International Journal of Process Management and Benchmarking (38 papers in press)
Reliability Analysis of Variables of Environmental Management in Indian micro scale industries and SMEs
by D.R. Prajapati, P.J. Singh, Amit Kumar Tanwer
Abstract: Performance parameters of Environmental Management System (EMS); based on HR dimensions and organizational dimension are important measures for the successful implementation of EMS in any manufacturing industry. This paper identifies the various EMS variables for the successful implementation EMS in the small and medium enterprises (SMEs) of India. Various measures of collected data of survey of Indian micro scale industries and SMEs have been validated and analysed by using SPSS software. The collected data have been analysed by statistical tools like importance-index and Corrected item minus total correlation (CIMTC) methods and reliability of these data has been tested by Cronbachs alpha (α) analysis. The computed results show that the identified measures are highly reliable for implementation of EMS in Indian SMEs. This study shows that 53 items out of 54 items of 9 variables are having the values of Cronbachs alpha (α) more than 0.70 and it shows that the collected data are highly reliable for Indian SMEs. It is also found that the values of Cronbachs alpha for the employees empowermentʼ and ʻTraining and awareness are above 0.80 and rest variables have the values of Cronbachs alpha (α) in the range of 0.50-0.80 for micro scale Indian industries.
Keywords: Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs); Environmental Management System (EMS); Environmental Performance (EP); Cronbach’s alpha; Importance-index and CIMTC.
Lean Six Sigma Implementation in an OEM: A Case based approach
by Raja Sreedharan V, Rajeev Trehan, Dhanya M, Arunprasad P
Abstract: Lean Six Sigma (LSS) is wide accepted as a successful quality improvement program. However, many literatures have reported that companies have struggled with LSS projects and Indian manufacturing firms are no exception to this scenario. Therefore, the article provides a description of LSS implementation at a manufacturing company. The company manufactures PTO (Power Take Off) shafts for tractors. Nevertheless, the company was receiving high non-conformance resulting in part rejection. Therefore, the study deals with the defect reduction through LSS implementation. Using, the DMAIC approach with suitable tools, statistical analysis were performed to identify the bottleneck in the operations and the corrective measure were taken to the improve quality of PTO. In addition, the researchers proposed preventive methods for reoccurring issues and developed a plan to sustain the project to find the required results. At the end of the project, the researchers yielded considerable cost saving and defect reduction. The study concludes with the managerial implications and contribution to the society with the limitations of the study.
Keywords: Lean Six Sigma (LSS); Force Field Analysis; Cost Savings; Process Improvement.
A novel approach for benchmarking maintenance based on Fuzzy reliability index for the replacement of street lights under uncertainty
by Atul Kumar Sahu, Harendra Kumar Narang, Mridul Singh Rajput
Abstract: In this study; the authors consider the context of such products; whose component failures cannot be rectified through repair actions, but can only be fixed by replacement. The authors develop a cost effective decision model based on reliability for the replacement of street lights in this study. The direction to benchmark maintenance time for operating the street lights with minimum expenditure is discussed by the authors. The replacement policy based on fuzzy reliability index; which can effectively deal with uncertainty and vagueness is proposed in this study. The theoretical model is proposed and explained with a numerical procedure to illustrate the applicability of the proposed study. The study determined the link amongst individual replacement and the group replacement policies by defining the economic instant for replacing street lights. A decision support model incorporating uncertainty and impreciseness is presented to estimate and plan prior maintenance efforts. The individual and the group replacement policies are exposed in this study by housing a subjective theoretical framework that defines their monetary contribution. The study provides valuable insight for using the real time data information for designing a replacement model using fuzzy logic. The authors proposed a fuzzy reliability approach to check the optimality of the group replacement policy.
Keywords: Maintenance; Generalized Trapezoidal Fuzzy Number set (GTFNs); Replacement; Uncertainty; Economic Life; Reliability.
Analysis of M[X]/Gk/1 retrial queue with Bernoulli - 2 vacation, search for customers and hot stand-by
by J. Radha, K. Indhira, V.M. Chandrasekaran
Abstract: A batch arrival retrial queueing model with k optional stages of service, extended Bernoulli vacation and stand-by is studied. After completion of the ith stage of service, the customer may have the option to choose (i+1)th stage of service with probability θi or may leave the system with probability 1-θi, i=1,2,...,k-1 and 1 for i=k. After service completion of each customer, the server may take a vacation with probability v1 and extend a vacation with probability v2 or rejoins the system after the first vacation with probability 1-v2. Busy server may get to breakdown and the stand-by server provides service only during the repair times. At the completion of service, vacation or repair, the server searches for the customer in the orbit (if any) with probability α or remains idle with probability 1-α. By using the supplementary variable method, steady state probability generating function for system size, some system performance measures like Ls, Lq, Ws and Wq are discussed. Simulation results are given using MATLAB.
Keywords: Retrial; k - optional service; orbital search; standby; extended vacation; Supplementary Variable Technique.
