International Journal of Technology Marketing (12 papers in press)
Do Reductions in Switching Barriers in The US Mobile Service Industry Affect Contract and No-Contract Customers Differently?
by Goitom Tesfom, Nancy Birch, Jeffrey Culver
Abstract: In the past four years, the US mobile phone service industry has implemented changes related to product offerings and competition strategies. Mobile phone service providers have shifted from contract to no-contract plans, separated devices from service costs and begun challenging switching barriers by offering to refund the financial costs of potential switchers. This study examines customers perceptions of contract and no-contract mobile phone service plans regarding the impact of switching barriers on their decisions to change providers. Consistent with previous research, the study finds that contract and no-contract mobile phone service customers differ significantly in their perceptions of relational benefits, switching costs and availability and attractiveness of alternatives. However, in contrast with previous research, the study observes no significant differences in the length of time they intend to wait before switching and their perceptions of providers effort to recover a service. Implications of the findings for theory and practice conclude.
Keywords: mobile phone service; service retailing; switching barriers; consumer perceptions.
Proximity Marketing in Banking: Lessons from Retail and Entertainment Industries
by Anna Margulis, Harold Boeck, Nataly Levesque
Abstract: Ubiquitous technologies such as radio frequency identification (RFID) are increasingly being used by organisations to enhance customer experience. This study aims to discover new opportunities to improve customer experience in banking with ubiquitous technologies. The following steps were taken. We determined if and how RFID is being used in the banking industry to enhance customer experience by analysing case studies based on secondary data. We then compared these findings with cases from the entertainment and retail industries as these industries are leading the way in improving customer experience with proximity marketing strategies. The study found only three banking cases where RFID is used to improve customer experience. Our analysis indicates that banks mainly use RFID technology to increase service efficiency and customer convenience and that the potential offered by this
innovation is clearly underutilised.
Keywords: proximity marketing; radio frequency identification; RFID,customer experience; banking; retail; entertainment.
Technology-Based Marketing Strategies Through the Consumer Lens: How Might Perceptions of Ethicality and Effectiveness Interrelate?
by Roger Brooksbank, Sam Fullerton, Steven Miller
Abstract: Today, digital technologies are being routinely incorporated within most companies marketing strategies, and ongoing advancements mean that marketers are increasingly challenged as to which ones to deploy to best effect. Yet little research has sought to investigate the use of these technologies from a consumer perspective. Hence, a sample of 967 residents of the USA provided their perspectives in relation to 18 technology-based initiatives along two separate constructs: their ethicality according to societys moral norms, and their effectiveness as a mainstream marketing tool. This study focuses on measuring these constructs in order to explore how they might interrelate. Results indicate a wide spectrum of opinion as to what constitutes an ethical as well as an effective initiative and that, in general, the two constructs
are positively correlated albeit not in equal measure on each scale. Findings further suggest the potential existence of three sub-dimensions of the ethicality- effectiveness correlation dyad.
Keywords: consumer perspectives; effectiveness; ethicality; technology-based marketing strategies.
Wearable XR-Technology: Literature Review, Conceptual Framework and Future Research Directions
by Stephanie Chuah
Abstract: Extended reality (XR) has revamped the way people experience the physical and the virtual environments, from observation to immersion. XR is an umbrella term that encompasses both augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR), among others. Despite the promising outlook, this nascent technology has been shrouded by uncertain possibilities, making the adoption of XR technology much slower than expected. Moreover, the interdisciplinary applications of XR technology have led to scattered scholarly works and fragmentary insights to be translated into practice. Thus, there is a pressing need for a critical review and synthesis of prior XR research in order to strengthen this emerging field in IS. To accomplish this, the current study identifies and analyses a total of 45 articles through an extensive literature search. As a result, this study identifies the major drivers, barriers, and boundary conditions to XR adoption, classifies and map them into a holistic conceptual model.
Keywords: extended reality; XR; augmented reality; virtual reality; wearable; literature review; future research; technology adoption.
