International Journal of Society Systems Science (15 papers in press)
Psychosocial Safety Climate and Burnout among Academicians: The Mediating Role of Work Engagement
by Teoh Kok Ban, Daisy Kee Mui Hung
Abstract: As Malaysian universities are moving towards world-class research universities, academicians are now facing higher stress, making them more vulnerable to burnout. Academicians usually will experience burnout in two symptoms, namely emotional exhaustion due to high job demands and disengagement due to circumscribed job resources. Hence, a literature review related to burnout is done on full-time academicians who have worked more than one year in Malaysian research universities, and Psychosocial Safety Climate (PSC) is found useful in this context as it is a precursor to working conditions including job demands and job resources and in turn, burnout, work engagement and performance through mediation pathway. This paper proposes a better job design by PSC through different types of job demands which could enhance the work engagement of academicians while minimizing their level of burnout. Therefore, work engagement is proposed in this study as a potential mediator for the relationship between challenge demands and hindrance demands to burnout among academicians. Directly and indirectly, in-depth PSC context proposed for the rewarding job demands and reduce the burnout level of academicians via the mediation of work engagement. Therefore, the measurement of PSC could offer a useful tool to help in the change of management practices of research universities and in turn academicians health and well-being.
Keywords: research universities; burnout; job demands; psychosocial safety climate; work engagement.
Assessing Recent Pattern of Gold Price Volatility in Malaysia (2005-2018)
by Hishamuddin Abdul Wahab, Nur Laila Mohd. Arif
Abstract: Gold price has been subjected to volatility clustering since the abolishment of the gold standard in August 1971. While there are myriad studies focused on developed economies, studies on the pattern of volatility in gold especially under the context of small open economy of Malaysia are still lacking. Attempting to fill in the gap, this study provides insight into the trend of gold price volatility as well as to examine the time variant nature of gold volatility surrounding the US Subprime crisis. This study also provides a new perspective on the transmission between bilateral exchange rate (MYR/USD) and gold price. This study covered recent daily data from August 2005 to July 2018 using different models of ARCH-GARCH including ARCH, GARCH, EGARCH and TGARCH. Accordingly, gold price volatility was persistent across all periods. Enhanced volatility was evident during the 2008 Global Financial Crisis (GFC) owing to high speculative activities and clustered news over the period. In term of asymmetry response, there was inverted asymmetry effect where positive shock raised volatility in gold. Finally, bilateral exchange rate (MYR/USD) affected gold price volatility with positive relationship, implicating the high sensitivity of gold investment during the depreciation of local currency.
Keywords: Gold Volatility; GARCH; TGARCH; EGARCH; MGARCH-GCC.
The Impact of Emotional Intelligence on Ambidextrous Behaviours in Small and Medium Enterprises in Malaysia
by Wai Chuen Poon, Osman Mohamad
Abstract: This paper contributes to the growing body of research that focuses on the antecedents of ambidextrous behaviours, that is, understanding the role of emotional intelligence influencing ambidextrous behaviours. One central challenge caused by ambidextrous behaviours is the divergence mindset catering to the contradiction of exploitative and explorative behaviours. The manner in which owner-managers recognise with and act out contradictory demands provides an insight into the balancing act of ambidextrous behaviours. Following theory of dynamic capability, the present study sought to identify the role of emotional intelligence (EI) managing ambidextrous, exploitative and explorative behaviours among owner-managers from small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor, Malaysia. Out of 1,000 invited respondents, a total of 220 owner-managers participated in this research. 183 useable data were analysed using Partial Least Squares (SmartPLS v3.2.7), result suggests that EI positively influence exploitative and explorative behaviours. Interestingly, though, data indicates EI negatively influences ambidextrous behaviours. Furthermore, ambidextrous behaviours were found to positively influencing business performance. This study adds to the limited theoretical and empirical understanding of the role of EI and ambidextrous behaviours. This present study concludes by highlighting the implications and significance of these findings for theory, managerial practice, and future research.
Keywords: Emotional Intelligence; Ambidextrous Behaviours; Firm Performance; Small and Medium Enterprise; Malaysia.