A new mathematical modeling for relief operation based on stochastic programming
by M.B. Fakhrzad, H. Hasanzadeh
Abstract: Number of natural disasters and the people affected by them has been increased over recent years. In the last two decades, the field of disaster management and humanitarian logistics has earned more attention. Design of relief logistic network as a strategic decision and relief distribution as an operational decision are the most important activities for disaster operation management before and after a disaster. Since related information can be updated after disaster, we consider a relief helicopter to satisfy the lack of inventory in different depots. In the proposed mathematical model, pre-disaster decisions are determined according to different scenarios in a two stage optimization scheme. Moreover, we present a meta-heuristic algorithm based on particle swarm optimization as a solution method. Finally, the model for two stages of disaster management is testified by several instances. Computational results based on three approaches confirm that the proposed model has proper performance.
Keywords: Disaster management; Scenario based; Relief distribution; facility location problem.
Productivity and profitability of process industry using TDABC: A case study
by Ashwin Ganorkar, Ramesh Lakhe, Kamalkishor Agrawal
Abstract: The global competition in the international market is forcing industries to increase the productivity and profitability. Time driven activity based costing (TDABC) is newly developed approach in the field of cost accounting. Companies are more interested in increasing productivity and profitability rather than assigning the cost on the product. This paper presents an approach to estimate the cost of process industry using TDABC and how it is useful in increasing productivity and profitability. The approach is explained with the help of case study in the process industry. The results indicate that TDABC provides the useful information for identifying the areas for improving the productivity of the industry and its effect on profitability. This paper also discusses how TDABC helps in taking the decision for improving productivity and profitability.
Keywords: TDABC; process industry; productivity; profitability.
A two-phase simulated annealing algorithm to minimise the completion time variance of jobs in flowshops
by J. Krishnaraj, S. Thiagarajan
Abstract: In this paper, simulated annealing (SA) algorithm is employed to solve the flowshop scheduling problem with the objective of minimising the completion time variance (CTV) of jobs. Four variants of the two-phase SA algorithm (SA-I to SA-IV) are proposed to solve flowshop scheduling problem with the objective of minimising the CTV of jobs without considering the right shifting of completion time of jobs on the last machine. The proposed SA algorithms have been tested on 90 benchmark flowshop scheduling problems. The solutions yielded by the proposed SA variants are compared with the best CTV of jobs reported in the literature, and the proposed SA-III is found to perform well in minimising the chosen performance measure (CTV) particularly in medium and large size problems.
Keywords: scheduling; permutation flowshop; simulated annealing algorithm; completion time variance; CTV.
A neural network based algorithm for flow shop scheduling problems under fuzzy environment
by Harendra Kumar, Shailendra Giri
Abstract: Scheduling is very complex but important problem in the real world environment applications. Production scheduling with the objective of minimizing the makespan is an important task in manufacturing systems. For most of scheduling problem made so far, the processing time of each job on each machine have been assumed as a real number. However in real world applications the processing time is often imprecise which means the processing time may vary dynamically because of some human factor or operating faults. This paper considers an n jobs and m machines flow shop scheduling problem of minimizing the makespan. In this work fuzzy numbers are used to represent the processing times in the flow shop scheduling. Fuzzy and neural network based concept are applied to the flow shop scheduling problems to determine an optimal job sequence with the objective of minimize the makespan. The performance of our proposed hybrid model is compared with the existing methods selected from different papers. Some problems are solved with the present method and it is found suitable and workable in all the cases. A comparison of our present method with the existing methods is also provided in this work.
Keywords: Flow shop scheduling; sequence; fuzzy number; defuzzification; artificial neural network; makespan.
Enhancing enterprise resource planning and manufacturing execution system efficiency: A simulation-based decision support approach
by Arnesh Telukdarie, Chuks Medoh
Abstract: Business units inclusive of large, medium and small-scale entities conventionally conducts activities based on business processes. Globalization has resulted in the gradual introduction of various automation systems at various levels of the business enterprise, specifically focussed on capturing essential business activities across the entity. These systems, inclusive of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES) and Plant Systems (PS) has been adopted by larger corporates in executing and optimizing business functions. These large multinationals are described as complex entities with complex business structures inclusive of business processes. The quantification of automation, escalations and critical variables of these business processes has not been effectively conducted. A systems thinking approach adds the complexity of integrating all enterprise functions and creates a framework for evaluating the limitations and synergies so as to optimize these processes. This research focuses on the development, and configuration, of a simulation model for modelling enterprise maturity via business processes. This research approach includes hierarchical layout and segregation of these business processes, exploring these enterprise operations adopting business process tools, techniques, and methodologies aligned with a systems thinking approach. A simulation framework is configured and tested. The results prove that a simulation model potentially benefits a complex organization specific to evaluating time taken to execute business processes. The results indicate that interdependent processes can be modelled together by determining impacts of multiple critical variables in minimizing business process execution times.
Keywords: simulation-based approach; manufacturing execution system; enterprise resource planning; Plant Systems; business process optimization; systems thinking.
