Forthcoming articles

International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning

International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning (IJTEL)

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International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning (28 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Kuwaiti Female University Students Acceptance of the Integration of Smartphones in their Learning: An Investigation Guided by a Modified Version of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT)   Order a copy of this article
    by Budour Almisad, Monirah Alsalim 
    Abstract: This study employed a modified and extended version of the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) to examine female Kuwaiti university students acceptance of the use of smartphones in their learning. A quantitative research method was used. The results show that the great majority of the students used their smartphones on a daily basis and they had more than five years of experience with the use of smartphones. A regression analysis found that the six independent variables explained 46% of the variance in students attitudes toward the use of smartphones to support their learning. However, only four independent variables were individually significant in predicting students attitudes toward the use of smartphones to support their learning. Based on the findings, a set of recommendations related to the use of smartphones to support students learning is provided.
    Keywords: Kuwait; female; smartphone; learning; acceptance; UTAUT; unified theory of acceptance and use of technology.

  • Designing and Implementing Constructionist Learning in a Blended Advertising Photography Course   Order a copy of this article
    by Suthin Rojprasert, Jariya Neanchaleay, Surapon Boonlue, Paitoon Sinlarat 
    Abstract: This study involved designing and implementing constructionist learning in an undergraduate advertising photography course. The design and implementation involved face-to-face learning blended with a course application that provided access to online tools such as a Facebook group, Google classroom and Moodle. The first objective involved the creation of a framework to guide the design of constructionist learning in the course. The second objective involved designing learning activities with technology and implementing the learning in the course over a five-week period. The third objective involved measuring students achievement and satisfaction. Results related of the design highlighted the centrality of students artefact creation and of collaborative learning by doing and making. Implications for practice relate to the value of use of new and emerging technologies to engage students not only in active forms of learning but in the production of artefacts of their learning.
    Keywords: Constructionism. Moodle. Facebook. Higher Education. Instructional design.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTEL.2018.10018375
     
  • Blended Learning of Physics in the Context of the Professional Development of Teachers   Order a copy of this article
    by Lyubov Krasnova, Viktor Shurygin 
    Abstract: In line with the improvement of traditional teaching methods, the new ones are intensively introduced at all levels of education. Usually, these are the methods tied with e-learning. Essentially, teachers must be able and ready to create an innovation-driven learning environment contributing to the effective individualization of the learning process. At the same time, each student should achieve the highest possible outcomes standing behind the personality development. This paper introduces the refresher courses designed for the physics teachers. These courses are based on the blended learning technology combining traditional full-time education with the elements of distance learning supported by LMS Moodle. The courses were tested at the Elabuga Institute of Kazan Federal University in 2016-2018. This paper describes the module-based course structure and methods for applying the e-learning modules. The distinctive feature of the course is that the content of the learning modules was designed to deliver different methods for teaching physics and to improve the general cultural competence of a teacher. The analysis of polling results (poll included 89 physics teachers) allowed assessing the efficiency of designed courses in the context of teachers professional development, his/her readiness to work in modern learning environment. The research outcomes will be also useful for foreign educational establishments implementing the teacher professional development programs.
    Keywords: learning technologies; distance learning; e-learning; LMS Moodle; physics.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTEL.2018.10017856
     
  • Leveraging Learners' Activity Logs for Course Reading Analytics Using Session-Based Indicators   Order a copy of this article
    by Madjid Sadallah, Benoît Encelle, Azze-Eddine Maredj, Yannick Prié 
    Abstract: A challenge that course authors face when reviewing their contents is to detect how to improve their courses in order to meet the expectations of their learners. rnIn this paper, we propose an analytical approach that exploits learners' logs of reading to provide authors with insightful data about the consumption of their courses. rnWe first model reading activity using the concept of reading-session and propose a new and efficient session identification. We then elaborate a list of indicators computed using learners' reading sessions that allow to represent their behaviour and to infer their needs. We evaluate our proposals with course authors and learners using logs from a major e-learning platform. Interesting results were found. This demonstrates the effectiveness of the approach in identifying aspects and parts of a course that may prevent it from being easily read and understood, and for guiding the authors through the analysis and review tasks.
    Keywords: Human Computer Interaction; Web-based interaction; Learning Management Systems (LMS); Learning analytics; Reading monitoring; Reading indicators; Revisions; Web log mining; Reading sessions; Session identification.