Blowing your Mind: A Conceptual Framework of Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality enhanced cultural visitor experiences using EEG experience measures
by Dai-In Han, Jessika Weber, Marcel Bastiaansen, Ondrej Mitas, Xander Lub
Abstract: Cultural tourism is regarded as a key contributor for economic growth in various destinations While increasing awareness and interest of different cultures play a key role, technology has made information and interaction at these sites more accessible and engaging An increasing amount of research is being conducted around the potential and implementation of AR and VR technology to enhance the visitor experience However, limited theoretical knowledge has been developed on how these need to be designed to facilitate forming memorable experiences at cultural tourism sites This study discusses elements affecting the visitor experience and discusses how AR and VR should
be designed to contribute to enhancing the experience and making it memorable from a theoretical perspective Further research recommendations are outlined that suggest the use of complementing research methodologies to better understand the nature of experiences in order to design AR and VR application more purpose-specifically.
Keywords: cultural tourism; EEG; virtual reality; augmented reality; visitor experience.
An ISM based framework of variables affecting transactions in the online patent marketplace.
by Nishad Deshpande, Asha Nagendra
Abstract: With a number of marketplaces now available for selling/purchasing/licensing of patents, it is important to understand various enablers/barriers that enable transactions in the online marketplace. Using interpretive structural modelling, the present study identifies contextual relationships amongst variables to arrive at a framework that influences transactions in online patents marketplace. From the study, it was observed that the security of data is an important factor while transacting as it influences the trust in the online patent marketplace. Efficiency of online marketplace is influenced by the trust and transactions costs incurred by the users. Further, it was seen that the presence of various value-added features or tools (e.g., patent valuation aids, contract templates) is an important driver for usage of online market place. Information (such as transaction costs, previous sales price, etc.)which helps in easy price discovery adds to transparency of the online patent
marketplace thereby leading to more participation by users of the marketplace,
which in turn increases efficiency and usage of the online patent marketplace. Thus, this framework will help navigate the online marketplace and thereby help in enabling commercialisation of patents.
Keywords: online IP marketplace framework; interpretive structural modelling; MICMAC analysis.
Special Issue on: International AR VR Conference 2018 Expanded Realities Theoretical and Managerial Contributions in Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality
Designing enhanced Augmented Reality Tourism experiences: A Multi-Stakeholder Approach
by Eleanor E. Cranmer
Abstract: Augmented reality (AR) has gained increased popularity in the tourism sector, for its ability to create enhanced tourist experiences. This, coupled with the proliferation of mobile technologies has increased pressure for tourism organisations to design enhanced tourist experiences. Whilst much research attention has focused on the potential of AR, exploring areas such as adoption, acceptance and usability, there is a lack in research identifying constructs to inform the design of valuable AR application experiences. Whilst research identifies the need for AR design to adopt a user-centred, rather than technology-driven approach, past studies have failed to address the needs of both internal and external stakeholder groups. To provide a holistic understanding, recognising differences in perception between stakeholder
groups, a multi-stakeholder approach was adopted. A small museum in the UK is used to identify key constructs to inform the effective design of enhanced AR tourism experiences. Fifty interviews were held with five stakeholder groups, revealing four AR design constructs; visitor, organisational, stakeholder and economic value, in addition to a number of design themes. Findings reinforce the importance of stakeholder involvement, and outline constructs to inform the design of AR experiences, extending the existing pool of knowledge and bridging a gap in current research.
Keywords: augmented reality; experience design; value creation; value enhancement; application design; tourism; cultural heritage; museums; user-centred design.
Towards User Acceptance of Autonomous Vehicles: A Virtual Reality Study on Human-Machine Interfaces
by Sebastian Stadler, Henriette Cornet, Fritz Frenkler
Abstract: Technological advances in businesses related to automated transportation raise challenges. Indeed, ensuring safety for users is essential for the future commercial launch of this technology. Within this study, human-machine interfaces (HMIs) are evaluated regarding the communication between autonomous vehicles (AVs) and pedestrians in order to prepare a successful deployment of the technology on the market. Since real-life experiments involving AVs remain dangerous, experiments were conducted via virtual reality (VR). The results show that beyond the need for HMIs,
display-based concepts were more usable than laser projections. The study impacts on: 1) substantiating the need for explicit HMIs on AVs (including concept recommendations) for a successful market entry; 2) proving that VR constitutes an advantageous alternative for conducting experiments in the field of autonomous transportation for both research and business. Further work is needed that involves more participants and an improved virtual environment.
Keywords: virtual reality; autonomous mobility; human-machine interfaces; HMIs; usability testing; pedestrian safety; pedestrian simulator; pedestrian behaviour; evaluation of interfaces; head-mounted display.
