International Journal of Postharvest Technology and Innovation (19 papers in press)
Development and evaluation of an online grading system for pinto beans using machine vision and artificial neural network
by Mahmoud Omid, Aghil Salehi, Mahdi Rashvand, Mahmoud Soltani Firouz
Abstract: The design of an intelligent system for qualitative evaluation of beans product impurities is the most important step necessary to make a bean sorting machine. In this research, a real-time system of pinto beans sorting (from red, white, and damaged beans, and stones) was designed and developed by combining image processing and artificial neural networks (ANNs). In total, six parameters were selected from the statistical characteristics of beans for classification of Pinto beans from other beans and stones. Several ANN classifiers each with different number of neurons in the hidden layer were trained to determine the optimal structure. Optimal topology of ANN classifier was 6-12-8-2. The correct classification rate for Pinto, white, red, and damaged beans and stones were 86.27, 100, 100, 54.9 and 65.3%, respectively. The corresponding MSE were calculated as 0.05, 0.059, 0.013, 0.099 and 0.096, respectively. The accuracy of the sorting system for Pinto bean from others was 97.87%. The results showed that the designed system combined with ANN technique had acceptable efficiency in Pinto been grading.
Keywords: Artificial neural networks; Classification; Image processing; Pinto beans.
Climate Change Impacts on Yield and Financial Performance of Agro-Plantation Companies in Malaysia
by Md. Mahmudul Alam, Yusnida Ibrahim, Md Shahin Mia
Abstract: In Malaysia, there is a declining trend in agricultural productivity and crop yields due to various climate events in the recent years. Therefore, this study aims to examine the impacts of climate change, especially El Nino and flood, on the financial performance of Malaysian agro and plantation firms. The study used a panel data set on 33 Malaysian agro and plantation firms listed in Bursa Malaysia for the period of 2003 to 2016. A panel of regression models including GMM, Pooled OLS, Random Effect and Fixed Effect were used to analyze the data. The results show that both the El Nino and flood have significant negative impact on the firms financial performance as measured by ROA and ROE. The findings indicate that climate change results in reduction of agricultural production which reduces revenue and consequently the profit of the agro and plantation firms. The study findings might help the firm managers as well as policy makers to take into consideration the environmental factors that affect the overall financial health of the firms and take appropriate adaptation and mitigation policies to climate change at firm level and macro level in the country.
Keywords: Climate change; El Nino; Flood; Agro firm; Plantation firm; Financial performance; ROA; ROE; Panel regression; Malaysia.
Post - Harvest Deterioration of Green Billeted and Green Whole Stalk Sugarcane in Northeast Thailand.
by Rattana Mueangmontri, Pisittinee Chapanya, Anutin Pattamasuwan, Prakit Sukyai*
Abstract: This study considered post-harvest deterioration of green billeted and green whole stalk on sugarcane. A yield deterioration assessment was conducted in the Northeast of Thailand throughout March 2017 and assessed the main variety grown, namely Khonkaen 3 (KK3). To have an appropriate assessment, several sugarcane quality parameters such as sugarcane weight (kg), Brix %, juice purity %, commercial cane sugar (CCS) % of cane, reducing sugar % Brix, mannitol, lactic acid, and dextran in mg/kg Brix unit were used to investigate postharvest sugarcane deterioration due to bacterial activity. The deterioration trial was undertaken over 13 days to investigate the green billets (GB) and green whole-stalks (GWS). The study findings showed that GB and GWS lost water by evaporation with an average value of 36.9% and 18.3% over 13 days, respectively. The juice purity % of GB dropped from 88.0 to 27.1 while that of GWS dropped from 87.5 to 56.3 in the study period. All sugarcane quality parameters, CCS %, reducing sugar % Brix and juice purity % showed a faster deterioration rate of GB than GWS under identical time and climatic conditions. Mannitol, lactic acid and dextran were useful as an indicator of deterioration and estimating the juice purity drop during post-harvest sugarcane deterioration in North-East Thailand.
Keywords: Post harvest deterioration; Green sugarcane; Green billets sugarcane; Mannitol; Lactic acid.
Photosensitization combined with ozone gas delays the postharvest ripening of stored tomato
by Sayali More, Venkata Ramana Rao Tadapaneni
Abstract: Tomato faces pathogen attack which is a major cause of postharvest losses. The present study is carried out to minimize its postharvest losses and to extend its shelf life by physical elicitor such as photosensitization, ozone and UV-C. The quality of the fruit was evaluated by the quantitative analysis of physico-chemical, biochemical and enzymatic assay at a regular interval of 5 d during storage. The results showed significantly higher levels of total phenols, ascorbic acid, carotene, lycopene and the antioxidant activity throughout their storage as compared to control. The fruits of T5 group (photosensitization and ozone gas treatment) remained marketable up to 40 d, while the non-treated fruits were acceptable up to 22 d. The nutritional quality of stored tomato was also found better in treated fruit than control. These results suggest that the photosensitization and ozone is found effective in the postharvest extension of tomato and maintaining their nutritional quality.