FANTASY SPORTS OUTCOMES AS CONTROVERSIAL ISSUE FROM A GENDER PERSPECTIVE
by Alan D. Smith, Amber Smith-Ditizio, Walter Kendall
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to explore and test certain assumptions concerning the fantasy sports industry as an enabler for quick, accurate, and descriptive information to its fan from a gender perspective. However, there are distinct disadvantages that seriously active user may have on sports fantasy gambling addiction and excessive wagering may have on society in general and this study should help provide a base line for future studies. Therefore, to explore the differences, the authors sought to provide statistical evidence that collaborate differences among gender based on technology acceptance models. The sample consisted of relatively well-paid professionals who many routinely engage in fantasy sports via a personal interview procedure was implemented and highly representative of the service industry located in the metropolitan section of Pittsburgh, PA. Multivariate statistical analyses were used to test the hypotheses in determine significant gender differences. It was found that those male professionals who were intensely engaged fantasy sports respondents and who spent considerable amount of money on fantasy leagues, found fantasy guides, expert opinions, and related information helpful in changing rosters, and were intensive users of mobile technology for personal use were significant and negatively related to the dependent variables, with significant gender differences. Such respondents did not perceive there was a global concern for fantasy gambling activities, although a considerable portion of the sample felt otherwise.
Keywords: customer relations management (CRM); empirical; fantasy sports; gender; information technology; market strategy.
Optimisation of cutting force using metaheuristics
by Vineet Jain, Tilak Raj
Abstract: The significance of this research is to optimize the cutting force in turning by optimizing the cutting parameters like cutting speed, feed, and depth of cut. Cutting force is one of the important characteristic variables to be watch and controlled in the cutting processes to optimize tool life and surface roughness of the work piece. The principal presumption was that the cutting forces increase due to the wearing of the tool. Cutting force is optimized by the metaheuristic i.e. genetic algorithm (GA) and teaching-learning based optimization (TLBO) algorithm. The analysis of the result shows that the optimal combination for low resultant cutting force is low cutting speed, low feed and low depth of cut. This study finds that by adjusting machining parameters tool life can be enhanced because cutting forces increase due to the wearing of the tool. So, cutting forces have been used to maximize the tool life because cutting force increased rapidly as tool life finished. As a result, the production cost can be minimized and be extending the tool usage and subsequently, the machining time is reduced and the tool usage can be extended.
Keywords: Optimisation; cutting force; Tool life; metaheuristic; GA; TLBO.
TO FIND THE SUITABILITY OF CMS IN INDIAN INDUSTRIES IN COMPARISON OF OTHER MANUFACTURING SYSTEM USING AHP TECHNIQUE.
by Sanjay Kumar, Vasdev Malhotra, Vikas Kumar
Abstract: The cellular manufacturing (CM) is a well known manufacturing technology that helps to improve manufacturing flexibility and productivity by maximum utilization of available resources. Cellular Manufacturing (CM) has been derived as a strong tool for increasing production in batches and job shop production. In cellular manufacturing, similar machines are grouped in machine cells and same processing parts are gathered in part families. In this paper factors of CMS are identified through AHP technique. Decisions involve many hypothetical factors that should be traded off. For doing that, they have to be measured along side factual factors whose estimation must also be evaluated as such, how well, they achieves the aim of the decision maker. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is a theory of measurement through pairwise comparisons and depends on the decision of experts to find out priority scales. These are the scales that measure hypothetical factors in relative terms. The comparisons are made using a scale of absolute judgments that represents, how much; one element leads another with respect to a given aspect. The judgments may be scattered, and how to measure incoherency and improve the judgements, when possible to obtain better coherency is a concern of the AHP. The derived priority scales are synthesized by multiplying them by the priority of their parent nodes and adding for all such nodes.
It has been a fact that the stability of any country depends on the stability of its production area and progress in industrial society has been accompanied by the development of new technologies. The analytic hierarchy process has the strength to build complex, multi-person, multi-attribute and multi-period problems hierarchically. In this paper, a decision-making model is being proposed for CMS evaluation and selection. This strategic decision-making model is based on both hypothetical and factual criteria and uses the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) approach.
Keywords: AHP; Analytic hierarchy process; CMS; cellular manufacturing system.
A model for operational budgeting by the application of interpretive structural modeling approach: A case of Saipa Investment Group Co.
by Mohsen Vaez-Ghasemi, Mohammad Taleghani, Mohsen Shafieyan
Abstract: The operational budgeting system is a managerial system considered by governments at national and local levels for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of the resource consumption in organizations. This system bases the budget credit allocation on the performance of organizational units with the aim of generating outputs (products/services), i.e. short-term objectives, and/or achieving long-term goals. Then, executive agencies are led towards transparency in the resource consumption, attempts to achieve their goals and strategies, and more accountability. The present research was aimed to present a model of operational budgeting based on interpretive structural model (ISM) in Saipa Co. So, 46 factors underpinning operational budgeting were identified by literature review, experts were surveyed to derive the most important factors resulting in 14 factors, and an ISM-based structured matrix questionnaire was designed to find out the interrelations of these factors. The data collected by the questionnaire were analyzed by ISM and were mapped out at seven levels in an interactive network in that shareholders and accounting and financial reporting systems were placed at the highest level. The results revealed that the most effective factor in driving power-dependence matrix was annual budget and the five-year development plan so that the operational budgeting of Saipa Investment Co. was dependent on this factor.
