International Journal of Postharvest Technology and Innovation (20 papers in press)
The Use of Turbidity as a Separation Indicator of Patchouli Oil from Its Aqueous Mixture in Community Distillation Practices
by Chandrawati Cahyani, Wa Ode Cakra Nirwana
Abstract: A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the possibility of patchouli oil separation from its aqueous mixture based on physical phenomena. The main concept behind the study was the application of turbidity instead of gas chromatography to determine the separation quality of patchouli oil from its aqueous mixture. This study proved that there was a linear relationship between turbidity and oil content in its water emulsion during distillation processes. The results showed that temperature, the addition of chemical agents, and pH influenced separation quality. A temperature of 60
Keywords: gas chromatography; turbidity; community distillation; patchouli oil separation.
Risk Assessment and Persistence Evaluation of Spiromesifen 240 SC on cucumber in India
by Tirthankar Banerjee, Manoj Kumar Agyani
Abstract: Spiromesifen 240 SC was applied @ 144 g a.i./ha and 288 g a.i./ha in cucumber at 10 days interval in field experiment under randomised block design. Samples of cucumber fruits were collected at interval of different days after last application. The samples were subjected to dispersive solid phase extraction and clean-up by modified QuEChERS technique and the residue of Spiromesifen in samples was quantified by GC-ECD. The initial deposits of Spiromesifen in cucumber fruit were 0.43 and 0.80 mg/kg for the treatment T1 (144 g a.i./ha) and T2 (288 g a.i./ha), respectively. It was also observed that the molecule dissipated more than 92.50% at 7 days after application in double the recommended dose. No residue could be detected in cucumber at harvest (10 days) samples above the limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.05 mg/kg. The half-life value (t1/2) of Spiromesifen found to be 2.12 and 2.19 days for T1 and T2, respectively. Safe waiting period (TMRL) on the basis of LOQ 0.05 mg/kg of Spiromesifen were determined to be 5.83 and 8.11 days for single and double dose, respectively. The TMRC values were calculated to be much lesser than MPI even though initial deposit of double dose was considered. The % ADI values were 8.82 and 16.52 at highest residual deposits on 0 day for single and double dose respectively, indicating its safety for human consumption.
Keywords: Spiromesifen; cucumber; residue; half-life; PHI; Safety.
Quality deterioration and loss of shelf-life as a result of poor road conditions
by Cornelia Pretorius, Wynand Steyn
Abstract: Post-harvest science focuses mainly on the quality of fresh produce. One of the areas of interest is the shipment of tomatoes using road transport. Because tomatoes have a limited shelf life, it is vital to control the factors that lead to early deterioration of the quality of the product. Logistical operations can cause numerous forms of cuts and bruises on harvested tomatoes which compromise their quality and appearance. For this experiment the in-transit conditions were monitored on trucks shipping tomatoes from three farms in Limpopo, South Africa to the fresh produce market in Pietermaritzburg. This research attempts to create a model that relates tomato damage and loss in shelf life to the road condition, fruit ripeness and position in the container. With this information in hand, logistic planners can make informed decisions during route planning. Transportation cost can be weighed against the cost of losses of produce during transportation. Similar models can be developed to include other types of fruits and vegetables.
Keywords: Tomatoes; postharvest losses; riding quality; shelf-life; accelerometers.
Estimation of Pre and Postharvest Losses of Tropical Fruits in Ethiopia
by Muluken Bantayehu, Melkamu Alemayehu, Mirkuz Abera, Solomon Bizuayehu
Abstract: The research was conducted to quantify and identify major factors of fruit loss. Questionnaires were used to collect data from 180 randomly selected fruit producers of six districts. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis were employed for data analysis. Result revealed that fruit losses in the preharvest and postharvest were 20.7% and 22.1% of the total production respectively. Multiple regression analysis depicted means of income, use of pesticides and use of compost and manure had significantly contributed to losses in the preharvest. Regression analysis revealed experience, educational level of producers and shortage of labour had significant effect for losses during harvesting whereas chemical treatment and educational level affected losses in storage. Moreover, experience, distance from market, educational level were significant factors of fruit loss during marketing. Therefore, the study suggests adoption of scientific approach, education, skill developments and use of pre and postharvest technologies are important to minimise losses.
Keywords: fruits; loss; transportation; storage; determinant; producers.
