International Journal of Procurement Management (70 papers in press)
Supplier selection and order allocation in purchasing and supply management: a systematic literature review
by Tobias Rösner
Abstract: Supplier selection and order allocation are challenging decision-making problems. In the past, these problems have already been subject of great interest. Both decision-making methods and the requirement profile in strategically complex purchasing and supply management have developed over time. In previous years, review papers and research articles have been published on the supplier selection and order allocation problem. This paper extends the research framework by presenting a systematic literature review of 171 documents from 2018 to 2020. In the analytical framework, papers are explored according to their process stage orientation and technique orientation. Also, recent findings on the application of relevant decision criteria are presented. Furthermore, a mapping concerning model characteristics is realised. An analysis of the number of suppliers, number of criteria, number of items, number of periods, number of objectives and number of decision-makers is provided. This work also recommends future research directions and eases knowledge acquisition.
Keywords: supplier selection; order allocation; decision-making; systematic literature review; purchasing; procurement.
Optimal Procurement Choices for Development of Public Infrastructure
by Harpreet Pruthi, Vikramjit Singh
Abstract: The paper examines the public procurement contracts for the supply/construction of assets or provision of public services, with particular emphasis on public-private partnerships (PPP). The paper compares the PPP and traditional procurement (TP) on the basis of cost effectiveness and quality of services and innovation. Total cost of providing service not only comprises of cost of construction/acquisition of asset but also includes cost of operation and maintenance of assets which depends on quality and fitness for purpose of assets produced by private sector. Therefore, design of procurement contracts determines if incentives of private sector to minimise cost of production align with overall objective of delivering better services at lower costs to public. Paper attempts to identify the metrics, which can be utilised by Government to choose appropriate procurement methods and would also help Public procurement agencies/professionals to design contracts which can create maximum value for money (VfM) for public.
Keywords: public private partnerships; PPP; public procurement; contract design metrics; public infrastructure development; unbundling contracts; incomplete contracts; optimal risk allocation; PPP capacity.
DECISION PREFERENCES OF PROCUREMENT DELIVERY METHOD IN PUBLIC SECTOR CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS USING TOPSIS
by Ali Raza Khoso, Nafees Ahmed Memon, Fida Siddiqui, Aftab Hameed Memon
Abstract: This research aims to stride for the most persuasive factors affecting the selection of procurement delivery methods and aid in decision preferences to the public sector clients to select the right procurement delivery method when their preferences vary over parameters such as time, cost, quality, risk, etc. Technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) decision making technique was applied to compute procurement delivery method preferences by considering various alternatives from selection criteria. TOPSIS decision technique computed the procurement delivery method ranking in descending order as: design and build, public private partnership, design-bid-build and management-oriented. This study offers a greater range of options to clients in case of their different preferences, which are not limited to basic time, cost, and quality but other criteria such as risk, client characteristics, project characteristics and external environment.
Keywords: procurement delivery methods; PDMs; design and build; D&B; decision; TOPSIS; public private partnership; PPP; public procurement.
Developing the application model for the Kraljics purchasing portfolio
by Laura Luukkainen, Anni-Kaisa Kähkönen
Abstract: Portfolio models are popular in purchasing and supply management to optimise strategies for supplier relationship management. Portfolio models, such as Kraljics purchasing portfolio, are based on subjective judgements and are qualitative in their nature. Portfolio models have been criticised because they lack guidelines on how the models could be applied in practice. The key to the application is the definition of appropriate key attributes that can be used for measuring and defining the dimensions. In this study, the factors which influence the supply risk and profit impact are studied by deriving the appropriate attributes from the empirical data of a multinational electrical manufacturer. This study contributes by identifying the key attributes for the dimensions of profit impact and supply risk and by scaling these with numerical values for the purposes of Kraljics matrix. As a result, this study provides a practical model, explaining how companies can apply Kraljics matrix.
Keywords: purchasing portfolio; Kraljics matrix; supplier relations; purchasing; supply management.
Adopting Electronic Healthcare Services during COVID-19 and the Nations Responding: Evidence from Jordan
by Elham Alhiary
Abstract: This research aims to examine the national responding of healthcare services and the existing initiatives among adoption electronic service during the COVID-19 in Jordan. The study model is extending to the theory of acceptance technology and use which includes effort expectancy, performance expectancy and, facilitating position factors. A quantitative approach survey questionnaire was conducted towards employees working in private hospitals in Jordan. A total of 315 valid and completed responses were retrieved. The sample was randomly selected to ensure fair representation of the population society. The conceptual model of this research was empirically examined using hierarchical regression. The results showed that all independent predictors conceptualised in the model were significant predictors of 80% of the variance in the adoption of electronic healthcare. The study provides some new findings would help in understanding the role of technology over the emerging situations and crisis particularly COVID-19 pandemic.
Keywords: healthcare services; COVID-19; Jordan; private hospitals; electronic services.
The impact of the Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) concept in the South African public procurement systems on black construction professionals
by Christopher Amoah
Abstract: South Africas government in 2003 introduced Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) legislation aimed to uplift the blacks into mainstream economic activities. This study assessed the impact of the BEE policy on black construction professionals since its introduction. Due to COVID-19 restrictions and the participants dispersed location, the telephone interview method was adopted to solicit information from 21 black construction professionals. The findings indicate that the BEE policy in the public procurement system; has improved black construction professionals economic status, developed their skills, and increased access to public contracts, indicating an immense benefit from the BEE policy. However, issues such as nepotism, corruption, and
exploitation by policy implementers with political acquaintances in the public procurement system prevent the policy from fully achieving its objectives. South Africas government must institute measures to ensure all the hindrances adversely affecting the policys successful implementation are eradicated if the intended policy objectives are to be realised.
Keywords: Black Economic Empowerment; BEE; black; construction professionals; contract; government; public procurement.
Analysis of Sustainable Practices Adopted in the Health Sector Public Procurement Process of Goods by the Provincial Director of Health Services Office, Central Province of Sri Lanka
by W.M.C.R. Wijekoon, Anura Lokugamage, W.A.S.S. Wickrama, Asela Dissanayake
Abstract: This study examines the extent to which the Provincial Director of Health Services Office, Central Province of Sri Lanka adopts sustainable procurement practices, when procuring required goods to meet the health service needs in the province. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out based on all goods procured in year 2018 and also upon obtaining views of all officers involved in the procurement process. A checklist assessed the integration of sustainability criteria in the procurement process and a self-administered, structured questionnaire was used to gauge the level of knowledge of the public officers involved in the process. Findings indicated that, the highest proportion of goods (69%, 131 items) purchased were related to medical equipment, procured upon fulfilling certain procurement criteria but lacked timeliness and adherence to certain key sustainable concepts. Lack of specific knowledge on sustainable procurement among the public officers, was another major concerning factor.
Keywords: sustainable procurement; green procurement; public procurement; procurement process; goods procurement; Sri Lanka.
Supply of Cyber Insurance in Banking Sector
by Leandro Ferreira Pereira
Abstract: The development of technology and the way of doing business exchange sensitive information all over the world through IT resources. As a consequence of such reality, cyber events are more likely to occur, being the banking sector one of the major targets. Cyber insurance is one of the possible protection options. The main goal of this research is to assess the supply of cyber insurance among the banking sector operating in Portugal. To get the main goal, the research is based on a literature review state of the art of the cyber insurance market in the world and in the country and an empirical study through the application of questionnaires to evaluate potential cyber insurance suppliers. The main findings of this study relate to the fact that the topic is relevant, but no one is prepared to provide the service, and there is a huge market to grow.
Keywords: cyber risk; cyber insurance; operational risk; banking sector; insurance sector.
Sustainable supply chain coordination with greening and promotional effort dependent demand
by Arpita Paul, Totan Garai, Bibhas Giri
Abstract: This paper studies green growth and coordination issues in a three-layer supply chain consisting of one manufacturer, one distributor and one retailer under cost sharing contract. We explore the impact of green initiatives taken by the manufacturer and the promotional efforts put by the distributor. We adopt game-theoretic approach to examine the impact of greening, advertising and consumer sensitivity towards green-channel We propose a cost sharing contract between the members who bargain on the cost sharing parameter, and the contract benefits the chain members significantly. We study two different cost-sharing contracts, one between the manufacturer and the distributor, and another between the distributor and the retailer. The key contribution and objective of this paper are analysing impact of promotional activities of a green supply chain and investigating different strategies of cost sharing contracts with collaboration between channel partners and analysing information sharing on the decisions and profits of the chain members.