Keywords: budget; budgeting; operational budgeting; interpretive structural model.
Benchmarking in the Hotel Industry: the use of USALI
by Catarina Nunes, Maria Joao Machado
Abstract: The specific objectives of this study are the following: to analyse the association between the hotel features and the use of the Uniform System of Accounts for the Lodging Industry (USALI); to analyse whether the use of this system is associated with the price charged by the hotels. Data collection began with a survey addressed to the financial managers of 241 4-star and 5-star hotels located in Portugal. To meet the objectives proposed, information on the price charged by the responding hotels was also collected from the Booking.com online platform. The results obtained allow us to indicate as main contributions the following: evidence of the existence of associations between hotel features and the use of USALI; evidence that the use of USALI influences the price practiced.
Keywords: Uniform System of Accounts for the Lodging Industry; USALI; hotel features; hotel price; contingency variables.
Brand switching through marketing mix: the role of brand effect on smartphone users
by Salmi Mohd Isa, Lai Kelly, Shaian Kiumarsi
Abstract: This study examines the role of marketing mix on brand switching among Malaysian smartphone users. It also investigates the mediating role of brand effect on the relationship between marketing mix (namely product, price, place and promotion), service, and brand switching. It uses a self-administered questionnaire to collect data from 304 participants, and their responses were analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) and Partial Least Squares (Smart-PLS). Evidence from the study reveals that price and promotion have effects on brand switching towards smartphones. It also shows that brand effect partly mediates the connections between product, price and brand switching towards smartphones. Although the Samsung brand remains the market leader in the smartphone industry in Malaysia, empirical research on the nexus between marketing mix and brand switching in Malaysia remains very scanty. Despite some limitations of this study that could affect its generalisability, it enhances marketers understanding of the marketing mix, which should receive adequate attention to attract smartphone users to switch to their brands. It also provides marketers with the knowledge of usage behaviours of Malaysia smartphone users which could be useful for launching new models that suit the preferences of smartphone users.
Keywords: Marketing Mix; Brand Effect; Brand Switch; Smartphone.
Developing a Commercialization Model for Innovative Products and Processes in a Petroleum Firm
by Parames Chutima, Soranart Ngamcachonkulkid, Somboon Chuaykoblap
Abstract: In Thailand, the petroleum industry is a major contributor to the economy as a supplier of crucial petroleum products. However, due to its geographical location, many multinational oil and gas companies have established their operations in the country. For Thai petroleum firms to remain competitive in the industry, effective commercialization strategies of inventions to innovations can bring firms competitive advantages in terms of financial returns, business opportunities for partnerships, and advanced operations. Nonetheless, commercialization of inventions is becoming increasingly difficult due to changes in the market. Firms operating without an explicitly established commercialization process are at a disadvantage. The objective of this research is to develop a formal commercialization model suitable for commercializing product and process inventions in Thailands petroleum industry. The methodology used in this research consists of three stages, i.e. 1) develop a preliminary commercialization model, 2) refine the model, and 3) apply the model to a Thai petroleum firm as a case study. As a result, two commercialization models are developed, namely an industrial commercialization model and a company commercialization model.
Keywords: Commercialization Model; Innovative Products; Petroleum Firm.
Replenishment policy for deteriorating items with trade credit and allowable shortages under inflationary environment
by S.R. Singh, Shilpy Tayal, Anjali Gaur
Abstract: In this paper we have developed an inventory model for deteriorating items in which demand of the product is a function of expiration date. In such cases the demand for the product generally decreases as the product is nearer to its expiration date. The different cases based on the allowed trade credit period have been discussed under inflationary environment. Shortages are allowed and partially backlogged. To exemplify this model numerical examples for all the cases and sensitivity analysis with respect to important parameters have been provided. The convexities graphs and the variation in total cost with the changes in parameters are represented with the help of the graph. The objective of this paper is to find out the optimal ordering quantity by which one can minimize the total associated cost of the system.
Keywords: Deterioration; Trade credit period; Inflation; Shortages; Partial Backlogging.
What can we learn from Process Maturity Models?
- A literature review of models addressing Process Maturity
by Gunnar Dahlin
Abstract: The article provides an updated extensive literature review on Process Maturity. On a general level Process Maturity could be defined as the degree to which a process is defined, managed, measured, and continuously improved, where the aim of working with maturity is twofold, either to measure the level of maturity in order to compare with other processes or to identify improvement areas. According to the findings of this study there are areas indicating needs of further research. Firstly, the fundamentals of Process Management seem to be missing when describing the work with Process Maturity, which could affect the quality of maturity models. A second area of further research is related to the absence of approaches and methods for improving Process Maturity, since improving maturity is often addressed as what to do, not how to do.