Potential of Melanin Free Ink (MFI) as antioxidant and its application for preserving and predicting shelf life of salted-boiled milkfish
by Tri Winarni Agustini, Hadiyanto Hadiyanto, Ulfah Amalia, Ima Wijayanti
Abstract: Antioxidant could be extracted and isolated from squid inks. Squid ink in the form of melanin free ink (MFI) could be act as an electron donor which can stabilize free radicals in lipid oxidation. Studies were carried out to assess the antioxidant activity of squid inks converted into MFI in different dilution and to optimize the extraction conditions for the application of MFI as an antioxidative agent on fish product. Three different types of MFI extracts i.e : pure squid ink, squid ink with 5 times dilution and squid ink with 10 times dilutions by using cooled ionized water (4
Keywords: antioxidant; squid ink; melanin free ink; extract; lipid oxidation.
Effects of postharvest relative humidity and various re-cutting on vase life of cut rose flowers
by Esmaeil Chamani, Carol Wagstaff
Abstract: Studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of different relative humidity levels (60, 75, and 90%) and recutting (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 cm recutting end of flower stem) treatments on vase life of cut rose flower. Two separate experiments (bucket and vase experiments) were conducted based on completely randomized design with factorial arrangement with 8 replications in bucket experiment and 5 replications in vase experiment. Analysis of variance revealed that two ways effects of various RH and recuts did not significantly (P ≤0.05) affected flower vase life, relative fresh weight, solution uptake, and bacterial populations. Cut rose flower stored in chamber with 90% relative humidity had the longest vase life, while those one kept in 60% showed the shortest longevity. The result of mean comparisons revealed with increasing relative humidity from 60% to 90%, bacterial populations was increased too.
Keywords: bacterial count; flower diameter; relative fresh weight; solution uptake.
Storability and Maintaining Quality of Banana with Pretreatments by Preservatives and Packaging Materials
by Miilion Paulos Madebo, Yenenesh Ayalew
Abstract: Banana is the most perishable fruit crop at postharvest conditions. Thus, this experiment intended to study the effect of preservatives and packaging materials as a distinct effect and combination effect for 30 days of storage in 20OC temperature. The study consists of four post-harvest treatments (control, CaCl2, NaCl2, and tap water.) and five Packaging materials (control, wooden box, plastic crate, polyethylene plastic bag, and dried banana leaf.). The effect of preservation and packaging materials observed the specific physical and chemical properties of fruit in storage conditions. Among packing materials used, wooden boxes and plastic crate showed reduced weight loss, enhanced marketability, induced TSS content and reduced decay rate. Also, CaCl2 pretreatment was maintained an enhanced physicochemical characteristics of stored banana. In complementary with distinct effect, wooden box and CaCl2 combination shown positive contributions on storage quality maintenance in most parameters. Therefore, the study demonstrated plastic crate packaging, wooden box and calcium chloride treatments of fruit resulted in longer storability and maintained the qualities of fruit.
Keywords: Banana; Packaging; Pretreatments; Wooden box; Plastic crate.
Poly lactic acid-quercetin nanoformulation synthesized using Syzygium cumini leaf extract improves the shelf life of tomato at room temperature
by Sudesh Yadav
Abstract: Recently a novel approach has been developed for the synthesis of biodegradable nanoparticles (NPs) using plant leaf extracts. Under this, quercetin loaded poly-D,L-lactic acid (PLA) NPs have been synthesized using Syzygium cumini leaf extract as surfactant/stabilizer. In the current study, such biocompatible nanoformulation was used for the first time to see its effect on shelf life of perishable fruits/vegetables like tomato. We have evaluated total weight loss, total phenolic content, lycopene content, total sugar content, and quercetin content in nanoformulation treated tomatoes. Developed nanoformulation was found effective in extending the shelf life of tomatoes by at least 10 d at room temperature relative to untreated and pure quercetin treated controls. Importantly, nutritional quality parameters were also maintained along with shelf life of tomatoes upon treatment with nanoformulation. Such quercetin nanoformulation could be very useful for humankind especially in the field of agriculture and food biotechnology.
Keywords: Tomato; Nanoparticles; Quercetin; Shelf life; PLA.
