Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning

International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning (IJTEL)

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International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning (20 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Socio-technical innovation by female entrepreneurs: evidence from the Jordanian tourism sector   Order a copy of this article
    by Areej Shabib Aloudat, Kimberly Gleason, Hala Bashbsheh, Baker Ahmad Abdullah Alserhan, Jusuf Zeqiri 
    Abstract: In this paper, we explore the role of female entrepreneurs in socio-technical innovation in the context of the Jordanian tourism sector. Using a qualitative research approach, we investigate how these entrepreneurs innovate, transforming the perception of conservative societies perspective on women entrepreneurs. We document five forms of socio-technical innovation achieved by Jordanian female entrepreneurs in the tourism sector: cultural/societal, economic, stewardship, sectoral and personal. The article provides interesting insights on women entrepreneurs as innovators in the tourism industry by documenting what they consider to be their most important innovations.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship; socio-technical innovation; transformation; social change; innovation; women; tourism industry; less developed countries.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTEL.2023.10053695
  • Project Based Pedagogical Inevitability and Social Media Impact   Order a copy of this article
    by Prachi Palsodkar, Yogita Dubey, Prasanna Palsodkar, Preeti Bajaj 
    Abstract: Enforced Pandemic online learning has raised the opportunities of quality learning and derived numerous learning methodologies with the intense influence of social media platforms. Project Based Learning (PBL) is greatly poignant in engineering discipline with Social Media (SM) assistance. Cutting edge technology and Industry-tech innovation demands higher skill set apart from routine learning. Real use cases in PBL enhance creativity, critical thinking and prepare learner to deal with challenges of workplace. Community and SM reinforced learning acts as a virtual teacher for successful PBL implementation. SM supported PBL provides lifelong learning lessons. SM assisted PBL is carried out for Machine Learning (ML) course using different use cases. Modalities like open online course, SM, community support and PBL, shows 18% students carrying higher impact and 81% students upgraded their skill in real-life problem solving. Study shows 100% students gained a skill in solving real-life problem and achieved all graduate aspects magnificently.
    Keywords: Project Based Learning; Higher education; Pedagogy; Social Media; Machine Learning; Engineering.

  • The Land of Mathematics: comparative analysis and design of a serious game for basic arithmetic   Order a copy of this article
    by Miltiadis Frydas, Stelios Xinogalos 
    Abstract: Mathematical thinking and skills are considered important for individuals both during their school and professional lives. However, young students face great difficulties in comprehending mathematical concepts and lack the necessary engagement. Serious games can help them deal with these difficulties and provide possibilities for an enhanced learning process of mathematics. Several math games are available, but in many cases they are not designed according to established principles and/or they do not integrate mathematics in the game mechanics. The aim of this article is to review and comparatively analyze math games for basic arithmetic using as criteria elements of the Conceptual Serious Games Design Framework. This comparative analysis provides a clear picture of the current situation in the field of math games and is used for designing a new game called The Land of Mathematics that aims to integrate the mathematical concepts directly in gameplay.
    Keywords: serious games; educational games; game design; mathematics; primary school.

  • Adopting Student Response System in Online Ethics Learning: Practice and Evaluation   Order a copy of this article
    by Ken C.K. Tsang, Alvin Y.T. Wong, Ivy Chan, Simon C.W. Wong, Joseph C.H. So 
    Abstract: The student response system (SRS) adds interactive elements in classrooms. Students can use their handheld devices to share their views actively during in-class polling. For ethics learning, it can facilitate free exchanges of ideas in a judgement-free environment and effectively arouse participants interest and inquiry of ethics. In a community college in Hong Kong, two ethics seminars were shifted from face-to-face to face-to-screen mode due to COVID-19 pandemic. They were blended with a popular SRS, Poll Everywhere, to facilitate opinion sharing. Other than verbal discussion, students participated by casting their choices about some ethical dilemmas in real-time through Poll Everywhere. Post-activity survey reflected that the approach of adopting SRS in online ethics learning facilitated participants to express their views, increased participants engagement, and provided participants psychological safety to share opinions. The learning mode contains the nature of both interactivity and sincere sharing, and hence is specifically fit for ethics education.