Keywords: Ozone gas; Photosensitization; Shelf life; Tomato; UV-C irradiation.
Factors Influencing the Adoption of Pre-Harvest Practices among Mango Farmers in Embu and Machakos Counties, Kenya.
by Antony Bundi, John Mburu, Stephen Mbogoh, Jane Ambuko
Abstract: Pre-harvest practices (PHPs) are key to sustainable mango farming, including their impact on fruit quality at harvest and post-harvest longevity. However, the adoption of these practices is still below the expected levels for optimal production. This paper analyzes the determinants of the extent of adoption of PHPs using cross-sectional data collected in Embu and Machakos Counties of Kenya. Multivariate Probit and Ordered Probit models were applied. The results reveal that there are significant correlations among the PHPs. Further analysis shows that the probability of and the level of adoption of PHPs is influenced by region, years of experience in mango farming, off-farm income, mango sales, number of mango trees, access to inputs, and perceptions towards PHPs. These results indicate that policymakers and their development counterparts ought to strengthen farmers access to farm inputs and extension services, and address barriers to financial access to accelerate the adoption of PHPs.
Keywords: Mango; Pre-Harvest Practices; Post-Harvest Losses; Adoption; Ordered Probit; Multivariate Probit.
Correlation between Physicochemical Changes of Seeded and Seedless Watermelons during Postharvest Storage
by MAIMUNAH MOHD ALI, Norhashila Hashim, Siti Khairuniza Bejo, Rosnah Shamsudin
Abstract: The physicochemical changes in fruits can be influenced by postharvest handling during the storage period. The physicochemical properties (firmness, soluble solids content, pH, moisture content, colour) were analysed over seven interval days to observe the changes between the seeded and seedless watermelons. The results indicated a decrease in the firmness, soluble solids content, and moisture content values, whereas the pH values increased for both seeded and seedless watermelons. The L*, b*, and chroma values increased whereas the a* value reduced. The hue angle value increased for both seeded and seedless watermelons. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to determine the quality changes of both varieties and correlations among the physicochemical properties of watermelon samples. The findings indicated that PCA has the potential to characterise quality changes patterns in the seeded and seedless watermelons during storage and could establish the basis of major impact on the determination of fruit quality.
Keywords: colour; watermelon; quality; storage.
Integration of Artificial Neural Network with Genetic Algorithm for an Optimum Performance of a Chironji (Buchanania lanzan) Nut Decorticator
by Dileswar Pradhan, Rama Chandra Pradhan
Abstract: This study has explored the integrated Artificial Neural Network - Genetic Algorithm (ANN-GA) technique for the optimum performance of a Chironji (Buchanania lanzan) nut decorticator. To have desired outcomes, the performance of the decorticator was evaluated at 54 different combinations of independent variables. Those variables are six levels of moisture content of the nuts (3 %, 6 %, 9 %, 12 %, 15 %, and 18 % d.b.), three levels of the roller speed (400, 450, and 500 rpm), and three levels of clearance between the roller and plate (6.44, 6.95, and 7.46 mm). The optimum values found were the moisture content of 12.06 % (d.b.), speed of 413 rpm, and clearance of 6.64 mm. With the optimized values, 14.69 % of whole kernels, 3.45 % of broken kernels, and 5.20 % of un-decorticated nuts were recovered. A decorticating efficiency of 94.8 % and a machine efficiency of 76.77 % was recorded when the decorticator was operated at optimum conditions. The outcomes of this study will be useful for nut processing and elsewhere.
Keywords: Nut processing; Decorticator; Decortication; Machine performance; Decorticating efficiency; Machine efficiency; Modelling; Artificial Neural Network; Optimization; Genetic Algorithm.
Interactive effect of different fruit packaging materials and doses of gamma irradiation on postharvest behaviour of Apantu (Musa sp AAB) fruits from the green stage to the onset of ripening
by Daniel O. Ofosu, Francis Appiah, Ben K. B. Banful
Abstract: The rate of postharvest losses is very high in plantains (Musa sp AAB) due to its climacteric nature. This present study sought to find out the interactive effect of three (3) different fruit packaging materials (whole sealable polyethylene, perforated sealable polyethylene, and jute sac) and gamma irradiation (200Gy, 400Gy, 600Gy, 800Gy and 1000Gy) on as ripening slowing agents on Apantu (Falsehorn plantain) and Apem (French type) using the amount of ethylene and carbon dioxide produced by the packaged irradiated plantain as a measure. Means of the results obtained were separated using Tukeys HSD with the level of significance set at 0.01.There were significant interactions of the various parameters on the amount of ethylene produced up to the onset of ripening. The unirradiated (0Gy) plantains stored in perforated polyethylene had the highest amount of ethylene produced during the storage period (456.83
Keywords: Plantains; Packaging; Gamma irradiation; Ripening.
