International Journal of Society Systems Science (17 papers in press)
Designing youth master plans in a CLE Space (constructivist learning environment space): lessons from using Minecraft in secondary school outreach project in Scotland.
by Deepak Gopinath
Abstract: In response to problems of neoliberal urbanism agenda, Lefebvre (1991) argued for a 'right to the city' so that more people are involved in the (re-) production of urban spaces (Purcell 2002). The challenge being to translate this right into practice particularly to involve hard-to- reach groups such as young people. With growing use of technology in participation, visualization techniques are gaining currency. But what is missing is an important consideration of the environment, where these approaches are applied and particularly in how/whether shared learning and visioning is possible. I argue in this commentary that constructivist learning environments (Savery and Duffy 2001) has the potential, both as theory and method, to frame the characteristics of virtual spaces of participation, where children and young people can critically assess and re-design the spaces in the real world. The CLE space marks departure from current understanding and argues instead that: (1) expertise should reside in the participants (in this case, young people) at all levels and that enablers (such as urban designers, architects, planning consultants etc.) ought to only enable the activity; (2) the spaces where conventional participatory approaches unfold e.g. a community hall should give way to those relational spaces (such as an IT suite) where young people take on the role of experts this is where gaming software such as Minecraft have potential and which would prevent enablers of participatory workshops, in providing an a priori blueprint as to how design needs to be carried out by the participants. Policy makers can use this innovative framework for developing for instance child-friendly cities or youth master plans as part of regeneration initiatives.
Keywords: Youth master plans; constructivist learning environments; CLE space; right to the city; Minecraft; young people; city planning; Dundee waterfront.
A Critical Review of Mental Health Research in Mumbai and New York City
by Simone Malekar, Shamira Soren Malekar
Abstract: Mental health (MH) is an essential part of wellbeing. The objective of this review is to evaluate recent MH research themes in Mumbai and New York City (NYC). These megacities were chosen for review due to their cultural and institutional differences. The attributes of comparison were research attention, social dynamics, and healthcare access. There is an asymmetry of data as MH research in Mumbai is comparatively uncommon due to perceived stigma and cultural factors. In NYC, immigration status and ethnicity were found to affect MH. Common themes include the investigation of minority MH and the role of social support in mitigating mental disorders. NYC mental and primary healthcare systems are integrated and separate in Mumbai. The NYC government enforced an MH initiative, ThriveNYC, with mixed outcomes. The implications of this critical review include the necessity of MH destigmatization initiatives and the incorporation of MH services with primary healthcare.
Keywords: Mumbai; New York City; mental health; healthcare; well-being; stigma; social dynamics; social support; ethnicity; culture.
Classifying COVID-19-related hate twitter users using deep neural networks with sentiment-based features and geopolitical factors
by Peng Zhao, Xi Chen, Xin Wang
Abstract: Anti-Asian hate tweets caused by COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing social problem in the United States and around the world. Although existing studies have been done by using a text classifier, little is known on how deep learning works with public sentiments of political opinions and geographical diversities. This paper provides a new method to classify the pandemic-related anti-Asian hater on Twitter. A novel dataset for tracking pandemic-related Twitter users, which contains more than 10 million tweets, is created in this study. Target users are annotated by identifying their sentiments towards the U.S. elections with their geolocations. The empirical result indicates that the political sentiments and the county-level election results make significant contributions to the model building. By training a DNN model, over 190,000 Twitter users are classified as hate or non-hate with a 61% accuracy and a 0.63 AUC score.
Keywords: pandemic-related hate; anti-Asian tweets; sentiment analysis; GIS; deep neural network algorithm.
