International Journal of Technology, Policy and Management (27 papers in press)
Diffusion of Innovative Technology in U.S. Oil and Gas Industry- An Empirical Study
by Ronald Salazar, Rupak Rauniar, Carlo Mora
Abstract: This paper presents the results of our attempt to validate the theory of diffusion of innovation (Rogers 1962, 2003) employing survey methodology. We find that complexity, trialability, and observability exhibited correlation with innovation diffusion while the impact of remaining constructs are not supported. Innovation and technology have been long considered important drivers of organizational success. Once a decision to acquire and adopt a new technology has been made, a successful transfer of such technology within the organization is often measured by the extent of diffusion of the newly adopted technology. Understanding the drivers of successful diffusion of innovative technologies in the US Oil and Gas (O&G) industry is critical since the industry overall is facing economic hardship and actively seeking operational efficiency and excellence in exploration, production, and distribution costs. Rogers (1962, 2003) theory of Diffusion of Innovation or DoI is used in identifying and operationalizing key variables that affect diffusion of innovation. This paper elucidates diffusion of innovation (DOI) in the U.S. O & G industry. It broadens understanding of how the industry has responded to the presence of multiple, important new technologies and how the diffusion of these technologies can be explained by the application of the DOI model. Using primary data, the current study empirically tests DoI in the context of todays US O&G industry. The contribution of the current study to both researchers and practitioners, limitations, as well as suggestions for future studies are also provided.
Keywords: diffusion of innovation; innovative technology; US Oil and Gas industry.
An Efficiency Analysis of Turkish Railways Using Data Envelopment Analysis - Comparison study
by Ghanem Osman, Li Xuemei
Abstract: The aim of this study is to examine whether Turkey as a candidate for the EU membership, utilizes its railway performance. To investigate the Turkish railways efficiency and identify its current situation, the efficiency of Turkish and EU railway are evaluated by applying DEA output-oriented model of CRS (CCR) and VRS (BCC) analysis. In this research, each country is considered as a decision-making unit called DMU; every efficiency country is calculated and compared to the other country. In conducted analysis, there are five inputs taken into consideration, along with two outputs distinguished by two forms of transport: passengers and freight transport. The evidence from this study seems to suggest that the technical efficiency of Turkish railway equals 0.89, and sale efficiency equals 0.98, indicating obtained suitability in inputs and outputs for reaching the efficiency boundary.
Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis; Efficiency; performance measurement; Turkish Railway; EU.
Transitional challenges cycle of service offshoring delivery centres in Central and Eastern Europe.
by Damian Kedziora, Jerzy Lewandowski
Abstract: Business process offshoring has been a vital element of global sourcing transitions across the past decades, and in the last few years its rapid growth has been observed in the region of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). It had vital impact on the organizational level of global corporations and workers employed in the industry, as well as the policy and economic situation of the transition economies from the CEE area. The paper provides a descriptive, interpretative analysis of problems affecting managerial community of service offshoring industry in Poland, identified across the cycle of its three core phases: pre-transition, transitional project, post-transition.
Keywords: service; offshoring; outsourcing; transition; challenges; cycle; transfers; central; europe.
The use of mobile phone data in transport planning
by Shin Lee
Abstract: The paper offers a historical review of the emergent use of individual location data from mobile phones in the field of transport planning that occurred over the past two decades. It identifies four key areas of development: 1) providing traffic information, 2) replacing the traditional data for transport planning, 3) enhancing our understanding of travel behaviour, and 4) validating transport models. It assesses the appropriate roles for mobile phone data in transport planning and suggests that the extraction of traffic information, the construction of origin-destination data, and transit route design have particularly practical implications for cities in the developing countries.
Keywords: mobile phone data; four stage transport planning; transport data for developing countries; non-traditional transport data.
DIGITALISATION OF INDUSTRIES A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS FROM AUSTRALIA AND FINLAND
by Pekka Leviäkangas, Osmo Kauppila
Abstract: This paper features a two-country study on digitalisation: Australia and Finland. The empirical data was acquired from the national accounts for 19952015 in Australia and for 19982012 in Finland. This data was averaged for a cross-sectional comparison of industries and then for the two countries. Different industries advancement in digitalisation seems to follow approximately the same pacing in both countries. Financial and insurance services, telecommunications and media, and professional, technical and scientific services are the most active digitalisers. The empirical testing of the a priori assumption that digitalisation over a long period of time leads to greater productivity shows that the observed correlation between ICT investment and productivity is weak. The results partly confirm Solows productivity paradox.