Sorption isotherms and drying kinetics modelling of convective and refractance window drying of feijoa (Acca sellowiana Berg)
by Adriana María Castro Sánchez, Edgar Yesid Mayorga Lancheros, Maria Ximena Quintanilla Carvajal, Fabian Leonardo Moreno Moreno
Abstract: The refractance window and convective drying modelling of feijoa is important to dryers design used for the fruit preservation. This work presents the sorption isotherms and the drying kinetics of the convective and refractance window drying of feijoa slices. Feijoa was dried by convective drying at 50, 60, and 70
Keywords: Convective; refractive; thin layer; fruit; sorption isotherms; mathematical modelling; diffusivity; Midilli model; logistic model; Peleg model.
Prolonging the postharvest life of fresh mangoes with a combination of edible coatings
by Nutrada Sae-tang, Anthony Keith Thompson, Tongchai Puttongsiri
Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the application of a mixture of edible coatings to the surface of mangoes on delaying their deterioration and their quality when ripe. Considerable work has previously been reported on mango coatings, applied individually or in combination. The current work reports on a combination of three edible coatings whose selection was based on response surface methodology (RSM). RSM was used for optimization of the formulation of the coating by central composite design CCD). The mango cultivar selected was Nam Dok Mai Si Thong and the three compounds used, based on the RSM and CCD, were chitosan applied within the range of 0.5 to 1.5%, gum arabic applied within the range of 0 to 1.5% and rice bran oil applied within the range of 0 to 1.5%. The method proved successful with a desirability factor for weight loss, peel colour, TSS:TA ratio and ripening index, during storage, always in excess of 0.99 and a composite desirability factor of 0.992. It was concluded from the RSM that the optimum formulation for coating Nam Dok Mai Si Thong mangoes for short-term storage at Thai ambient temperatures was a combination of 1.5% chitosan, 1% gum arabic and 1% rice bran oil.
Keywords: mango; chitosan; gum arabic; rice bran oil; response surface methodology.
Perception and adoption determinants of pre and post-harvest technologies: Tomato value chain perspective
by Edmond Yeboah Nyamah
Abstract: This study investigates the perception, the importance and adoption determinants of pre and post-harvest technologies (PPHTs) along fresh tomato fruit value chain. Data was collected from value chain actors via a survey. The analytical result reveals the choice of cultivar type, and temperature management as the most important technologies being used to reduce post-harvest losses in Ghanas tomato value chain. There is a positive perception of PPHTs ability to reduce post-harvest losses. However, the degree of perception differs among adopters and non-adopters of PPHTs. Whereas, increase in adopters age and the perceived PPHTs risk are likely to undermine the adoption of PPHTs, increase in temperature and access to PPHT, education, labour, credits are likely to increase the adoption PPHTs significantly. Hence, there is the need to consider the perception, the importance of PPHTs, and the adoption determinants surrounding PPHTs in making policies to control post-harvest losses in tomato value chain.
Keywords: pre and post-harvest technologies; tomatoes; value chain.
Effects of farming system and maturity stage on quality, storability and antioxidant content of bird chilli pepper (Capsicum annuum cv. Huaraea SK.13) subjected to cold storage
by Wiraya Krongyut, Rachen Duangsi
Abstract: This study compared organic and conventionally produced chilli (Capsicum annuum cv. Huaraea SK.13) based on nutritional quality, storability and antioxidant system. Fruit were harvested at the mature-green and red-ripe stages and stored at 10
Keywords: sustainable agricultural practice; harvest maturity; shelf life; antioxidant compounds; antioxidant enzymes.
The effect of Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) on the postharvest shelf life of Salicornia bigelovii
by Behjat Tajeddin, Afsaneh Mohammadshafii, Maryam Hashemi
Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of active Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) conditions on the postharvest shelf life of Salicornia bigelovii as a leafy green vegetable. Salicornia is highly perishable, with a short shelf life under ambient conditions. Two types of packaging materials were used under three different gas mixtures, with the packaged product being refrigerated at 4
Keywords: Active MAP; Postharvest; Quality characteristics; Salicornia bigelovii.
The Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenol Content of Seeds from Four Species of Apiaceae Family under Different Storage Conditions
by Majid Azizi, Gonai Baghdadi, Naser Sedaghat
Abstract: We aimed to assess the impacts of packaging material (PM), and storage temperature (ST) and period (SP) on the antioxidant activity (AA) and total phenol (TP) content of Cumin, Black Zira, Fennel, and Ajowain seeds using the split-factorial method. The experiments were conducted in triplicate. The SP (either 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, or 15 months) was the main plot. The ST included either 20
Keywords: Apiaceae; Packaging materials; Storage condition; Total phenol content.