  • Impact of used programming language for K-12 students understanding of the loop concept   Order a copy of this article
    by Monika Mladenović, Saša Mladenović, Žana Žanko 
    Abstract: Block-based programming languages are becoming a favourite learning tool for programming novices while the traditional way of teaching programming mostly uses text-based programming languages. The purpose of this study was to compare the impact of used visual and textual programming languages on K-12 students understanding of the loop concept. Participants were 312 elementary school students from 5th to 8th grade using visual programming language Scratch (n=59), and textual programming languages Logo (n=185) and Python (n=68). Tests for all languages were equivalent, differing only in the used programming language. Results showed that students achieved statistically significant higher scores when using block-based programming language compared to students using textual programming languages. These results show that K-12 students need concrete experience to understand abstract concepts, as the loop concept, which Scratch as a block-based programming language provides.
    Keywords: programming; loop; elementary school; Scratch; text-based programming languages.

  • DEVELOPING ICT ADOPTION MODEL BASED ON THE PERCEIVED AWARENESS AND PERCEIVED USEFULNESS OF TECHNOLOGY AMONG TELECOM USERS(ICT ADOPTION MODEL)   Order a copy of this article
    by Eliza Sharma 
    Abstract: Current study aims to develop an ICT adoption model based on the perceived awareness, perceived usefulness and intention to use ICT. Researcher has measured the opinions of the telecom users towards ICT using a well-structured questionnaire, distributed to 1080 telecom users equally from rural and urban areas of the North and Central India. It was found from the study that the ICT is useful for acquiring information, entertainment, safety and security, maintaining e-repository, managing digital money & payments and for skill or knowledge enhancement. ICT adoption model developed in the study suggests that perceived awareness and perceived usefulness both are significant predictors of the intention to use ICT. Further, the model shows that the area and generation gap both are significant predictors of the ICT adoption. The study is limited to telecom users only and geographical area of the survey is limited to North and Central India.
    Keywords: information and communication technology; perceived awareness; perceived usefulness; generation gap; residential area; information; digital money and payments; telecom users; mobile value added services; North India; Central India; internet; technology adoption model; knowledge and skills; e-repository; entertainment.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTEL.2019.10021301
     
  • Role of Technology in Science Classrooms: An Exploratory Study of Pakistan   Order a copy of this article
    by Zeeshan Iqbal, Aisha Sami 
    Abstract: Knowledge of science has its own demanding place in the current competitive world. Students have shown lack of interest and sufficient knowledge about the science subjects including Physics, Chemistry, and Biology. Multimedia audio-visual aids play an important role in enhancing the classroom learning. Even though, these multimedia audio-visual aids are not being fully utilized in Pakistani education system. This study was conducted to illustrate the importance of using multimedia audio-visual aids in the classrooms especially during teaching physics, chemistry and biology at secondary schools of Pakistan. The researchers employed purposive sampling technique for this study and the sample size was 240 students. Primary data was collected by using observation method and conducting interviews. Collected data were analysed by using both quantitative and qualitative data analyse methods and presented in a descriptive way. Findings revealed that using multimedia audio-visual aids in the classrooms is an effective strategy that makes students active, maintains a high level of interest in the lesson and encourages students to participate in the classrooms and thus leads towards better learning.
    Keywords: Technology; Audio-Visual Aids; Education; Secondary Schools; Pakistan.

  • Evaluating a game-development approach to teach introductory programming concepts in Secondary Education   Order a copy of this article
    by Stamatios Papadakis 
    Abstract: Due to the development of multimedia and computer technologies, many scholars have attempted to employ digital learning content to improve students\' learning motivation and learning achievement in CS courses. In this pedagogical design, students interact and create their own content related to curricular areas with several advantages, such as motivation, fun, commitment, and enthusiasm, showing improvements related to computational thinking and computational practices. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the combined use of App Inventor and a game-development approach in school lessons, as an example of constructionist learning in an introductory programming course for novices. This study was conducted in a public secondary school in Greece. It used a quasi- experimental control group design. The results of the study showed that the combined use of App Inventor programming environment and a game development approach has a positive effect on students\' basic programming skills achievements and motivation in a CS course.
    Keywords: Novice programmers; Secondary education; App Inventor; game development approach.