Establishing the Validity and Reliability of Kuwait Resources of Nation Branding Model
by Khaled Alazemi, Fauziah Shaik Ahmad
Abstract: To transform the economy of a nation and develop a strong national brand performance various resources are needed and must be managed by the government to ensure strong nation brand performance. In the evaluation of nation branding resources and management, a valid as well as a practical and reliable model is needed. This study is aimed at developing and assesses the validity and reliability of a model for the measurement of the perception of Kuwaiti businesspersons towards the implementation of nation branding management in Kuwait. Based on Anholts hexagon, a conceptual model developed by Simon Anholt for nation branding, this study integrates the resource based view (RBV theory) to the model. The study develops a Kuwait Resources of Nation Branding (KRNB) framework to examine how resources (which include tourism, investment, and export related) affecting the nation branding management and the nation branding performance A questionnaire is utilized for data collection and is distributed to a sample of 72 Kuwaiti business persons using the snowball technique. Experts are employed in the assessment of content validity. Measurement of construct validity is done using smart-PLS . The reliability of all measures were confirmed using the results of Alpha test (?>0.7) with minimum value of =0.835 . For convergent reliability, AVE had higher values than the recommended threshold of ?0.5 with minimum value of 0.513 and CR values > 0.6. . The study found that the proposed KRNB model is valid as well as reliable.
Keywords: resources; nation branding management; nation branding performance; Kuwait resources of nation branding model.
A longitudinal analysis of Internet use. The case of Greece.
by Elias Gounopoulos, Stavros Valsamidis, Ioannis Kazanidis, Sotirios Kontogiannis
Abstract: Internet usage for capital enhancing activities is not considered by the Greeks necessary to their everyday life. The majority of the Greek users prefer to use it for communication, entertainment and information, while fewer are using it for electronic banking services, educational activities, etc. This paper examines the changing effect of socio-economic and demographic factors on Internet use in Greece, for the years 2013 and 2015.
We used multivariate analysis to analyse the micro data of the surveys, on the use of ICTs by the households and individuals, conducted by the Hellenic statistical authority. Our results show that Internet use in Greece reflects and reproduces current social inequalities. The people who are employed, educated, live in urban areas and have higher income, benefit more from using the Internet. Although the inequalities in Internet use seem to decrease marginally, policy measures should adopt a targeted strategy for vulnerable social groups.
Keywords: Digital divide; Digital inequality; Internet use; Multivariate analysis; Greece.
Development of an Individual Work Performance and Work Design Questionnaire
by Mohd Faizal Hamzah, Mohamad Noorman Masrek, Irwan Kamaruddin Abdul Kadir
Abstract: Work performances and work design are vital concepts in many types of research. These concepts improve organizational and individual positive outcome. Unfortunately, a study in work design concepts is incredibly limited in library fields. Therefore the instrument of work design study and work performance is almost non-existence in library fields. Accordingly, this study proposed a new dimension in measuring work performance. Hence, the objective of this study is to propose a set of questionnaires to measure work performance and work design at the individual level. The questionnaire was developed based on 1) two dimensional for work performance namely, task performance, and contextual performance, 2) two dimensional for work design consisted of task character and knowledge characteristic. The instrument used for this study is a questionnaire. The items in the Library were developed based on the proposed conceptual framework of the previous study. To report content validity for the instrument, the researcher conducted several pre-testing sessions to review the instrument. The feedbacks from experts during pre-testing were analyzed. After pre-tested, 326 respondents were involved during the pilot test session of the instrument. The data were analyzed using SmartPLS to identify the convergent validity (AVE), Cronbachs Alpha, and factor loading for each dimension. The reliability of the instrument was reported in the table. The Reliability of the proposed instrument was identified, in which the results of Cronbachs Alpha for each dimension are strong to represent the study.
Keywords: Work Performance; Work Design; Questionnaire; Work Design; and Work Performance Instrument.
The Individual Competencies and Organizational Ambidextrous:
Indonesian SMEs Perspective
by Eka Sudarmaji, Nana Nawasiah, Supriadi Thalib, M. Nuruddin Subhan
Abstract: This study provides perspectives on ambidexterity practices within Indonesian SMEs for their Internationalization strategic development to respond to the present business environment. Ambidexterity organization capability as well as dynamic capability of Indonesian SMEs were investigated. The improvement of Indonesian SMEs ambidexterity organization capability can lead to innovation opportunity to exercise for better new products, services, processes or new technologies to fulfill the market demands. The study used a quantitative methodology and SMART PLS to analyze data. This study contributes to the field of internationalization of Indonesian SMEs with a two-dimensional change of individual and organizational competencies.
Keywords: Ambidextrous capabilities; Dynamic capabilities; Internationalization SMEs; Innovations.
