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International Journal of Sustainable Economy (8 papers in press)
How Important is Oil Revenue in Nigerian Growth Process? Evidence from A Threshold Regression by James Temitope DADA, Ezekiel Olamide ABANIKANDA Abstract: This study examines the effect of oil revenue on Nigerian growth process by focusing on the threshold level of oil revenue from 1980-2017. Growth rate of oil revenue and gross domestic product are used as proxy oil revenue and economic growth index respectively. Data are sourced from Central Bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin and World Development Indicators, 2017 edition. Threshold regression is used as the estimation technique. The threshold level of oil revenue in Nigeria that sustain economic growth is 6.17%. Below the threshold level, oil revenue has positive and significant effect on economic growth. While in the second regime (above the threshold level), oil revenue has negative and significant effect on economic growth in Nigeria which affirms the resource curse hypothesis in Nigeria. The study concludes that proceeds from oil revenue should be effectively utilised and institutions should be strengthened. Keywords: Oil Revenue; Economic Growth; Threshold Regression; Sustainability.
The Schumpeterian inner vibratory system by Sara Casagrande Abstract: One surprising aspect of the recent economic crisis was the inability of economists to predict it. This failure was caused by several reasons: a short-term economic thinking, the belief that economic dynamics is a constantly growing path disturbed by erratic shocks, and the lack of a social and evolutionary perspective. We start from the thought of Schumpeter and we aim to deepen his unfinished but very fascinating project: the creation of an economic model that is capable of explaining the endogenous and cyclical nature of growth. Schumpeter called this model the inner vibratory system, suggesting that economic dynamics are determined by a biological mechanism that is subject to non-linearity but which is able to generate an ordered evolution. In this paper we will analyse the main features of a possible inner vibratory system and we will examine its role in the development of models that are able to explain economic crises and embody the concept of long-term sustainable growth. Keywords: Schumpeter; business cycles; nonlinearity; self-organization theory; complexity; dissipative systems; cyclical growth; innovations; inventions; capitalism; environmental sustainability.
The Role of Human Resource Flexibility and Agility in Achieving Sustainable Competitiveness by Agnieszka Karman Abstract: The most dominant features of modern human resource management systems are flexibility and agility. They may refer to the flexibility of procedures, practices, competences, and agility of human resources. The purpose of the paper is to present the relations between the flexibility and agility of human resources and achieving sustainable competitiveness. Drawing upon previous works, we develop a conceptual model which links the constructs together. The conducted research is of theoretical and empirical nature. The method of case study were used. It is hypothesized that the three dimensions of HR flexibility (employee skills flexibility, employee behavior flexibility, and HR practice flexibility) and HR agility affect competitiveness by increasing the flexibility, creativity of human resources, improving quality performance and the impact upon the quality of life of employees and social relations. In particular, the agility and flexibility of human resources contribute to the growth of adaptability and strategic orientation, which directly affects organizations competitiveness. The research results will improve the understanding of the impact of flexibility and agility related to the HRM system on the implementation of the concept of sustainable development in the organization. Keywords: sustainable development; human resource; organization; competitiveness.
Revisiting current account sustainability in Turkey: analysis via Fourier techniques by Onder Ozgur, Muhammed Sehid Gorus, Erdal Tanas Karagol Abstract: The primary purpose of this study is to examine the current account sustainability in Turkey using quarterly data covering the period between 1992:1 and 2017:1. To this end, the study applies two recently developed stationarity and cointegration tests based on intertemporal budget constraint. Both avenues analyse the mean-reverting behaviour of the current account balance using Fourier unit root and cointegration analysis which can scrutinise an unknown number of structural breaks, capture sharp breaks, and approximates them as smooth gradual processes. Empirical findings show that Fourier KPSS unit root test rejects the non-stationarity of current account balance to GDP ratio implying that shocks to current account balance are not persistent. Besides, empirical findings also exhibit weak form sustainability in the short-run whereas its form is strong in the long-run. Keywords: cointegration analysis; current account sustainability; Fourier techniques; Turkey; unit root analysis. DOI: 10.1504/IJSE.2019.10021374
Empirical verification of causality between CO2 emissions, energy consumption, foreign direct investment, gross domestic product, and openness of the economy: evidence from India by Sushil Kumar Rai, Abhay Mohan Bembey, Devshree Sarfare Abstract: The present paper addresses the issue of causal relationships between CO2 emissions, energy consumption (EC), foreign direct investment (FDI), gross domestic product (GDP), and openness of the economy in India by employing time-series data for 37 years from 1978 to 2014. The result indicates the existence of the long-run relationship between the considered variables. Further, a strong joint unidirectional causality is running from energy consumption, foreign direct investment, gross domestic product, and openness of the economy to CO2 emissions. The finding supports the thesis of the causal cyclical relationship between the above-mentioned variables; therefore, the policy of efficient energy use along with the adaptation of new technology in production activity will address the issue of reduction in CO2 emissions without compromising the objectives of high growth rate through foreign direct investment and openness of the economy. Keywords: causality; CO2 emissions; energy consumption; foreign direct investment; FDI; gross domestic product; GDP; openness of the economy; cointegration; vector error correction model; VECM; sustainability. DOI: 10.1504/IJSE.2019.10021384
Natural capital and economic growth: a panel study approach by Sa-ad Iddrisu Abstract: This paper employs panel data study of 63 developing countries to examine the relationship between natural capital and economic growth. Natural capital per capita and GDP per worker are used as proxies for natural capital and economic growth, respectively. Using three regression models, the results suggest there is a statistically significant positive relationship between natural capital and economic growth, and a long-run relationship (co-integration) between the variables. Therefore, treating natural capital as a substitute rather than as a complement in the production process undermines the important role natural capital plays for economic growth and development. Hence, national level governments should pay important attention to their natural capital. Keywords: developing countries; economic growth; gross domestic product; GDP; natural capital; sustainability. DOI: 10.1504/IJSE.2019.10021380
Pension funds and stock market development: evidence from OECD countries by Yilmaz Bayar, Metin Kilic Abstract: Pension funds have experienced considerable expansions in the value of their asset holdings after the gradual global transition from single tier pension system to multi-tiered pension systems, due to public pensions becoming financially unsustainable. Increases in the value of the pension funds' financial asset holdings have enhanced their efficiency in capital markets. This paper investigates the effect of pension funds as an institutional investor on stock market development in 18 OECD member states for the period of 2001-2015 with panel data analysis. The findings suggest that pension funds affected stock market development positively in the long run. Keywords: pension funds; stock markets; sustainability; panel data analysis. DOI: 10.1504/IJSE.2019.10021375
The effects of temporary income shocks on household expenditure: the case of Ecuador by Milenko Fadic Abstract: I study how household expenditures on non-durable consumption and human capital change in response to a positive and temporary income shock. I examine a sample of single-income earning Ecuadorian households where the income earner participated in a procurement process that uses a random lottery to select winning bidders for public tenders. I use a unique dataset that combines the results from the lottery with confidential tax-level data. I find that income shocks cause households to increase spending in education and health by 8% and in food and clothing by 11% during the year of the shock. I also find that households that received shocks of higher magnitudes smooth their expenditures over time. In addition to providing a measure of the propensity to consume for households in Ecuador, this study contributes to the literature by focusing on an unexpected, positive and temporary income shock. Additionally, this study estimates the joint effects on non-durable consumption and human capital, areas which have traditionally been studied separately. Keywords: human capital; income shocks; non-durable consumption. DOI: 10.1504/IJSE.2019.10021387