  • Game Based Learning Approach to Improve Self-Learning Motivated Students   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammed Akour, Hiba Alsghaier, Samah Diabat 
    Abstract: some of the best educational apps have been created to serve as an additional resource for students participating in more structured education programs .Our project aims to provide self-motivated students with options for learning in gaming environment. The proposed application allow students to ask and answer questions, answering more and more questions will allow the student to get higher level and marked with some distinguished badges. The application aims to achieve 6 main attractive factors studied by conducting a survey distributed to 90 students to ensure that the mobile game learning enhance the educational skills for the students rather than the traditional teaching. Hence, we are studying students college attitude as they represent a sample of Yarmouk University during Fall 2017/2018 semester. The results show that our developed application provides students with a friendly educational mobile application, provide an entertainment educational environment, provide rich database that contain diverse courses questions and answers and enhance students learning skills.
    Keywords: Mobile Application; Smart Education; Game educational Style; M-learning.

  • Behavioural intention of Pacific Island pre-service teachers to use digital portfolios   Order a copy of this article
    by C.A. DeCoursey, P.I. Perkins 
    Abstract: The behavioural intention (BI) to use a new digital affordance remains a challenge in twenty-first century life. As teachers introduce youth to new technologies, their attitudes are significant. The theories and instruments for assessing this intention reflect western contexts. Pre-service teachers in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) face developing-world challenges when learning to use conventional digital tools such as portfolios. This study used content and Appraisal analysis to identify frequently-realised themes and attitudes in the writing of pre-service teachers across one semester. Results show that attitudes were increasingly positive, but the portfolio task was still perceived as complex at the end of the semester. Frequently-realised themes, and positive co-frequencies between subunits and attitudes, showed that participants found performance expectancy high. But they felt that the effort required also remained high, indicating that one semesters use is not sufficient to achieve BI, for portfolios, in developing world contexts.
    Keywords: Republic of the Marshall Islands; Pacific Islands; teacher education; portfolio; computer self-efficacy; behavioural intention; content analysis; Appraisal analysis; developing world education; colonialism.

  • Evaluation of e-learning system on higher education institutions in KSA: a survey at Saudi Electronic University   Order a copy of this article
    by Slim Hadoussa 
    Abstract: A review on previous e-learning research suggests a focused evaluation approach to measure the success of the system and its contribution to knowledge share in educational institutions. This paper provides an empirical test of e-learning system success model in the context of higher education in Saudi Arabia. The research examines the effects of the e-learning system at Saudi Electronic University on knowledge management, by analysing the relationships between the system use and knowledge transfer through DeLone and McLean IS model (2003). The quantitative study was done by administering the survey to 300 students and we obtain 196 effective responses. Applying Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) method, the results show the significant effects of system quality, information quality and service quality on e-learning system use and user satisfaction. Thus, the educational tool use and user satisfaction have a positive impact on net benefits in terms of knowledge share, transfer, learning and achieving educational goals.
    Keywords: e-learning system; knowledge; Higher Education; Saudi Electronic University; SEM Method.

  • Motivating Teachers to Use Information Technology in Educational Process within Saudi Arabia   Order a copy of this article
    by Sara Almutairi, Adnan Gutub, Nouf Awad Al-Juaid 
    Abstract: This study seeks specific strategies to motivate teachers within Saudi Arabia to use Information Technology (IT) in the educational process. The work evaluated using IT considering particular concerns within the Saudi region. It, then, suggests the possible tuning strategies making teachers motivated to adopt IT in their educational job. The research surveys 100 different schools to identifying the impact of using IT on the students, teachers, principals, and students' parents. The surveys are build utilizing different paragraphs specifically designed according to the region situations as well as group categorization, i.e. of students, teachers, principals and parents. The research questionnaires of every category have been distributed and completed electronically by more than 10,000 users within schools of Saudi Arabia. The study used the statistics to show the expected IT impact on the educational process including the administrative influence as well as student family life. The work used means and standard deviations to analyse the results and build specific recommendations geared toward teachers' motivation. The study proved specific urgency for improvement tuning need within the schooling system. Its main advises are found urgently essential to be considered in order to motivate the teachers via specific strategies leading to interesting educational improvements.
    Keywords: Educational process; Technology integration; Information Technology (IT); Training teachers.