Improving the Entropy weighting Method Performance by Using Alternative Normalization Procedures
by Mohammad Azadfallah
Abstract: There is no doubt that the Shannon entropy's is the most popular method to obtain attribute weights in Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) area. Despite its usefulness, entropy has some notable limitations. Historically, since Shannon and Weaver introduced entropy concept in 1947, and Zeleny in which applied it for attribute weights in 1976, up to present times, a significant drawback with this approach is that a very important attribute may have little weight in analysis. Because all the alternatives are close in terms of that, attribute. So, in this paper to resolve this limit a new normalized method is considered. The finding of this study reveals that some methods (i.e. Peldschus, juttler- Korth, Max and Stopp) are better than others (Total Ratios, Vector, Weitendorf's, Voogd Ratio, Logarithmic and Product method). Hence, in continuation, we generated 100 decision matrix, in the range of 1 to 100 for three first criteria (C1, C2, and C3), and 50 to 60 for last criteria (C4), with random numbers. The results indicated that, in 100% of times average of the criteria weights with small difference between alternatives (here, C4), had increased from 0.002 to 0.324, 0.391, 0.391 and 0.343 values, for Peldschus, Juttler-Korth, Max and Stopp method. However, in 45%, 77%, 77% and 95% of times rank reversal are happened, respectively. In sum, it is suggested that first, we calculate the results with both model (the conventional and extended model), then we test them against rank preservation or reversal. Since, rank is preserved when desired (if the extended model results [in other words, rank order] were consistent with the conventional model), and allowed to reverse as necessary.
Keywords: MCDM; Entropy; Improved Entropy Weighting Method.
Enshrined education rights: A three state comparison
by Thomas Mc Donagh
Abstract: This article will examine enshrined education rights in the United Kingdom, Ireland and the United States of America. This comparative analysis will consider what constitute education rights, what it means for rights to be enshrined and whether and where education rights are enshrined in these three countries. It will also consider whether it may be possible to achieve as much or more through aligning education rights to other rights as is necessitated by the nature of the United States Constitution as by upholding a right to education through less formal constitutional means as in the United Kingdom or whether the soundest footing is to be in a position to litigate upon explicitly protected constitutional or otherwise enshrined rights to education as in the Irish Constitution. Finally it will cite research indicating that educational rights necessarily support educational sustainability which is a prerequisite to economic and environmental sustainability and development.
Keywords: 1870 Education Act; Article 42; Brown v Board of Education; Constitution of Ireland; Education rights; Enshrined rights; Human rights; US Constitution; Sinnott v Minister for Education; Sustainability; TD v Minister for Education; Plessy v Ferguson.
Drivers of Purchasing Intention towards Non-Asbestos Roofing Sheets in Sri Lanka
by Poornima K. Gayathree, D. Wasantha Kumara, H.M.T. Madhushani
Abstract: Statistics shows that the building materials has also shown an upward trend in terms of usage. Out of these roofing sheets was a massively discussed topic in 2017 because of its hazardous health impact. Therefore study attempts to explore whether the Sri Lankan has developed a positive attitude towards the environmental friendliness of the non-asbestos roofing sheets. The results showed that, a significant effect of health consciousness, consumer knowledge and perception of product quality on the attitude towards the environmental friendliness of non-asbestos roofing sheets. Further, attitude towards the environmental friendliness of non-asbestos roofing sheets had a significant influence on the purchasing intention. The mediating effect of attitude towards environmental friendliness was only significant for the relationship of health consciousness and consumer knowledge with the purchasing intention. Therefore, it can be concluded that, the Sri Lankan consumer consider the environmental friendliness of non-asbestos roofing sheets.
Keywords: Consumer attitude towards the environmental friendliness of non-asbestos roofing sheets; Perception of product quality; Health consciousness; Consumer knowledge; Purchase.
Analysis The Effect of Corporate Social Responsibility on Tax Avoidance with Profitability and Firm Size as Moderating Variables
by Frandy Karundeng, Vierly Ananta Upa, Yanuar Dananjaya
Abstract: Companies that take benefits of natural resources are required to implement Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Besides, they have an obligation to pay tax. CSR and Tax have the same goal to improve the community welfare, while both are expenses for the companies. These similarities allow companies with high CSR activities to decrease the amount of tax payable through tax avoidance practices. The results of this study show that the higher the level of CSR activities, the higher the companys responsibility for its tax obligations. Moreover, CSR has stronger influence on decreasing tax avoidance if CSR is carried out by large companies. Profitability does not moderate the relationship because of the weakening economic conditions of mining industry. In addition, companies with high CSR activities assumed that tax payment became a part of CSR, so they did not consider CSR and tax payment to be separated and mutually replaceable.