Keywords: supply chain management; green supply chain; cost-sharing contract; game theory; channel coordination; sustainable development; promotional effort; three-echelon supply chain.
STRATEGIC SOURCING AND PERFORMANCE OF MILK PROCESSORS IN KENYA
by Hellen Ndung'u, Purity Mwirigi, Kiende Gatimbu
Abstract: The dairy sector aids the global economy in terms of food security and contribution to the GDP. In Kenya dairy contributes 4% of GDP. Kenya has been the largest dairy producer in Sub-Saharan Africa but recently has been facing a continuous decline in milk processing. Milk processors in Kenya receive only 12% of the marketed milk. The imported processing capacities end up underutilised by over 54% annually. Milk processors in Kenya have shut down while others get acquired due to poor performance. Therefore, the study investigated the influence of strategic sourcing on organisational performance of milk processors in Kenya. Primary data was collected using questionnaires. An ordered logistic regression model was used in econometric analysis. The study concluded that effective supplier relationships and technology use positively increase the likelihood of improvement in sales and capacity utilisation of milk processors in Kenya. This will translate into improved firm performance.
Keywords: gross domestic product; GDP; food agricultural organisation; FAO; Kenya Association of Manufacturers; KAM; Kenya Dairy Board; KDB; supply chain management; SCM.
Recognizing and prioritizing the supply chain risk in project-based organization regarding the effective environmental factors and by using FMEA technique case study: Ehdas Gostar Nirooye Pars Co.
by Narges Hasanzadeh Moghimi, Abbas Sheikh Aboumasoudi
Abstract: Based on the results obtained, lack of liquidity flow in contractor companies with the priority number of 0.133571 was as the most important risk in supply chain. The second rank is related to change of the governments enactments with the priority number of 0.130398 and third priority is related to excessive increase of the expected price of materials and equipment with the number of 0.115694. The fourth to twelfth priorities of risk include uncertainty of access to raw materials, scarcity of the needed materials and equipment, uncertainty of inflation rate, uncertainty of exchange rate, failure of machines and equipment, personnels carelessness in project execution, and delay in confirmation of the needed orders. According to the experts, all the recognised risks are among the general risks and include other project-based organisations, too. So, the results of the research have a great importance in this regard.
Keywords: supply chain risk; environmental factors; project-based organisation; failure modes and effects analysis; FMEA.
Designing Logistics Routes to Secure Goods Delivery in Construction Projects: Cases in Indonesia Cement Projects
by Effnu Subiyanto, Somayeh Asadi, Hesty Prima Rini, Annisa Farahmei Effnandya
Abstract: This paper has purposed to explore how to design the best techniques and methods in planning an efficient route of goods delivery required to support cement projects in Indonesia. Several methods of multidisciplinary mix-study have been explored such as content analysis, focus group discussion, expert judgment, and analytical hierarchy process to clarify findings. The methods had been developed to elaborate on eight cement construction projects during the period 2010 to 2018. The results show that various locations have required different options as Indonesia's geography is the Archipelagos State. The best-chosen routes as well as the most efficient in terms of costs are by using the Asia-Europe and Intra-Asia route for international logistics. However, this research also recommends developing an alternative domestic route as the serious level concerns found of it. This research appropriates to be applied in the cement projects, but it can be adopted to other projects with several adjustments.
Keywords: logistics; construction project; cement project; route; transportation strategy; procurement; Indonesia.
Accommodation selection criteria used by short term rental clients: an empirical approach to the Portuguese case
by Maria Joao C. V. Machado, Mafalda Patuleia, João Estêvão, Álvaro Dias
Abstract: This study has two specific objectives: to typify the customers of short term accommodation rental; to analyse the association between the characteristics of these customers and their criteria when selecting the accommodation. Data were collected through an online questionnaire, addressed to short term rental users living in Portugal. A number of 1,000 valid answers were obtained. Results allow the identification of new characteristics of this type of customers, namely: the perception of their role in tourism destinations as tourists or rather as neighbours; the importance attributed to short term accommodation rental, in comparison to hotel accommodation; the frequency with which short-term accommodation customers travel. As a main contribution, this study identifies the most relevant accommodation selection criteria for each customers characteristic. This knowledge may allow short term rental managers to adapt the characteristics of their accommodation units namely in terms of price, pets allowance, equipment and decoration, to the characteristics of the customers considered as the target segment of the business, thus enhancing customer attraction and retention.
Keywords: accommodation selection; short term rental; guest characteristics; Portugal.
Exploring Public Procurement in Malaysia: How Institutional Arrangements Manufacture Fraudulent Practices
by Khairul Saidah Abas Azmi
Abstract: This paper examines procurement fraud in the Malaysian public sector. The study demonstrates how the institutional arrangements in Malaysia manufacture fraudulent practices within government purchasing. Qualitative data were collected through a total of 31 semi-structured interviews. The thematic analysis approach has been used to analyse data. Drawing on state-business relations theory, the study shows a system in place involving state-business ties in Malaysia enables the abuse of procurement practices. Findings illustrate how public policy and development; state-business relations, and power relations in Malaysia manufacture fraud in public procurement. This paper provides evidence of collaboration in continued corruption and fraud within government purchasing through organised financial crime by Malaysias ruling elites, politicians, and private capitalists, which is assisted by public officials and regulators. The paper concludes that any effort to control and reduce corruption and fraud in Malaysia or its embeddedness within institutional arrangements must involve effective enforcement to prosecute perpetrators.
Keywords: procurement fraud; institutional arrangement; state-business relations; public sector; Malaysia.
The role of users in a continuous development ERP strategy: An analysis on the impact of end-users in the creation of an ERP continuous development strategy
by Rui Gonçalves, Diogo Rocha, Renato Lopes Da Costa, Leandro Ferreira Pereira, Álvaro Dias, Natália Teixeira
Abstract: The ERP projects are one of the best strategies to increase efficiency in organisations, however companies can face big deviations regarding budget and time. To enhance the likelihood for a successful implementation, organisations must establish a long-term continuous development plan that creates a technological environment that prioritises users as positive agents of change. Pre-implementation and implementation phases gather key stakeholders and system experts while the post-implementation phase is traditionally neglected in an ERP project framework which leads to inefficient long-term strategies. System users are key pieces when defining an ERP long-term strategic plan. This research was focused on understanding the role that end-users play in the continuous development of an ERP project. The study concluded that an appropriate technological environment would lead to more participative and involved user and the ability to understand the special impact of end-users will enhance the chances for a better implemented and less costly system.
Keywords: ERP; continuous development; enterprise resource planning; role; strategy; users.
Uncertainties within an emerging business ecosystem in the context of a circular economy
by Evgeniya Tsytsyna, Katrina Lintukangas, Veli Matti Virolainen
Abstract: This article examines uncertainties in an emerging business ecosystem in the context of a circular economy (CE). The research was conducted as a single case-study of a business ecosystem in Finland, with thirteen actors that developed CE material for the construction industry. We used transaction cost economics (TCE) as an approach to understand how the ecosystem is created, what uncertainties it faces, and what motivates companies to join it. The results of the study indicate a high level of uncertainty in the emerging phase due to unestablished communication and controversy among partners targets. Thus, an effective early communication coordinated by a central actor is a key. Moreover, our findings reveal that the business ecosystem as a hybrid mode of contractual relationships in the context of a CE is recognised as a potential for risk mitigation and the creation of a safe environment for innovations and a closed-loop supply chain.
Keywords: business ecosystem; emerging business ecosystem; circular economy; transaction cost economics; TCE; uncertainties; motivation; closed-loop supply chain.
Importance of credentials for in-house or outsourced leader appointments in successful versus unsuccessful large public IS contract awards
by Kenneth David Strang
Abstract: The goal was to examine the importance of credentials and other factors for in-house versus outsourced procurement project leader appointments, in large public information services (IS) contracts. This research was needed because 45% to 50% of public procurement projects around the world have failed in the last decade, and while there was no clear evidence why, some findings pointed to leadership-related factors. To investigate this research question, contract award managers were surveyed to determine which factors were related to leader appointments (in-house versus outsourced) in successful as well as unsuccessful projects. Contract managers rated the importance of award criteria for leader experience, age, gender, education, team size, budget and certification, for successful and unsuccessful expensive public service contracts. The results indicated no single criterion could explain all leadership appointment decisions, but professional certification was a more important factor for in-house versus outsourced information service contracts.
Keywords: public procurement; services contract award; outsourcing; credentials; professional certification; leadership; hiring criteria.