  • EMERGING BIMODAL BIOMETRICS AUTHENTICATION FOR NON-VENUE-BASED ASSESSMENTS IN OPEN DISTANCE E-LEARNING (ODeL) ENVIRONMENTS   Order a copy of this article
    by Prince Y.O. Amoako, Isaac Osunmakinde 
    Abstract: Authentication plays a significant role in security during the non-venue-based examination, as it verifies the identity of online students. Existing authentication techniques have not yet provided an optimal cheating-free, non-venue-based assessment. This research proposes an emerging biometrics technology model of facial recognition and keystroke dynamics (FRAKD) to minimise the problems of malpractice during examinations significantly. Detailed experiments conducted on the Moodle learning management system (LMS), using a client-server platform of 100 diverse students who were captured as a positive data set, produced an average recognition rate of 85%, while for 20 imposter students, an average rejection rate of 93% was realised. When benchmarked with related solutions, this result shows that using the FRAKD biometrics model in non-venue-based assessment demonstrates reliable security and minimises impersonation more than state-of-the-art practices such as portfolio-based distance assessment without supervision. This improved solution will obviously have great value for ODeL institutions and examination bodies.
    Keywords: Emerging technology; distance learning; agent; authentication; biometrics; learning management system; security; assessment.

  • Enhancing Modern Greek Teaching with Android Programming!   Order a copy of this article
    by Vaios Papaioannou, Argyroula Alexandropoulou, Georgia Pierrou 
    Abstract: The wide range of education curricula in the subjects of Secondary - high school - Education in conjunction with the suffocating timeframe that is defined by the instructions for the teaching courses, which is dictated by the competent Ministry each school year, as well as the encumbrance of teachers belonging to different specialties in their own scientific environment, often act as a deterrent to the development of didactic collaborations between different disciplines and consequently to the holistic educational approach to knowledge. The aim of the present work is to develop students' programming skills using as a motivation a Theoretical subject, that is Modern Greek Literature, namely N. Vrettakos' poem The Child with the Matches and vice versa. Through the designed interdisciplinary educational approach, it is expected to awaken the interest of students who are indifferent to theoretical lessons, as well as to solve in a substantial way the problems that beginners encounter in learning programming.
    Keywords: modern Greek; informatics; interdisciplinary educational approach; computer programming; android; app inventor; experiential learning.

  • WhatsApp with English Language Teaching? Some Practical Ideas and Strategies   Order a copy of this article
    by Alberth N/a, Emil Wiramihardja 
    Abstract: Mobile assisted language learning offers tremendous opportunities for language learning. The use of short message service (SMS) and, more recently, integration of the WhatsApp application into language classrooms has generally been reported to positively impact on language learning and learning experience for learners as well as for teachers. As a result, use of WhatsApp is gaining immense popularity in EFL (English as a Foreign Language) classrooms across the globe. However, it is important to acknowledge that, while technology plays a critical role, it is how the tool is utilized per se that determines the successful integration of the new technology. How to use technology is pre-requisite to successful integration. Despite the popularity of the potential use of WhatsApp in language learning, currently there are no guidelines on how to use it for language teaching and learning. This paper attempts to offer some practical ideas and strategies for using WhatsApp for teaching English as a foreign language as well as for teaching other languages.
    Keywords: WhatsApp; technology; teaching English; mobile; MALL; CALL.

  • Studying ICT teachers experiences and perceptions of MOOCs   Order a copy of this article
    by Vasiliki Vlachou, Dimitrios Tselios, Georgios Aspridis 
    Abstract: The emergence of MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) in 2008 was the beginning of a form of online education that, due to its particular characteristics, promised to reduce the cost of educational services. Despite their short history, MOOCs have fostered many expectations and have been recognized as an innovative educational trend that offers scope for a wide range of educational research. At the same time, a number of challenges have arisen, which need to be addressed if sustainable development of this form of education is to be promoted. The international educational community shows a growing interest expressed through the articles written and through the intense business activity evident in the field of MOOCs since both for- profit and non- profit companies have been founded with the aim of offering and supporting them. In an attempt to investigate the issue, we conducted a research in order to document educators experiences and views on MOOCs as well as their beliefs about future developments in the field of education. Our research population were Secondary education ICT teachers of Karditsa, Greece. The research came to the conclusion that the respondents, though not widely informed, regard MOOCs as an opportunity rather than a risk to their profession, while they believe that they will not bring about significant changes to secondary education. They recognize that MOOCs can make a major contribution to their professional development and they use them as tools in increasing their knowledge and achieving their professional goals. They are highly satisfied with MOOCs and they think that the reasons for high drop-out rates- one of the major MOOCs challenges- are not related to disadvantages or weaknesses of the courses but rather on participants personal reasons. Although they do recognize online forms of education as equal to traditional ones, they consider direct personal contact of great importance.
    Keywords: MOOCs; experiences; perceptions; ICT teachers;.

