International Journal of Technology Marketing (8 papers in press)
Privacy risk and adoption dilemma for smartphone users app usage intention: mediated moderation of smartphone operating system
by Anubha Mishra, Prachi B. Gala, Dotun Adebanjo
Abstract: Smartphone users perceive downloading and using apps as risky, yet they continue to do so. This study explores the relationship between privacy risk perceptions and continued use intentions, while also considering the effects of different operating systems to understand usage decisions. Data collected from 360 survey participants affirm that privacy risk perceptions negatively influence continued usage intentions, with mediating and moderating influences of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, as well as the operating system being used. Notably, the direct moderating effect of perceived usefulness is not significant for the link between privacy risk perceptions and continued usage intentions. The selection of an operating system likely determines some of the risk perceptions associated with downloading apps, such that greater security should reduce consumers privacy risk perceptions and the effects on continuous usage. The implications for apps and operating systems developers are highly pertinent; this study indicates a clear need to balance the attractiveness of exclusive proprietary operating systems with
consumers desire for greater freedom.
Keywords: smartphone; apps; operating systems; risk perceptions; perceived usefulness; perceived ease of use; PEU; mediated moderation.
What features of green products packaging are more eye catching? An eye-tracking exploratory study about organic agricultural products
by Chrisanthi Georgakarakou, Kyriakos Riskos, George Tsourvakas, Ioanna Yfantidou
Abstract: Undoubtedly, consumers of green products have formed a market tribe that has strengthened its power in recent years. Apart from the ethical side of buying organic products, they are willing to pay more for a green product compared to a conventional one. In marketing literature, packaging is considered to be as a valuable feature of a product that may motivate consumers to proceed to a purchase. The purpose of the present study is to investigate how various packaging features (eco-labels, image, shape, colour) of organic agricultural products affect consumers' eye reactions and as a result influence consumers' perception, attitude and buying behaviour.
Keywords: eye-tracking; experimental marketing; eco products; bio products; package design.
Exploring the attitude formation process of individuals towards new technologies: the case of augmented reality
by David Harborth, Heiko Kreuz
Abstract: We examine how individuals assess augmented reality (AR) technologies and build attitudes towards them. Following a constructivist grounded theory method, we find that individuals do not assess the functionalities of AR technologies in absolute terms, but based upon the perceived benefits, limitations and concerns of other existing technologies. Consequently, individuals evaluate to what degree certain individually chosen technologies are equivalent to AR. By generalising this process and combining these insights with knowledge about attitudes from the literature, we develop the extended attitude formation theory (EAFT) representing the synopsis of this cognitive process. Our results contribute to theory by providing a new perspective on how attitudes towards innovative and somewhat unknown technologies are formed by individuals under a high level of uncertainty and therefore, overcome certain weaknesses of existing theories - like the technology acceptance model (TAM) which until now failed to explain users' attitudes in cases of new technologies.
Keywords: augmented reality; perceptual equivalence; attitude formation; grounded theory; anchoring.
How do smartwatch price and brand awareness drive consumer perceptions and purchase intention? A perceived value approach
by Bharath Ramkumar, Yuli Liang
Abstract: With the usage of smartwatches steadily increasing, several brands, both well-known and unknown, have emerged to gain market share in this growing sector of wearable-tech products. Using the perceived value approach to understand the differences in and relationships between consumer perceptions of a smartwatch among different price points and brand awareness levels, this study found that perceived quality, value for money, brand trust and purchase intention differed across price points of the unknown brand, while perceived quality, value for money and brand trust differed across price points of the well-known brand. A causal model revealed positive influence of brand trust on perceived quality, which in turn influenced value for money. Value for money exerted a positive influence on purchase intention. Perceived risk had a negative influence on purchase intention, while having no influence on value for money. Brand awareness had an inconsistent moderating influence on these relationships.
Keywords: smartwatch; wearable-tech; perceived value; perceived quality; perceived risk; brand awareness; price; purchase intention; brand trust; consumer perceptions.