    Keywords: educational technology; student response system; online learning; ethics learning.

  • Flipping the focus: an innovative design strategy to support technology integration in teacher education   Order a copy of this article
    by Lisa Jacka 
    Abstract: Initial Teacher Education (ITE) students are exposed to educational technologies through faculty modelling, content delivery, and personal use. However, translating knowledge and skills into PK-12 school integration remains elusive for many graduate teachers. The research in this paper illustrates an innovative approach to shift ITE students mindset about PK-12 technology integration. The focus was flipped to explore deep learning competencies as the driver for the use of digital technologies. The new pedagogies for deep learning six Cs provided the framework for the design-based research undertaken between 2017 and 2020. Data from 113 students revealed that they gained valuable skills and attributes to support their future integration.
    Keywords: online education; innovation; digital educational technology; deep learning; UX design.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTEL.2022.10052506
  • Online criticism and cancel culture in digital marketing: A case study of audience perceptions of brand cancellation   Order a copy of this article
    by Christina Kyriakou, Tao Papaioannou, Marcos Komodromos 
    Abstract: Among research on (digital) consumer activism, brand boycotting, and online flaming, brand cancellation practices within expanding cancel culture are yet to be fully explored. This paper contributes to extant research by identifying and analyzing factors that motivate the online audience to participate in cancelling a brand and strategies to articulate brand cancellation. Twenty individual, in-depth interviews with professionals in communication and marketing were conducted. The findings indicate that offensive advertisement content that contradicts a consumers personal beliefs is the most common factor leading to participation in brand cancellation, followed by brand ethics, anonymity in social media, peer pressure to join a cancellation, and a desire for justice. Furthermore, discreetly unfollowing a brand is the most preferred cancel practice. However, when audiences perceive hate comments on a brand for insignificant reasons, this might instigate support for the brand. Lastly, this study discusses implications for businesses to manage brand cancellation.
    Keywords: Audience Engagement; Brand Cancellation; Brand Boycotting; Cancel Culture; Digital Consumer Activism; Online Criticism; Social Media.

  • Flipped Learning with Interactive Videos: A Systematic Literature Review   Order a copy of this article
    by João Fonseca, Miguel Mira Da Silva, Sofia Sá 
    Abstract: The usage of interactive videos in flipped learning has proved to be a valuable tool to boost student engagement and communication between students and teachers. A systematic literature review was conducted to research the types of video interaction currently employed in flipped learning contexts and their impact. The findings revealed that the most employed video interaction tools were instructor and student annotations, as well as in-video quizzes. The most reported benefits were increased student participation and data to assess their performance. Its most significant challenges were increased time and effort spent by professors and students. The articles also revealed that the enablers of this methodology were the gradual popularization of video interaction technologies and the COVID-19 pandemic, which motivated the use of these tools. The inhibitors of video interactivity were the cost of these technologies and the need to teach the users how to use such tools.
    Keywords: Flipped learning; Interactive videos; Active learning; Collaborative learning; Learning tools; Online lectures; Advantages; Disadvantages; Enablers; Inhibitors.

  • Expectation shock in education: utilising industry SERVQUAL to enhance student perception of STEAM and STEAM careers   Order a copy of this article
    by Tony Houghton, Zsolt Lavicza, Robert Weinhandl, Imam Fitri Rahmadi, Brigitta Békési, Yves Kreis 
    Abstract: In industry, an expectation shock occurs when a customer has a post-experience perception that greatly exceeds their prior expectation. In our study, the customers are students and teachers. An expectation shock might occur when, for example, a student just did not expect to find STEAM so interesting. The objective of this research was to determine how expectation shock might be used in schools to enhance student perception of STEAM and STEAM careers. It was found that expectation shock in the form of Hothousing intensive, collaborative workshops can be used in schools to greatly enhance student perception of STEAM and STEAM careers and give them experience of industry practise valuable for their future careers. Educational practice should focus on enhancing student or teacher perception rather than stated importance. It is essential to examine perception post-experience versus prior expectation to identify benefits (or not) from the activity.