Determination of optimal price and quantity in a socially responsible two-echelon two-channel supply chain model
by Santanu K. Ghosh, Chandan Pathak, Saswati Mukherjee, Sudhansu Khanra
Abstract: The present paper analyses a dual channel model for two-echelon supply chain consisting of one manufacturer and one retailer for a single product. The retailer used traditional retail channel whereas the manufacturer used e-tail channel as well as retail channel to boost the sale of products. The manufacturer exhibits corporate social responsibility beside online channel. The model is developed considering stochastic demand to optimise the sales price and stock level for both e-tail and retail channels to determine the total profit.
Keywords: corporate social responsibility; CSR; CSR; two-echelon supply chain; stochastic and price-dependent demand; retail and e-tail channel; shortage.
Exploring the Relationship between Humor in the Workplace and Organizational Health An Empirical Study: Isfahan Steel Company
by Amir Khodadadi, Hadi Teimouri, Maryam Dezhtaherian
Abstract: One of the effective components of organisational health is cheerful spirit and positive emotional relationship that is emerged as confidence, trust, empathy, and friendship among the employees. As humour in the workplace is one type of humorous relationship that is led to such relationships and decreases inter-organisational conflicts and enhances job motivation, it is important to explore its relationship with organisational health. This study aims to explore the relationship between humour in the workplace and organisational health. It is applicable from the objective aspect and descriptive field from the methodological aspect. The hypotheses were analysed using a correlational method in a specific time interval. The statistical population included employees of Isfahan Steel Company. Simple random sampling was employed and the research sample was determined to equal to 250 persons according to Morgans table. The results indicate that there is an acceptable level of relationship between humour in the workplace and organisational health. Among the dimensions of humour, affiliative humour and aggressive humour have the highest relationship with organisational health, respectively.
Keywords: humour in the workplace; affiliative humour; aggressive humour; organisational health.
Analysis of Multiple Structural Relationships among Employer Brand, Proposition Value and Intention to leave the organization
by Ali Ostad Hashemi , Fateme Nouri, Negin Gholami, Mansoureh Hourali
Abstract: This study aims to analyse the multiple structural relationships among employer brand, value proposition and intention to leave by considering the mediating role of psychological contracts of employees of all branches of Iranian bank. In terms of nature and method, this research is descriptive-correlational and is a survey research in terms of data collection. The statistical population of this study consisted of 200 employees of Iranian bank. In this study, a standard questionnaire was used to compile and collect the required data. In order to assess the reliability; Cronbachs alpha was used. The value of Cronbachs alpha obtained in the questionnaire for all variables is higher than 70%, and the obtained values indicated that the measurement tool has good validity and reliability; received data were analysed with Smart PLS and SPSS software. The result of data analysis showed that the psychological contract between the employer brand and the employee value proposition with the intention of leaving the service in the all branches of Iranian bank, are positively mediated; In particular, the results show that the employer brand and the value proposition of employees have a weak but significant effect on the realisation of the intention to leave.
Keywords: employer brand; employee value proposition; intention to leave; psychological contract; Iranian bank.
Factors Affecting the Time Overrun of Road Construction Projects in Ethiopia
by Hamed M. S. Ahmed, MITKU ASSEFA, ELDANA KASSA
Abstract: This research was carried out to analyse the factors that affect the time overrun of cobblestone paving and canal projects in the South Wollo Zone and Dessie City Administration. The study employed both descriptive and explanatory research design methods. A sample size of 392 respondents was selected from the total target population of 620 clients and contractors. To select the sample the researchers used a stratified sampling technique. To achieve the objectives of the study structural equation model was used to determine the relationship between the independent and dependent variables using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS V.25 and AMOS26). The study found out that labour, material, equipment, finance, design, and project management related factors had a positive and significant effect on the time overrun of the project. Whereas, external environment-related factors found were insignificant for time overrun. The study recommended committing enough time for feasibility study and use resources efficiently and effectively.
Keywords: time variance; structural equation modelling; SEM; road project; South Wollo Zone; Ethiopia.
Designing an Innovative Model of Education Management Using Fuzzy Technique
by Mohammad Alipour Fathkoohi, Mohammad Hassan Behzadi, Hamid Raasouli, Ahmad Shahvarani Semnani
Abstract: In this paper, we introduce the factors that can improve mathematical learning. The research methodology, which was done in the period of one year from February 2019 to November 2020, is mixed or combined. In this research, with the help of 13 experts in teaching, learning, and math teaching, using the Delphi method, 17 factors affecting math learning in 3 Delphi repetitions were included. Content validity ratio (CVR) and content validity index (CVI) also confirm the validity. Then, using the comprehensive fuzzy interpretive structural modelling method, the factors are modelled at seven levels. The data of this method were collected using a researcher-made paired comparison questionnaire in which the incompatibility rate was 0.0024. At the highest level of this levelling, decision-making skills, the ability to understand a variety of knowledge and improve the speed of learning are observed.
Keywords: learning; teaching; comprehensive fuzzy interpretive structural modelling; learning quality.
Best HRM Practices: Evidence from Private Sector
by Omar Jaber Aburumman, KHATIJAH OMAR, Jusuf Irianto
Abstract: The literature has proposed many different practices without consensus on which one of them or a set of them constitutes the best HRM practice. The purpose of this paper is to develop a model that includes best HRM practices by examining all practices which have been developed in the literature. The focus group interview was performed with nine managers of HR department in the Jordanian private sector. The results indicated that career opportunities, compensation, HR planning, performance appraisal, promotion, recruitment and selection, training, and development are the best HRM practices. There are three implications for practice are: 1) obtain talented employees in order to achieve the organisations objectives by practices of HR planning, recruitment, and selection; 2) meet the requirements and needs of employees and motivating desired behaviour by the practice of compensation; 3) ensure the progress of employees by practices of career opportunities, performance appraisal, promotion, training.
Keywords: best HRM practices; focus group interview; social exchange theory; private sector.
Sustainable procurement in Ghana: A systematic literature review and future research agenda
by Foster A. Opoku-Mensah, Theophilus Maloreh-Nyamekye, Albert Ahenkan, Benjamin Awuah
Abstract: The focus of the study was to set an agenda for sustainable procurement (SP) research. Adopting a systematic literature review approach, data was collected from articles published in internet-based journals. Without restricting evidence to a particular sector, 25 articles were collected from a period spanning 2007 to 2020, analysed descriptively, and presented results in descriptive and thematic form. The findings indicated SP research in Ghana has been silent until 2013. Studies are concentrated in the mining and construction industries. The practice of SP was reported to be low with differing practices from sector to sector but with prospects and opportunities for promotion. 20 factors and challenges were identified. The recent surge in the research revealed by the results calls for studies into several issues like comparing the effects of decentralised and centralised purchasing agreements on SP adoption using different approaches, levels of analysis, contexts, conceptual and methodological approaches.
Keywords: gap; Ghana; literature; procurement; systematic; review; SLR; sustainability; sustainable procurement.
Investigating the Relationship Between Green Supply Chain Purchasing Practices and Firms Performance
by Luisa Pinto
Abstract: This exploratory study aims to identify the green procurement practices that companies have been using and investigate the relationship between those practices and company overall performance. A multiple-case study approach was conducted using Portuguese firms. Data was collected from semi-structured interviews with procurement managers from the manufacturing industry and from reports, websites and companies internal documentation. The results support two out of five propositions of this research and revealed, based on the managers perception, that companies implement green procurement practices such as environmental collaboration with suppliers, green packaging, and reverse logistics, and evidence revealed that green procurement practices improve the company overall performance. This study contributes to the existing body of research on the effects of implementing green procurement practices into procurement, provides evidence that the implementation of those practices positively influences overall company performance, identifying the most frequent green procurement practices that may help businesses in adopting environmental initiatives.
Keywords: green purchasing; performance; green practices; supply chain; case studies; Portugal.
An evaluation model for measuring the impact of omnichannel information processing on digital shopping decision
by Jugal Kishor, Saket Kumar Bhardwaj, Swati Sharma
Abstract: Recently, the term omnichannel has been associated with some consumers due to their information processing tendency through physical as well as digital channels. This multichannel viewpoint of consumers tends to offer a seamless digital shopping experience. Consequently, the central objective of this paper is to diagnose the contribution of omnichannel information processing in digital shopping decisions. Elaboration likelihood model (ELM) is employed as a theoretical framework to design the research paper and to understand important contributors of omnichannel behaviour to affect digital shopping decisions. A survey was conducted to organise data from 423 respondents. The proposed hypotheses were analysed using PLS-path modelling and PLS-MGA. The findings supported that omnichannel tendency positively affect digital shopping decision through the central route as well as the peripheral route of information processing. This work offers omnichannel behaviour as a consumer characteristic in information search and analysis. Furthermore, this assignment provided a platform to integrate traditional theories with new concepts.