When & where? Proactively Predicting Traffic Accident in South Africa: Our Machine Learning Competition Winning Approach
by Sulaimon Afolabi, Warrie Warrie, Oluwatobi Banjo, Opeoluwa Iwashokun, Abimbola Olawale, Naledi Ngqambela, Fatai Soliu, Olawunmi Olasunkanmi, Sakinat Folorunso, Sibusiso Matshika
Abstract: South Africa records high mortality originating from traffic accident annually making the country to be ranked highly among nations with the highest traffic mortality globally. There is seemingly no study that has attempted to forecast when and where next accident will occur in South Africa. Road accidents in South Africa remain high compared with other African nations and hence this demand for possible solutions. The purpose of this study is to use machine learning method to predict traffic accident in South Africa for every hour ranging between 1st January 2019 and 31st March 2019 at a segment id. We obtained details of accidents that occurred in Cape Town, South Africa between 2016 and 2019 SANRAL, Uber Movement and Cape Town FMS via Zindi data science competition platform. This research adopted Catboost and LightGBM, a variant of supervised machine learning approach, to predict the hourly probability of traffic incident occurrence in a road segment, along major road network in Cape Town. Our model shows a F1 score of 0.11. The results of this research will help in predicting if accident will happen in a particular road segment hourly. Also, if the recommendation made in the research are duly acted upon, it will go a long way in reducing the traffic accident in South Africa.
Keywords: road accident; machine learning; Cape Town; forecast; Data Science.
Verifying the effects of residents evacuation actions through continuous tsunami disaster prevention training
by Yamato Yuya, Nguyen Dinh-Thanh
Abstract: Appropriate evacuation actions are required for tsunami evacuation. Tsunami disaster prevention training is a form of training intended to reduce tsunami evacuation time as much as possible and appropriately perform evacuation actions. This study analyzes resident evacuation actions in a non-tsunami-prone area over a long period of 7 years and is novel in that it enables sufficient analysis of evacuation actions. This study examines the effects of the 7-year continuous disaster prevention training from 2013 to 2019, which was conducted by the Ishikawa prefecture, Kaga city, Miki district voluntary disaster prevention association. The following four points are mentioned: (1) Changes in content and evacuation actions that should be implemented during disaster prevention training, (2) how to respond to voluntary disaster prevention association to improve the safety of evacuation routes, (3) devising a voluntary disaster prevention association to make residents check how to operate evacuation shelters, and (4) analyzing evacuation actions by age and determining ages that require disaster prevention education.
Keywords: evacuation actions; voluntary disaster prevention association; disaster prevention training; non-tsunami-prone areas.
Special Issue on: ICBBS 2019 Discussing Business and Behaviour Studies Using an Interdisciplinary Approach
Understanding Window Dressing Practices Among Indonesian Construction Companies: An Effort To Minimize Investment Risks
by Gatot Iwan Kurniawan
Abstract: The current focus of Indonesian government on infrastructure development provides an opportunity for funding agencies to invest in construction and building companies. This opportunity, however, is not always directly proportional to the share performance of these Indonesian building and construction companies. This study examines window dressing practices conducted by some construction and building companies as an attempt to manipulate their financial status. Companies carry out this manipulative practice to attract possible investors and other funding agencies in their business. To detect and avoid this fraudulent practice, investors need to carefully calculate the cash holdings and stock performance of these companies. The study found different result of calculation between the two techniques. Cash holdings technique confirms the fact that most companies perform window dressing to attract investors. Meanwhile, showing the real firm performance, stock performance technique is only adopted by a small number of companies. This finding is expected to contribute to risk management, in relation to identifying a risk.
Keywords: cash holding; investment risk; stock performance; window dressing.
CONTEXTUAL DIVIDE, METHODOLOGICAL VARIATIONS AND THEORETICAL USAGE OF VOLUNTARY EMPLOYEE GREEN BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH: A REVIEW
by Hewawasam Puwakpitiyage Rasika Priyankara, Naotunna Palliya Guruge Sasika Irani Naotunna
Abstract: Environmental degradation, coupled with greenhouse gas emissions, is one of the contemporary critical issues faced by society. Business organizations are significant contributors to the eco-system distortion. Voluntary Employee Green Behavior (VEGB), is inevitable in mitigating ecosystem damages and reaching the environmental sustainability goals. This article aims to review the literature on VEGB to identify and evaluate the contextual dispersion, the methodological variations, and the theoretical rigorousness of VEGB studies. We used an iterative multistage approach to collect literature. The analysis shows a continental divide of VEGB research since the majority of research is concentrated in the USA and EU. The prominent methodological approach used in VEGB research is quantitative, and a limited number of studies are qualitative. Though the researchers have used multi-level conceptual frameworks, only a handful of studies have applied multi-level analysis. Notably, the multi-theory applications in VEGB studies are rare. The study findings imply the need for uncovering the VEGB knowledge in developing country contexts, using multi-level analysis, and employing a multi-theory perspective. This review provides the direction to generate further knowledge about VEGB, which will be beneficial in mitigating ecosystem damages and developing a responsible society.