Impact of pre-harvest fruit bagging and improved postharvest practices in reducing losses and managing quality of mango in the value chain system
by Md. Atiqur Rahman, S.M. Khorshed Alam, Md. Hamim Reza, Md. Sorof Uddin, Md. Nurul Amin, Taslima Nasrin
Abstract: Pre-harvest fruit bagging and improved postharvest management practices (IPMP) were integrated in the mango value chain of Bangladesh to reduce losses and to manage fruit quality along the value chain. A popular and commercial mango cultivar Khirsapat was used in this experiment. Fruit bagging, improved mango harvester, desapping tray and hot water treatment (HWT) plant were integrated in the IPMP. Traditional postharvest management practices (TPMP) existed in the value chain was used as control. Pre-harvest fruit bagging along with IPMP showed the best performance in respect of decay control, attractive skin colour development, good keeping quality and marketability of mangoes for 10 days at retail outlets. Decay incidence caused by stem end rot and anthracnose reduced by 86.7% in bagged mangoes handled with IPMP compared to traditionally handled non-bagged mangoes. The integration of fruit bagging and IPMP resulted in 70% reduction of postharvest losses of mango in the value chain. Total soluble solid of mango was not affected due to bagging followed by IPMP, while titratable acidity and ascorbic acid contents slightly decreased at ripe stage compared to non-bagged control fruits. Pre-harvest fruit bagging along with or without IPMT did not affect the overall sensory qualities of mangoes cv. Khirsapat.
Keywords: Fruit bagging; Desapping; Hot water treatment; Mango value chain; Fruit quality; Postharvest loss; Bangladesh.
Modeling of mass transfer kinetics of sapota (Achras zapota) in ternary solutions of sugar and calcium salt during osmotic dehydration
by RACHANA SHALINI, Alok Saxena, B.R. Shakya
Abstract: The mass transfer kinetics of sapota in ternary solution was studied at an optimized condition derived using the Box Behnken Design of Response Surface Methodology (R.S.M.). The optimized conditions were found for minimizing solid gain and water activity and maximizing water loss, weight reduction and overall acceptability. The osmotic dehydration kinetics data were fitted in viz the Magee model, Pages model and Azuara model. In a comparative study of mass transfer kinetics of Sapota between three models viz the Magee model, Pages model and Azuara model; Pages model was found to fit more effectively to Sapota, for the prediction of water loss and solid gain kinetics during the osmotic dehydration. The simplified solution of Fick's second law of diffusion for a slab geometry was used to calculate the average values of apparent diffusion coefficient (Deff), namely 4.49x 10-08 m2/s for WL and 4.27x 10-08 m2/s for SG.
Keywords: Sapota; osmotic dehydration; mass transfer kinetics; Model fitting.
Impact of different pre-treatments and drying methods on quality and antioxidant properties of dried Persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) slices
by Orang Khademi, Yusuf Farrokhzad, Shahpour Khangholi
Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of various pre-treatments and drying methods on the quality and antioxidant properties of persimmon slices. The persimmon fruits were harvested at maturity stage and divided into 3 groups: control without any pre-treatments, pretreatment with 2% sucrose after slicing, and treatment with CO2 before slicing in order to remove astringency. Afterwards, all groups were subjected to three drying methods including sun drying (21 days), conventional oven drying (65
Keywords: Antioxidant; astringency; color; pre-treatment; sun drying method.
Drying Kinetics and Moisture Diffusivity Analysis of paddy in Fluidized Bed Drying Process
by Binayak Pattanayak, Siba Shankar Mohapatra, Harish Chandra Das
Abstract: The drying kinetics and moisture diffusivity of paddy is studied in arnfluidized bed dryer in this article. Different values of temperatures of drying air (T) at 45, 50 and 550C, velocities of drying air (V) at 2, 2.5 and 3 m/s and paddy inventory (I) of 2 and 3 kg are used for drying paddy. The moisture content of paddy is reduced to a final value of around 12% (wb) from an initial value of around 28% (wb). Results showed that as the temperature and velocity of drying air increased, the drying rate also increased whereas, the drying rate decreased with increase in paddy inventory. The moisture diffusivity is found to be increased as temperature and velocity of drying air increases, but it decreases with inventory. A regression equation is obtained from linear regression analysisrnrelating effective moisture diffusivity with all the drying process variables. With increase in drying air velocity and paddy inventory, the average activation energy decreases.
Keywords: Fluidized bed drying; effective moisture diffusivity; drying kinetics,activation energy; paddy.
Postharvest control of anthracnose in mangoes by fumigation with vinegar and ethanol vapours
by Warawut Krusong, Rachit Suwapanich, Anthony Keith Thompson
Abstract: Collectotrichum gloeosporioides is a latent pathogen whose infection causes anthracnose disease on many fruits including mangoes. Current control methods mainly include the use of synthetic fungicides so an alternative, which used only naturally occurring substances, would be beneficial. Vapour from upland rice vinegar and ethanol, both individually and in combination, were tested in vitro on C. gloeosporioides, isolated from mangoes and cultured on PDA, on their effects on mycelial growth and conidia germination. Different exposure times (0, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 or 10 min) for both ethanol and vinegar vapours separately and in mixtures for 0, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 or 15 min at ratios of 75:25, 50:50 or 25:75 vinegar:ethanol were tested in a specially designed vapour exposure box. Results showed that both ethanol and vinegar vapours were effective in controlling both mycelial growth and conidia germination of C. gloeosporioides for 7 days at 30+2?C, but ethanol was more effective than vinegar vapour. Also, ethanol was more effective alone than in any of the combinations tested with vinegar. This is a positive result, but testing needs to be carried out in vivo before ethanol vapour could be used for treating mango fruit postharvest to control anthracnose disease.