Augmented Reality: Fusing Consumers' Experiences and Interactions with Immersive Technologies in Physical Retail Settings
by Francesca Bonetti, Eleonora Pantano, Gary Warnaby, Lee Quinn
Abstract: Drawing upon previous research into immersive environments and technology-enhanced stores, this exploratory study elucidates the concept of the augmented store a physical store modified to accommodate augmented reality (AR) technology. In doing so, it extends previous research conducted in experimental laboratory settings to an empirical real-world scenario.
Qualitative data gathered from interviews with, and observation of, consumers
using AR technology in-store are analysed to provide naturalistic understandings of interactions with, and perceptions of, a physical store enhanced with AR technology. Findings suggest that consumers appreciate the ability to experience an enhanced, more immersive store environment arising from the AR experience. They perceive interaction with the augmented store to be realistic and articulated hedonic motivations as drivers for interaction in this shopping environment. The augmented store appears to stimulate brand engagement, increasing consumers desire to shop at the retailer, providing managerial opportunities to reinforce brand positioning.
Keywords: retailing; human-computer interaction; augmented store; augmented reality; consumer behaviour.
Virtual Reality as an Urban Tourism Destination Marketing Tool
by Natasha Moorhouse
Abstract: Although there is a breadth of research demonstrating the effectiveness of virtual reality (VR) as a destination marketing tool, there are limited exploratory studies providing empirical evidence from the perspective of tourism marketers in this specific context. The technological, organisational, environmental (TOE) framework has confirmed explanatory power for studies exploring organisational adoption of various technologies; however, the frameworks association with VR research is limited. Responding to this dual gap, this exploratory study explores both internal and external factors associated with VR adoption from tourism marketers perspectives by employing TOE framework as a theoretical base. Interviews were conducted with seven tourism marketers from three urban tourism destinations in the UK. The preliminary study findings indicate that environmental (perceived competitive pressures and global market appeal) factors are positively associated with tourism marketers VR adoption, while other TOE factors are not. Finally, theoretical contribution, practical implications and avenues for further research are provided.
Keywords: virtual reality; destination marketing; TOE framework; tourism marketer; urban tourism destinations.
User Experience Design for Mixed Reality: ?A Case Study of HoloLens in Museum
by Ramy Hammady, Minhua Ma, Carl Strathearn
Abstract: In recent years, the applications of mixed reality (MR) processing have become highly apparent in academia and the manufacturing industry with the release of innovative technologies such as the Microsoft HoloLens. However, crucial design issues with the HoloLens restricted field of view (FOV) to a narrow window of 34 degrees inhibited the users natural peripheral vision (Kress and Cummings, 2017). This visual limitation results in a loss of pre-set functions and projected visualisations in the AR application window. This paper presents an innovative methodology in designing a spatial user interface (UI), to minimise the adverse effects associated with the HoloLens narrow FOV. The spatial UI is a crucial element towards developing a
museum-based MR system, which was evaluated by nine experts in human-computer interaction (HCI), visual communication and museum studies. Results of this study indicate a positive user reaction towards the accessibility of the spatial UI system and enhancing the user experience. This approach can help current and future HoloLens developers to extend their application functions without visual restrictions and missing content.
Keywords: Microsoft HoloLens; field of view; FOV; user experience; usability; mixed reality; spatial UI.
Special Issue on: Marketing Communications Technology Revisited its Future and Applications
Turkish and Greek gift purchase behaviour and advertisement on traditional and online media communication tools based on gender differences
by ANDRONIKI KAVOURA, Sezen Bozyigit, Eda Yasa Ozelturkay
Abstract: The purpose of the research was to determine the way respondents from two different countries employ offline and online social media, namely: 1) to investigate Greek consumer preferences on the use of advertising tools when purchasing gifts; 2) to investigate Turkish consumer preferences on the use of advertising tools when purchasing gifts; 3) to identify differences in the advertising preferences with reference to offline and online media tools of different consumer cultures in terms of gender and nationality characteristics. Turkish and Greek men are more familiar than women with new technologies and paid more attention to online advertising media, a finding that sheds light to the contradictory results of literature so far. SMS advertising has significant differentiation between Greek and Turkish; Turkish have more preference for radio however Greek prefer magazine advertisements, justifying the significant role of traditional media even if literature argues for their obsolete role.
Keywords: gift purchasing decisions; online media; offline media; gender differences; consumer behaviour; Turkey; Greece.