  • Making sense of Teachers (dis)belief in the educational value of social media: A case of two language teachers in Rwanda   Order a copy of this article
    by Felix Kwihangana 
    Abstract: This study reports on the beliefs of two cases of EFL teachers regarding the integration of social media in the teaching of English in Rwanda. Using semi-structured interviews, the study found that the teachers believed social media had the potential to improve their students learning of English but could also change their teacher positions within the institution. While both teachers viewed social media positively, their social media practices were more informed by the potential impact of the technology on their status as teachers than its potential pedagogical contribution to students learning of English. These findings highlight the importance of understanding teachers self-positioning before, during and after technology integration processes to ensure that the proposed technology integration aligns with their image of the self in specific contexts.
    Keywords: teacher beliefs; social media; educational technology; ICT in Education; language teaching; Education in Rwanda.

  • Advocating for a Blockchain Voting System in the United States   Order a copy of this article
    by Khaled Zayed, Rebekah Placide 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to present our proposal to use blockchain technology to create a secure, efficient, and smart voting system in the United States.rnThe first section of this paper presents the current equipment and technology used in the current voting process in the United States. Next, an analysis of the technological challenges of our voting system is presented. Recommendations are proposed to remedy these challenges with the implementation of blockchain and biometric technologies. Next, the paper discusses the features, benefits, and uses of blockchain technology. Finally, arguments are presented both forrnand against the use of blockchain and biometric technologies for voting purposes.
    Keywords: Blockchain; General Distributed Digital Ledger; Information Technology; Optical Scan Paper Ballot Systems; Direct Recording Electronic Systems; Ballot Marking Systems; Punch Card Ballot; American voting system; voting problems; technological aspect of voting; Mobile Devices; Security Breaches; Cybercrime; Bitcoin; Digital Currencies; Blockchain and biometric technologies; Voter Registration and Verification Processes; Voting with blockchain technology; online voting; electoral system; cryptocurrencies.

  • Analysis of the Internet use and students' web 2.0 digital competence in a Russian University   Order a copy of this article
    by Ruth Martinez-Lopez, Carmen Yot-Domínguez, M. Eva Trigo 
    Abstract: This study explores types of Internet activities as a factor related to the students perceived technological self-efficacy in Web 2.0 digital competence in the Russian higher education context. The Web 2.0 basic digital competence of university students (COBADI) questionnaire was translated and adapted from Spanish to collect the answers from 205 students. Students profiles were identified through cluster analysis. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between each digital competence, the type of Internet use and the place of connection controlling for the participants gender and age. The results of the analysis revealed a positive relationship between the students use of the Internet for socializing and their perceived Web 2.0 communication digital competence. There were no significant differences in gender in the students perceived self-efficacy of their Web 2.0 digital competence.
    Keywords: digital competence; higher education; internet use; Russia; self-efficacy; student; web 2.0.

  • Adoption of Mobile Technologies in Learning: An Agribusiness Case   Order a copy of this article
    by Pei Xu 
    Abstract: Abstract: The purpose of this study is to identify the impact of mobile learning technologies in agribusiness education by examining the effectiveness of a DISCOVERe mobile technology classroom program on students participation in class activities, their use of instructional materials, their interaction with peers, and their overall learning experience. Online survey data collected from agribusiness students at a California State University during the spring 2018 semester were analyzed, hypothesis tests were conducted and a three-stage learning adoption framework was estimated. The results demonstrate that taking the DISCOVERe course significantly improves students participation in class activities, enhances their access of course materials, makes it easier for them to interact with fellow students, and improves students overall learning experience. The conclusion is that as students become more familiar with new technologies, they will be more confident in their ability to learn and will be more efficient in acquiring knowledge and exchanging ideas.
    Keywords: mobile learning; mobile technology in learning; agribusiness learning; DISCOVERe; technology adoption process.