What are the perceived experiences of health fitness trackers for the elderly? A qualitative post-adoption study
by Milad Dehghani, Kwok Leung Tsui, Inez Maria Zwetsloot, Reza Rawassizadeh
Abstract: This paper addresses some opportunities and challenges that researchers and designers deal with while designing wearable fitness trackers for elder individuals. We investigated the experience of the elderly using a fitness tracker through a post-adoption study by discussing technical, health, and consumer attributes. Twenty-one participants were recruited to wear a Fitbit (Alta HR) device for three months. After this period, we conducted a semi-structured interview to explore the elderly's experiences and perceptions with the device. We have used content analysis to evaluate written-interview transcripts. Our findings revealed that older adults perceived these wearable devices in six dimensions: 1) the adaptability in the user interface that caused hinder in daily activities; 2) aesthetic appeal (design, size, weight); 3) effort expectancy; 4) sense of security; 5) accuracy of received data; 6) functionality (battery shortage, lack of usefulness, screen light, waterproof, mobile measurement).
Keywords: fitness tracker; eldercare; healthcare; post-adoption; gerontology; wearable; smart wristband; Fitbit.
Gender differences in the wearable preferences, device and advertising value perceptions: smartwatches vs. fitness trackers
by Manali Gupta, Neena Sinha, Pratibha Singh, Stephanie Hui-Wen Chuah
Abstract: Choosing the right wearable device (e.g., smartwatch and fitness tracker) for one's wrist can put consumers in a dilemma, especially in the market of abundant options. Further, the proliferation of social media has profoundly changed the practice of advertising, making the communication of wearable messages more interactive than ever before. This paper examines the gender differences in their preferences toward wearable devices (e.g., smartwatches vs. fitness trackers). This study also investigates the joint effect of device value and advertising value on consumers' intention to adopt wearable devices, with gender serving as a moderator variable. Amidst the socio-technical ecosystem of wearable devices and social networking site (SNS), gender is the most prominent demographic variable used for targeted advertising to ensure effectiveness. Data collected from 217 generation Y Indian Facebook users suggests that males preferred smartwatches and females preferred fitness trackers. The results revealed that the devices' performance expectancy and the entertainment value derived from Facebook advertising are positively related to consumer's intention to adopt the wearable devices. In particular, the relationship between privacy concerns about the advertising on behavioural intention is moderated gender.
Keywords: wearable devices; smartwatches; fitness trackers; Facebook advertising; gender differences; privacy concerns.
Special Issue on: ICCMI 2018 Special Issue Digital Marketing and Online Consumer Behaviour - The Keys to Developing Modern Enterprises
Food, Internet and neuromarketing in the context of well-being sustainability
by Monica Varlese, Rosa Misso, Christiana Koliouska, Zacharoula Andreopoulou
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to examine the role of the internet in relation to the potential advantages and limitations arising from the implementation by companies of strategies based on the study of the consumers brain in the field of food choices. While on the one hand neuromarketing helps to better understand, the consumers requests and desires allowing the company to put it at the centre of all its decision-making process, on the other, there is the risk that food companies using power of neuroscience to predict the behaviour of the end user, they will generate in it an excessive dependence on purchase or, negatively affecting his eating habits. Indeed, in a context in which internet have the power to influence the life style of consumer, company can use neuromarketing strategies for e-commerce in order to guiding users to new patterns of food behaviour more healthy, preserving the environment and society.
Keywords: internet; neuromarketing; well-being; sustainability; food e-commerce.
PROMOTING AGROTOURISM RESORTS ONLINE: AN ASSESSMENT OF ALTERNATIVE ADVERTISING APPROACHES
by Chryssoula Chatzigeorgiou, Evangelos Christou
Abstract: This paper investigates the differences and conviction effectiveness of three online advertising approaches for agrotourism resorts namely, direct comparative, indirect comparative and non-comparative adverts. The research entails a parallel survey in two culturally diverse countries, employing equivalent and comparative measures. Even though there are some surveys on cross-cultural differences in advertising in general, the persuasion effectiveness of comparative online advertising, taking into account a cross-country environment, has not been investigated; furthermore, online promotion approaches for agrotourism has not been explored in the past. The findings suggest that there are both main and interactive effects of country and online advert type between the two countries under examination, particularly in relation to attitudes toward agrotourism resort brand and future visitation intentions. Based on the findings, it appears that comparative online adverts for agrotourism resorts were generally more convincing than non-comparative adverts, both in the USA and Greece.
Keywords: online advertising; agrotourism; agrotourism advertising; cross-cultural perceptions; destination marketing.