Keywords: digitalisation; productivity; investment; ICT; Finland; Australia; industry.
Tools for state support of research institutions at the regional level: the German experience and Russia's approach
by Igor Monakhov
Abstract: In the article the author studies the cases of the German regions (the L
Keywords: research institutions; science policy; Länder; Germany.
Evaluation of Development Level and Economic Contribution Ratio of
Science and Technology Innovation in Eastern China
by Mingran Wu, Min Zhao, Zhaodan Wu
Abstract: Scientific and technological (S&T) innovation is the key driving factor for economic development and social progress. The eastern part of China is the barycenter of the Chinese economic map and has one of the highest economic growth rates in the world. Eastern Chinas growth pattern has a tremendous impact on the structure of world economy. The paper evaluates the development level and economic contribution ratio of S&T innovation in all provincial regions of eastern China from 2013 to 2015. The results show that the levels and ratios in regions have significant differences. Moreover, the current economic growth primarily relies on capital investment, and the contributions of S&T are relatively limited. Thus, in future developments, the government needs to emphasize S&T innovation as a key driver of economic growth to ensure the balanced growth of the entire region.
Keywords: Eastern China; Scientific and TechnologyS&T Development Level; Economic Contribution Ratio; Service Function; Regional Balanced Development.
Optimization Evaluation on Material Distribution Systems: From the Perspective of Automobile Manufactures
by Qun Wu, Ying LIao, Kun Liao, Bo Li
Abstract: Due to the rapid growth of competition in the automobile industry and the wide variety of customer demands, automobile manufacturers supply chain management must have higher standards in terms of efficiency and effectiveness of their logistics distribution. Given the current practical challenges of materials distribution in the mixed-model assembling line system in the automobile industry, this study uses DEA-CCR analysis to compare the Set Parts System (SPS) model with the traditional models, and found that the SPS distribution model is superior to the traditional models in terms of distribution service quality, investment cost, distribution cost, distribution efficiency, and distribution continuity delivery punctuality and delivery staff. This research not only provides a systematic analysis of distribution models, but also offers a number of future research and implementation opportunities to scholars and practitioners in this field.
Keywords: Automobile manufactures; Material distribution; DEA-CCR; SPS; Optimization evaluation.
Similarity based comparison of good governance among the countries of the world and examining Irans development status
by Mona Ahani, Morteza Mousakhani, Reza Najafbagy, Mohammad Ali Afshar Kazemi
Abstract: The study of good governance over the past two decades has been at the forefront of the world's scientific and international circles, especially in developing countries. As one of the prestigious international institutions, the World Bank has identified six indices of good governance which include: Control of corruption, Government effectiveness, Political stability and absence of violence, Regulatory quality, Rule of law, Voice and accountability. In this study, World Bank appraisals and statistics on the six-fold good governance indicators published each year are used to analyze 186 countries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the status of countries based on good governance and determine the ranking of Iran among other countries, using clustering techniques. In order to select an appropriate clustering method and the appropriate number of clusters, the Silhouette coefficient for each K-Means, Two Step and Kohonen method was calculated for the number of different clusters of each. Based on an assessment of these findings, the K-Means 12 cluster method was selected. Using the clustering method, calculating good governance and frequency of co-accumulation, the deviance of Iran from other countries of the world was revealed. The research findings show that, among the four countries of the world having common clusters with Iran in terms of the level of human development, Iran ranks among the Low-level developing countries and Moderate developing countries. This issue highlights the importance of improving the level of good governance indicators in the country in order to achieve a higher level of development.
Keywords: Good Governance; World Bank; Clustering; K-Means; Silhouette.
Constraint Tree Analysis: Anticipating Risk to Policy Implementation
by Gregory Falco
Abstract: There is always a risk that a public policy will be unsuccessful. Policy failure can be the result of poorly written policy whose implementation measures are not aligned with the intended goals. It can also be a result of unexpected constraints that impede policy implementation. There are many guides offering advice on how to write good policy and establish policy goals, yet there is no established preemptive method for anticipating policy implementation constraints or other barriers to policy success. This article proposes a new method called constraint tree analysis for evaluating the obstacles to policy implementation before a policy is enacted. The method builds on an established mechanism in aerospace engineering and computer science that enumerates possible failure points or attack vectors of systems. Constraint tree analysis is illustrated in this article by using it to identify possible implementation obstacles of U.S. Executive Order 13636 Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity.