Keywords: maturity; process maturity; processes; maturity model; process management; quality management; total quality management; process improvement; business process management; quality maturity.
A study on the performance measures of the non-Markovian model of optional types of service with extended vacation, reneging process and service interruption followed by phases of repair
by S. Maragatha Sundari, N. Murugeswari, P. Manigandan
Abstract: In this study a non-Markovian queuing model is considered for our examination. In this queuing framework, clients arriving in batches follow a poisson distribution. All the arriving clients have the alternative of picking any of the N sorts of services rendered. Service time follows general distribution. In addition, the system breaks down at random. Hence the server gets into repair process of two phases Based on the fault, in first phase general repair is carried out. Then in the second phase repair based on the category is followed. Likewise after the system ends up with service ,the server will go for a necessary vacation. In addition, an optional extended vacation is followed. Also an idea of vacation to be a maintenance time in which the support work required for the server will be completed. A concept of reneging is an additional aspect in this model which happens during the time of break down and vacation. This happens due to Impatience of the customers. By the use of birth and death queuing process the conditions overseeing the model is framed. The probability generating queue size and queuing execution measures of the model are derived. The legitimisation of the model is finished by methods for numerical illustration. Also the unmistakable investigation of the graphical portrayal gives a reasonable picture about the procedure completed in versatile communication process. Also it gives significant thoughts for decrease the system break down, reneging and for the advance of the system speedier.
Keywords: non-Markovian queue; optional types of service; service interference; optional extended vacation; maintenance work; revamp process of two stages.
Determinants of Switching Intention towards Mobile Number Portability
by Anil Kumar Agrawal, Monica Sharma, Praveen Kumar Mehrotra
Abstract: India has the second largest telecom network in the world after China with about 1,206 million subscribers. The sharp increase in the teledensity and further decline in the tariffs in telecom sector has contributed significantly in Indias economic growth. Mobile number portability (MNP) was introduced in India in 2011 but was limited to licensed service area (LSA). Countrywide MNP was launched in India in 2015. By March 2017, MNP requests were 23.3% of mobile subscriber base in India. In this paper Indian Telecom sector, MNP progress in India, MNP implementation around the world, benefits of MNP and various studies on MNP have been discussed. Porting fees, porting speed, service quality, price, switching cost, satisfaction have been found the determinants of switching based on different studies carried around the world.
Keywords: mobile number portability; MNP; switching intention; Indian telecom sector; mnp benefits; telecom operators; determinants of switching.
Using AHP and TOPSIS techniques for assessment of multi-skilled workforce in manufacturing industry
by Abdelhamid Zaki, Bahia Benchekroun, Mohammed Benbrahim
Abstract: Companies are always looking for optimizing the use of their material resources and human resources. Nowadays, the issue of competency is important and crucial in industry. To perform a given task by two operators having the same qualification, performance achievement varies, which introduces the concept of individual competence level. This article presents an assessment method of multi-skilled workforce. In this paper, we provide a useful model to solve workforce assessment problems. We discuss how to consider the differences and similarities between acquired level and required level. The objective of our method is to present a combination of AHP technique and TOPSIS technique to assess the individual competence level.
Keywords: Multi-skilled workforce; activities; assessment; individual competence level; FMEA; AHP; TOPSIS.
Analyzing organizational competitiveness through sustainable manufacturing using a hierarchical approach
by Vimal KEK, Sivakumar K. K, R. Jeyapaul
Abstract: The paper proposes a framework for evaluating the organisational competitiveness attained through sustainable manufacturing. An assessment model using analytical hierarchal process (AHP) has been adopted for the evaluation of organisational competitiveness. A conceptual model is developed to understand the interrelationship between seven sustainable manufacturing practices and five organisational competitiveness with 14 sustainable manufacturing outputs at the intermediate level. The attainment of six organisational competitiveness is evaluated by computing the global priority scores of practices and outputs of sustainable manufacturing. The linkage matrix developed between the practices and the output of sustainable manufacturing and the output and organisational competitiveness is the significant contribution of this work that can be used by practicing managers/researchers to understand the various interactions and hence, promote the research in the field of sustainable manufacturing.
Keywords: organizational competitiveness; sustainable manufacturing practices; sustainable manufacturing output; decision making; linkage matrix.
Ranking the Performance of Indian Public Sector Bank using Analytic Hierarchy Process and Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution
by Shivani Guru, Debendra Mahalik
Abstract: Measuring the performance of the bank and determining the key factor relating to its efficiency and effectiveness in gaining popularity in the recent time period. Efficient operation system is crucially important for banks. In such facet ranking of the bank is becoming essential. Ranking will help the bank in improving their performance with respect to self and other. The present paper seeks to measure the performance and propose a method to rank Indian public sector banks by combining some multiple criteria decision making tools like AHP and TOPSIS. To know the degree of relation between the different set of variables correlation test is applied. For the study purposes, all public sector banks are considered. Results interpret an alternative ranking of the banks. Finally, this paper provides better vision to focus on the area of improvement in comparison to others banks.