Keywords: omnichannel; emotion; digital shopping decision; central cues; peripheral cues; information search.
Suppliers collusion in public procurement: ex-ante determinants in zero initial contract price decrease auctions (the case of Russian healthcare)
by Evgenii V. Gilenko, Andrew Ivanov, Anastasia A. Golubeva, Olga N. Bezhenar
Abstract: In public procurement, awareness of the public buyer of the potential collusive behaviour of suppliers at auctions may help mitigate the risks of only a slight decrease of the initial contract price (ICP). In this research, we focus on a special case of zero ICP decrease auctions (due to suppliers collusion) to identify the factors that significantly increase the probability of occurrence of such cases. A unique cross-sectional dataset on more than 42,000 electronic reverse (price) auctions conducted over 2014
Keywords: suppliers collusion; second-price auctions; public procurement; healthcare; rare event binary logistic regressions.
Leftover Materials and Circular Economy 4.0: Applications and Implications
by Yudi Fernando, Joel Marianus
Abstract: The manufacturing sector continues to expand and appears to be more focused on environmental-based production. There is a need to understand how the manufacturing firms capable of utilising Industry 4.0 technology to improve remanufacturing process efficiency and procurement planning such as leftover materials, return products and scraps. This paper aims to propose the effectiveness of remanufacturing process, which turns waste into value-added products using the circular economy 4.0 approach. Data were collected during the Malaysian restriction of movement order of the COVID-19 pandemic using an online interview with key persons in charge of remanufacturing. The finding shows the circular economy 4.0 fits well to achieve the effectiveness of remanufacturing processes and less labour physical contacts. The proposed framework can help manufacturers empower business sustainability in production and supply chains, leading to firm competitiveness.
Keywords: circular economy; remanufacturing; supply chain; Industry 4.0; COVID-19; value-added product; sustainability.
ETHICAL PROCUREMENT IN GHANAS PUBLIC SECTOR: IMPLEMENTATION AND CHALLENGES IN THE BOLGATANGA MUNICIPALITY.
by Oswald Atiga, Bright Tanzubil Junior
Abstract: This study assessed the extent of the implementation of procurement ethics among public entities in the Upper East Region (UER) of Ghana. A descriptive research design was applied. Simple random and purposive sampling techniques were used to select 268 respondents composed of senior managers, heads of departments, section heads and procurement officers of the selected public entities across the region. The quantitative data was collected through an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data was keyed into CSPro 7.4, transferred to version 28 of SPSS and analysed. A chi-square was applied to test the relationship among the elements of procurement ethics in selected public entities in the region. The study established that law enforcement and health sector public entities ranked highest in the implementation of ethical procurement practices whiles those in the educational sector ranked lowest. The study found a significant association between procurement ethical factors such as accountability and transparency, conformity to laws and ethical standards, conflict of interest, confidentiality and impartiality and fairness. No association was found for honesty and integrity, avoidance of appearance of impropriety, due diligence and professionalism as confirmed from their respective p-values.
Keywords: procurement ethics; procurement practice; public procurement; procurement entities; public sector; Bolgatanga Municipality; Upper East Region; UER; Ghana.
THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ON RETAIL INDUSTRY: AN EMPRICAL STUDY
by Khaled Theep, AHMAD MOH'D MANSOUR, Amgad S.D. Khaled, Asif Ali Syed, Abdulmalek M. M. Saeed
Abstract: In recent decades, rapid advances in internet technology have led to numerous innovative smart technologies. This research investigates the employee and customer acceptance of and resistance to smart technologies in the retail sector, by integrating the literature on technology acceptance model, system characteristics, technology readiness, and store reputation. The data was collected from different retail stores in Jordan. The results show that technological readiness, perceived usefulness, adaptability were impacting the performance of the retail stores. The readiness of the technology does influence employee and consumer behaviour. Retail stores should have the resources needed to minimise frustration and uncertainty. Consumers see reputable stores as more trustworthy and therefore show favourable attitudes to SRT.
Keywords: retail; Jordan; technology readiness; ease of use; adaptability; adaptiveness.
Optimization Models for the Procurement through Reverse Combinatorial Auctions in the Logistics and Food Industries
by Chefi Triki, Jamila Akil, Huda Al-Asmakh
Abstract: Procurement managers in the different industries rely nowadays on the Reverse Combinatorial Auctions (RCAs) as a trading mechanism that have shown to be very efficient in allocating resources in several applications. RCAs allow the bidders to optimally express their economies of scope, since they can formulate their bids as a bundle of items, rather than on single item. Each bundle should be then either accepted or rejected all together without splitting. Here, we review and discuss the underlying mathematical optimisation models that represent the basis of the decision support system and discuss the possible benefits of using such paradigms for the different actors involved in the auctioning process. In addition, the paper highlights the advantages of employing RCAs in two major application fields, namely the logistics and food industries, in which this advanced trading paradigm had remarkable success by allowing the bidders to exploit better the synergies among the auctioned items and concede the auctioneers to minimise their procurement costs.
Keywords: combinatorial auctions; bid generation; winner determination; logistics procurement; food industry; optimisation models.
Effect of Time Value of Money in Production Inventory models for Deteriorative items with Price-Exponential Demand in third order equation
by Choudri V., Senthilkumar C.
Abstract: A production inventory models for deteriorative items with price-dependent demand joint with exponential time dependent demand is considered in this research. The demand models found in the literature include constant, linear quadratic, exponential, price dependent and stock dependent among others. To witness, no study exists that uses price-dependent demand joint with exponential time dependent demand for deteriorating items. Two models are developed: The first model uses price-dependent demand joint with exponential time dependent demand and in the second model uses effect of time value of money in model 1. Mathematical models are delineated for each model and relevant examples are provided to elucidate the proposed procedure. The objective herein is to obtain optimum order quantities and order intervals with respect to overall maximise profit. Sensitivity analysis is provided for each of the two models. The necessary data was generated using Visual Basic 6.0.
Keywords: inventory; deterioration; production; TVM; PDD; optimality; total profit; sensitivity analysis.
Application of e-auction based on Procurement 4.0 strategies in a global company of the power systems sector in Brazil
by Ugo Ibusuki, Ailton Conde Jussani, Renan Degaspari De Araújo, Rafaela De Paula Koto
Abstract: Industry 4.0 has been a hot topic in several markets and its innovations are proving to be paramount for the strategic position of the companies in the market. The objective of this study is to explore the changes carried out by the 4th industrial revolution in the supply chain area, mainly in the procurement department. To develop this issue, a qualitative and exploratory research based on bibliographical references was investigated and a case-study analysis was applied based on e-auction tools in order to collect data and identify improvements for the next level of Procurement 4.0 strategies. It shows the possibility to provide horizontal system integration to the supply chain, collecting price data to perform big data and analytics to achieve better performance on bidding results and autonomously perform challenging targets on real-time.
Keywords: Industry 4.0; Supply Chain 4.0; Procurement 4.0; purchasing chessboard.
One way or another: The relationship between trust and transparency in buyer-supplier relationships
by Wolfgang Buchholz, Felix Jeschke, Antonia Kappel
Abstract: Based on a variety of environmental, technological, and product-orientated changes, there has been a shift towards increased global collaboration between buyers and sup-pliers. This paper examines the mutual influence of trust and transparency at different developmental stages of these collaborative relations. In particular, it investigates a correlation of trust and transparency. An extensive literature review is here combined with an exploratory-qualitative World Caf
Keywords: trust; transparency; buyer-supplier relation; knowledge-sharing; World café.
Exploring the Major Causes of PPP Project Failures-A survey
by Adnan Saif Salim AlSaaidi, Abdullahi Ahmed Umar, Luisito Borlongan Layon, Atef Badr
Abstract: Over the last decade, there has been a growing incidence of public-private partnerships (PPPs) project failures leading to a wave of
Keywords: PPP failures; infrastructure regulation; skills; public sector; private sector.
No-capability defence acquisition: A literature review on policy and practice of military acquisition within NATO and the EU
by Alexandre Verlaine
Abstract: Most research in Defence centres on big NATO nations, while much less focus has been given to smaller NATO nations. The paper explores this issue. First, the author redefines the term
Keywords: defence acquisition; small NATO nations; no-capability NATO nations.