Keywords: Cybersecurity; Technology Policy; Security Policy; Policy Implementation; Risk Management; Critical Infrastructure.
Exploring the profit model of servitizing manufacturers-a resource-based perspective
by Jing Hua Li
Abstract: Servitization is a kind of business model innovation, and the profit model of servitization is the core elements of this innovation. In this paper, a comparative case study of two servitizing manufacturers was carried out through analyzing and cross-comparing different types of servitization profit models for different product-service offerings within both firms. We classify servitization profit models into four categories, and then delineating basic profit model elements and finally exploring the relationships between these elements and a firms resources, capabilities and product-service offerings. The conclusions are that, the effective integration of resources is the prerequisite to foster key capabilities so to build relevant revenue streams, thus forming appropriate servitization profit models. Understanding the basic logic between elements within the servitization profit model and the relationship between resources, capabilities and business offerings is critical when the manufacturer is seeking successful transition towards servitization.
Keywords: servitization; profit model; resource-based view; case study.
Country size and technology innovation
A comparative study of countries based on different levels of economic development
by Qi Chen, Wilfred Vincent Huang, Jiaojiao Mo
Abstract: By using PVAR model and panel data of 40 countries from 2001 to 2016, this paper empirically studies the influence of country size on technology innovation of developing and developed countries from three dimensions: population size, market size and trade size. The research shows that under the conditions of different development levels, country size plays a huge role in technology innovation. Among them, for the developed countries, the market size plays an important role in promoting their technology innovation, followed by the trade size. For the developing countries, the trade size is the key factor for the promotion of their technology innovation. The market size has little effect and the population size has a negative impact. On this basis, this paper puts forward some suggestions for the large developing countries to promote technology innovation based on the country size.
Keywords: country size; technology innovation; PVAR model; different levels of economic development.
Study on Investment Return System of PPP Wastewater Treatment Projects based on system dynamics
by Tong Dai, Qinghua Wang, Bixiang Shi, Xiaokun Sun
Abstract: This paper aims to study on investment return system of PPP wastewater treatment projects based on system dynamics. On the basis of the analysis of the factors influencing the VFM evaluation and the prediction system of the rate of return on investment, a system dynamics method is used to establish a prediction model for investment income based on VFM quantitative evaluation. The software of Vensim PLE is used to simulate the newly built PPP wastewater treatment project. Results show that the selection of discount rate and PPP projects transaction cost have significant effect on the VFM and the present value and the rate of return on investment in the franchise period. This study can be used as a reference for the fair and equitable cooperation between the government and the private business.
Keywords: wastewater treatment projects; Public Private Partnership (PPP); Value for Money (VFM); investment income; system dynamics.
Performance Evaluation Framework of Highway PPP Project based on Stakeholders Perspectives and Linguistic Environment
by Shuai Geng, Yu Yin
Abstract: Most of performance evaluation index systems of highway PPP project just reflected governments strategic goal, did not publics and social capitals. Moreover, if considering the strategic goals of social capital and public in the performance evaluation index system, it will inevitably involve a number of qualitative criteria, which increase the uncertainty of expert evaluation information. Uncertainty mainly exists in two aspects: ①qualitative performance evaluation value; ②evaluation criterion weight. To this end, we proposed the evaluation index system of highway PPP project from the perspectives of stakeholders, which can not only reflect the overall performance level, but also reflect the performance level of highway PPP project on the strategic goals of government, public and social capital. In order to deal with the uncertainty problems, this study proposed a corresponding evaluation model based on linguistic terms and the trapezoidal interval type-2 hesitant fuzzy number (TIT2HFN). With such evaluation model, it was more convenient for experts to express their evaluation preferences while maintaining the minimum amount of decision information loss. In addition, this evaluation model was designed based on the maximizing deviations principle to handle the interval weights. Finally, a case of China is studied demonstrates the effectiveness of performance evaluation framework.
Keywords: highway project; public-private partnership (PPP); performance evaluation index system; evaluation model; trapezoidal interval type-2 hesitant fuzzy number (TIT2HFN); maximizing deviations principle.