Keywords: Voluntary Employee Green Behaviour; Environment Sustainability; Multi-level analysis; Literature Review; Multi-theory Perspective.
THE IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY ON HUMAN BEHAVIOR AND BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT
by PREMSANKAR MANICKAVASAGAM
Abstract: Nature feeds all in an enormous way for the benefit of human beings and living creatures with the concept of ecology behavior. Charles Robert Darwin (Naturalist) stated the evolution of human mankind is from apes however in the current practice the technology is the creator as well as the destroyer for behavior in human being and environment. Ephemeral conditions prevail with the advancement of technology. Even though, the technology paved the way for business change the behavior is totally abstruse. The higher the technology dependable factor the bane is not too far for humans and nature. As per the online reports 13 tonnes of water is used to produce a single Smartphone leading to scarcity of water which in turn implicated to global warming. The author in this paper finds the bombastic situation with technology causing emotional sickness in reacting to cross situation and health issues like aging. The author is coining a new term Anthropoid Mechanic Syndrome (AMS), due to consistent implications of technology in day to day activities. The analysis was found that human stress factor caused by technology is circumvent to lose the self freedom of expression indulging in contravene situation. As per secondary data Asia is a biggest hub for technology growth but the mission created by technology revolutionize even the human creator to a different behavior triggering natural disaster. Technology proves to be the hegemony in the forecasting years and acting as a liaison between the human behavior and business environment.
Keywords: Bombastic; Stress; Anthropoid.
THE EFFECT OF CONSUMER PROXIMITY AND MEDIA EXPOSURE ON CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY DISCLOSURE
by Hans Hananto Andreas, Ming Lei Chang
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of consumer proximity and media exposure on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) disclosure at several sector companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange. We use companies on the sectors of food and beverages, mining, and properties listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange in 2017. We find that consumer proximity and media exposure had a positive effect on CSR disclosure, and control variables of company leverage and size had similar positive effects. Overall, our results indicate that the closeness of the company with consumers indirectly formed by its products can make companies give more disclosure of their CSR activities. Then, media exposure is proved to have significant effect on the CSR disclosure of the companies. It drives the companies to give information to all stakeholders about their business decision making. This research demonstrates that consumer proximity can make a company more disclosure of their CSR activities Then, the important role from the media can give information about their business decision making as information to stakeholders.
Keywords: Consumer Proximity; Media Exposure; Corporate Social Responsibility.
INVESTMENT STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT: DOES PUBLIC SERVICE SERVE INVESTOR WELL?
by Eny Lestari Widarni, Nasikh Nasikh, Silvi Asna Prestianawati
Abstract: This study aimed to determine the investment index and its development strategies in Malang City, Indonesia. A descriptive quantitative approach was carried out using the ICOR formula. The results showed that the ICOR of Malang City had not reached the optimal index yet. Therefore, long-term investment is necessary to be done in Malang, considering that an additional lag in the ICOR causes the ICOR number to get closer to 1. The results of this study could be utilized by the local government in developing a more comprehensive policy on investment in Malang. Furthermore, this research result also can be used by society to enlarge their knowledge before doing investment in Malang city.
Keywords: ICOR; Investment; Malang City.
Crisis Management and COVID-19: The Case of Budget Hotels in Muang Chiangmai District
by Janak Nandan Pandey, Jirayu Phasook, Suttisak Sawangsak, Chonticha Rodhirun
Abstract: Thailand is one of the most famous tourist destinations in ASIA and is also called Land of Smiles. Thailand is well known and admired for its cuisine, culture, affordable accommodation, and Thai hospitality. Economy of Thailand is heavily dependent on Tourism Industry with increase in foreign tourist year by year. The current outbreak of a new coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Thailand is a crisis for the tourism industry and economy.