Conceptual Framework for Sustainable Procurement of Construction Works
by Yunita Messah, Muhamad Abduh, Reini Wirahadikusumah
Abstract: The development of a sustainable procurement framework for construction work is needed to assist the organisation in implementing sustainable procurement. In formulating a sustainable construction procurement framework, it is necessary to build a conceptual framework for sustainable procurement. The conceptual framework is a conceptual structure containing important interrelated elements in providing a comprehensive understanding of sustainable procurement. The methodology used in formulating the conceptual framework is based on a theory with a qualitative approach that aims to describe and explain the pattern of relationships between elements with the concept of sustainable procurement. The results of the qualitative analysis show that ISO 20400 in 2017 has included elements of sustainable procurement in construction projects. So that ISO 20400 can be used as a reference in developing a sustainable procurement framework for construction work. Develop a sustainable procurement framework for construction work based on a thorough understanding and application of the four dimensions of sustainable procurement.
Keywords: conceptual framework; sustainable principles; sustainability; construction procurement; sustainable procurement.
Multi-Objective Optimization Model of Supplier Selection and Order Allocation Problem in A Hospital: A Case Study
by Cucuk Nur Rosyidi, Ryan Adesta Yudhatama, Pringgo Widyo Laksono
Abstract: This study aims to determine a set of suppliers using sustainability criteria and the optimal order allocation to the selected suppliers at a University Hospital in Central Java, Indonesia. In this research, we propose the combination of two multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) approaches to determine the best supplier, namely, best-worst method (BWM) and the measurement alternatives and ranking according to compromise solution (MARCOS). Multi-objective mixed-integer linear programming (MOMILP) is then used to determine the optimal quantity of drug orders. A sensitivity analysis studies the models sensitivity to some parameters. The results show that the model is sensitive to the changes in purchasing price and defect rate.
Keywords: supplier selection; BWM; MARCOS; order allocation; multi-objective linear programming.
Multi-item Sustainable Manufacturing Model for Cleaner Production System under Imprecise Demand and Random Defective Rate
by Saif Sami, S.K. Shon, Dharmendra Yadav
Abstract: The present study revisits the multi-item economic production quantity model by considering that production process is not perfect with the planned backorder. The present study aims to make the production system as a cleaner production system by considering a reworking process for random defective items which is uniformly distributed. In addition to this, to make the production system cleaner, an investment is made to control the production process. Based on the reworking time, two different inventory models are proposed under the effect of uncertainty in demand. Impreciseness in demand is handled by applying fuzzy set theory. Centroid method is applied to defuzzified the objective function. The global optimal solution is derived by using a nonlinear optimisation technique. Numerical analysis with sensitive analysis is provided to illustrate the proposed model. From analysis it is observed that due to increase in investment, 98% reduction in waste management cost and 11% reduction in total cost is observed. Thus, investment in system improvement is helpful to achieve the task of clean production. The study also highlighted the advantage of outsourcing for a cleaner environment. In the end, sensitivity analyses are also carried out, and based on managerial insights are provided.
Keywords: cleaner production; rework; random defective rate; multi-item; screening process.
Optimal pricing policy for deteriorating items with continuous compounding under price-sensitive demand and shortages
by Mrudul Jani, Bhavisha Kotak, Manish Betheja
Abstract: In any business organisation, the customers demand for product plays an important role to generate maximum revenue. In practice, demand of the product does not always remain constant, it may change with selling price of the product. Therefore, this study considers the price-sensitive demand; where the items deteriorate at constant rate. A surge in demand leads to product unavailability, resulting in shortages. Hence, the exponentially partially backlogged shortages also considered. The principle of continuous compounding is employed to calculate the opportunity cost using compound interest and an annual rate of interest. The main aim is to optimise the retailers total profit function in terms of cycle time, the time when inventory vanishes, and selling price by using the classical optimisation technique. The optimality of this research is demonstrated using a numerical example and its graphical representation. A sensitivity analysis of the major parameters is performed, and managerial implications are examined.
Keywords: compound interest; deterioration; inventory; price-sensitive demand; partial exponential backorders.
Auditing practices in banks: an empirical study of
by Borhan Omar Al-Dalaien
Abstract: This paper proposes a framework to analyse effectiveness,
uniformity, relationship and responsibility in the banking sector using Jordan as
an example. The perceptions of Jordanian banks internal and external auditors
in addition to financial managers have been investigated. In general, it was
found that the respondents believe that audit quality in the Jordanian banking
sector ranges from satisfactory to very good. The results indicate a positive and
significant correlation between audit quality and effectiveness and relationship.
The data was collected from 100 auditors. This approach provides a more
comprehensive framework to examine the banking sector. With an audit
function, businesses must be operating in accordance with the pre-determined
policies, enacted regulations, and rules. Internal auditing is closely tied to the
internal control of bank operations and helps to ensure against deliberate losses
and ems.As far as contribution is concerned, this study is regarded to be
innovative and is one of the first to explore auditing at Jordanian banks.
Keywords: responsibility; effectiveness; Jordanian banks; auditing practices;
Multi-item sustainable manufacturing model for
cleaner production system under imprecise demand
and random defective rate
by Saif Sami
Abstract: The present study revisits the multi-item economic production
quantity model by considering that production process is not perfect with the
planned backorder. The present study aims to make the production system as a
cleaner production system by considering a reworking process for random
defective items which is uniformly distributed. In addition to this, to make the
production system cleaner, an investment is made to control the production
process. Based on the reworking time, two different inventory models are
proposed under the effect of uncertainty in demand. Impreciseness in demand is
handled by applying fuzzy set theory. Centroid method is applied to defuzzified
the objective function. The global optimal solution is derived by using a
nonlinear optimisation technique. Numerical analysis with sensitive analysis is
provided to illustrate the proposed model. From analysis it is observed that due
to increase in investment, 98% reduction in waste management cost and 11%
reduction in total cost is observed. Thus, investment in system improvement is
helpful to achieve the task of clean production. The study also highlighted the
advantage of outsourcing for a cleaner environment. In the end, sensitivity
analyses are also carried out, and based on managerial insights are provided.
Keywords: cleaner production; rework; random defective rate; multi-item;
Do Soft Resources Improve Organizational Performance The Mediating Role of Purchasing Social Responsibility
by Muhammad Bilal Gulfraz, Muhammad Sufyan, Naeem Akhtar
Abstract: The paper examines the impact of software resources (e.g., top management support and a sustainability-oriented organisational culture) on purchasing social responsibility and organisational performance using the dynamic capabilities theory. To validate the hypothesised relationships, we conducted 237 surveys across Pakistans 12 manufacturing industries. For analytical purposes, structural equation modelling and AMOS plugins are applied to substantiate the direct and mediating relationships. The findings indicate that top management support enables the development of sustainable organisational culture and the adoption of sustainable purchasing and procurement practices. Additionally, the findings indicate that a sustainable organisational culture and PSR act as a buffer between top management support and organisational performance. The study contributes to the debate on resource-based perspectives within the PSR domain by utilising insights from dynamic capabilities. By doing so, it emphasises the importance of using core strategic management theories to understand the different aspects of PSR.
Keywords: purchasing social responsibility; PSR; triple bottom line; TBL; top management support; sustainability-oriented organisational culture.
The Relationship between Country Specific Governance and Entrepreneurship
by Faozi A. Almaqtari, Najib H. S. Farhan, Raba'a Salman Ali Abu-Helaleh, Saleem Ahmed Aqlan
Abstract: The current study explores the effects on entrepreneurial attitudes of country-level corporate governance and directors liability across 52 countries over the period from 2014 to 2017. Country-level corporate governance is proxied by the six dimensions that are proposed by the worldwide governance Indicators. Country-level corporate governance and directors liability are regressed against eight proxies of entrepreneurial attitudes proposed by Global Entrepreneurial Monitor. The study used balanced panel data and panel correction standard error estimation. The findings revealed that the six dimensions of the worldwide governance indicators have a significant effect varying across the eight proxies of entrepreneurial attitudes. The findings vary based on each dimension of entrepreneurial attitudes. Further, the results declared that directors liability has a significant positive and negative effect on entrepreneurial attitudes. The results of the present study have significant implications for entrepreneurs, policymakers, and researchers. They may benefit from the current studys findings in order to improve the conditions for entrepreneurial activities.
Keywords: country-level governance; directors liability; entrepreneurial attitudes; panel correction standard error.