Keywords: vinegar vapour; ethanol vapour; upland rice vinegar; Collectotrichum gloeosporioides; anthracnose; acetic acid.
Fusion of Dielectric Technique and Intelligence Methods in Order to Predict Acidity and Peroxide of Virgin Olive Oil
by Mahdi Rashvand, Abbas Akbarnia, Shahram Sarami
Abstract: Olive oil is one of the strategic and rich in minerals and nutrients among different oils. Due to the high price of olive oil, the quality of this product has a very significant for consumers. Generally, the quality of olive oil is measured by two indexes of acidity and peroxide value. In this research, dielectric technique and artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector machine (SVM) methods were used to predict the acidity and peroxide value of olive oil. In the analysis of output data from the device that produced the frequency between 1 KHz and 10 MHz, the artificial neural network with a topology 1861-15- 10 and accuracy of 0.998 for acidity value and topology 1861-23-10 and the accuracy of 0.995 for peroxide value was predicted. Also, the best result of vector support was obtained by Gaussian algorithm with accuracy of 0.99.The results showed that the device and the evaluation methods were appropriate for prediction of acidity and peroxide value of olive oil.
Keywords: Data Mining; Capacitive Sensor; Olive oil; Quality.
Development and evaluation of an online grading system for pinto beans using machine vision and artificial neural network
by Mahmoud Omid, Aghil Salehi, Mahdi Rashvand, Mahmoud Soltani Firouz
Abstract: The design of an intelligent system for qualitative evaluation of beans product impurities is the most important step necessary to make a bean sorting machine. In this research, a real-time system of pinto beans sorting (from red, white, and damaged beans, and stones) was designed and developed by combining image processing and artificial neural networks (ANNs). In total, six parameters were selected from the statistical characteristics of beans for classification of Pinto beans from other beans and stones. Several ANN classifiers each with different number of neurons in the hidden layer were trained to determine the optimal structure. Optimal topology of ANN classifier was 6-12-8-2. The correct classification rate for Pinto, white, red, and damaged beans and stones were 86.27, 100, 100, 54.9 and 65.3%, respectively. The corresponding MSE were calculated as 0.05, 0.059, 0.013, 0.099 and 0.096, respectively. The accuracy of the sorting system for Pinto bean from others was 97.87%. The results showed that the designed system combined with ANN technique had acceptable efficiency in Pinto been grading.
Keywords: Artificial neural networks; Classification; Image processing; Pinto beans.
Colour and Quality Maintenance of Cured Magallanes Pummelo Fruit Coated with Chitosan
by Marina Isabel Tac-an, Leizel Secretaria, Emma Ruth Bayogan
Abstract: This study evaluated the efficacy of chitosan at various concentrations (0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5%) and a commercial fruit wax in maintaining the quality of cured Magallanes pummelo fruit stored in ambient room conditions for 12 weeks. Chitosan at 1.5% reduced weight loss of pummelo up to 9 weeks after treatment (WAT). Compared to the control, fruit treated with fruit wax and chitosan, regardless of the concentration, had better visual quality. Chitosan slowed down the peel colour change as indicated by lower a*. Fruit treated with 1.5% chitosan exhibited lower granulation percentage than all other treatments. Electrolyte leakage varied only at 12 WAT. Chitosan did not affect shriveling, decay, L*, b*, hue, chroma, total soluble solids, and juice content of pummelo. Chitosan at 1.5% has a potential in maintaining better quality of cured Magallanes pummelo fruit with lower weight loss and electrolyte leakage, lesser granulation, and slower degreening.
Keywords: fruit wax; granulation; low molecular weight chitosan; postharvest quality.