Due to their characteristics the budget hotels are quite vulnerable as they are mostly owned by individuals lacking finance, manpower, strategy, or a plan to overcome the crisis. Hence, this study focuses on the budget hotels in Muang Chiangmai District area. The purpose of the research is to understand effects of COVID-19 and develop an approach in crisis management especially for budget hotels. The research aims to assists budget hotels and its management to provide a safe and secure stay in case of future crisis.
This study employed mixed method concept, by combining qualitative and quantitative methods. Data were obtained by two mediums: (a) Quantitative data collection through questionnaires, (b) qualitative data by conducting face-to-face interview with 5 respondents (Managers) through snowball technique.
The results of the study show that manager perception, well trained staff, strategy, and planning to combat crisis plays a crucial role in crisis management. Budget hotel should have procedure and protocol along with trained employees in safety and health guidelines.
Keywords: Crisis Management; Budget Hotels; COVID-2019.
Special Issue on: Symposium on Rethinking Pollution Environmental Politics, Public Health and Civil Society in Asia and the Pacific Rethinking Pollution A Multidisciplinary Approach
The Importance of Understanding Local Legends to Conserve Wildlife: Freshwater Turtles of the Amazon
by Camila Ferrara, Larissa Schneider, Richard Vogt
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to reveal for the first time some of the legends that have been told about turtles from generation to generation in the quilombola communities in the Rio Trombetas. From these simple stories the locals demonstrate their knowledge of the biology of turtles and their supernatural belief in them. These legends represent different aspects of turtle conservation, including the need to limit the poaching of females, sustaining a steady turtle population. Through the perpetration of these legends, the importance to conserve turtles is maintained between the quilombola communities.
Keywords: Turtles; Amazon; Trombetas river; Quilombolas; Legends; Podocnemis; Amazonia; culture; conservation; quilombola; Brazil; South America; Tropical Forest; Amazon Forest; chelonian.
Solid waste in remote communities of Papua New Guinea a case study on the Kikori delta region.
by Carla Eisemberg, Tito Khatiwada, Helen Truscott, Yolarnie Amepou, Aungas Olewale, Celina Padilha
Abstract: The increase in availability of industrialized products in Papua New Guinea (PNG) has exacerbated its waste issues in both remote towns and villages. This study quantified and categorized the waste composition in the Kikori delta (PNG) and assessed the level of local awareness. Waste audits and community awareness surveys were conducted at 11 locations from April to September 2019. The waste distribution pattern observed indicated that locations closer to the local store had the highest amount of non-degradable solid waste. Since most of the organic waste in Kikori is already utilised as compost, the main concern in the region is the non-organic waste such as aluminium and plastic. Disposable containers and packaging were the main sources of solid waste. The Kikori community is aware of the problems associated with waste, but there is a need to improve the level of awareness regarding waste disposal and biodegradable alternatives.
Keywords: waste audit; Gulf Province; community awareness; environmental education; waste management; recycling; waste composition.
Environmental monitoring and the geospatial sprawl of historic mining legacies in Australia
by Nicholas Metherall, Talei Caucau
Abstract: Mining legacies refer to the lasting environmental, social and public health impacts of abandoned, orphan and derelict mine sites. Such impacts often occur in the absence of a responsible party to oversee the closure and rehabilitation of mine sites. Even in cases where there are systems of accountability and regulatory bodies to monitor compliance to environmental standards, incidents and lasting impacts have still occurred. The spatial extent of these lasting legacies of contaminants originating from abandoned mines often overlap with both Indigenous areas and surface-groundwater ecosystems. This study investigates these processes through the case studies of Ranger Uranium Mine in the Northern Territory and Captains Flat (Lake George Mine) in New South Wales. These cases, among others, raise concerns about the number of environmental incidents and the scale of impacts of mining legacies. This paper overlays geospatial layers of mining, Indigenous areas and surface-groundwater data. The collation sheds light on the geospatial sprawl of mining legacies in Australia and latent pathways of contamination through key water bodies including tthe Murray Darling Basin Authority (MDBA) and the Great Artesian Basin (GAB). The study also overlaid this sprawl of mining legacies over additional map layers relating to the Murray Darling River Indigenous Nations (MLDRIN). This paper provides a critical review of the existing research and datasets in this field.
