International Journal of Procurement Management (25 papers in press)
Reviewing the Concept of CKM with Social Perspective by means of the ANN-GT Approach (Case Study: Environmental protection by the water market implementation)
by Maedeh Rabbanimehr, Ali Sanayie, Ali Kazemi
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to develop a customer knowledge management model adopting a social marketing approach for solving social problems by a case study for the facilitation of water market implementation. In this regard, mixed research and qualitative approaches consisting of thematic analysis and grounded theory, together with a quantitative approach (artificial neural network) have been used, and ultimately, a combination model has been proposed. The statistical population incorporates three groups of experts (academics, farmers and water industry experts) in the qualitative section of the research, and in the quantitative section, it includes farmers throughout the Zayandehrood Basin in Iran. One of the most important results of this research is the ranking of customer knowledge management indicators taking a neural network approach in predicting the social facilitation and planning, based on which it attracts popular participation in social issues.
Keywords: Customer knowledge management; Social marketing; Social facilitation; Water market; ANN; GT.
E-Procurement Practices to improve the efficiency of Vendor Transactions in Indian Cement companies
by Tisha Meriam Cherian, Shanmugam Munuswamy, Mohamed Jasim
Abstract: E-procurement ensures an end-to-end integrated purchase of materials right from indent management until final payment through internet which results into cost efficiency in a supply chain management. While the e-procurement has been successfully practiced in global markets, it is in the early stage of adoption among cement companies in India. The main objective of this study is to explore the factors influencing e-procurement of materials in the cement industry. The other objective is to measure the impact of e-procurement practices on materials purchase in the value chain of the said industry. Initially, the study conducted a Delphi interview with selected managers. Based on the information from interview, a structured questionnaire was framed and the same was used to collect information from 126 employees of five cement companies. Besides descriptive analysis, the factor analysis was applied to identify the significant factors in e-procurement. A confirmatory factor analysis was carried out to verify the factor structure of the set of observed variables. The study identified the significant factors that contribute to e-procurement practices in India. Interestingly, it was also found that the employees are comfortable to use e-procurement but require adequate training and better e-infrastructure.
Keywords: E-procurement; Vendor transactions; Business transactions; E-commerce; Cement industry.
Developing a Brand Avoidance Model in Pygmalion Cycle
by Azarnoush Ansari, Hossein Rezaei Dolatabadi, Shahnaz Honarmand
Abstract: In this research, a model has been identified and presented for multiple dimensions of brand avoidance in Iranian home appliance industry. For designing the model, the causative conditions of factors, which lead to brand avoidance in the home appliance industry, were considered along with the dominant platform underlying brand avoidance and weakening or reinforcing interventional conditions. The research methodology is grounded. 256 semi-structured interviews were conducted. The sampling method is purposeful and judgmental along with the snowball method. To identify the consequences of brand avoidance, three perspectives of society, customer and companies have been investigated. The results of the research indicate the experiential, identity, moral, deficit-value, marketing, attitude and cognitive dimensions of brand avoidance. The Pygmalion effect was used to avoid the brand. In this study, gender behaviours were identified as intervening conditions and the role of government as the dominant platform.
Keywords: Brand Avoidance; Gender Behaviors; Government Role; Home Appliances; Brand Avoidance Consequences; Pygmalion Cycle.
Channel Coordination in a two echelon supply chain with lead time reduction using wholesale price scheme
by Jafar Heydari, Elham Zakaryaie, Roya Tat, Elham Heydari
Abstract: This paper develops the coordination of a two-echelon supply chain (SC) under lead time reduction strategies using a wholesale price contract as an incentive scheme. In the investigated model, the buyer defines the order quantity and the seller determines the replenishment policy and the lead time reduction strategy. Under the decentralised decision structure, both members' decision models are optimised where each party tends to maximise own profit. In the next step, the centralised decision model for the whole channel is studied where a single decision-maker optimises the entire SC profitability. The results show that under the decentralised decision model not only the channel profitability is lower, but also there is no effort for crashing lead times. Finally, a wholesale price coordination contract is developed to coordinate SC and convince both members to globally optimise their decisions. Our analysis indicates that the presented coordination policy leads to a win-win result for both members and at the same time reduces lead times.
Keywords: Supply chain coordination; lead time reduction; wholesale price scheme.