Winners from the Changing Trends of Energy Intensities among 115 Countries
by Yu Sang Chang, NeiHei Park, Jinbae Kim
Abstract: Many countries in the world have been experiencing vastly different rates of changes in their energy intensity (EI). The rate of change in EI for each country was estimated from the progress ratio (PR) of experience curve (EC). We ranked all 115 countries according to their PRs. The averaged PR of 90.21% estimated for the total 115 countries indicates a globally decreasing trend of EI. This means that each doubling of cumulative energy consumption has reduced energy intensity by 9.79%. On the other hand, 40 countries have experienced an increasing trend with an average PR of 119.41%. When two different types of EC, classical and kinked, were used,, 81 countries displayed a kinked slope with an average PR of 84.98%. Analyzing both the type of trend and slope of EC indicates that as many as 70 countries may have the best or better chances to improve their PRs in the futurern Implications from these findings will be discussed.rn
Keywords: Energy Intensity; Progress ratio; Experience curve; Increasing trend; Decreasing trend; Classical slope.
Case studies of Chinese firms' experiences with intellectual property-conditioned state incentives
by Dan Prud'homme, Xingle Long
Abstract: This paper explores how useful China's intellectual property (IP)-conditioned state incentives - especially subsidies and awards tied to patenting requirements - are to improving Chinese firms' competitiveness. Based upon three short case studies derived from interviews with Chinese firms in Jiangsu province, we reach several tentative conclusions. First, the incentives provide external resources that can directly and indirectly help firms improve their competitiveness. Second, the incentives may be particularly useful for firms facing significant patent thickets. Third, the incentives are not always sufficiently funded or accessible. Fourth, the state sometimes precludes the incentives from covering the costs of in-licensing foreign-owned IP and technology, which can be counterproductive to the state's ultimate objective of helping Chinese firms catch up with foreign incumbents. Overall, we conclude that Jiangsu's IP-conditioned state incentives somewhat help indigenous firms improve their competitiveness, but could be more optimally formulated and administered.
Keywords: intellectual property (IP)-conditioned government incentives; state patent incentives; China; Chinese firms; competitiveness; patent thickets; patent portfolios; strategy; case studies.
An investigation of drivers for the need of flexibility in Indian manufacturing industries
by Shakun Preet Kaur, Jatinder Kumar, Rakesh Kumar
Abstract: Presently, the manufacturers all over the world are facing dynamic market conditions. In this scenario, the manufacturing system has to be flexible enough to respond to the conditions of uncertainty. To be future ready and handle these uncertainties the system should identify the key drivers for the need of flexibility and act accordingly. The aim of this paper is to investigate the drivers for the need of flexibility through a survey in Indian manufacturing organisations, the results of the survey are validated through an analytical hierarchy process (AHP) study.
Keywords: flexibility; manufacturing flexibility; drivers for the need of flexibility; AHP; analytical hierarchy process.
Real-time video from remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS): a tool for improved decision-making in mass casualty incidents
by Eirik Bjorheim Abrahamsen, Jon Tømmerås Selvik, Eivind Rake, Sindre Aske Høyland, Håkon Bjorheim Abrahamsen
Abstract: In mass casualty incidents, the emergency services must make several important and challenging strategic decisions, characterised by large uncertainties. In this paper, we explore and assess real-time video from remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS) as a key tool for reducing uncertainties and thereby improving the situation assessment and decision-making in mass casualty incidents. To study the usefulness of such a technical solution, we consider two mass casualty incidents that occurred in Norway in 2011. Our study shows that a number of uncertainty factors related to missing information, unreliable information, ambiguous or conflicting information, and complex information influenced decision-making at the Oslo government district bombing and Utøya Island shooting. We also find that the use of a remotely piloted aircraft system could have reduced these uncertainties and in general improved the situation assessment in these incidents, highlighting the value of a remotely piloted aircraft system in mass casualty incidents.
Keywords: RPAS; remotely piloted aircraft system; mass casualty incidents; situation assessment; decision-making; risk; uncertainty.
Toward a revised theory of technology cycle for knowledge-based technologies: an empirical analysis of microprocessor, mobile cellular, and genome sequencing technologies
by Yu Sang Chang
Abstract: Does the innovation process of knowledge-based technologies differ from the process of industrial technologies? Do knowledge-based technologies need a new theory of technology cycle? These are the two key questions that are examined in this paper. First, the characteristics of radical innovation from a longitudinal study of knowledge-based technologies of genome sequencing, mobile cellular, and microprocessor are analysed. And then, the results are compared to the similar research findings reported earlier from industrial technologies such as glass and cement technologies. The role of radical innovation in knowledge-based technologies is discovered to have become so critical that it deserves a new designation of 'super' radical innovation. Consequently, a revised theory of technology cycle incorporating the concept of 'super' radical innovation for the knowledge-based technologies is presented.
