different from previous studies which mostly based on reliability model, a group decision-making model based on cloud model and connection number is proposed in this paper. First, an assessment index system is established including operation safety risk, cooperation credit risk, power regulation risk and operating capacity risk. Then, with the advantage in dealing with qualitative language, cloud model is employed to convert the qualitative concepts into quantitative values, which reduce the fuzziness and randomness. Next, in order to integrate the information among different index, the geometric operator of binary connection number is defined. Finally, the comparison method of connection numbers is put forward to rank the results. The example and sensibility analysis verify the effectiveness and applicability of the model in this paper.
    Keywords: Binary connection number; cloud model; important power users; risk assessment; sensitivity analysis.

  • Then and Now Construction Management Practices in Romania and the Netherlands   Order a copy of this article
    by Tudor -. Cristian Petrescu, Hans Voordijk, Ionut -. Ovidiu Toma 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to compare and contrast construction management practices in Romania and the Netherlands by focusing on the institutional context, used building systems, and labor organization from 1945 until nowadays. Social, economic and historical aspects have also been taken into account, in order to provide useful insight on two countries that represent two "worlds" (Western Europe vs. Eastern Europe), with different building philosophies. Data collection and analysis were based on interviews with experts in the field of civil engineering, correlated with various publications from both past and present times. The significance of this study lies in the fact that, although similar studies have been performed before, to the authors knowledge there is little information about construction management in pre-1989 Eastern Bloc. This study compares an Eastern European country (Romania) with data from the construction management in pre-1989 Western European country (the Netherlands).
    Keywords: Romania; the Netherlands; Construction Management; Institutional Context; Building Systems; Labor Organization.

  • Determinants of Technology Adoption in U.S. Oil and Gas Industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Ronald Salazar, Rupak Rauniar, Jeffrey Blodgett 
    Abstract: New technology is vital resource for improving organizational efficiency and effectiveness which can improve long term performance of an organization. Studies point out that the extent of new technology adoption in an organization is a good indicator of both successful implementation of new technology and successful integration of such technology in operations. Introduction and implementation of such new technology in an organization requires proper top management support and resource commitment for resource requirements to adoption effort. An important measure to indicate organizational readiness to adopt new technology is the organizations absorptive capacity. New and innovative technologies are continuously being introduced in O&G industry despite the turbulent economic cycle it had been facing since 2014. Yet this segment of economy has received less attention in scientific management studies. The current study empirically investigates relationship between key variables identified in adoption literatures- ie. absorptive capacity, top management support, resource commitment, and task-technology fit with adoption of new technology in U.S. Oil and Gas (O&G) industry. Discussion of the empirical results, implications, and limitation of this study is also provided.
    Keywords: O&G industry; absorptive capacity; task-technology fit; Technology adoption; adoption of new technology.

  • Technology and Risk Considerations in Shaping Future Drone Legislation   Order a copy of this article
    by Stephen Wright, Matthew Studley 
    Abstract: The global aviation industry has decades-old and highly successful legislation enforcing safety in conventional manned aerospace. This framework has been evolved gradually around a set of mature technologies with particular goals and implementations, and legislators are now struggling to integrate the profoundly different implications of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology into this regulatory environment. This paper seeks to inform future UAV policy by highlighting its technological and distinctiveness from conventional aviation and making recommendations for future legislation, based on these observations.
    Keywords: UAV; Drone; Legislation; Regulation.

