International Journal of Society Systems Science (14 papers in press)
Enhanced Balanced scorecard Framework for Performance evaluation of Universities
by Neda Jalaliyoon
Abstract: This paper aims to develop an enhanced framework to evaluate the performance of universities based on the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) where it utilized the Multiple-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) technique. Based from the literature reviews on BSC method, experts has highlighted the strength and limitations of this framework, and it has been proposed that this framework can be enhanced by including two other important elements which are Staff and Environment.In this research study, the mixed research methodology (the qualitative as well as the quantitative research methods) is used. The qualitative research method is the interviews conducted with the experts in the BSC and Nvivo analysis tool are used to analyse the data. The enhanced BSC framework is implemented as Case Study Method in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Two questionnaires were developed (i) for prioritizing strategic objectives and for BSC Perspectives, and (ii) for ranking the performance indicators. The quantitative research method is the MCDM techniques (consists of ANP and TOPSIS) employed to analyse the questionnaires. The result indicated that, Stakeholder was the factor of significant influence where it had the highest rank compared to other perspectives. This study also showed that Internal Process and Learning and Growth perspectives played an important role to evaluate universities' performance. In general, there were three top key performance indices identified which were, Number of publications in citation indexed journals, Number of new facilities for increasing student learning, and Number of academic programmes initiated for international accreditation. The proposed performance evaluation (BSC) model could be considered as an important reference for universities to evaluate their performance.
Keywords: Performance management; Performance evaluation; Balanced Scorecard; Higher education; Multi-Criteria Decision-Making techniques (MCDM); Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM); Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS).
How a College Solved the Problem of Large-Scale Multi-Criteria Team Formation
by William Young, Vic Matta
Abstract: This paper discusses a goal programming technique for creating equitable teams from large numbers of individuals with differing attributes and talents subject to multiple constraints. The solution is derived based on a utility function that applies a weighted penalty for deviation from the optimally equitable team. This technique is then tested by forming teams from a pool of over 200 students with a range of attributes for a high-quality business consulting experience. In addition to saving time and effort, benefits include procedural justice and elimination of bias, defensibility of team formation and expectation of trust, and equitable distribution of competence across teams. As demonstrated here, the technique was remarkably successful at creating teams with respect to the competing priorities from stakeholders. Results are discussed in detail and exemplify efficiency, scalability, and most importantly, equitably formed teams.
Keywords: Equitable Team Formation; Higher Education; Optimization; Goal Programming.
Exploring technological management innovations that include artificial intelligence and other innovations in global food production
by Darrell Norman Burrell
Abstract: Research reveals the importance of artificial intelligences applicability for agriculture through food production for reducing food deserts across the world to include rural, remote, and underserved locations. By the year 2050, the worlds population is expected to reach 9.8 billion, and 11.2 billion in 2100. Non-declining or leveling world population growth is the most significant hurdle to sustainable agriculture and food security. Today, about 1 billion people are chronically hungry, and this crisis is a result of inefficient food production and distribution system, and undeveloped agricultural land that is leaving room to grow food for the additional 2-3 billion people globally expected by 2050. The results of this qualitative methodology and literature review revealed artificial intelligence technologies as components to identify, isolate inadequacies, and help drive them out of the food shortage concern and, and as an outcome, help diminish costs - labor and products- and enhance results of people all over the world. Data showed that agro-technology plays a significant role in the reduction of food deserts, food insecurity, food production, and hunger reduction on the global level. This research offers to various practitioners, learners, and academicians data from emergency literature on technological innovations to help overcome agricultural concerns for meeting a process improvement initiative.
Keywords: agro-technologies; artificial intelligence; Food production; farming; farming technologies; drones; food insecurity; hunger; fresh food; food desserts.
