International Journal of Sustainable Aviation (10 papers in press)
Total impact estimation to support sustainability of small hybrid aircraft
by Agnes Wangai, Kinzhikeyev Sergey, Daniel Rohacs, Jozsef Rohacs
Abstract: Nowadays, sustainability-related research and improving the greening in aviation has become a significant focus for future aviation developments. This introduces a new methodology developed for total impact evaluation of the vehicles and transportation systems. A method to determine all the impact i.e. environmental impact, safety and security, cost, cost benefits, and sustainability. These impacts are analyzed and evaluated on the vehicle and/or on the transportation system levels by generating the total impact index. There will be shown and discussed the results of the comparison analysis of total and specially the environmental impacts of the aircraft with different (conventional, electric and hybrid) propulsion systems. The study will take into account some differences in operational concepts, too, like range, time of using the electric engines, only, etc.
Keywords: Total impact assessment; small hybrid aircraft; different propulsion systems; environmental impact; sustainability.
A STUDY OF FLIGHT OPERATIONAL CHALLENGES ENCOUNTERED BY GENERAL AVIATION INDUSTRY IN CHINA
by Devinder Yadav, Maryil Goriet
Abstract: General aviation industry is important in promoting national and global economy. However, in China the industry is still underdeveloped, but it has a huge potential for growth. This paper outlines a research framework for a qualitative survey to identify various issues and difficulties encountered in development and operations of general aviation industry in China. A study for technical development of general aviation (GA) industry in Liaoning province of China has been carried out after performing a focused group survey and field data collection in order to analyze issues affecting GA industry in China. Primarily, it has been observed that military control of airspace and lack of qualified aviation professionals impedes the growth of this section of the aviation industry in this country. The study primarily clarifies GA situation in China and factors affecting growth of the industry are examined. It also proposes a possibility of developing in-house aircraft maintenance facilities to promote growth of the industry in regional areas of the country.
Keywords: Airspace; aviation; aircraft; engineering; flight; maintenance.
Business Process Risk Management at Aviation University to support sustainable strategy: developing a framework for ESTU ATO with integration Document Analysis, Descriptive Analysis and Flow Chart
by AYSE YILMAZ
Abstract: All processes in the aviation sector have significant difficulties to manage risks. Aviation universities training process design and sustainability management of the designed process. Process risk management is not a one-time project. Sustainability and continuous improvement are a vital part of sustainable process management. The aim of process risk management is to ensure that the processes work effectively and efficiently. The process cannot be effective and efficient without the adoption, commitment, decision and resource allocation of an organization by executive management.
This research presents developed framework models for both the business and training process used in aviation universities. Presented conceptual models aim is to create "common" handbook model in accordance with the regulations and requirements of the flight training. These models are developed as able to be adapted for process which is in any aviation universities and their flight training departments. As research methodology of this research both descriptive analysis, flow chart and document analysis to develop both business and flight training conceptual models. Aviation process has solid, complex and controlled structure. Aviation is also a special area surrounded by laws and regulations. To sustainable management, organizations should have a systematic and holistic approach for managing their process risk. Eskisehir Technical University Faculty of Aeronautics&Astronautics is leading Flight Training Department as first organization in Turkey. Presented model have been developed to case of ESTU ATO. This case important to show the applicability of developed framework model. Training handbook model is developed for Cessna 172 series in ESTU ATO fleet. Cessna series is most used aircraft type of flight training in worldwide. This research will useful for both managers and aviation authorities who want to both improve and maintain their process in sustainable quality.
Keywords: Aviation University; Business Process Risk Management; Flight Training; Approved Training Organization; Document Analysis; Descriptive Analysis; Conceptual Framework Model; Flow Chart; Risk Management; Aviation Management; R & D; Sustainability Management.
Conceptual design method adapted to electric/hybrid aircraft developments
by Joszef Rohacs, Daniel Rohacs
Abstract: Developing the more electric, hybrid and full electric aircraft became to the most important tasks. The available emerging technology (because the battery low specific energy) has not allowed yet to develop a full electric aircraft with performance similar to existing conventional ones. This paper deals with an improved conceptual design method of the electric / hybrid aircraft developments.
Keywords: electric and hybrid aircraft; conceptual design; battery technology; barriers; problem of battery technology; electric aircraft developments.
What Factors Predict a Consumers Support of Environmental Sustainability in Aviation? A Multi-Model Analysis
by Scott Winter, Jennifer Thropp, Stephen Rice
Abstract: Environmental sustainability remains a focal point of current research in the aviation industry. The purpose of the current study was to create four statistical models which could predict the types of factors that would indicate a consumers support for the use of sustainable products in the aviation industry. Four models were proposed: overall support for sustainability in aviation, support for the use of aviation biofuels, support of sustainable construction materials in aviation, and support of sustainable aviation manufacturing. The study used an overall sample of 514 participants who were randomly divided into two separate datasets. The first dataset was used to produce the regression equations and the second dataset was used to assess model fit. The results produced four valid models with the amount of variance explained ranging from 29.0% to 41.1%. Perceived value of sustainability was found to be a significant predictor in all four models.
Keywords: sustainability; aviation; prediction; regression; statistical models; environmental commitment; green manufacturing; biofuels; green airports; consumer perceptions.