Dynamic multi-depot vehicle routing problem in the era of Industry 4.0
by Maryam Abdirad, Krishna Kumar Krishnan, Deepak Gupta
Abstract: The ongoing challenge for supply chain systems is accommodating real-time changes and unpredictable demands from system entities or customers. In a dynamic commodity delivery system, new orders enter the system while the vehicles are already on-route deliver scheduled orders. The critical problem in such cases is developing the intelligence to dynamically respond to changing demands while minimising transportation costs. In this research, an innovative Industry 4.0 approach was used to suggest a solution to
Keywords: two-stage algorithm; heuristic; multi-depot vehicle routing problem.
Exploring Stakeholders understanding of procurement performance expectations gap in public works contracts in Ugandas district local governments: A qualitative analysis of results
by Charles Kalinzi, Joseph Ntayi, Moses Muhwezi, Levi Kabagambe Bategeka, John Munene
Abstract: Studies on performance expectations gaps is sparse and incomplete, and yet it is becoming an increasing concern in public procurement. This study borrowed the concept of expectations gap from auditing, accounting and focused on how do the different stakeholders with different needs, interests and expectations, perceive and interpret the procurement performance expectations gap (PPEG) in roadworks contracts. Thirty-three key informants in two categories of technical personnel and road users were selected using purposive sampling from the four regions of Uganda. Semi-structured interview guides were used to gain insight into understanding PPEG, and data was subjected to rigorous statistical analysis using ATLAS.ti version 22 software. Respondents understood PPEG to mean general lapse of procurement performance failure punctuated with growing levels of performance dissatisfaction, narrowness of the community access roads, delayed completion of road network and inconsistency in the quality of completed works, with three emerging themes: 1) laxity in performance efficiency; 2) laxity in performance effectiveness; 3) low level of community satisfaction. The implications of this study shows that whereas the technical personnels perception that the road users opinions might be grossly wrong, they must be respected in order to have a holistic community roadworks acceptance and support.
Keywords: procurement performance expectations gap; PPEG; community access roadworks; technical personnel; road users; ATLAS.ti; arm-chair auditors.
The influence of dividends on investment: Evidence from Vietnamese listed firms
by Kim Quoc Trung NGUYEN
Abstract: The paper aims to estimate the impact of dividends on the investment decisions of listed companies in Vietnam from 2009 to 2019. Agency theory and asymmetric information theory are used to explain the relationship between dividends and investments. These theories are in use in the markets with low information transparency, particularly the Vietnamese stock market. The early financial literature, such as Fama and Miller (1972), has attested that the dividend should not depend on firms investment; while this study proves the dependence of investment on dividends by employing a quantitative research method (two-stage least-squares 2SLS). Put in another way, the author discovers that dividends have a statistically significant negative impact on investment. Furthermore, tests of endogeneity and over-identifying restrictions are conducted to determine the validity of instrument variables and the unbiasedness of research results.
Keywords: agency theory; asymmetric information theory; dividends; investment; 2SLS; Vietnam.
Revealing differences of supplier performance with DEA cross-efficiency
by Imre Dobos, Gyöngyi Vörösmarty
Abstract: DEA is a well-known tool for measuring the effectiveness of decision units. It is used to support a wide range of management decisions and is also widely used to support supplier assessment tasks such as selection, performance evaluation, or post-qualification. Ranking can be important when making certain purchasing decisions, e.g., when selecting the best performing supplier(s). However, ranking can hide differences in performance that may have a significant impact on the outcome of the supplier selection. Suppliers can be evaluated by two types of DEA efficiency indicators: self-appraisal and peer-appraisal (cross-efficiency). The aim of this paper is to introduce a new method that maximises cross-efficiency by leaving the self-appraisal indicator. It is shown that the average of cross-efficiencies can be characterised as an optimal cross-efficiency of suppliers. The new method helps to understand differences in supplier performance, which may be hidden in the ranking provided by the basic DEA method.
Keywords: supplier evaluation; data envelopment analysis; DEA; cross-efficiency; sustainability.
The Effect of ICT Infrastructure on Business Performance of Micro and Small Enterprises in Yemen: The Moderating Effect of Social Media Marketing
by Sabri Shaker, Fadhiha Mokhtar, Nur Aishah Awi, Safiek Mokhlis
Abstract: This study aims to examine the effect of information and communication technology (ICT) infrastructure on the performance of micro and small enterprises (MSEs) in Yemen and evaluate the moderating impact of social media marketing (SMM) adoption. A literature dissection on ICT infrastructure on business performance of MSEs was conducted to develop a structural model and generate the scale items. Collected data was obtained by distributing a questionnaire to 384 managers/owners of manufacturing MSEs in Yemen and analysed using a structural equation model with the partial least square method using SmartPLS version 3.2.7 software. The study found that ICT infrastructure positively impacts the performance of SMEs. SMM also has a significant impact on the performance of MSEs. Furthermore, the results indicate that SMM does not moderate the relationship between ICT infrastructure and business performance. There are many studies on business performance, but few on the micro and small manufacturing enterprise sector and the impact of ICT infrastructure and SMM on its performance.
Keywords: business performance; social media marketing; SMM; micro and small enterprises; MSEs; information and communication technology infrastructure.
Measuring compliance in public procurement: the case of Tanzania
by Mordecai C. Matto, Ahmed M. Ame, Paul M. Nsimbila
Abstract: The study identified the key performance indicators used to measure compliance in public procurement and its measurement approach. It further examined the efficiency of the indicators to measure procurement compliance. The study adopted an exploratory sequential mixed method. The qualitative data were first collected and then analysis was performed. The results of qualitative data were used to plan for the collection of quantitative data. The qualitative data were collected using the documentary review while the quantitative data were collected using surveys. The structural equation modelling and content analysis were used to analyse quantitative and qualitative data. The study revealed that compliance in public procurement is assessed by using seven performance indicators and 92 sub-indicators. The key performance indicators are measured on a ratio scale. Using the confirmatory factor analysis, the study confirms that the key performance indicators are efficient to measure public procurement compliance.
Keywords: compliance; public sector procurement; key performance indicators; KPIs; Tanzania.
Guidelines for procurement management efficiency in industrial business sectors
by Kanyarat Sukhawatthanakun, Taweesak Roopsing, Thanin Silpcharu
Abstract: This study aimed to discover the guidelines for procurement management efficiency in industrial business sectors and develop a structural equation modelling; through mixed-methodology research, with qualitative and quantitative research methods - the quantitative data from 500 executives of industrial business with a questionnaire. The collected data were analysed with descriptive, inference, and multivariate statistics. The finding indicated that guidelines for procurement management efficiency in industrial business sectors consisted of the four elements: organisation change, internal control process, technology management, and business alliance network. Interestingly, the developed structure equation modelling analysis confirmed that it was under the empirical data and passed the SEM evaluation criteria.
Keywords: procurement efficiency; organisation change; internal control process; technology management; business alliance network; industrial business; structural equation modelling; SEM.
Concurrent sourcing as a termination safeguard
by Niels Peter Mols, Paula Sarita Bigio Schnaider
Abstract: This paper discusses the conditions under which concurrent sourcing is an effective safeguard. Relying on the transaction cost and the resource-based theories, we develop a conceptual model to argue that concurrent sourcing shortens the period that a buyer needs in order to internalise production and thus, it shortens the period in which an external supplier is able to hold-up a buyer. Concurrent sourcing also allows for short run expansion of production and reduces costs of lost customers. However, when complementarities and diseconomies of scale make concurrent sourcing an efficient choice for a buyer, the same complementarities and diseconomies of scale also weaken the threat that the internal production unit may replace the external supplier.
Keywords: concurrent sourcing; parallel production; safeguards.
Two inventory models for growing items under different payment policies with deterioration
by Ashish Sharma, Amit Kumar Saraswat
Abstract: Industries of growing items show an upward trend in the production as well as in consumption. Poultry and livestock are good examples of growing items which are both deteriorating and ameliorating in nature. In this study apart from these specific features of growing items, one of the real-world business policies, permission of delay in payment is also considered. Present paper proposed two inventory models, one with the permission of delay in payment and another without it. Concavity of the profit functions with respect to decision variables are discussed analytically for both the models. Solution procedure and numerical examples are provided in order to get the managerial insights. The numerical analysis growth in weight is approximated by Richard's growth function. The numerical analysis predicts that net profit and the initial purchase quantity both increases under the permissible delay payment policy compared to without it. Sensitivity analysis provides important managerial insights.
Keywords: growing items; inventory management; deteriorating items; mortality; delay in payment.