    Keywords: STEAM; careers; perception; expectation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTEL.2023.10054287
  • Designing Game-driven Augmented-Reality Scenarios with Real-World Implications to Facilitate Intercultural Exchanges: The Alien Scenario   Order a copy of this article
    by Stella Hadjistassou, Petros Louca 
    Abstract: Building on Klopfer and Squires (2008) study on design-based research (DBR), this paper investigates the process involved in conceptualizing, designing, developing, and implementing Augmented Reality (AR) scenarios during intercultural exchanges, which were enacted as part of a transnational interdisciplinary project, ReDesign. In the case study discussed, the potential of involving all interested stakeholders in the design process of the AR scenario and the subsequent two scenarios are explored. In addition, during the testing phase, an adept Dutch teacher trainer and five instructors contribute to the enhancement of the AR scenarios, through their feedback suggestions. An alien scenario is initially designed, while students are invited to share salient cultural artifacts which are then designed in 2D or 3D. Three scenarios are designed that have broader sociopolitical, institutional, and pedagogical implications, while enacting affordances to reflect on students culture and experience the pedagogical potential of novel technologies implemented in their curriculum.
    Keywords: Augmented Reality; design research; affordances; intercultural exchange.

  • The use of generative music in nonlinear music composition for video games   Order a copy of this article
    by Alexi Harkiolakis 
    Abstract: The future of video game music will call for more nonlinear musical compositions as interactive audio technology and algorithms advance. There is a lack of literature exploring in-depth the potential of generative music in a commercial product. The purpose of this archival case study is to explore how the inclusion of generative music systems enhances nonlinear music composition in video games. This archival case study consists of a thematic analysis of Jolly and McLeran’s (2008) presentation at the Game Developer’s Conference on applying the innovative areas of composing generative music for the video game Spore. The findings of this study indicate that wider adoption of generative methods in video game music provides many benefits but poses new challenges for game developers. Despite this, the case of Spore shows the feasibility of integrating a generative music system into a video game, even if it is restricted to specific areas of gameplay.
    Keywords: generative music; nonlinear music; music composition; video game music; video games; archival case study; audio technology; Spore; interactive music; algorithms.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTEL.2023.10055011
  • How does entrepreneurship education promote creativity and innovation?   Order a copy of this article
    by Manoj Sinha, Shekhar ., Marco Valeri 
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to synthesise the literature on how entrepreneurship education fosters creativity and innovation in entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship education (EE) has long been a priority for higher education institutions around the world, as it encourages creativity and innovation. However, literature yields conflicting results. Therefore, it is critical to comprehend how entrepreneurship education can be restructured to better foster creativity. For this bibliometric study, the Web of Science (WoS) database was used, and 374 journal articles were retrieved. VOSviewer, the Science of Science tool, and Gephi were used to analyse the results. The findings identified four major themes: EE and entrepreneurial intent, EE and innovation and creativity, entrepreneurial intent and innovation and creativity, and innovation and creativity and entrepreneurial success, none of which have matured and are regularly researched. The study contributes by identifying ways to improve the effectiveness of EE in improving creativity and innovation.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship education; creativity; innovation; self-efficacy; review; intent; success; motivation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTEL.2023.10055678
  • How to provide intelligent assistance to learners inside e-Learning environments   Order a copy of this article
    by Riad Bourbia, Samia Drissi, Yacine Lafifi 
    Abstract: The health consequences caused by the spread of the COVID-19 disease have motivated many countries to turn to e-learning environments. This technological solution is the only one that has allowed the continuity of the educational process. Unfortunately, this widespread teaching mode also poses multiple problems that may negatively affect the learning process, including the autonomy of learners, the lack of interaction and collaboration between them, the lack of feedback on their activities, and the lack of appropriate support for learners with difficulties. Solutions to these challenges include personalising educational content and providing personalised and adapted assistance. Providing help and support to learners can decrease some of the harmful effects of the previously mentioned problems. The present work falls within this context and aims to propose an approach that uses the traces left by learners to detect those who have difficulties and provides them with adequate assistance. An online learning system called SANED adopted the proposed approach. To validate the proposed ideas, real students tested the proposed tools. Found results are encouraging and very promising.