An Integrated approach of ISM and Fuzzy TOPSIS for Supplier Selection
by Tran Thi Tham, Nguyen Trong Tri Duc, Tran Thi My Dung, Nguyen Hong Phuc
Abstract: Supplier selection is one of the most important tasks that contribute to the success of supply chain management. Choosing the right supplier will bring many benefits to the enterprises, such as costs reduction, profit increase, flexibility and competitiveness improvement. This study is conducted to develop a methodology that provides suitable supplier selection solution. Firstly, a set of 23 criteria are used to analyse the relationships between criteria by using interpretive structural modelling (ISM). The less important criteria will be eliminated though the model. Next, the fuzzy TOPSIS method, which focus on the distance from alternatives to positive ideal solution and negative ideal solution is applied to evaluate and rank suppliers. The result of ISM suggests choosing 22 appropriate criteria among the original 23 criteria used for the supplier selection problem. The result of fuzzy TOPSIS shows the ranking of six suppliers through a case study of a plastic packaging company.
Keywords: Interpretive Strutural Modeling (ISM); TOPSIS; Supplier selection; Fuzzy theory; Supply chain management.
Inventory Model for Deteriorating Items with Seasonal Price and Time Dependent Ramp type Demand
by Ashish Sharma, Mukesh Kumar, Amit Kumar Saraswat
Abstract: In real life, deteriorating items are considered as the high profit products due to seasonal behaviour in demand. Another observation for the demand is the dependency over price as well as time. Many seasonal items have single opportunity of replenishment and the replenished inventory is used for successive number of demand seasons. In this paper, simultaneous procurement and pricing policies are considered for the seasonal deteriorating items with ramp type, price and time dependent demand rate. Time dependent partial backlogging is considered. Managerial insights are extracted from analytical results, numerical example and sensitivity analysis.
Keywords: Inventory; Deterioration; Demand; Product life cycle; Time-dependent partial backlogging; Pricing.
Cyber-physical systems with autonomous machine-to-machine communication: Industry 4.0 and its particular potential for purchasing and supply management
by Holger Schiele, Robbert-Jan Torn
Abstract: The number of publications on the fourth industrial revolution (industry 4.0, short: I4.0) has increased exponentially. Likewise, significant investments by firms are planned. However, the link between purchasing and I4.0 is largely lacking even though procurement managers have high expectations. The fourth industrial revolution which refers to the use of cyber-physical systems (CPSs) with autonomous machine-to-machine communication could have several implications for purchasing processes. Support systems for purchasers are been developed, such as contract analysis software, and the possibility of digital negotiations has emerged and could revitalise e-marketplaces. Operative processes can act autonomously, with automated demand identification in CPSs. To support the development of I4.0 strategies in purchasing, this paper contributes by clearly defining I4.0, distinguishing it from the third industrial revolution, structuring the potential development paths of I4.0 in purchasing and by presenting the result of a project to develop a I4.0 maturity model for purchasing.
Keywords: Purchasing; Supply Management; Industry 4.0; Smart Industry; Maturity profile; e-procurement; e-markets.
Importance ranking of supplier selection scorecard parameters - among Indian car manufacturing Industry
by Anand Patil, Jyoti Gogte
Abstract: The Indian automotive industry is now the fastest growing industry in the world ranking at fourth position replacing Germany. For any manufacturing industry, it is not only the customers but suppliers also play a very vital role in success. The proper selection of suppliers is necessary. In this research perception of 40 experts from the car manufacturing industry in India obtained about supplier selection scorecard parameters. The ranking is done based on preference. This ranking is then compared with the ranking of key parameters obtained from the literature survey and Dickson's (1966) ranking. Dickson's study is referred to as the base of research in this area since 1966 by most of the researchers. This research helps
Keywords: Supplier selection scorecard parameters; Supplier evaluation; Supplier performance; Supplier selection; Vendor performance; Car manufacturing industry in India.
The perceived impact of public sector procurement reforms on development agenda in the KwaZulu?Natal province
by Obianuju Okeke-Uzodike, Sandile Gabela
Abstract: Public sector reforms are integral part of government efforts towards achieving citizen centric and responsive good governance. Reforms in the public procurement are considered essential elements for strengthening and achieving performance within the public sector. In developing countries, procurement reforms are aimed at driving various socio-economic developmental challenges. Within the South African purview, reforms in the public sector serve as a means of social development and transformation but government continues to strive to achieve these objectives. This is because the South African public sector has been manned by various supply chain management challenges deemed detrimental to the efficient and effective delivery of government mandates. The researchers used a two-phase Delphi technique approach in collecting qualitative data and the findings demonstrate an alignment with the objectives of procurement reforms but with meagre success story and recommended a shared vision for achieving developmental objectives.
