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International Journal of Sustainable Materials and Structural Systems
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International Journal of Sustainable Materials and Structural Systems (7 papers in press)
Multiple timescale spectral analysis of a linear fractional visco-elastic
oscillator under arbitrary stationary input by Vincent Denoël Abstract: Abstract This paper studies the structural response of a single degree-of- freedom structure including a fractional derivative constitutive term. Unlike usual existing models for this kind of structure, the excitation is not necessarily a Markovian process but it is slowly varying in time, so that a timescale separation is used. Following the general formulation of the Multiple Timescale Spectral Analysis, the solution is developed as a sum of background and resonant components. Because of the specific shape of the frequency response function of a system equipped with a fractional viscoelastic device, the background component is not simply obtained as the variance of the loading divided by the stiffness of the system. On the contrary the resonant component is expressed as a simple extension of the existing formulation for a viscous system, at least at leading order. As a validation case, the proposed solution is shown to recover similar results (in the white noise excitation case) as former studies based on a stochastic averaging approach. A better accuracy is however obtained in case of very small fractional exponent. Another example related to the buffeting analysis of a linear fractional viscoelastic system demonstrates the accuracy of the proposed formulation for colored excitation. Keywords: Caputo fractional derivative; Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative; perturbation analysis; stochastic averaging; background component; resonant component.
Simple Application of Interval Analyses to Structural Safety: Standard versus Parameterized Versions by Isaac Elishakoff Abstract: In this paper the implications of the use of interval analysis are studied in regards to the decision making process on the safety of the structure. It is shown that the conclusions derived by application of the standard interval analysis about the structural safety may be misleading in some cases. Parameterized interval analysis is demonstrated to yield rigorous results. Keywords: Interval analysis; uncertainty; parametrization technique.
Parametric study on sustainable geopolymer concrete by Sanghamitra Jena, Ramakanta Panigrahi Abstract: The main cause of global warming generates from cement manufacturing industries. In order to reduce green house gas emission, development of alternative of cement is the main challenge. The industrial by-product fly ash (FA) which was rich in silica and alumina activated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) solution produced a binder. This was combined with natural coarse aggregate and fine aggregate to produce Geopolymer concrete (GPC). This paper presents the experimental investigations on the fresh and hardened properties of GPC mix. Fresh concrete properties such as workability and hardened concrete properties like compressive strength (CS), split tensile strength (STS), flexural strength(FS), density and water absorption were investigated. Effect of sulphate, acid, chlorides on the compressive strength and weight were also studied. The results indicated that GPC could withstand the acidic environment. Behavior of CS of GPC mixes were confirmed by the SEM images. Keywords: Geopolymer concrete; Compressive Strength; Flexural Strength; Split tensile strength; Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR).
INVESTIGATION OF POTENTIAL USE OF COCONUT SHELLS AND FIBRES AS BIO-CEMENT COMPOSITE BINDER by Sumedha Moharana, Tathagata Banerjee Abstract: For sustainable and eco-friendly construction, more attention is being paid to the concept of green buildings. The search for environmentally friendly materials in the concrete construction involves inquisition of natural material which could effectively substitute cement and aggregates. Moreover, disposal of agricultural waste materials such as rice husk, groundnut husk and coconut shell have constituted an environmental challenge, hence, there is a need to convert these naturally available waste materials into useful materials. The paper investigates about coconut shell and coconut fibre as an aggregate is a potential construction material. This paper experimentally investigates to replace fine aggregates with coconut fibres and coarse aggregates with coconut shell to improve the mechanical strength and bonding properties of the concrete mixture. Further, the compressive strength split tensile strength, of the concrete mixture, has been determined for mix concrete. The results shows the replaced natural material has significant potential for lightweight aggregates. Keywords: concrete; natural fibre; cement; shell; natural cement composite. DOI: 10.1504/IJSMSS.2018.10022531
Influence of Fibres on the Rebar-Concrete Bond: Further Evidence of Toughness Enhancement by Brigitte Goffin, Nemkumar Banthia Abstract: The bond between the rebar and the surrounding concrete plays a substantial role in the mechanical performance of a reinforced concrete member due to the stress transfer that occurs at the aforementioned interface. In this study direct rebar pull out tests were performed at different concrete maturities, fibre contents and fibre materials. PET fibres, that have a lower energy requirement during production and improved properties in comparison to polypropylene were used and their performance compared to steel fibres. The addition of fibres leads to a more ductile failure during pull-out. The improved energy absorption capacity is particularly important under seismic loading. Interestingly, a small amount of fibres is enough to notably improve the post-failure behaviour by reducing the softening slope of the stress-slip curve. An increase in fibre content beyond 0.1% for PET fibres does not improve the post-failure behaviour any further. However, steel fibres continue to improve the post-peak behaviour. Thus, the effect of steel fibres is more significant compared to PET fibres and the most pronounced at a high concrete maturity. An analytical model describing the bond stress slip response is proposed and matches the experimental observations well. Keywords: Fibre reinforced concrete; bond; rebar pull-out; modelling.
THE EFFECT OF BIOCOMPOSITE MATERIAL IN A COMPOSITE STRUCTURE UNDER COMPRESSION LOADING by Benjamin Sweeney, Eltahry Elghandour, Faysal Kolkailah Abstract: While composite structures exhibit exceptional strength and weight saving possibilities for engineering applications, sometimes their overall cost and/or material performance can limit their usage when compared to conventional structural materials. Meanwhile biocomposites, composite structures consisting of natural fibers (i.e. bamboo fibers), display higher cost efficiency and unique structural benefits such as sustainability. This analysis will determine if the integration of these two different types of composites are beneficial to the overall structure. Specifically, the structure will consist of a one internal bamboo veneer biocomposite ply; and two external carbon fiber weave composite plies surrounding the bamboo biocomposite. To acquire results of this study, the hypothesized composite structure will consist of varied trapezoidal corrugated specimens and tested in uniaxial compression loading. Thereafter, this test data will be used to ultimately design, manufacture, and test a structural biocomposite/composite box, intended to carry extremely high compressive loads; relative to its own weight. Keywords: biocomposites; natural composites; compression testing; uniaxially compression loading; composites; sustainability; green composites; hybrid composites; bamboo; bamboo core; bamboo composites.
An overview of the properties of sustainable concrete using fly ash as replacement for cement by Rajib Kumar Majhi, Amar Nath Nayak, Bibhuti Bhusan Mukharjee Abstract: Many industries produce several types of byproducts in a large amount each year which is negatively affecting the environment by compromising human health and depleting the natural resources. Utilization of such industrial byproducts in the construction field has become an important step to address the environmental problems as well as to solve the waste disposal crisis. Fly ash (FA) is one of such byproducts obtained from pulverized coal combustion in thermal power plants. FA can be utilized as substitution or addition of cement in making cement based products. This paper critically analyses and summarizes the influence of FA on characteristics of concrete. The physical, chemical properties of FA and its hydration reaction mechanism have been addressed in the present study. The influence of FA on the fresh and hardened properties such as workability, compressive and tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and durability characteristics like resistance to abrasion, permeability, chloride penetration, carbonation, sulfate attack and alkali silica reaction, freezing and thawing effect and shrinkage in concrete have been reviewed in this paper. Keywords: FA; Durability properties; Mechanical properties.