  • Potential and Limits of Game-Based Learning   Order a copy of this article
    by Simon Greipl, Korbinian Moeller, Manuel Ninaus 
    Abstract: Because educational games increasingly find their way into the classroom, we aim at outlining potentials but also limitations of game-based learning. First, we compile widely acknowledged benefits, like the ability of learning games to engage and meet the learners situation. Moreover, we argue that the reduced use of games for learning in higher education does not seem warranted. We propose a three-dimensional framework that highlights the potential of adaptive game-based learning to catalyse the learning process by addressing cognitive, emotional, and social factors of the learner and characteristics of the respective learning environment. We emphasize mandatory considerations like the inability of serious games to replace but complement and enhance traditional educational approaches as well as the misunderstanding that the current generation has a native understanding of technology. With adequate resources, theoretical frameworks, interdisciplinary competencies, and clear goals, one can realize effective game-based learning that meets the requirements of modern education.
    Keywords: game-based learning; effectiveness; limitations; education; adaption; balance; game-design;.

  • Learning Actor ontology for a personalized recommendation in Massive Open Online Courses   Order a copy of this article
    by Sara Assami, Najima Daoudi, Rachida Ajhoun 
    Abstract: Massive Open Online Courses revolutionized online learning and instigated research on information and communication technologies for learning to enhance the learner experience and increase his engagement level. In earlier research, we identified the recommendation criteria that could be used to recommend suitable MOOCs for the learners needs and motivations. Thus, criteria like the level of knowledge, competences and the pace of learning introduced by MOOCs and preferred by learners will be matched by a personalized recommender system. In this paper, we model the Learning Actor ontology to be used for this matching process. It is a domain ontology that was developed by following the phases of the on-to-knowledge methodology: feasibility study, kickoff phase, refinement phase, evaluation and validation phase and, finally, the maintenance phase. At last, we obtained the learning ontology that describes the learning actor major class by using a complex definition of characteristics and their relationship and range of values.
    Keywords: MOOC; Massive Open Online Course; Recommender System; Personalized Recommendation; Learning Actor ontology; on to knowledge methodology; QMOOCs; Quality MOOCs; Ontology engineering; Domain ontology.

  • Teaching practical information technology skills through cloud computing services   Order a copy of this article
    by Washington Luna Encalada, José Luis Castillo Sequera 
    Abstract: Education is in a constant state of evolution, focused on better educating more students at the lowest possible cost. In this context, the role of online education is fundamental to effectively link content with pedagogical and technological aspects - TPACK (Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge). Cloud computing is influencing education as its adoption becomes more widespread, making it possible for a virtual community to share and collaborate on all kinds of on-demand resources and services with massive, ubiquitous, and open access. In order to teach practical Information Technology (IT) skills online, such as what occurs in a computer lab on a university campus, we must utilise multiple technological tools that meet new concepts of immersive and global education. In this paper, we present a methodological approach to link tools from the three models of cloud computing services, known as: Software as a Service (SaaS), Platform as a service (PaaS) and Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), using the five fundamental principles of instruction and contents of information technology studies.
    Keywords: cloud computing; information technology; TPACK; technological pedagogical content knowledge; SaaS; software as a service; PaaS; platform as a service; IaaS; infrastructure as a service.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTEL.2019.10020595
     
  • Flipped learning enhance technical and professional skills facilitating employability: a review of the evidence   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammed Ismail 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the current state of knowledge and practice, and the impact flipped learning - intertwined with education technology has on engineering education. Result of the study indicates that flipped learning blended with education technology, brings about a highly collaborative and activity-based environment with indirect evidence of: improved academic performance, team-based learning, communication skills and group participation skill, critical thinking, that are important traits for employability. The study also provides empirical evidence about the use of education technology in flipped learning, but is not to the desired levels to offer the intended benefits. Flipped learning offers several challenges to the instructor and the students, but the benefits outweigh the challenges. The future scope for researchers would be to focus on the integration of the in-class and out-of-class activities.
    Keywords: flipped learning; engineering education; education technology.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTEL.2019.10020594
     