  • Impact of International Trade on Cross-Border E-Commerce Development: An Empirical Study Based on the Evidence from Ningbo City in China   Order a copy of this article
    by Haidong Zhong, Shaozhong Zhang, Wenlan Song, Zuopeng (Justin) Zhang 
    Abstract: In recent years, the rapid growth of Chinas cross-border e-commerce has become a new bright spot to drive its growth of international trade. Prior studies focus on the role of cross-border e-commerce in promoting international trade; however, very few empirical studies have explored the promoting effect of international trade on cross-border e-commerce. In this article, we summarize the interactive development mechanism between cross-border e-commerce and international trade and then propose a model to capture the impact of international trade on cross-border e-commerce development. Based on three dimensionsinstitutional innovation, service system construction, and carrier and platform construction, the model indicates that international trade provides the institutional guarantee, industrial base, and information support for developing cross-border e-commerce. Then, we collect the cross-border e-commerce and international trade data from Ningbo city in China between January 2016 and December 2018 to quantitatively investigate the interaction between them with the vector auto regression (VAR) model. The results from time series stability check, VAR check, impulse response analysis, Granger Causality Test, and OLS analysis show that the established VAR model can explain the positive effect of international trade on cross-border e-commerce development. Our research findings help both government and enterprises to develop high-performance cross-border e-commerce.
    Keywords: cross-border e-commerce; international trade; VAR model; Ningbo; regional development.

  • The Influence of Stakeholders-Based Management over Innovation: A Study in Brazilian Organizations   Order a copy of this article
    by Fernanda Rosalina Da Silva Meireles, Raíssa De Azevedo Barbosa, João Maurício Gama Boaventura 
    Abstract: Despite the importance of innovation as a source of economic growth, there are gaps concerning its development conditions. Focusing on this, we empirically test the relationship between innovation and stakeholder-based management. Using stakeholder theory, managing for stakeholders, and innovation literature to examine the question: if it is whether managing for stakeholders is positively related to the development of innovations. We examine 412 observations of Brazilian companies between 2008 and 2013 and use a longitudinal logistic model. Our results show that managing for stakeholders is positively related to the development of innovations, and this relationship is more robust if equality is considered when attending to stakeholder interests. More than 55% of the variance in the data derives from the differences between panel datasets. Therefore, our results suggest companies more concerned with stakeholders-based management have a higher probability of presenting innovation.
    Keywords: Stakeholders-based management; stakeholder theory; stakeholder interests; equality; innovation; development of innovations; innovation literature; Brazilian companies; longitudinal logistic model; empirical study.

  • CRITICAL FACTORS OF INNOVATION IN BRAZILIAN FIRMS   Order a copy of this article
    by Joao Carvalho, Maria Madeira 
    Abstract: Companies operate in an increasingly volatile and competitive environment. Surviving and achieving some success has become the focus of managers of any type of business, be it small, medium or large. Innovation is now considered one of the factors capable of leading companies to obtain a sustainable competitive advantage. However, in the universe of micro and small Brazilian companies, the word innovation is perceived as something difficult to achieve. This work aimed to investigate the critical success factors for the innovation model, including six explanatory variables: a) awareness of the enterprise for innovation; b) innovation strategy and policy; c) innovation implementation in the enterprise; d) capital (financial) investment for innovation; e) human resources for innovation; e) capacity building for innovation in the enterprise. The results show that awareness is the main element capable of promoting innovation.
    Keywords: innovation; awareness; human resource; implementation; strategy and policy; investment; capacity building.

  • Organising Strategy Decisions for Complex Product System Innovation, Influencing Factors, and their Impact on Learning   Order a copy of this article
    by Jong-Seok Kim 
    Abstract: This comparative case study tried to examine the thread of organising strategy decisions, influential factors and their decisional impacts on learning in complex product system (CoPS) innovation. It found that each system integration firms organising strategy decisions aim to leverage their core competencies to facilitate learning, while each firms different strategic priorities can influence different organising strategy decisions for CoPS innovation. In terms of the decisional impacts on learning, the selection of employees relevant to the task of CoPS innovation make them to quickly engage in learning at the initial stage of innovation, while higher strategic priorities can motivate employees to facilitate learning. It captures that the lower degree of change in organizational arrangement through the decisions of an organising strategy relatively facilitate learning at the search and selection stage of CoPS innovation. However, top management support for higher strategic priority can facilitate learning at the initial stage.
    Keywords: complex product system innovation; organising strategy decision; core competencies; strategic priority; decisional impact; architectural learning.