International Journal of Postharvest Technology and Innovation
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International Journal of Postharvest Technology and Innovation (4 papers in press)
The Use of Turbidity as a Separation Indicator of Patchouli Oil from Its Aqueous Mixture in Community Distillation Practices by Chandrawati Cahyani, Wa Nirwana Abstract: A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the possibility of patchouli oil separation from its aqueous mixture based on physical phenomena. The main concept behind the study was the application of turbidity data instead of using gas chromatography to determine the quality of separation of patchouli oil from its aqueous mixture. This study proved that there was a linear relationship between turbidity and oil content in its water emulsion in the range of its concentration during distillation processes.. The results showed that temperature, the addition of chemical agents and pH influenced separation quality. A temperature of 60OC was proved to be the optimum separation temperature of patchouli oil from its aqueous mixture. At this temperature, separation required less cooling water, and this means a savingsof energy and equipment. Patchouli oil turbidity had a linear correlation with its concentration; therefore, turbidity can be used as anindicator of separation efficiency. Keywords: Patchouli oil separation; gas chromatography; turbidity; community distillation.
Risk Assessment and Persistence Evaluation of Spiromesifen 240 SC on cucumber in India by Tirthankar Banerjee, Manoj Kumar Agyani Abstract: Spiromesifen 240 SC was applied @ 144 g a.i./ha and 288 g a.i./ha in cucumber at 10 days interval in field experiment under randomised block design. Samples of cucumber fruits were collected at interval of different days after last application. The samples were subjected to dispersive solid phase extraction and clean-up by modified QuEChERS technique and the residue of Spiromesifen in samples was quantified by GC-ECD. The initial deposits of Spiromesifen in cucumber fruit were 0.43 and 0.80 mg/kg for the treatment T1 (144 g a.i./ha) and T2 (288 g a.i./ha), respectively. It was also observed that the molecule dissipated more than 92.50% at 7 days after application in double the recommended dose. No residue could be detected in cucumber at harvest (10 days) samples above the limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.05 mg/kg. The half-life value (t1/2) of Spiromesifen found to be 2.12 and 2.19 days for T1 and T2, respectively. Safe waiting period (TMRL) on the basis of LOQ 0.05 mg/kg of Spiromesifen were determined to be 5.83 and 8.11 days for single and double dose, respectively. The TMRC values were calculated to be much lesser than MPI even though initial deposit of double dose was considered. The % ADI values were 8.82 and 16.52 at highest residual deposits on 0 day for single and double dose respectively, indicating its safety for human consumption. Keywords: Spiromesifen; cucumber; residue; half-life; PHI; Safety.
Quality deterioration and loss of shelf-life as a result of poor road conditions by Cornelia Pretorius, Wynand Steyn Abstract: Post-harvest science focuses mainly on the quality of fresh produce. One of the areas of interest is the shipment of tomatoes using road transport. Because tomatoes have a limited shelf life, it is vital to control the factors that lead to early deterioration of the quality of the product. Logistical operations can cause numerous forms of cuts and bruises on harvested tomatoes which compromise their quality and appearance. For this experiment the in-transit conditions were monitored on trucks shipping tomatoes from three farms in Limpopo, South Africa to the fresh produce market in Pietermaritzburg. This research attempts to create a model that relates tomato damage and loss in shelf life to the road condition, fruit ripeness and position in the container. With this information in hand, logistic planners can make informed decisions during route planning. Transportation cost can be weighed against the cost of losses of produce during transportation. Similar models can be developed to include other types of fruits and vegetables. Keywords: Tomatoes; postharvest losses; riding quality; shelf-life; accelerometers.
Estimation of Pre and Postharvest Losses of Tropical Fruits in Ethiopia by Muluken Bantayehu, Melkamu Alemayehu, Mirkuz Abera, Solomon Bizuayehu Abstract: The research was done to quantify and identify major factors of loss at various stages of fruit producers; preharvest, harvesting (picking), storage and marketing. Questionnaires were used to collect data from 180 randomly selected respondents of six districts (Burie, Bahirdar Zuria, Zegie, Woreta, Dangla, and Finoteselam). Descriptive statistics and multiple regressions analysis were employed for data analysis. The result revealed that estimated fruit losses in the preharvest and postharvest were 20.7% and 22.1 % of the total production respectively. Multiple regression analysis depicted that means of income, use of pesticides and use of compost and manure had significantly contributed to loss during fruit development and maturation. The regression analysis revealed that experience of fruit production, educational level of fruit producers and shortage of labor had significant effect for loss during harvesting (picking) whereas chemical treatment before storage and educational level of the producers affected loss in storage. Moreover, experience of fruit production, distance from market, educational level were the significant factors of fruit loss during marketing. The study suggests adoption of scientific approach, education, skill developments and use of pre and post-harvest technologies that can replace labor are important to minimize losses at producer level. Thus, analytical research is required at producer, wholesaler and retailer level in more districts and fruits. Keywords: Fruits; Loss; Transportation; Storage; Factors; Producers.