Keywords: CSR; tax avoidance; profitability; firm size; sustainability; tax ratio; tax payment; mining industry; Indonesia; voluntary.
The Career Women of Kabul and their Struggle for an Empowered Identity
by Waslat Lema Atifmal, Mahine Ahmad, Cody Paris
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to explore the experiences of Afghan women as they pursue careers in post-Taliban Kabul and how these experiences help shape their identity. This study, through in-depth interviews with professional women in Kabul, explores how women continue to challenge stereotypes and fight various forms of oppression. The results of the study have highlighted how women in Afghanistan are motivated by opportunities to exercise economic autonomy and empowered identities that challenge both historical issues of patriarchal society. However, there are still many barriers facing Afghan women including access to quality education, political instability along with issues around challenging Western stereotypes and assumptions regarding Afghan women.
Keywords: Empowerment; Social Justice; Post-Taliban; Afghanistan; Social Inclusion; Post-conflict education; international development; gender equality; education access.
Special Issue on: ERPBSS 2018 Sustainable Development and International Business
Community development model (CDM) for poverty eradication of indigenous people in Malaysia
by Muhamad Azahar Abas, Mohamad Faiz Mohd Amin, Seong Wei Lee, Nor Hizami Hassin
Abstract: The predominant indigenous population of Peninsular Malaysia is the Orang Asli. Orang Asli is one of the most vulnerable groups in Malaysia, with a disproportionately high incidence of poverty and hardcore poverty. Community development is one of the potential strategies in eradicating poverty. The community development model was used as a guideline to implement the catfish farming program for the Orang Asli community at Sungai Rual Village, Kelantan. This program was divided into four (4) phases namely i) selection of participant and preparation for catfish pond; ii) job training and coaching; iii) catfish production & harvesting, and iv) marketing & sales. A focus group discussion (FGD) was conducted to explore the benefits and challenges of the catfish farming program at Sungai Rual Village. A total of 4 Orang Asli had participated in this study. Content analysis was conducted and it was discovered that the knowledge of Orang Asli on catfish farming and marketing has increased. Besides that, this study also found out that Orang Asli has gained significant skills specifically in business management. Moreover, this project is still ongoing and it is expected to provide opportunities for Orang Asli to increase their income or revenue from the sale of catfish. Besides that, the challenges facing the community development program for the Orang Asli have been identified. Identification of challenges is very crucial in the effort to improve the community development program, particularly relating to the Orang Asli community in the future.
Keywords: community development model; indigenous people; poverty eradication.
Stakeholders role in delivering sustainable supply chains in the construction sector
by Sreejith Balasubramanian
Abstract: The aim of this study is to examine the role of each key supply chain stakeholders (Developers, Architects/Consultants, Contractors and Suppliers) and other extended stakeholders (Regulatory bodies, Buyers/end users and Non-government organizations) in delivering sustainable supply chains in the construction sector. The primary qualitative data for this study was collected from semi-structured interviews covering key stakeholders. The analysis of interview transcripts revealed the relevance and importance of each stakeholder as well as the various conflicting interests and challenges in engaging them to implement sustainable practices in a coherent manner vis-
Keywords: Construction sector; sustainability; Stakeholders; United Arab Emirates; Sustainable Supply Chains.
Sustainable Development: Perspectives from Canadian jurisprudence on First Nations' Aboriginal rights and title
by Tracie Lea Scott
Abstract: First Nations across Canada have been in the courts for generations to protect their lands and their societies. It will be argued in this paper that the resulting sui generis instantiation of Aboriginal title formulated in the courts reflects some of the more challenging aspects of sustainable development discourse. In this paper key Canadian Supreme Court decisions will be examined to illustrate how the Canadian courts have addressed aspects of sustainable development in Aboriginal rights and title litigation that are traditionally difficult to measure and implement. Indeed, these cases provide a window into how courts may implement sustainable development goals if these considerations become integrated into broader legal determinations, and provide insight for businesses into what may become expected if deep sustainable development becomes accepted into dominant legal and political systems.
Keywords: Sustainable development; First Nations; sui generis Aboriginal title; Duty to consult;.