Keywords: Mining legacies; geospatial; Indigenous; abandoned mines; water contamination; environmental monitoring.
Pollution Prevention and Mitigation - All Hands on Deck
by Hans Bachor, Larissa Schneider
Abstract: Economic and population growth has resulted in a significant environmental pollution issue in the Anthropocene. As the world evolves, new technologies bring more challenges to be faced due to pollution. We discuss different types and forms of pollution in the Anthropocene, resulted as a side effect of many of the technologies which humans have created. The perceived levels of pollution varies across countries and are important predictors of responses towards pollution reduction. Limiting these emissions, including radiation, gases, heavy metals, smoke, dust and CO2 is a complex task that requires a multi-disciplinary approach with the collaboration of a diverse range of experts and the public. Trusted communicators, who can turn specific knowledge into stories, are key to promote pollution control in the Anthropocene. To this end, trust in science is fundamental, as seen during the COVID-19 pandemic. This response model should be carried forward to the larger global pollution problems.
Keywords: Pollution; collaboration; multi-disciplinary research; metal; PM2.5; PM10; mining; sewage; kerosene; bushfire.
The Effects of Pollution in Reptiles and Amphibians and Consequent Effect on the Indigenous Asian People.
by Richard Vogt
Abstract: Some of the things that are inherent in the food chain that are threatening both wildlife and the health of indigenous people in Asia are: diseased or infected animal carcasses discarded in aquatic ecosystems, particularly rivers and lakes, heavy metal particles in air, water and soil, toxic chemicals and mycotoxins in soil and water, concentrations of pesticides and herbicides used indiscriminately and later absorbed by plants and concentrated in the fat of animals that eat these plants contaminating the food and water supplies used by indigenous populations. In this talk I will consider the vulnerability of reptiles and amphibians in Asia and consequently their effect on humans, within the context of pollution using the six categories of concern established by Partners in Amphibian and Reptile Conservation ((Partners in Amphibian and Reptile Conservation-PARC)): habitat loss and degradation, introduced invasive species, environmental pollution, disease and parasitism, unsustainable use, and global climate change. I will contextualize the issue of modern pollution as a threat to reptiles in Asia and its ultimate effect on indigenous people who depend on the consumption of these animals to survive. This multi-scale problem approach will build a deeper understanding of wildlife consumption and extirpation as a threat to indigenous health and nourishment in Asia.
Keywords: Sustainable use; turtles; conservation; diseases; habitat loss; China; folk medicine.
Blue Pacific, Polluted Ocean
by Margaret Jolly
Abstract: In this essay I explore a cruel paradox. Pacific nations are increasingly deploying the language of the Blue Pacific to stress their solidarity and sovereignty, especially in the face of climate change. This evocation of the connecting power of the ocean in regional and global fora engages the visions of scholars of Pacific ancestry starting with Epeli Hau'ofa's revisioning of Oceania as "Our Sea of Islands" in 1993. It has proved a potent discourse, as witnessed in the most recent Pacific Island Forum Leaders' meeting in Tuvalu in 2019. Yet Pacific people are simultaneously grappling with the legacy of colonialism and capitalism which has massively polluted their ocean with plastic, nuclear contamination, and the warming and acidification of the ocean associated with climate change. The global inequalities and divisions created by a colonising capitalism and the burgeoning power and hubris of fossil-fuelled political economies are both cause and consequence of all three. This confluence of pollutants is also a crucial aspect of what Pacific peoples are seeking to redress through political leadership and diplomacy, claims of loss and damage, everyday practices of eschewing plastic and 'cleaning up' and through creative resistance in the arts.
Keywords: Pacific; ocean; pollution; plastic; nuclear testing; nuclear contamination; ocean warming; ocean acidification; climate change; sea level rise; Pacific Island Forum; Epeli Hau’ofa,.