Keywords: Banking; Efficiency; Analytic Hierarchy Process; TOPSIS; Performance ranking.
Development of geometry spot weld distribution model to improve efficiency of automotive body shop
by Selvam Ganesan, Prince Arockia Doss S
Abstract: In conventional car body process planning, parts and spots of an assembly get evenly distributed in geometry fixtures (or) stations. The remaining spots, over and above the cycle time of the geometry stations are moved to re-spot stations. Global trend of geometry and re-spot fixture distribution indicates that percentages of Geometry fixtures are higher in manual body shops with less than 40% of automation. The percentage of geometry stations varies up to 14% in 100% automated body shops. This trend shows the inappropriate planning of geometry and re-spot stations for manual and automated lines. The main focus area in the conventional planning is to set geometry through balanced distribution of parts and spots. Productivity is often not considered as the top priority. A geometry spot distribution model has been developed to resolve this concern. The proposed model can be used to calculate the appropriate geometry and re-spot stations required for a lean body shop. Improvement in quality establishment and productivity of the body shop are discussed in this paper with case studies. The developed methodology for appropriate spot weld distribution among the welding stations for body shop is simple to use for the product and process designers during any new product development phase. This can also be used for optimization of any existing cells of body shops.
Keywords: Productivity; Geometry Station; Re- Spot Station; Body Shop; Weld Shop; Body-In-White (BIW); Floor space reduction; Process planning.
THE USE OF BENCHMARKING TOOL TO IMRPOVE EFFICIENCY OF COMPANY'S INNOVATION ACTIVITIES IN THE CONDITIONS OF DIGITAL ECONOMY
by Leyla Gamidullaeva, Alexey Finogeev, Sergey Vasin, Vardan Mkrttchian, Artiom Berezin
Abstract: Today there is a necessity of developing a unique market behaviour strategy using own competitive advantages to reach the highest scores of real competitive ability of a sector. The driving force of the competition law requires companies to have thorough strategies to improve the quality of produced goods, to decrease production costs and to increase labour efficiency. In this context the use of benchmarking tools to improve innovation efficiency at companies is an important task. The present work considers decision-making models and methods regarding company's competitiveness management in terms of benchmarking. The model of competitive interaction introduced in the article in the form of a system of coupled Van-der-Pol equations with time lag was successfully tested in radio physics and now is successfully applied in economics. The article demonstrates the application of the given system to describe benchmarking of different economic companies.
Keywords: benchmarking; digital economy; Big data; enterprise management system; systems of decision-making support; innovation activity; system of Van der Pol equations with time lag; mathematics.
Effect of Perceived Support on Employees Voice Behavior Through the Work Engagement: A Moderator Role of Locus of Control
by Alhamzah Alnoor, Hasan Abdullah, Man Ismail, Esraa Yaqoub
Abstract: This study primarily aimed to identify the direct effect of perceived support on the employees' voice behaviour in the workplace. It examined knowledge interactive impact of locus of control on the perceived support of work engagement. Accordingly, this study was built on literature of voice behaviour and as such, it employed a survey methodology. The study focused on a government sector firm, specifically Basra Electricity Production. The data collection tool used is the questionnaire and it was distributed to 333 employees in the firm. The collected data was analysed using AMOS version 22. Based on the results, work engagement fully mediates the relationship between perceived support and employee voice behaviour, while external locus of control moderated the relationship between perceived support and work engagement. Suggestions were provided for several avenues for future studies.
Keywords: Perceived support; work engagement; employee voice behavior and locus of control.
How to increase organizational learning and knowledge sharing through human resource management processes?
by Reza Salehzadeh, Morteza Seddighi, Ehsan Ebrahimi
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine how human resource management (HRM) processes and knowledge sharing affect organisational learning within the context of steel industry. Drawing from the literature on HRM, this study hypothesises and tests the relationship between HRM processes, knowledge sharing and organisational learning. The authors used survey research to collect the data. The PLS path modelling approach was used to analyse the data and the conceptual model. The empirical results from the structural model suggest that three out of five HRM processes (i.e., training, job design and job quality) influenced knowledge sharing. Furthermore, knowledge sharing was a direct antecedent of organisational learning.
Keywords: Human resource management processes; knowledge sharing; organizational learning; structural equation modeling; steel industry.