Effect of Community Culture on the Sustainability Community Based Projects as moderated by Legal-Political Framework: Empirical Evidence of Nyeri County, Kenya.
by Alice Nderi, Manjit Singh
Abstract: Community-based projects advocate for the idea that projects sustainability requires engaging with, and providing long term benefits for local communities to enrich their wellbeing. However, in some cases Community-based projects are neither free of interference from political class nor consistently sustainable. Most recent studies evaluating the factors associated with sustainability of Community-based projects typically examine case studies, or focus on environment, social and economic aspects of sustainability. To fill this gap, we use empirical data in a variety of Community-based projects, in different geographical settings with different cultural experiences to examine the effect of community culture on the sustainability of Community-based projects s and explore the interaction effect of legal political framework on the relationship between community culture and sustainability of Community-based projects s. Using partial least square structure equation modeling(PLS-SEM) and regression analysis in a model-fitting framework, we show that community culture, has a positive significant effect on sustainability of Community-based projects. Additionally, there is evidence that legal-political framework has an interaction effect on the relationship between community culture and sustainability of Community-based projects. We suggest that assimilating culture in the Community-based projects life cycle can result to sustainability. Further, Community-based projects policies and legislations should be aligned with the community culture as a way to blend communities and governments views on the issues to do with Community-based projects.
Keywords: community culture; community social- cohesion; gender; community resilience; community based projects; community ventures; sustainability; legal-political framework; political environment.
Designing youth master plans in a CLE Space (constructivist learning environment space): lessons from using Minecraft in secondary school outreach project in Scotland.
by Deepak Gopinath
Abstract: In response to problems of neoliberal urbanism agenda, Lefebvre (1991) argued for a 'right to the city' so that more people are involved in the (re-) production of urban spaces (Purcell 2002). The challenge being to translate this right into practice particularly to involve hard-to- reach groups such as young people. With growing use of technology in participation, visualization techniques are gaining currency. But what is missing is an important consideration of the environment, where these approaches are applied and particularly in how/whether shared learning and visioning is possible. I argue in this commentary that constructivist learning environments (Savery and Duffy 2001) has the potential, both as theory and method, to frame the characteristics of virtual spaces of participation, where children and young people can critically assess and re-design the spaces in the real world. The CLE space marks departure from current understanding and argues instead that: (1) expertise should reside in the participants (in this case, young people) at all levels and that enablers (such as urban designers, architects, planning consultants etc.) ought to only enable the activity; (2) the spaces where conventional participatory approaches unfold e.g. a community hall should give way to those relational spaces (such as an IT suite) where young people take on the role of experts this is where gaming software such as Minecraft have potential and which would prevent enablers of participatory workshops, in providing an a priori blueprint as to how design needs to be carried out by the participants. Policy makers can use this innovative framework for developing for instance child-friendly cities or youth master plans as part of regeneration initiatives.
Keywords: Youth master plans; constructivist learning environments; CLE space; right to the city; Minecraft; young people; city planning; Dundee waterfront.
A Critical Review of Mental Health Research in Mumbai and New York City
by Simone Malekar, Shamira Soren Malekar
Abstract: Mental health (MH) is an essential part of wellbeing. The objective of this review is to evaluate recent MH research themes in Mumbai and New York City (NYC). These megacities were chosen for review due to their cultural and institutional differences. The attributes of comparison were research attention, social dynamics, and healthcare access. There is an asymmetry of data as MH research in Mumbai is comparatively uncommon due to perceived stigma and cultural factors. In NYC, immigration status and ethnicity were found to affect MH. Common themes include the investigation of minority MH and the role of social support in mitigating mental disorders. NYC mental and primary healthcare systems are integrated and separate in Mumbai. The NYC government enforced an MH initiative, ThriveNYC, with mixed outcomes. The implications of this critical review include the necessity of MH destigmatization initiatives and the incorporation of MH services with primary healthcare.
Keywords: Mumbai; New York City; mental health; healthcare; well-being; stigma; social dynamics; social support; ethnicity; culture.
Special Issue on: ICBBS 2019 Discussing Business and Behaviour Studies Using an Interdisciplinary Approach
Understanding Window Dressing Practices Among Indonesian Construction Companies: An Effort To Minimize Investment Risks
by Gatot Iwan Kurniawan
Abstract: The current focus of Indonesian government on infrastructure development provides an opportunity for funding agencies to invest in construction and building companies. This opportunity, however, is not always directly proportional to the share performance of these Indonesian building and construction companies. This study examines window dressing practices conducted by some construction and building companies as an attempt to manipulate their financial status. Companies carry out this manipulative practice to attract possible investors and other funding agencies in their business. To detect and avoid this fraudulent practice, investors need to carefully calculate the cash holdings and stock performance of these companies. The study found different result of calculation between the two techniques. Cash holdings technique confirms the fact that most companies perform window dressing to attract investors. Meanwhile, showing the real firm performance, stock performance technique is only adopted by a small number of companies. This finding is expected to contribute to risk management, in relation to identifying a risk.