    Keywords: intelligent assistance; adapted assistance; traces; indicators; learning difficulties; learning environment.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTEL.2023.10055922
  • Investigating achievement, motivation, and attitude in a gamified English course   Order a copy of this article
    by Kübra Ertan, Selay Arkün Kocadere 
    Abstract: In this study, a gamified English course was designed, and 37 college students took part in it for five weeks. The study aimed to assess achievement, motivation and attitude in terms of students’ language levels and to get students’ views and suggestions towards the gamified course. Data were collected through an achievement test, a motivation scale for gamification, an attitude scale for gamification, and a questionnaire with open-ended questions. Findings revealed a significant increase in students’ achievements with a large effect size. Students’ motivation points were high, and their attitude was positive towards gamification. However, these effects were not different in terms of their language level. Based on the students’ views, it can be asserted that students showed positive attitudes towards competition in the gamified course, gamification made lessons interesting, motivated students to participate in classes, supported their learning, created a fun environment, and improved their self-confidence.
    Keywords: gamification; game elements; gamification design; EFL.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTEL.2023.10056465
  • Factors affecting the intention of Palestinian university faculty to adopt virtual reality technology   Order a copy of this article
    by Elham Mohmmad Abed Nabhan, Baker Alserhan, Jusuf Zeqiri, Kimberly Gleason 
    Abstract: In this study, we investigate the factors that influence the intention of academic staff to adopt virtual reality applications (VR) in higher education institutions (HEIs) in Palestine. Although the adoption of VR has been relatively slow in the developing world relative to other mobile technologies, research indicates that VR has the potential to revolutionise educational delivery in these regions. Based on Rogers’ diffusion of innovation theory (DOI), we survey academic staff members from three Palestinian universities to identify the factors that impact VR adoption intention. Using structural equations modelling (SEM) we examine relative advantage, compatibility, trialability, observability, and complexity. Results indicate that perceived complexity has a negative effect on the intention to adopt innovation, but relative advantage, compatibility, trialability and observability all have a positive and significant influence on academic staff’s intention to adopt VR in Palestinian HEIs.
    Keywords: virtual reality; diffusion of innovation theory; DOI; Palestine; developing country; higher education.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTEL.2023.10056672
  • The effect of virtual and augmented reality on teaching crystal structure of materials and student reflections in applications   Order a copy of this article
    by Mustafa Serkan Abdüsselam, Sema Çıldır, Selçuk Atasoy 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of a teaching material, developed with virtual and augmented reality technologies and used in teaching the contents related to the crystal structures to the engineering students, on the academic achievement of students. This study was conducted using the mixed method, and 23 students studying at an engineering faculty of a state university participated in this study in 2019-2020 Fall Semester. According to the results of the achievement test, the difference between the application scores in the test was significant, and these technologies contributed to the teaching of the crystal structures of the materials. When the data were analysed in terms of students' skills of drawing 3D figures, mathematical processing and explaining the content, it was found that these three skills improved in all students in a positive way.
    Keywords: augmented reality; crystal structure of materials; student reflections; students' skills; virtual reality.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTEL.2023.10055806
  • MOTIVATIC WEB: a collaborative work tool for higher education professors   Order a copy of this article
    by Gabriela Ramírez Barajas, Rosa A. Sierra Torrecilla, Aura C. Pedraza-Avella, Martha L. Torres-Barreto 
    Abstract: The objective of this research is to present the development process of the educational tool MOTIVATIC WEB, which seeks to offer professors, regardless of their geographical location, the possibility of working collaboratively, leading to the transformation of classical educational paradigms, by improving competencies and skills of educators through informal training processes such as interaction, collaboration, collective decision-making, and exchange of experiences. For this, a methodology composed of four phases is executed: (i) an identification of characteristics in collaborative work tools offered on the web, (ii) a validation of them following a user-centred design process with a group of professors at national and international level linked as experts, (iii) a conceptual modelling for the determination of functional and non-functional specifications of the platform, and finally, (iv) the development of the software in its first version.