Functional Properties of Pomegranate Peel in Edible Coating/Film: A review
by Nishant Kumar, Pratibha ..
Abstract: Pomegranate peel (PGP) waste contains high levels of phenol and anti-therapeutic compounds and has beneficial properties. This study collected information on the effects of PGP powder and extract on previously developed edible films with different matrixes. The incorporation of PGP extract and powder increases the physicochemical and functional properties of the coating material and the edible film. PGP has the potential effect of increasing storage safety, preserving natural pigments, reducing lipid oxidation in food products, enhancing cell adhesion and the durability of edible packaging.
Keywords: Pomegranate peel (PGP); Functional Properties; Edible Coating/Film.
Effect of drying temperature on physical properties of flint maize hybrids with different crop managements
by Marcos ACTIS, Matías Román Ordoñez, María Cristina Gely, Ana María Pagano
Abstract: The objective of this work was to analyze the effect of the following factors: drying, hybrid and crop managemnet on dimensional, gravimetrical and frictional properties of two orange-flint maize respect to a dent hybrids, dried naturally and to 70 and 90
Keywords: orange-flint maize; high drying temperatures; physical properties.
Effect of Shell Diameter and Shell Thickness on Coconut-Shell-Halving Force
by A.B.I. VARGHESE, JIPPU JACOB
Abstract: Design of any product is primarily based on the characteristics of various parameters that will be having direct influence on their functionality. The aim of this study is to understand the influence of physical parameters of coconuts, viz. shell diameter and shell thickness on the shell halving force, so that proper designing and development of an efficient energy efficient shell-splitting tool can be done. In line with this objective, experimental investigations have been carried out on 50 green and 50 dry fully matured coconuts to measure force needed in compression for rupturing the shell equatorially. The experimentations have been carried out using a Universal Testing Machine. Results suggest a negative correlation between shell diameter and shell halving force. However, influence of shell thickness on shell halving force has been found to be less significant. Combined analysis of the results suggests that coconuts having large shell diameter and small thickness require lower shell halving force.
Keywords: Coconut; Shell-halving force; Shell diameter; Shell thickness; Shell-rupture force.
EFFECTS OF STORAGE IN MOIST SAWDUST ON THE PROXIMATE AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF FRESH CASSAVA ROOT
by Olumuyiwa Babarinsa, Isaac Oluwalana, Mathew Bolade, Matthew Oluwamukomi
Abstract: Cassava differs from other major root crops in that its edible roots are not organs of dormancy. It does not appear to have a natural function in the preservation of the plant through the dry season. Thus, this makes pre-process storage one of the major drawbacks for cassava utilisation. This study investigated the quality of cassava roots stored in moist sawdust. The proximate and chemical compositions were determined for the stored cassava. Results showed that there were significant differences (p<0.05) in the proximate composition of the stored cassava samples in terms of the ash content, moisture content, fat content, crude fibre, crude protein and carbohydrate. The pH, total titratable acidity (TTA) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) values of cassava roots ranged from 5.19 to 6.33, 0.01 to 0.16% and 7.65 to 14.54mg/kg respectively. Storage of fresh cassava roots for 12 weeks is however recommended to still produce good quality cassava which compare well with published recommended values.
Keywords: Cassava; storage; sawdust; proximate; chemical properties.
AN ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS FACTORS INFLUENCING POSTHARVEST LOSSES OF THE FRUIT AND VEGETABLE SUPPLY CHAIN
by Narenthiran N, Prasanna P, Poongkundran T, Narassima M S, Anbuudayasankar S P, Aravind P
Abstract: This research aims to analyze the factors that contribute to postharvest losses of the fruit and vegetable supply chain, especially in an Indian context. The work can be broadly classified into two phases. The first phase involves the development of an ISM model with the help of literature and field experts from an agricultural university. Ten factors that influence postharvest losses were identified and their relationships with other factors were defined. The second phase involves a survey conducted among the stakeholders to determine the various losses that are incurred in the postharvest stage of agriculture. The study is highly relevant to tropical fruits and vegetables. The results of the survey were tested for reliability and were validated using Exploratory Factor Analysis. Further, hypotheses were proposed to study the relationships between the factors. Also, the ISM model was compared to the model proposed based on the loading patterns of responses. The results of hypotheses testing revealed that out of ten developed hypotheses, nine were significant. Both models were found to be similar, except the four factors that grouped in pairs in the proposed model. Recommendations on how to improve the real-time tracking to make timely interventions have been provided.
Keywords: Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM); Hypotheses testing; Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA); Reliability Analysis; Fruit and Vegetable Supply Chain.