Keywords: cash holding; investment risk; stock performance; window dressing.
CONTEXTUAL DIVIDE, METHODOLOGICAL VARIATIONS AND THEORETICAL USAGE OF VOLUNTARY EMPLOYEE GREEN BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH: A REVIEW
by Hewawasam Puwakpitiyage Rasika Priyankara, Naotunna Palliya Guruge Sasika Irani Naotunna
Abstract: Environmental degradation, coupled with greenhouse gas emissions, is one of the contemporary critical issues faced by society. Business organizations are significant contributors to the eco-system distortion. Voluntary Employee Green Behavior (VEGB), is inevitable in mitigating ecosystem damages and reaching the environmental sustainability goals. This article aims to review the literature on VEGB to identify and evaluate the contextual dispersion, the methodological variations, and the theoretical rigorousness of VEGB studies. We used an iterative multistage approach to collect literature. The analysis shows a continental divide of VEGB research since the majority of research is concentrated in the USA and EU. The prominent methodological approach used in VEGB research is quantitative, and a limited number of studies are qualitative. Though the researchers have used multi-level conceptual frameworks, only a handful of studies have applied multi-level analysis. Notably, the multi-theory applications in VEGB studies are rare. The study findings imply the need for uncovering the VEGB knowledge in developing country contexts, using multi-level analysis, and employing a multi-theory perspective. This review provides the direction to generate further knowledge about VEGB, which will be beneficial in mitigating ecosystem damages and developing a responsible society.
Keywords: Voluntary Employee Green Behaviour; Environment Sustainability; Multi-level analysis; Literature Review; Multi-theory Perspective.
THE IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY ON HUMAN BEHAVIOR AND BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT
by PREMSANKAR MANICKAVASAGAM
Abstract: Nature feeds all in an enormous way for the benefit of human beings and living creatures with the concept of ecology behavior. Charles Robert Darwin (Naturalist) stated the evolution of human mankind is from apes however in the current practice the technology is the creator as well as the destroyer for behavior in human being and environment. Ephemeral conditions prevail with the advancement of technology. Even though, the technology paved the way for business change the behavior is totally abstruse. The higher the technology dependable factor the bane is not too far for humans and nature. As per the online reports 13 tonnes of water is used to produce a single Smartphone leading to scarcity of water which in turn implicated to global warming. The author in this paper finds the bombastic situation with technology causing emotional sickness in reacting to cross situation and health issues like aging. The author is coining a new term Anthropoid Mechanic Syndrome (AMS), due to consistent implications of technology in day to day activities. The analysis was found that human stress factor caused by technology is circumvent to lose the self freedom of expression indulging in contravene situation. As per secondary data Asia is a biggest hub for technology growth but the mission created by technology revolutionize even the human creator to a different behavior triggering natural disaster. Technology proves to be the hegemony in the forecasting years and acting as a liaison between the human behavior and business environment.
Keywords: Bombastic; Stress; Anthropoid.
THE EFFECT OF CONSUMER PROXIMITY AND MEDIA EXPOSURE ON CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY DISCLOSURE
by Hans Hananto Andreas, Ming Lei Chang
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of consumer proximity and media exposure on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) disclosure at several sector companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange. We use companies on the sectors of food and beverages, mining, and properties listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange in 2017. We find that consumer proximity and media exposure had a positive effect on CSR disclosure, and control variables of company leverage and size had similar positive effects. Overall, our results indicate that the closeness of the company with consumers indirectly formed by its products can make companies give more disclosure of their CSR activities. Then, media exposure is proved to have significant effect on the CSR disclosure of the companies. It drives the companies to give information to all stakeholders about their business decision making. This research demonstrates that consumer proximity can make a company more disclosure of their CSR activities Then, the important role from the media can give information about their business decision making as information to stakeholders.
Keywords: Consumer Proximity; Media Exposure; Corporate Social Responsibility.
