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International Journal of Sustainable Aviation (5 papers in press)
Analysis of the pilots' decisions to eject in F-16 fighter aircraft accidents in Turkey by Nazim Ata, Ebru Yazgan Abstract: The aim of this study is to do a descriptive and statistical analysis of pilots decisions to eject during F-16 fighter aircraft accidents in Turkey and evaluate the ejection decisions of pilots by comparing the findings to those presented by similar studies conducted in other countries. A total of 32 F-16 accidents were included in the study. Thirty-five pilots were involved in 32 accidents and 12 of these pilots lost their lives because they did not/did not manage to actuate the ejection system, and two pilots died despite the actuation of the ejection system. Despite the limited access to the available data because official accident investigation reports contain confidential information, the study is significant in that it is the first study dealing with Turkish pilots decisions to actuate the ejection system and the consequences of these decisions and it contributes to the sustainability of Turkish fighter aircraft pilots safety culture. Keywords: aviation medicine; decision making; ejection system; human factors; Turkey. DOI: 10.1504/IJSA.2022.10043280
The fuel consumption impact of the turning point location for the point merge system by Ramazan Kursat Cecen Abstract: This study considers the impact of the turning point location on fuel consumption for aircraft landing problem by using the point merge system. A mixed-integer linear programming model is applied for this problem. Also, vector manoeuvre is added to the model to solve any conflict before entering sequencing legs. Two different methods are compared. First, no fixed turning point is placed, allowing aircraft to make a turn anywhere on the sequencing legs. However, the problem is that it is not very applicable neither for air traffic controllers nor pilots regarding the instruction time. The second method uses constant turning points with a pre-defined distance between two successive points. The results for the second method displayed that when we increased the distance between the two following turning points, the total fuel consumption
also increased by 7.35% compared to the no-fixed turning point method. Keywords: aircraft landing problem; ALP; point merge system; PMS; fuel consumption; mixed-integer linear programming; MILP. DOI: 10.1504/IJSA.2022.10043641
Assessment of influence of anti-icing fluids based on ethylene and propylene glycol on environment and airport infrastructure by Anna Yakovlieva, Sergii Boichenko, Iryna Shkilniuk, Anatolii Bahtin, Utku Kale, András Nagy Abstract: Snow, frost, and ice on the surface of aircraft negatively affect the aerodynamic and operational properties of aircraft. Ethylene glycol and propylene glycol are the most commonly used components of anti-icing fluids for aircraft, which have a significant impact on the environment. The paper presents complex analytical review of a large number of domestic and foreign technical and regulatory information, which made it possible to carry out a comprehensive comparison of physical-chemical and operational properties of propylene and ethylene glycol-containing materials, to investigate their influence on components of ecosystems, including the human body. Comparative analysis of studies shows that propylene glycol is inert for living organisms and people. Ethylene glycol negatively affects reproductive function, metabolism, immune system and leads to a decrease in haemoglobin concentration. LD50 value for ethylene glycol is more than 4 times lower than for propylene glycol. Propylene glycol fluid is more environmentally friendly due to low toxicity, increased biological decomposition under the same operating requirements. Basing on the systematised data the general strategy for minimising the negative effects of anti-icing and deicing fluids on the environment is considered and proposed. Keywords: anti-icing fluid; deicing fluid; propylene glycol; ethylene glycol; aircraft; airfield; toxicity; biodegradation; LC50; chemical oxygen demand; COD; biological oxygen demand; BOD. DOI: 10.1504/IJSA.2022.10043644
Comparative study of piston vs. electric single-seat tandem helicopter by Jelena Svorcan, Aleksandar Kovaˇcevi´, Lazar Popovi´c, Aleksandar Simonovi´c Abstract: The paper presents a starting, but necessary comparative study between two diverse designs of single-seat tandem helicopter configuration, piston-propelled vs. electrically-driven. Both possibilities have their pros and cons, and need to be considered in detail, with respect to the initial requirements. In this investigation, the primary design objectives include 100 kg of payload as well as satisfactory performances in both hover and progressive flight. The comparison is conducted through the initial sizing procedures that enabled the estimation of takeoff mass (along with its main contributors), but also characteristic speeds, flight limits and basic helicopter performances. Used models and assumptions are explained in the paper. In the beginning, some essential advantages of tandem configuration helicopters are mentioned and accentuated. Also, future trends in electric aviation are considered. After that, total mass is decomposed into several main components and rotor dimensioning is performed. By assuming sufficient available power, it is possible to estimate the basic helicopter performances in both axisymmetric and progressive flight. Obtained results are presented graphically and numerically. In the end, some conclusions and recommendations for further research are given. For the time being, piston-propelled single-seat tandem helicopter can achieve better numerical results. Keywords: tandem helicopter; performances; power curve; hover; progressive flight; empty-to-takeoff mass ratio. DOI: 10.1504/IJSA.2022.10043801
Development of a preliminary design tool for rotary wing aircrafts by Tomás Figueiredo Ventura Pimentel Fontes, Filipe Szolnoky Ramos Pinto Cunha Abstract: The aim of this work is to provide a free, open-source, software tool to engineers, engineering students or any other people interested in rotorcraft design with an user friendly nature that allows for quick design alterations and performance analysis. The two main theories used in the calculations are the momentum theory and the blade element theory, the results obtained are presented as different types of plots (power versus velocity, rotor disk distributions, blade geometry visualisation, design space generation) and also as numeric quantities (total power, total thrust, collective and cyclic pitch inputs). The reliability of the tool is guaranteed by a validation process which compares actual flight data with results obtained through the tool. Keywords: momentum theory; blade element theory; aircraft performance; preliminary design; design space. DOI: 10.1504/IJSA.2022.10043867