Enhancing the performance parameters of flexible manufacturing system using decision-making techniques
by Anupma Yadav, Suresh C. Jayswal
Abstract: Due to varying requirements of customers, it became difficult for manufacturing firms to sustain their position in the market. Because of this, firms are finding and implementing new technologies in existing system and flexible manufacturing system (FMS) is one of the solutions for this problem. FMS is an automatic manufacturing system, capable of producing a wide variety of products with good quality. However, the cost of implementing FMS is high. So, decisions related with various parameters in implementing and managing the system, is one of the crucial steps in FMS. In present work, emphasis is done on developing a methodology that can make an appropriate decision of selecting best experiment level, by using simple calculations that can save money and time. For doing so, a relative study of decision-making approaches that combines Shannon entropy and weighted aggregated sum product assessment (WASPAS) method is performed for solving the selection problem of operating conditions. Criteria's weight is calculated first by Shannon entropy method. Later, alternatives were ranked by using calculated weights in WASPAS method. Based on obtained ranking, management could take verdicts for refining the performance parameters of the system.
Keywords: Selection; factor-level; shannon entropy method; weighted aggregated sum product assessment; flexible manufacturing system.
Classification of Indian Tea Supply Chain - in Context of Assam
by Tripti Paul, Sandeep Mondal
Abstract: There exists insufficient literature on classification and taxonomy of Indian tea supply chain (TSC), so the basic objectives of this study are to identify the existing TSCs and classify them accordingly. The paper is based on a three-year detailed field study on TSC in Assam which encompasses tea-estates, small tea gardens (STGs), bought leaf factories (BLFs), research institute, auction centres, branding companies, tea distributors, and retailers. The paper presented an incorporated structure that includes all the stakeholders with their roles in tea value chain. This has not been reported in previous research. The study also develops an integrated tea supply chain framework and apart from this, classifies the tea supply chain in context of Assam, India. The present study will help further research to optimise business operations and maximising the profit of the Indian tea industry.
Keywords: Tea Industry; Tea Research Center; Tea Estate; Small Tea Garden; Plucking; Tea Factory; Bought Leaf Factory; Tea Auction Centre; Tea Branding Company; Value Chain; Supply Chain Framework.
Using queuing models to set the right parking price
by Baruch Keren, Yossi Hadad
Abstract: This paper applies queuing models (M/G/N/N) to determine the right price for parking, given that the arrival rate and the staying time depend on the parking price. The models explore the payment per hour and the entrance fee models, with one or several customer types, and where each customer type faces different prices (price discrimination). The models are also applicable for cases where the objective function is to set the park occupancy rate at a desired level. The analysis of the numerical examples demonstrates the applicability of the models and provides some interesting insights about the setting of the correct parking price under the appropriate pricing scheme. The conclusion is that one of the most important tools for process management and benchmarking of a car park is the parking pricing.
Keywords: parking pricing; queuing models; M/G/N/N; parking occupancy; revenue; benchmarking.
Engaging leadership, engaging environment, engaging job, and engagement
by Hasan Hosseini, Maryam Firouznia, Sayyed Mohsen Allameh
Abstract: The arrival of new workforce generation would necessitate a leadership type transcending traditional boundaries. Organisations must strive to develop a supportive work climate which inspires, strengthens and connects employees to perform their tasks vigorously. This paper primarily seeks to investigate the relationship between engaging leadership and work engagement. With reference to empirical studies and existing research on leadership and work engagement, a positive association between engaging leadership and work engagement mediated by engaging job and engaging environment is confirmed. More importantly, this study deals with the paucity of the structured literature regarding work engagement determinants, and offers a holistic model providing a logical ground for identifying empirical indicators and hypotheses to verify the theory. Apart from extending engaging leadership dimensions, certain paradigms are proposed for jobs and work environment to facilitate work engagement.
Keywords: Work Engagement; Engaging Leadership; Engaging Environment; Job Meaningfulness; Job Resources.
Holistic Approach of Optimizing Cross-Docking In Supply Chain
by Jyoti Mishra
Abstract: An initiative took in 1930s by the US trucking industries, cross-docking. The aim behind the initiative was to have lower inventory levels and optimised lead times by having an unbroken flow of product/material from the supplier to the end-customer. In order to have the seamless flow one must ensure that the operations are synchronising. Hence the optimisation of the overall supply chain to be more efficient in terms of lead time and cost, requires an interconnected and explicable connection of all the factors that has to be taken into consideration. The study conducted takes a real time model as an example and illustrates how cross-docking can be managed more holistically to synchronise cross-docking operations at the distribution centre with its inbound and outbound network logistics.
Keywords: Cross-Docking; lower inventory; lead time; inbound; outbound; operations; synchronize; optimization; efficient; holistically; distribution centre; logistics; management; supply chain.
Linking Social Disruption and Firm Performance
by Satyendra Kumar Sharma, Saurabh Chadha, Himanshu Seth
Abstract: Traditionally the companies were focused on cost reduction by compromising its payoffs to maximise the entire supply chain's profit and its sustainability. Nevertheless, a new concept of socially responsible supply chains can overcome the limitations of traditional model and enhance the company's performance in consideration to triple bottom line approach. Most of the studies done empirically investigates and provide a conceptualised framework on supply chain sustainability but a dearth of studies impacting the socially responsible supply chain effect on the performance of firm, financially as well as socially creates a need of more research in this area. This study focused on four different events of social issues that hampered the company's performance in terms of share prices, revenues, profits and overall image in the eyes of stakeholders. The study includes qualitative as well as quantitative analysis to know the impact of social issues on supply chains leading to disruptions.