Perceptual Maps of Turkish Airline Services For Different Periods Using Supervised Machine Learning Approach and Multidimensional Scaling
by Bahri Baran Koçak, Özlem Atalik
Abstract: In the airline market, it is crucial for airline industry to determine the experiences, expectations and perceptions of passengers in order to determine positioning strategies on brands. In this study, we collected 87743 Turkish tweets sent to the official airline Twitter pages based in Turkey between June 1st and September 1st, 2017. Then, we applied Feature Based Sentiment Analysis (FBSA) with supervised machine learning approach to classify tweets into airline service categories and sentiment polarity. Lastly, Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) had been employed to build perceptual maps of airline services for different periods. This study aims to explore how tweets reflect airline service quality attributes in perceptual maps for selected periods in Turkey. Our analysis shows that the perceptual positions of services change per period, which means that Twitter users perceived each service differently in each period. In terms of the importance of airline service quality attributes web site services, convenience of flight, and in-flight entertainment were the most critical disparities perceived by users compared to other attributes considering in the periods being examined.
Keywords: airline; services; twitter; text classification; supervised learning; multidimensional scaling; perceptual map.
EVALUATION OF JET ENGINE OPERATION PARAMETERS USING CONVENTIONAL AND ALTERNATIVE JET FUELS
by Anna Yakovlieva, Sergii Boichenko, Kazimierz Lejda
Abstract: Jet engine operation parameters using conventional and alternative jet fuels, obtained by blending with plant oil bio-additives, during bench tests were evaluated. Jet fuels were tested and compared in conditions of engine operation. It was determined that using alternative jet fuels improves jet engine thrust characteristics, as the same values of thrust may be reached at lower rotor speed comparing to conventional jet fuel. It was found that using alternative jet fuels reduces fuel flow comparing to conventional jet fuel. Using alternative jet fuels results in reduction of gas temperature in the jet pipe. This contributes to durability of materials and structure of the engine against high temperature, as well as reducing of NOx emissions. It was found that using alternative jet fuels leads to reduction of relative rotor speed of jet engine comparing to conventional jet fuel as less work is done by the engine for producing the same thrust. The results of the study show that operational parameters of the jet engine powered with new alternative jet fuels completely satisfy exploitation norms set in specification for tested engine. Using alternative jet fuels provided more efficient operation of the tested jet engine. Alternative jet fuels, proposed in the study, may be used as a working body of the jet engine without a need of making changes in its design.
Keywords: jet engine; jet fuel; alternative fuel; bio-additive; rapeseed oil; fatty acids ethyl esters; thrust; fuel flow; engine efficiency; bench test.
A Brief Review On Computer System Control using Multiagent Technique
by Fahad Ali, Ayesha Iqbal, Zunaira Nazir, Usman Inayat, Syed Mohsin Ali, M. Rehan Saleem
Abstract: The Multiagent system technology comprises of a number of agents that exist commonly for sharing same resources and to communicate with each other. These are self-controlled, operate in a network environment and commonly used by control engineers to control specific communication and computing channels using a number of strategies. At large scale, multiagent systems are being used in smart grids communication and sensor-controlling applications. A distributed environment is needed for the operations of multiagent systems which show their autonomous nature. This feature makes multiagent different from all other commination systems. As the size of a network is increased the control can be easy without facing the complexities of sensors and communication control. For this purpose, a communication network is important among all neighboring agents. This paper reviews previous studies on controlling of multiagents in a different frame work. It will help us to remove gaps between previous research and our latest understanding of multiagent systems technology.
Keywords: autonomous systems; communication channels; computing channels; distributed operation; multiagent systems; network control; network services; intelligent controlling; self control.
Thermoelectric Generators Simulation in Aircraft Applications
by Tareq AL-Ma'aiteh, Oliver Krammer
Abstract: This paper presents the establishment of a numerical model for investigating thermoelectric generators (TEG) in aircraft applications. A single TEG module was analysed, by calculating the unit main electrical characteristics. The thermoelectric generator consists of 24 cells with p-type and n-type legs with a different Seebeck coefficient based on silicon alloy semiconductor material. Uniform mesh was applied to the module geometry, and variable resistive load were connected to the module in order to simulate the actual operation of unit. The model provided the output parameters of power, voltage and current at different load values. The single module FEM calculation was validated by comparing voltage-current and power-voltage characteristics to them in the manufacturers data sheet. The average error in the numerical model voltage-current characteristic values was found 4.42%, and the error in numerical model power-voltage characteristics at the maximum power is 10.2%. The model allowed the optimisation of TEG modules in real devices, which can be used in the applications of energy recovery and energy harvesting in aircrafts.
Keywords: Seebeck effect; thermal electric generation; finite element modelling; silicon alloy semiconductor; energy harvesting.
METHODS FOR ASSESSMENT OF NOx EMISSIONS FROM AIRCRAFT ENGINE
by Kateryna Synylo, Nicolas Duchene
Abstract: The emission inventory of aircraft emissions are usually calculated on the basis of certificated emission indexes, which are provided by the engine manufacturers and reported in the database of the International Civil Aviation Organization. Under real circumstances, however, operational conditions may vary from ICAO definition, consequently deviations from the certificated emission indices may occur. The advanced emission model of turbofan engine (TURBOGAS emission model) was developed for the assessment of aircraft engine emissions taking into account the influences of operational and meteorological conditions on emission indexes to generate precise aircraft emissions inventories as well as contrails likelihood and lifetime. Both BFFM2 and P3T3 methods have been implemented in the TURBOGAS emission model. Determination of emission indexes under real operational and meteorological conditions is actual task, as input data for models and high accurate assessment of aircraft emissions contribution to total air pollution in the vicinity of airport.
Keywords: aircraft engine; environment; turbofan engine; air pollution; emission model; emission indices.