An integrated ISM-PLS model for green human resources management practices
by Davod Andalib Ardakani, Moslem Bagheri, Mehrdad Kiani, Asieh Soltanmohammadi
Abstract: This study proposed a model for green human resources management (GHRM) practices. In doing so, primarily, the literature was systematically reviewed through the meta-synthesis method, and then GHRM practices and activities were extracted and categorised. Next the practices were divided into level partitions through ISM, and the relationships between them were identified. At the final stage, structural equation modelling was used to assess the quality of the proposed method through the PLS-PM approach in R software. Next the relationships between the model dimensions were examined. The findings revealed 48 indicators falling under eight dimensions. The level partitions of the model, too, revealed that in the lowest level, 'green jobs analysis' left the greatest impact on the other dimensions, whereas 'employee relations and green participation' was placed in the highest level. Finally, the findings of the PLS-PM approach showed the goodness of fit of the measurement and structural model.
Keywords: green human resources management; GHRM; sustainability; meta-synthesis; interpretive structural modelling; ISM; structural equation modelling; SEM.
PPPs as instruments of public procurement in Botswana post-2007
by Emmanuel Botlhale
Abstract: In 2007, the world economy experienced a global financial crisis (GFC), therefore, leading to chronic fiscal strictures. Resultantly, public-private partnerships (PPPs) have become a dominant form of public procurement. The PPPs case is more deserved in mono-cultural economies which disproportionately suffered the effects of the GFC. The case for PPPs is more merited in the face of revenue challenges due to COVID-19. Since 2009, Botswana uses PPPs to finance public projects. This essay, based on the case study method, discusses the PPPs project in Botswana. It concluded that while the prevailing narrative is that PPPs are vital and the PPPs regime is taking root, there are challenges. Key challenges are disenabling legal-institutional framework and poor project implementation. Moving forward, and given a reduced fiscal envelope post-2007, the projected plateauing of diamonds revenues in 2030 and revenue strictures due to COVID-19 as diamonds face falling demand, PPPs are the default position.
Keywords: fiscal stress; COVID-19; public procurement; PPPs; Botswana.
Green public procurement: evidence from Greece
by Varvara S. Orfanidou, Nikolaos P. Rachaniotis, Giannis T. Tsoulfas
Abstract: Economic, social and political developments in the EU, as well as budgetary constraints, have rendered reformation of Union Law on public procurement necessary. Green public procurement (GPP) is an important tool for achieving environmental policy objectives related to climate change, resource use and sustainable consumption and production. The literature regarding sustainable supply chains in the public sector is scarce and to the best of the authors' knowledge, there is none available on the implementation of GPP in Greece. The aim of this paper is the analysis of the Greek public sector's status in the field of GPP and the exhaustive recording of the implemented related cases. A cost-benefit analysis is performed in order to evaluate these good practices.
Keywords: green public procurement; GPP; cost-benefit analysis; CBA; Greece.
Financial performance measurement framework of automotive supply chains
by Masoud Rahiminezhad Galankashi, Farimah Mokhatab Rafiei
Abstract: This study develops a framework to assess financial performance of automotive supply chains. Financial supplier relationship management (FSRM), financial internal supply chain management (FISCM) and financial customer relationship management (FCRM) perspectives and their measures and metrics are considered to develop the framework. An expert-based questionnaire is designed to prove its applicability and importance. According to the results, most important and applicable metrics of FSRM is cost of raw materials/components. Regarding the FISCM, production cost is the most important and applicable metric of manufacturers. Additionally, the most important and applicable metrics of distributors are distribution/freight cost and pickup/warehouse place cost, respectively. Regarding FCRM, the most important metric of customers' measure is number of new customers while the most applicable metrics are product after sale service and customer loss rate. Following, the most important and applicable metric of collector is transportation cost. For recyclers, the most important and applicable metrics are holding and warehouse costs, and transportation costs, respectively.
Keywords: supply chain management; SCM; financial performance measures; reverse logistics; automotive industry.
Reverse auction principles in supply chain
by Clever Divino Inácio De Almeida, Ricardo Luiz Machado
Abstract: In the past few years, reverse auction (RA) has remained of interest in academic and industrial societies. A systematic literature review (SLR) was conducted in the last six years to raise the most relevant RA terms used in the supply chain. To carry out the SLR, a five-stage method is followed: material collection, descriptive analysis, category selection, and material evaluation. In the research, the nine most relevant keywords about RA related to the supply chain are considered. The review is limited to published papers in Scopus and Web of Science. Therefore, other types of studies can be included in future studies. To validate the findings, the authors recommend future research to implement a mechanism with the raised principles. The research provides an understanding of RA models considering their main characteristics, advantages, and issues that must be evaluated before adopting them in the supply chain.
Keywords: reverse auction; online reverse auction; procurement management; electronic purchasing; e-procurement; e-auction; supply chain management; systematic literature review.
Presenting a decision support model for supplier selection using the best-worst method and asymmetric fuzzy mathematical programming (a case study)
by Kazem Askarifar, Zohre Arabi, Alireza Alagheband
Abstract: Selecting the right suppliers is one of the key success factors of procurement management. The present study aimed to provide a decision support model in evaluating suppliers in three stages. In the first stage, supplier selection criteria have listed by a systematic review and then, using fuzzy Delphi (FD), eight criteria have selected. Following that in the next step, the selected criteria have weighted by the FBWM method. Finally, to model asymmetric fuzzy mathematical programming, the objective function has added to the model as a function of weighted utility and constraints based on the company's expectations in three areas of demand, quality and supplier production capacity. Finally, the model has solved by the Zimmermann method for the largest seat belt manufacturing company in Iran. The presented model is able to determine the supply portfolio by considering the maximum utility of the procurement process and the operational constraints of the buyer.
Keywords: supply chain; decision support system; DSS; procurement; supplier selection; asymmetric mathematical programming; fuzzy best-worst method; FBWM; fuzzy logic; automotive industry.
A model for improving cold supply chain performance: an integrated FISM/BWM/ANP approach
by Masoomeh Jafarpour, Payam Shojaei, Moslem Alimohammadlou
Abstract: The importance of preserving perishable products, especially those with a short shelf-life, has led to the formation of a new sub-branch in the supply chain literature called the cold supply chain (CSC). This study sought to develop a model for improving the performance of the CSC in the dairy industry. First, the study identified the factors affecting the improvement of CSC performance by reviewing the literature and interviewing experts. The relationships between the factors were then explored and the level of each factor was found through fuzzy interpretive structural modelling (FISM). Finally, the priorities of all factors were identified via an integrated version of best-worst method (BWM) and analytic network process (ANP). The results showed that 'warehousing and quality of storage' and 'relationship with customer' had the highest priorities in improving the CSC performance. The results of this study could help managers dealing with dairy businesses to improve their CSC performance.
Keywords: cold supply chain; CSC; fuzzy interpretative structural modelling FISM; dairy industries; best-worst method; BWM; analytic network process ANP.
Can outsourcing be the answer for developing economies? The case of Jordan
by Saleh Fahed Alkhatib, Mohammad Ali Al-Omari
Abstract: This study explores outsourcing activities, strategies and attitudes of firms in developing economies. The primary objective is testing whether or not outsourcing answers firms' questions in developing economies by analysing the impact of outsourcing types and levels on firms' abilities to survive and grow. A review of the outsourcing literature illustrates that firms in developing economies can apply outsourcing strategies to strengthen their limited resources and improve performance. Primary and secondary collected data from the Amman Stock Exchange (ASE) listed firms during the period from 2008-2018 have been analysed. Several findings regarding the types, attitudes, motives and expected benefits of outsourcing have been identified across the sectors. Despite the strong positive attitudes toward outsourcing within the Jordanian context, outsourcing did not have a clear beneficial effect on the firms' value and/or growth across the sectors.
Keywords: outsourcing; developing economies; small and medium enterprises; SMEs; cross sectional comparison; Jordan.
Public procurement related complaint handling mechanism in Vietnam
by Vinh The Nguyen, Phuong My Hang Pham
Abstract: The purpose of the study is to assess the current situation of the public procurement related complaint handling mechanism in Vietnam. In consultation with experts and overview study of available documents, reports, and researches, we has captured lessons-learnt and selected questionnaire for verification via quantitative surveys conducted among bidders and procuring entities/employers to evaluate the current practices in public procurement participation. The research contents consist of evaluating the current procurement dispute practice and dispute resolution; identifying the improvement demands and needs for dispute resolution; determining the requirements of independent organisation(s) and/or agencies for procurement dispute resolution; and collecting initiatives and solutions for improvement of the legal regulations for procurement. The findings are considered as a basis for proposals on revised policy and regulations with an aim to create a fairer, more transparent and competitive environment for business community through an enhanced public procurement related complaint handling mechanism in Vietnam.