Keywords: Supply Chain Management; Sustainability; Event Study; Firm Performance; Social issues.
A Vendor Recommendation Model using Neural Networks
by Satyendra Kumar Sharma, Sajeev Abraham George
Abstract: Suppliers today are considered as a logical extension to a firm that provide critical inputs to its processes. Supplier performance evaluation is vital for any firm to carry out supplier selection and to practice effective supply chain management. Further, the supplier performance measurement system should continuously evolve in a company as a process for improving the capabilities, execution effectiveness and efficiency. Though the supplier performance systems have been well investigated in the literature, only very few studies have proposed an order-based supplier selection approach that takes into account the changing priorities of the customer. The research tries to address this gap by attempting to establish a dynamic linkage between customer order priorities and supplier characteristics. A neural network model for the order driven vendor recommendation system that ranks the suppliers as per the requirements of the order has been proposed.
Keywords: Vendor Selection; Neural Network; Case Application.
Machinability model and multi-response optimization of process parameters through regression and utility concept
by Ashok Kumar Sahoo, Amlana Panda, Bijaya Bijeta Nayak, Ramanuj Kumar, Rabin Kumar Das, Ramesh Kumar Nayak
Abstract: Over the years, it is essential to produce appropriate dimensional with quality parts for the use in various automotive components. This paper presents modelling and multi-optimisation exploration on the hard part turning of EN 24 grade steel at 48 HRC with coated carbide multilayer inserts for three roughness factors (Ra, Rz, and Rt). Taguchi L16 orthogonal design with three input parameters and three quality characteristics output was applied to suitably model the process requirements. The second model provides a high coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.98 for Ra, 0.97 for Rz and 0.95 for Rt respectively) compared with the linear model that demonstrates high significance. The ideal parametric setting for different multiple quality features was found to be the depth of cut (0.4 mm), feed rate (0.04 mm/rev) and cutting speed (200 m/min) respectively. The multi-responses optimisation has been simultaneously performed using Taguchi method and the utility concept.
Keywords: Hard turning; multilayer coated carbide; surface roughness; regression; utility concept.
Application of Artificial Neural Network Techniques in Computer Aided Process planning- A review
by Natarajan Krishnan, Gokulachandran J
Abstract: Computer aided process planning (CAPP) bridges the gap between computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing. CAPP research includes neural network approaches, knowledge-based techniques, Petri nets, agent- based, fuzzy set theory, genetic algorithm, standard for the exchange of product model data (STEP)-Compliant CAPP and internet-based techniques. This study mainly focuses on the application of the artificial neural network (ANN) techniques in CAPP because of their learning ability and huge potential toward dynamic planning. The role of an artificial neural network in feature recognition, machine selection, operation and machine tool selection are emphasised in detail in this survey paper.
Keywords: CAPP; Artificial Neural Networks; ArtificialIntelligence; VariousApproaches; Manufacturing.
On the benchmarking of port performance. A cosine similarity approach
by Iñigo L. Ansorena
Abstract: The measurement of port performance is not a simple task since there are many variables involved in port operations. Some industry standards are based on key performance indicators, which are the basis to provide management information for planning and control. We propose the use of cosine similarity to gain a better understanding of performance indicators. The concept of cosine similarity is particularly interesting when searching for similarities in big datasets. The name derives from the term direction cosine, i.e., two vectors are maximally similar if they are parallel (maximum value of cosine), and maximally dissimilar if they are perpendicular (90
Keywords: benchmarking; port performance; past performance; data visualization; cosine similarity; similarity search; big dataset; containerships; measuring; weighted edges; graph theory; complex network.
Towards a new maturity model of industrial performance improvement based on ISO 9001: version 2015 and VDA6.3: version2016
by Badr Elwardi, Anwar MEDDAOUI, Ahmed MOUCHTACHI, Ahmed EN-NHAILI
Abstract: In this science research explosion century, the competitive economic environment and manufacturers are forced to follow the development and changes to protect their existence with respect of delay, quality and cost challenges, therefore lean manufacturing concepts become part of solution. Contrariwise some manufacturers, especially small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) suffer to implement these concepts. This paper's purposes are to define an advanced model of lean manufacturing system (LMS) based on ISO:9001 version 2015 principles and VDA6.3 version 2016 norm, and suggest a maturity model to evaluate the maturity level of LMS which has been confirmed through a statistical studies. Nevertheless, few works related to this field make academic research and industry closer, our work falls within this context through the industrial productivity improvement. This paper proposes also some research perspectives aiming to complete this research axis by enhancing the presented model through other industrial experiments and studies.
Keywords: ISO9001; lean manufacturing system; key performance indicators; maturity model; VDA; LSRO Model.