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International Journal of Sustainable Aviation (6 papers in press)
Design of a low-cost pressure measurement device: validation and testing by The Tran Hung, Dinh Le Anh, Dinh-Dung Nguyen Abstract: Pressure measurement is essential in aerospace engineering. Measuring pressure allows us to understand the aerodynamic characteristics of the model. Consequently, it helps us propose an optimisation model design with high aerodynamic performance and low structure fatigues. However, the pressure measurement device is often complicated and high cost. It is a big problem for developing countries to possess the device. This study proposes a simple and effective new pressure measurement device design. The device is sufficiently low cost, but it can provide high accuracy data as a commercial device. A calibration process was presented in a simple wind tunnel. Experiments are then conducted for measuring pressure distribution on NACA 2415 airfoil, and they are compared with numerical data. The new pressure measurement device shows close results to numerical data. A significantly low-pressure region is observed near the leading edge of the model. Additionally, when the angle of attack increases, the negative pressure peak increases its magnitude, both in numerical and simulation methods. The pressure measurement errors are less than 10%, and consequently, they can be applied for further study. Keywords: pressure sensor; pressure measurement; CFD; NACA 2415. DOI: 10.1504/IJSA.2022.10047306
GNSS-based position estimation with Kalman filters by Mert Sever, Chingiz Hajiyev Abstract: This paper is a devoted comparison of stationary user localisation estimations by traditional extended Kalman filter (EKF), linear Kalman filter (LKF) and NRM pre-processed LKF. In this study, Şükrü Saraçoğlu stadium's location was estimated via various types of Kalman filters. Position states due to Earth-centred inertial (ECI) reference frame were obtained by global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receiver. Pseudo-ranging model was used to determining the position of Şükrü Saraçoğlu stadium. To simulate GNSS receiver, random measurement errors were added to the actual distance between the stadium and GNSS satellite. With this study, various filters were compared for stationary user localisation estimation. Keywords: stationary user localisation; Kalman filter; global navigation satellite system; GNSS; position estimation; extended Kalman filter; EKF; linear Kalman filter; LKF; Earth-centred inertial; ECI. DOI: 10.1504/IJSA.2022.10047063
Reducing the fuel consumption of light aircraft by John Olsen Abstract: Given that significant increases have been made in the gravimetric specific power of permanent magnet synchronous machines, we reassess the effect that parallel, series and power/split hybrid topologies have on reducing the fuel consumption of light aircraft. Given the difficulties in preventing the weight of a hybrid-powered aircraft from exceeding the weight of the retrofitted conventionally powered aircraft, an analysis is conducted to assess the effects of weight increase over powertrain efficiency increase on fuel consumption. Finally, we examine two new combustion technologies to assess their potential for reducing fuel consumption and their practicality for light aircraft. Keywords: hybrid; power-split; fuel consumption reduction; turbulent jet ignition; spark assisted compression ignition. DOI: 10.1504/IJSA.2022.10046523
Assessing the discursive foundations for emissions abatement in aviation: a post-normal science primer on alternative jet fuels by Mónica Soria Baledón Abstract: Post-normal science was used to review the discursive foundations of environmental policy in aviation, and for reassessing the status, challenges and opportunities for alternative jet fuels to close the carbon loop of this hard-to-abate sector. The analysis revealed instances where data misrepresentation, information gaps and asymmetries, have precluded a comprehensive understanding of the environmental impacts of aviation beyond its ~2.4% global CO2 contribution. Problem representations embedded in sustainability policies and regulations, have historically understated the urgency to implement ambitious climate strategies worldwide for addressing these impacts. Out to 2050, discursive misrepresentations could prevent the air transport sector's from attaining its net-zero commitment while effecting: 1) higher carbon debts, ecosystem damage and welfare loss from unsustainable fuel production; 2) distortion of long-term market signals for alternative fuels with high sustainability profiles; 3) investment constraints for next-generation technologies; 4) increased sectoral reputational risk; 5) foremost, a continued dependence on fossil-derived fuels. Keywords: alternative jet fuels; AJF; post-normal science; PNS; policy problem representations; sustainable aviation fuels; SAF; CORSIA; lower carbon aviation fuels; LCAF. DOI: 10.1504/IJSA.2022.10046141
Aircraft contaminated air: a brief outline by Susan Michaelis Abstract: Aircraft bleed air supplies contaminated by engine oil dates back to the early 1950s. Aircraft and engine/APU design utilising unfiltered bleed air to supply the breathing air in aircraft explains the mechanism by which the air supply routinely becomes contaminated with low levels of a complex mixture of jet oils and hydraulic fluids in normal operation. Exposure to these contaminants is increasingly recognised as a flight safety issue as well as an occupational health problem, with impairment in flight not uncommon. Maintenance investigation techniques are less effective in identifying the more frequent low level oil leakage events with repeat events occurring. Over the last two decades, there have been an increasing number of international activities looking into bleed air contamination. It is necessary for the aviation industry to take a closer look at fume events linked to the supply air and introduce mitigating strategies. Keywords: bleed air; oil leakage; fumes; cabin air contamination; synthetic lubricants; cabin air quality; CAQ. DOI: 10.1504/IJSA.2022.10047170
Direct alcohol vs. alcohol-to-jet SPK utilisation in commercial aviation - an energetic-operational analysis by Nils Bullerdiek, Steffen Voß, Ulf Neuling, Martin Kaltschmitt Abstract: To support renewable energy utilisation in aviation apart from kerosene-based sustainable aviation fuel (SAF), a direct use of renewable alcohols (methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, pentanol) is analysed and compared to their use as alcohol-to-jet (ATJ) conversion intermediates. The energy demands in the form of alcohol and operational payload-range implications are analysed for two aircraft types, using a Bréguet range equation and a mass/energy balance approach. From an energetic perspective a direct alcohol usage is significantly more efficient compared to the ATJ pathway requiring 40% to 60% more alcoholic energy. Even considering low process losses and high kerosene fractions (95%), the ATJ conversion still requires about 16% (26% for methanol) more alcoholic energy. Especially for methanol and ethanol that lead to significant payload-range losses compared to kerosene of approx. 70% and 50%. These effects are less significant for propanol, butanol, and pentanol with range reductions of 40%, 30%, and 25%. Keywords: sustainable aviation fuel; SAF; alcohol-to-jet; ATJ; payload-range; Bréguet; methanol; ethanol. DOI: 10.1504/IJSA.2022.10046511