Keywords: public procurement; complaint; dispute resolution; Vietnam.
Optimal procurement decisions for food products in a retailing system with variety dependent demand
by Asghar Hemmati, Behrouz Afshar-Nadjafi, Esmaeil Mehdizadeh
Abstract: In the food industry, acquiring a lion's share of the market is a key factor in a company's success. Offering similar substitutes instead of the requested stocked-out products has been an alternative to keep customers. In this paper, an economic ordering model with substitutable food products is investigated. Each product has its own initial constant demand which will be increased when inventory of the other products would be depleted. Similarity measures and quality of the principal request and its substitutes depends on any typical customer with its own information. Time intervals are considered as decision variables and the conditions which in closed form expression of the optimal solution are achievable are derived. Furthermore, the impact of the models' parameters on the optimal solution was investigated. It was clarified that a marginal increase in the unit profit of each food product has a positive impact on the total profit and the order quantity.
Keywords: food products; procurement policy; substitutable products; food control.
The independent parallel bid evaluation strategy: lessons from Uganda National Roads Authority
by Moses Muhwezi, Henry Mutebi, Levi Kabagambe, Musa Mbago
Abstract: We adopted a qualitative and cross-sectional design to examine lessons from the independent parallel bid evaluation (IPBE) strategy from Uganda National Roads Authority. The IPBE strategy leads to improved bidder confidence, improves objective assessment, timely high-quality decisions, in addition to organisational learning and procurement cost reduction. The study found the strategy relevant for reintroduction and rolling out to other entities, after making provisions for its operationalisation in the legislative and regulatory framework. Since the study only considered lessons from the strategy, future research should aim at understanding the relationships between the lessons learnt using various methods. Academia has an opportunity to study further this strategy that may make a breakthrough of the inherent unethical bid evaluation challenge in sub-Saharan Africa. Procurement professionals should make use of the strategy to learn and improve the bid evaluation outcomes that has a large impact of onward procurement processes.
Keywords: independent; parallel; bid evaluation; Uganda.
The 'dozen' elements substantiating sustainable procurement practice in Sub-Saharan Africa: evidence from Ghana
by Foster A. Opoku-Mensah, Theophilus Maloreh-Nyamekye, Albert Ahenkan, Berhanu Temesgen
Abstract: Recent research has indicated African countries have begun resorting to sustainable procurement (SP) to fight environmental challenges facing the continent but fails to provide details of how it manifests. To fill this void, 24 people along the supply chain of the two biggest teaching hospitals in Ghana were interviewed to explore evidence of SP. A relational analysis confirmed evidence of SP practice. Twelve elements of sustainability practice were identified to include: training; life cycle analysis; environmentally friendly waste handling; stock control; sustainable tendering; sustainable storage and inventory management; organisational health and safety; supplier capability assessment; due diligence; inspecting products at delivery points; environmentally friendly buying; complying with laws; and specification of needs and evaluation of bids. The study, however, could not ascertain which of these elements is a significant sustainability practice and is, therefore, calling for studies to test the significance of these elements to aid strategic policymaking.
Keywords: elements; elements of sustainability; procurement; sustainability; sustainable procurement; Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital; Kurle Bu Teaching Hospital; Ghana.
Trade-credit production policy with Weibull deterioration rate and selling price-dependent demand
by Sunita, Ramesh Inaniyan, Ganesh Kumar
Abstract: This study establishes an economical production quantity (EPQ) model for depreciating commodities involving two-parameter Weibull deterioration, price-dependent demand, and trade-credit plans. Carrying cost is assumed to be a time-dependent linear function. We have analysed the model in three cases: build-up stage, time after decay starts, and time with a partly backlogging rate. For the duration of stock construct-up, there is no demand, and demand is a function of the selling price after that. We have maximised the total average earnings and achieved an optimal order scheme. Two numerical illustrations show the importance of the model. Sensitivity investigation by adjusting various parameters using MATLAB software demonstrates the acceptance of the model.
Keywords: Weibull deterioration rate; price-dependent demand; trade-credit policy; partial backlogging.
Assessing the influence of job insecurity and intellectual obsession of the staff on organisation productivity
by Seyed Fathollah Amiri Aghdaie, Amin Elhami, Morteza Raei Dehaghi
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to assess the influence of job insecurity and intellectual obsession of the staff on organisational productivity based on a descriptive-correlational study. The statistical population of the study includes the staff of the branches of Mellat Bank in Isfahan City of Iran. The statistical sample was calculated using Cochran formula for a limited population of 193 people and random sampling method was available. Questionnaire was used for data collection. The validity of the questionnaire was assessed by face and structure method (confirmatory factor analysis) and the reliability of the questionnaire were confirmed by Cronbach's alpha method. Data analysis was performed using SPSS-22 and Amos-21 software using structural equation modelling. The results of the research hypotheses showed that the job insecurity had a positive and significant effect on staff. Intellectual obsession had direct impact factor of 0.882 and significant level of 0.000. Also, job insecurity had positive effect on organisational productivity with direct impact factor of 0.953 and significance level of 0.000; however, intellectual obsession behaviour has no effect on organisational productivity with direct impact factor and significance level of 0.724 and coefficient of -0.044.
Keywords: organisational productivity; intellectual obsession; job insecurity.
Challenges to integration of green into supplier selections: review of the state-of-the-art literature
by Tony Ograh, Joshua Ayarkwa, Dickson Osei-Asibey
Abstract: Green supplier selection (GSS) has become crucial as organisations increasingly compete on environmental supply chain capabilities. However, challenges impeding integration of green into supplier selection has received little attention in literature. This paper examines the existing literature on green supplier selection with the view to identifying challenges to integration of environmental sustainability into supplier selection for procurement of goods. In total, 50 articles were reviewed, all published in peer-reviewed journals between 2009 and 2019. In all, 29 challenges to integration of environmental sustainability into supplier selection were identified in the review, and these were subsequently put into four main themes: lack of knowledge and support; inadequate technology and infrastructure; organisational and operational strategy and policy, and financial limitations. Based on the review of the literature, a framework was developed to establish the relationships among the themes and to show how the barriers were put into the four main themes. The findings from this review should provide a basis for measures to be put in place for successful integration of environmental sustainability into supplier selection in procurement decisions.
Keywords: challenges; integration; environmental; sustainability; supplier; selection.
The price registration system in centralised public procurement of ICT goods and services in Brazil
by Waldemiro Francisco Sorte Junior
Abstract: This paper is based on a case study conducted in the Centralized Procurement Department of the Ministry of Economy in Brazil and provides empirical evidence of the advantages and disadvantages of an instrument for aggregated procurement known as the price registration system (SRP). The case study examined seven procurement processes for the acquisition of information and communication technology (ICT) goods and services conducted by the department in 2020 and identified cost reduction, the development of robust specifications and the elimination of duplicated tasks as some of the advantages of the SRP. In addition, the SRP provides greater flexibility for public bodies as they can enter into contracts according to their real demands and when the need emerges, using the registered prices. This paper also points out deficiencies of the SRP and indicates possible directions for improvement.
Keywords: aggregated procurement; centralised public procurement; information and communication technology; ICT; price registration system; framework agreement; Brazil.
Development of procurement strategy and supplier selection for construction projects in Central Java-Indonesia
by Hery Suliantoro, Kirana Rukmayuninda Ririh, Samuel Pandiangan
Abstract: Material procurement, as well as user satisfaction, is the key factor of a successful construction project. Therefore, the contractors need strategies that support the effectiveness and efficiency of the procurement process in line with gaining the user satisfaction. This study aims to define material procurement strategies by implementing supply positioning model (SPM) and quality function deployment (QFD). There are 24 types of material to be measured using SPM matrix. The respondents are 86 construction companies which are also members of GAPENSI Central Java-Indonesia. The best procurement strategy for critical items is to have a strong partnership relationship and consider replacing suppliers when it is urgently needed. The most important supplier criteria to achieve best construction quality are the supplier's work experience, the quality of the materials provided by the supplier, the completeness of the quality management system, the capabilities and technology used by the supplier, and other criteria.
Keywords: construction projects; materials procurement; quality function deployment; QFD; strategic procurement; supply positioning models; SPMs; Indonesia.