    Keywords: conceptual model; higher education; collaborative work; ICT; virtual community.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTEL.2023.10055807
  • Social and emotional learning for early childhood teachers teaching online   Order a copy of this article
    by Corinne Brion 
    Abstract: Teaching is one of the most stressful professions. When teachers are stressed, it affects their well-being, job satisfaction and performance, as well as the behaviours and work of the children under their care. Social Emotional Learning (SEL) aims to improve wellbeing of self and others through understanding and enhancing how individuals socially and emotionally interact. When implementing SEL into educational settings, the primary focus has been directed towards students. However, when adults do not pay attention to their own social emotional health, they are not able to attend to the emotional well-being of their students. The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand how early childhood educators took care of their own social and emotional needs while teaching online during the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings indicated that despite challenges, the teachers met some of their social and emotional needs in terms of belonging, mastery, interdependence and generosity.
    Keywords: online education; social emotional learning; early childhood; technology; crisis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTEL.2022.10050800
  • Sample design challenges: an educational research paradigm   Order a copy of this article
    by Kalliopi Kanaki, Michail Kalogiannakis 
    Abstract: The primary factors that determine the quality of a study are the suitability of the methodology adopted and the research tools employed. Still, very important aspects that may enhance or weaken the robustness of a study are the sampling strategy and the sample size. Aiming at facilitating novice researchers to overcome obstacles concerning sampling, this paper discusses the relevant theoretical framework, answering the question of which steps to go through in a research study in order to conduct effective sampling. It also provides information on our experience regarding designing and implementing an educational research sampling. The valuation of the study outcomes confirmed the importance of conquering the sampling theory, driving us to the conclusion that, even in the case of carefully designing the sampling process, researchers have to remain vigilant about addressing sampling issues that might occur during the research process, reinforcing the reliability of their work.
    Keywords: sampling; sample size; sample representativeness; sample accessibility; educational practices.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTEL.2023.10055808
  • Digital transformation in Indian higher educational institutions: a qualitative exploration of administrators' perspectives   Order a copy of this article
    by Ramprrasadh Goarty, Kriti Priya Gupta 
    Abstract: The present study aims to understand the factors influencing the digital transformation of various administrative and academic processes in higher educational institutions (HEIs). Furthermore, these factors are mapped to different contexts within the Technological-Organisational-Environmental (TOE) and Technology, Pedagogy, Content Knowledge (TPACK) frameworks. The study takes a qualitative approach comprising in-depth semi-structured interviews. The qualitative data is analysed through a thematic analysis to identify the drivers of digital transformation in HEIs. We identified eleven influencing factors that were categorised under four dimensions of TOE and TPACK frameworks, namely, technological factors, organisational factors, environmental factors and teachers' knowledge related factors. The findings indicate that the digital transformation in administrative processes is primarily influenced by organisational and technological factors, whereas the digital transformation in academic processes is primarily influenced by environmental factors and teachers' knowledge related factors.
    Keywords: digital transformation; higher education; technology in education; thematic analysis; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTEL.2023.10055809
  • Empathy or students' activation? Factors affecting students' remote learning experience during the COVID-19 period   Order a copy of this article
    by Hagit Meishar-Tal, Ariella Levenberg, Eyal Rabin 
    Abstract: Owing to the COVID-19 pandemic, higher education institutions worldwide were required to shift to an online mode of studying abruptly and without preparation. The purpose of the current study was to examine students' remote learning experience, explore the relationship between the learning experience, the level of students' engagement, and the perceived lecturers' performance in terms of empathy and students' activation. A survey questionnaire was distributed online to students from various academic institutions at the end of the second semester of the academic year. A total of 120 students participated in the study. The findings showed that students' cognitive and physical learning experience was moderate and social experience was low. Lecturers' empathy and students' engagement were significant predictors of students' learning experience. Lecturer-initiated activation of students was a negative predictor of the learning experience. The findings are discussed in light of lecturers' role in times of crisis.
    Keywords: COVID-19; learning experience; higher education; empathy; active learning; engagement.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTEL.2023.10055810