  • Applying game-based learning at the South African Military Academy: an experimental study   Order a copy of this article
    by Adriaan M.F. Dreyer, Nicole Dodd, Wayne O. Dalton 
    Abstract: The contemporary military environment is characterised by new technologies, advances in computer usage, and a generation of young students who have the expectation that the use of technology within education will increase over the next few years. Research suggests games within education to be a feasible solution for positively supplementing traditional teaching practices, making learning more interactive and enjoyable. Despite this, there is mixed empirical support for the successful use thereof. The aim of this study was to investigate if using Game-Based Learning (GBL) compared to traditional teaching methods when teaching JavaScript to undergraduate Computer Information Systems (CIS) students at the South African Military Academy (MA), would result in statistically significant higher learning gains. A research experiment was conducted to investigate this aim using a sample of 47 (n = 47) residential students. Participants were tested on their JavaScript knowledge using a pre- and post-test experimental design. The variables and results in learning gains from the two experimental groupings showed no significant statistical difference, but significant learning gains resulted when compared to the control group.
    Keywords: game-based learning; technology in education; ANOVA; experiment; military academy.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTEL.2019.10020596
     
  • Time to focus on the temporal dimension of learning: a learning analytics study of the temporal patterns of students' interactions and self-regulation   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammed Saqr, Jalal Nouri, Uno Fors 
    Abstract: In this learning analytics study, we attempt to understand the role of temporality measures for the prediction of academic performance. The study included four online courses over a full-year duration. Temporality was studied on daily, weekly, course-wise and year-wise. Visualising the activities has highlighted certain patterns. On the week level, early participation was a consistent predictor of high achievement. This finding was consistent from course to course and during most periods of the year. On course level, high achievers were also likely to participate early and consistently. With a focus on temporal measures, we were able to predict high achievers with reasonable accuracy in each course. These findings highlight the idea that temporality dimension is a significant source of information about learning patterns and has the potential to inform educators about students' activities and to improve the accuracy and reproducibility of predicting students' performance.
    Keywords: learning analytics; temporality; time; problem-based learning; collaborative learning; social network analysis; self-regulation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTEL.2019.10020597
     
  • Critical reflections on introducing e-learning within a blended education context   Order a copy of this article
    by Dimitris Laskaris, Emmanuel Heretakis, Michail Kalogiannakis, Maria Ampartzaki 
    Abstract: For three consecutive semesters (2014-2016), we conducted an action research project attempting for the first time to introduce in blended education context an e-course, in the Faculty of Communication and Media of Athens University. The first author constructed the e-course by utilising the open source learning management system - Moodle, the prototype model of digital learning called 'Interactive Evaluation' that was embodied in the design of the e-course and in the cycles of action research. The second author, whose notes and bibliography of the conventional course have been transformed to meet our social constructionist approach to distance learning, acted as critical friend for the research projects. This paper summarises our answers to the following questions: (1) How have we dealt with the 'expressed' interest of students? (2) What were the critical events that occurred during the course and how have we responded to them? (3) What are the factors that affected students' participation in the various modules of the e-course? Our intention is to explore the ways in which the management of the e-courses has come to interconnect with built pedagogy through the implementation of interactive evaluation.
    Keywords: action research; assessing e-learning; evaluation methods of digital learning; Moodle; case study; blended education.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTEL.2019.10020598
     
  • Toward enhancing collaborative learning groups formation in Q&A website using tag-based next questions predictor   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Sadegh Rezaei, Hossein Bobarshad, Kambiz Badie 
    Abstract: The advent of informal social learning environment has provided the necessary platform for realising of lifelong learning. The basic platform of learning in an informal environment is the learning groups called online Community of Practice (oCoP). This study proposes a predictor for predicting the topics most suitable for the formation of oCoPs for the users adopting the roles of co-learner and mentor in a shared domain perspective. Proposed predictor operates based on Naive Bayes prediction and collaborative filtering and uses educational social tags for realising the learners' roles and behaviour. The predictor is evaluated with the dataset of the website StackOverflow. The results show that the proposed predictor can predict the next question of learners with high accuracy. Therefore, the system can facilitate the formation of suitable learning groups around the predicted users' interest topics.
    Keywords: social learning network; Q&A website; online community of practice; informal learning; learning topic prediction; collaborative filtering; collaborative learning; educational social tag.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJTEL.2018.10018196