Quality of Milled Rice in Different Storage Technologies
by Jeenat Ara, Dr. Md. Rostom Ali, Mohammad Afzal Hossain, Dr. Md. Abdul Awal, Dr. Md. Monjurul Alam
Abstract: Quality of milled rice deteriorates if it is not stored properly. Storage conditions alter the physicochemical properties of rice. Improved storage technology is necessary to store milled rice in rural areas. The main objective of the study was to find out the sensual differences among different storage technologies and determine the consumer level of acceptance. The study was conducted at the Post-harvest and Preservation Laboratory of the Department of Farm Power and Machinery, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Moisture content of stored milled rice was monitored during 9 months of storage in different storage structures. The sensory quality of stored milled rice in three traditional storage technologies (Kolshi, Steel drum and Plastic drum) and hermetic bag like GrainPro bag for two rice varieties (Tulshimala and BRRI dhan49) was analyzed for consumers acceptability using panel test of 20 non trained judges. The moisture content of rice sample in GrainPro bag was found almost unchanged during storage period. The overall acceptance of cooked sample was determined based on the evaluation of the rice aroma, appearance, taste, and stickiness using a 1 to 9 points scale for 3, 6 and 9 months of storage. Based on the taste, appearance, aroma and stickiness of cooked milled rice, GrainPro bag was found satisfactory and found maximum score as an overall acceptance compared to traditional storage technologies.
Keywords: Milled Rice; Storage; Quality; Consumer; Overall acceptance.
Effect of apple cider vinegar, baking soda and salt on growth of Colletotrichum musae and development of anthracnose disease on banana fruits
by Jin Chi Kong, Tu Anh Vu Thanh
Abstract: Banana fruits are prone to attack by Colletotrichum musae, causing postharvest anthracnose disease. Synthetic fungicides have been used in controlling postharvest pathogens but they are hazardous to human and the environment. Therefore, an alternative method to chemical control is needed. In this study, effect of sodium bicarbonate, sodium chloride and apple cider vinegar (ACV) on the growth of banana anthracnose pathogen was examined. ACV (2 to 6%) and sodium bicarbonate (250 to 350mM) completely inhibited the growth of the pathogen in vitro, followed by 2-11% inhibition by sodium chloride (4 to 8g/L). ACV and sodium bicarbonate failed to control the anthracnose disease development on treated fruits compared to untreated fruits (control) in vivo. Further studies are suggested to test combined effect of ACV and sodium bicarbonate on the pathogen growth and disease development on banana fruits.
Keywords: anthracnose; apple cider vinegar; Colletotrichum musae; sodium chloride; sodium bicarbonate.
Post-harvest cereal structures and climate change resilience in rural Zimbabwe: A review.
by Rudo Florence Mapfeka, Ronald Mandumbu, Tapiwa Zengeza, Agathar Kamota, Blessing Masamha, Farai Desire Marongwe, Eleanor Florence Mutsamba-Magwaza, Elijah Nyakudya, George Nyamadzawo
Abstract: Smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa use storage structures that help maintain grain quality and safety. This study reviewed the use of different grain storage structures used by smallholder farmers in Zimbabwe namely granaries, metal silos, supergrain bags, polypropylene bags, and cribs. Metal silos and supergrain bags, however costly, have hermetic properties that kill pests while granaries dilapidate with time. Cribs are susceptible to moisture entry, while polypropylene bags are prone to perforations by sharp objects. This review discussed the impact of climate change on the preservation of grain quality during storage. Molds, insect pest infestations and rodent attacks are major challenges that cause storage losses. Knowledge barriers, cost, fear of the unknown, effectiveness of storage structure and security of grain are factors that affect the diversity of storage structure use. Proper use of storage structures contributes towards the achievement of Sustainable Development Goals and increases farmer resilience to the impacts of climate change.
Keywords: Cereals; climate change adaptation; food security; grain preservation; post-harvest; storage losses; storage structures.
Physicochemical properties of eggplant (Solanum aethiopicum L.) fruits as affected by cassava starch coating during low temperature storage: Optimization of coating conditions
by Rosemond Dadzie, Robert Amoah, Jerry Ampofo-Asiama, Bright Quaye, Ernest Abano
Abstract: Eggplant, a major fruit consumed in Africa, suffers from huge losses in quality due to the high perishability of the fruit after harvest. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of cassava starch coating combined with low temperature storage on extending the quality of eggplant fruits, and to determine the optimal coating conditions. Eggplants were coated with 2 % starch solution with or without 1 % citric acid pre-treatment, stored at 10 °C and the changes in quality of the fruits monitored for 17 days. Cassava starch coating helped to reduce weight loss, while maintaining the colour and firmness of the fruits. Further improvements in quality was observed in fruits pre-treated with citric acid prior to coating. The nutritional composition (total phenolic content, ascorbic acid and total antioxidant capacity) of the fruits were also enhanced by the coating. A Response Surface Methodology based on Box-Behnken Design was used to determine the optimal coating conditions.
Keywords: edible coating; eggplant fruit; Solanum aethiopicum L.; cassava starch; low temperature storage; Response Surface Methodology