Special Issue on: Symposium on Rethinking Pollution Environmental Politics, Public Health and Civil Society in Asia and the Pacific Rethinking Pollution A Multidisciplinary Approach
The Importance of Understanding Local Legends to Conserve Wildlife: Freshwater Turtles of the Amazon
by Camila Ferrara, Larissa Schneider, Richard Vogt
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to reveal for the first time some of the legends that have been told about turtles from generation to generation in the quilombola communities in the Rio Trombetas. From these simple stories the locals demonstrate their knowledge of the biology of turtles and their supernatural belief in them. These legends represent different aspects of turtle conservation, including the need to limit the poaching of females, sustaining a steady turtle population. Through the perpetration of these legends, the importance to conserve turtles is maintained between the quilombola communities.
Keywords: Turtles; Amazon; Trombetas river; Quilombolas; Legends; Podocnemis; Amazonia; culture; conservation; quilombola; Brazil; South America; Tropical Forest; Amazon Forest; chelonian.
Solid waste in remote communities of Papua New Guinea a case study on the Kikori delta region.
by Carla Eisemberg, Tito Khatiwada, Helen Truscott, Yolarnie Amepou, Aungas Olewale, Celina Padilha
Abstract: The increase in availability of industrialized products in Papua New Guinea (PNG) has exacerbated its waste issues in both remote towns and villages. This study quantified and categorized the waste composition in the Kikori delta (PNG) and assessed the level of local awareness. Waste audits and community awareness surveys were conducted at 11 locations from April to September 2019. The waste distribution pattern observed indicated that locations closer to the local store had the highest amount of non-degradable solid waste. Since most of the organic waste in Kikori is already utilised as compost, the main concern in the region is the non-organic waste such as aluminium and plastic. Disposable containers and packaging were the main sources of solid waste. The Kikori community is aware of the problems associated with waste, but there is a need to improve the level of awareness regarding waste disposal and biodegradable alternatives.
Keywords: waste audit; Gulf Province; community awareness; environmental education; waste management; recycling; waste composition.
Environmental monitoring and the geospatial sprawl of historic mining legacies in Australia
by Nicholas Metherall, Talei Caucau
Abstract: Mining legacies refer to the lasting environmental, social and public health impacts of abandoned, orphan and derelict mine sites. Such impacts often occur in the absence of a responsible party to oversee the closure and rehabilitation of mine sites. Even in cases where there are systems of accountability and regulatory bodies to monitor compliance to environmental standards, incidents and lasting impacts have still occurred. The spatial extent of these lasting legacies of contaminants originating from abandoned mines often overlap with both Indigenous areas and surface-groundwater ecosystems. This study investigates these processes through the case studies of Ranger Uranium Mine in the Northern Territory and Captains Flat (Lake George Mine) in New South Wales. These cases, among others, raise concerns about the number of environmental incidents and the scale of impacts of mining legacies. This paper overlays geospatial layers of mining, Indigenous areas and surface-groundwater data. The collation sheds light on the geospatial sprawl of mining legacies in Australia and latent pathways of contamination through key water bodies including tthe Murray Darling Basin Authority (MDBA) and the Great Artesian Basin (GAB). The study also overlaid this sprawl of mining legacies over additional map layers relating to the Murray Darling River Indigenous Nations (MLDRIN). This paper provides a critical review of the existing research and datasets in this field.
Keywords: Mining legacies; geospatial; Indigenous; abandoned mines; water contamination; environmental monitoring.
Pollution Prevention and Mitigation - All Hands on Deck
by Hans Bachor, Larissa Schneider
Abstract: Economic and population growth has resulted in a significant environmental pollution issue in the Anthropocene. As the world evolves, new technologies bring more challenges to be faced due to pollution. We discuss different types and forms of pollution in the Anthropocene, resulted as a side effect of many of the technologies which humans have created. The perceived levels of pollution varies across countries and are important predictors of responses towards pollution reduction. Limiting these emissions, including radiation, gases, heavy metals, smoke, dust and CO2 is a complex task that requires a multi-disciplinary approach with the collaboration of a diverse range of experts and the public. Trusted communicators, who can turn specific knowledge into stories, are key to promote pollution control in the Anthropocene. To this end, trust in science is fundamental, as seen during the COVID-19 pandemic. This response model should be carried forward to the larger global pollution problems.
Keywords: Pollution; collaboration; multi-disciplinary research; metal; PM2.5; PM10; mining; sewage; kerosene; bushfire.