Keywords: super radical innovation; technology cycle; dominant design; knowledge technologies; industrial technologies.
Efficiency assessment of photovoltaic power stations using two-stage data envelopment analysis: a case study in Inner Mongolia, China
by Yunna Wu, Xiaokun Sun, Chuanbo Xu, Xinli Xiao, Zhiming Lu
Abstract: The photovoltaic (PV) power generation industry has developed rapidly in China in recent years. However, given the rare research on the efficiency of China's photovoltaic power stations (PVPS), this paper takes 33 PVPS in Inner Mongolia as samples, and uses a two-stage model to analyse their power generation efficiency. In the first stage, the efficiency scores of PVPS are calculated by data envelopment analysis method, and the robustness of the efficiency scores is verified by sensitivity analysis. In the second stage, the relationship between the efficiency scores and the environment variables is studied using the Tobit regression. The results show that the age, solar energy curtailment rate, environmental temperature, atmospheric dust fall and ownership of PVPS have influence on productive efficiency in varying degrees. The results can help the stakeholders in the PV power generation industry to optimise operational strategies, make related operational policies and provide a useful dataset for comparative studies.
Keywords: PVPS; photovoltaic power stations; efficiency; data envelopment analysis; Tobit regression.
Special Issue on: Knowledge Management Systems
Analyzing consumers perception comparatively on hybrid electric according to online comments
by Jianfeng LI, Mingqiushuo Wei, Jun Zhai
Abstract: Hybrid electric vehicles are regarded as an available near-term green solution to reduce the greenhouse gas emission in transportation sector, but they still dont play a dominant role in some auto market. In the view of consumers perception, this paper investigates 1109 online comments to find out the reasons that cause large sale discrepancy. A framework including five aspects and nineteen factors is proposed, which help to analyze the consumers perception on HEVs systematically. In addition, based on that framework, the difference on consumers perception between China and America is investigated comparatively, which is also as a good case on HEVs for some other developing and developed countries. Finally, according to comparative result, three basic strategies, including cannikin strategy, suboptimum strategy and dominant strategy, are brought forward to boost the widespread adoption of HEVs in different markets.
Keywords: Online comment; Customer’s perception; Knowledge management; Data mining; Hybrid electric vehicle.
A Control Strategy of ES System based on Short Term Wind- PV Power Prediction
by Huizheng Ji, Dongxiao Niu, Han Wu, Meiqiong Wu, Bingjie Li
Abstract: Based on the short term wind and photovoltaic power forecasting, a charge and discharge power control method of energy storage system containing two control coefficients is proposed, which may make the output of the hybrid wind/photovoltaic/energy storage (wind-PV-ES) system furthest matched with the scheduled output. In view of the randomness and uncertainty of wind/PV generation, chance-constrained programming is adopted. This method takes the output of wind-PV-ES in scheduled range and the cost of ES as the objectives, considers the constraints of power output of energy storage equipment and electric quantity, and wields adaptive genetic algorithm (AGA) based on Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) to obtain each time frames charge and discharge power day-ahead. Finally, taking national wind-PV-ES and transmission power station for simulation, this paper compares the effect of tracking scheduled output in fixed coefficients situation and variable coefficients situation. The results verify the feasibility and flexibility of the proposed strategy, which can improve the ability to schedule of hybrid wind-PV-ES system. Furthermore, the results between multi-objective and single-objective optimization in fixed coefficient case indicates that multi-objective optimization is more comprehensive and economy.
Keywords: chance-constrained programming; optimal scheduling of energy storage; Monte Carlo simulation; adaptive genetic algorithm.
Heuristic Rule-based Process Discovery Approach from Events Data
by Hind R’bigui, Chiwoon Cho
Abstract: Knowledge management consists of taking data and transforming it into beneficial knowledge in a business environment. Today, large amounts of data related to the execution of business processes called event logs are stored in the information systems. Process mining enables knowledge management by extracting knowledge from these historical event logs. Most organisations seek to understand how their business processes are executed to improve them and survive in todays dynamic business environment. Therefore, several process discovery techniques have been developed in the field of process mining. However, none of the existing algorithms can discover all types of constructs that can exist in an event log in a restricted time. In this paper, we propose a new heuristic rule-based technique that constructs process models and which is capable of handling standard constructs, short loops, invisible tasks, duplicate tasks, and non-free choice constructs. Artificial and real-life data have been used to evaluate the algorithm, and the results demonstrate that the aforementioned characteristics can be discovered correctly.
Keywords: Process Mining; Knowledge Discovery; Process Modelling; Invisible Tasks; Duplicate Tasks; Short Loops; Non-free Choice.
An Improved Content Splitting and Merging Algorithm for Hadoop Clusters using Component Analysis and Hamming distance
by Balraj Singh, Harsh Verma, Gulshan Kumar, Hye-jin Kim
Abstract: Distributed storage and processing of dataset of big data have become an integrated component of data science. With the technology progress towards the IoTs, big data becomes more important. Therefore, processing of such data needs utmost concern for the ease of availability and accuracy. Various research has been executed till date for the efficient use of splitting and merging of content in the processing of data. But, somehow they lack in the generation of proper clusters in Hadoop. In this paper, we have shown an efficient approach of using splitting and merging process of data processing. We have used component analysis and hamming distance to generate thee clusters depending on the split values which is novel in this domain of work. The experimented results of our proposed approach provide better efficiency in term of discrete clusters and time consumption.
Keywords: Big data; Hadoop; split; merge; cluster.
Inclusion of Wikipedia, a language specific knowledge resource to generate and update a synset in WordNet
by Sunny Rai, Amita Jain, Priyank Pandey
Abstract: Lack of competent lexical resources is a ubiquitous fact that negatively
affects the development of tools for Natural Language Processing of not so widely
spoken languages. Recent advancements in machine readable lexicons creation
such as Indo WordNet have significantly contributed in reducing the scarcity of
lexicons for Indian languages. However, the coverage of the generated lexicon is
a matter of concern. In addition, the cost and time incurred during the process
are other limiting factors. The reluctance to adopt an automated approach for
a lexicon generation is majorly credited to the poor precision of the generated
synsets in the lexicon. The inability to capture meanings limited to a language and
incorrect back-translation of gloss or examples in the target language also act as a
deterrent. In this paper, we strive to tackle these issues by incorporating languagespecific
knowledge resources which enable us to capture the words endemic to a
culture or a language.
We propose a corpus based approach to automate the process of generation of
lexical entries i.e. synsets.We use existing language-specific knowledge resources
namely Wikipedia and Wiktionary. We also present a method to update existing
synsets in WordNets to include newly coined yet globalized words such as
selfie. The inclusion of Wiki features for Hindi visibly improves the process of
synset generation along with preserving the authenticity of endemic senses. The
experiments performed on a manually created dataset of Hindiwords demonstrate
a precision of 81.56% and F-measure of more than 72%.
Keywords: WordNet; Lexical database; Indian languages; Natural Language Processing; Support Vector machine; Wikipedia; Computational lexicon; Machine Learning; Wiktionary.
Matches between Network Structure and Competitive Strategies
by Xuefeng LIU, Ke'nv YU, Xuefeng LIU
Abstract: Drawing on social network theory and Porters competitive strategy analysis consistent with extant literature, this study investigates characteristics that leverage the matches between network structure and competitive strategies and explores if the combination of effects can also influence firms performance. Using data from a special unit within Chinese floricultural cluster, we test the interaction effects between network structure (measured by centrality, structural holes and key ties) and competitive strategies (cost leadership strategies and differentiation strategies).Results show that inter-firm networks with a high degree of centrality should be matched with cost leadership strategies. In addition, these findings indicate that key ties, which may affect how firms process non-redundant resources are a great help to execute cost leadership strategies but are detrimental to the effectiveness of differentiation strategies. Managerial implications and directions for future research are discussed.
Keywords: network structure; competitive strategies; key ties; structural holes; network centrality.
Modeling and Analyzing the Driving Factors for the Coordinated Development of Three Modernizations in Central China
by L.O.U. Yuhua
Abstract: Based on grey theory, the analytical model of the driving factors is established for the coordinated development of agricultural modernization, industrialization and urbanization in central china. Then the affecting factors are introduced for agricultural modernization, industrialization and urbanization by the grey correlation analytical method. Furthermore, the driving force and correlation degree are analyzed for the coordinated development of agricultural modernization, industrialization and urbanization. It aims to discover the powerful driving factors and provide a scientific basis for the formulation of some related policies for the government.
Keywords: Central China; agricultural modernization; industrialization; urbanization; coordinated development; driving factors.