Keywords: Development; Public Procurement; Reforms; Transformation in South Africa.
Compliance with the stipulated procurement process in local governments: a case from a developing nation
by Onaopepo Adeniyi, Ojo, L. Damilola, Idowu, A. Oluwaseun, Kolawole, S. B
Abstract: Empirical evidence of compliance or otherwise with procurement laws especially in developing nations is limited despite its importance in ensuring quality project delivery. This research assessed compliance with the procurement law in the local government setting of a developing nation, challenges to compliance and workable solutions. A total of 108 copies of a carefully structured questionnaire were administered to individuals concerned with contract administration in the local governments in the study area and 87 were considered good enough for analysis. Data analysis was done using crosstabulation, chi-square, mean score and percentile. Among other findings, the study revealed that there is partial compliance with the procurement clauses in the local governments. The study also revealed that significant relationship exists between knowledge of the Procurement Act, owning a copy of the act and compliance with the act. These findings of this study will be useful for construction and public procurement administrators as an evidence of the need for a multifaceted action towards strengthening compliance.
Keywords: Compliance; construction; government; local; process; procurement; third-tier.
A Framework and Use Cases for Big Data in Procurement
by Stefan Zeisel
Abstract: Big data has become a buzzword that is broadly discussed in media and board rooms alike. However, in the procurement function there are few visible practical applications of a full-fledged big data scenario so far. Some academic research has been conducted as well as several practitioners' surveys, but insights on how procurement can profit from big data applications are very fragmented. Therefore, the following article portrays a conceptual framework for big data applications in the procurement function connecting different data sources, skilled teams, and big data analytics. Furthermore, a full array of existing and new use cases for procurement is derived.
Keywords: Big Data Analytics; Data Science; Procurement; Purchasing; Sourcing; Industry 4.0; Digitisation; ICT.
Precursors and Outcomes of Satisfaction in Seller-Customer Business Relationships: A Sales Perspective
by Nils M. Høgevold, Göran Svensson, Mercy Mpinganjira
Abstract: Do the same precursors and outcomes apply in business relationships when the relationships are seen from the seller's perspective as opposed to the customer's perspective? Many studies on relationships, particularly those on business relationships, deal mainly with the buyer's perspective. In this study, we take the seller's perspective and test whether the precursors (trust and commitment) and outcomes (specific assets, opportunism and formalisation) of satisfaction, which are tested and retested across multiple contexts and through time to buyer business relationships, also applies to seller business relationships. Data was gathered from a cross-industry sample of Norwegian companies. The questionnaires returned from 213 key sales informants were completed satisfactorily and were useable in this study, generating a valid response rate of 40.7%. Follow-up interviews with sales executives revealed practical consequences of satisfaction, specific assets, opportunism and formalisation. The lesson learned from the feedback is that acting in a way that builds trust benefits both seller and customer.
Keywords: Seller - buyer relationship; sales perspective; specific assets; opportunism; formalization; satisfaction.
Coping with rising Supply Chain Complexity: Conceptualizing a Supply Network Map Structure Model to address that challenge
by Antonia Kappel, Holger Schiele, Wolfgang Buchholz
Abstract: The complexity in supply networks is increasing and influences the competitive position of the focal company. Traditional approaches like supply chain mapping only show the focal company's relationships with suppliers and customers along the vertical supply chain, but are not capable to map any horizontal buyer-supplier relationships with other companies. Hence, this paper introduces a new supply network map structure model that extends the multi-tier view towards suppliers and customers along the vertical supply chain also to the complementors and competitors across the horizontal supply chain. Thus, the model enables the development of the existing supply chain mapping theory further into a holistic supply network mapping method. The model has been conceptualised with the help of 13 semi-structured interviews and is based on relevant models from the strategic management and the purchasing and supply management (PSM) literature. According to design science, it has been refined in several iterations.
Keywords: Supply network; Supply chain mapping; Supply chain complexity; Conceptual research; Theory development; Semi-structured interviews; Design Science.
Presenting employees' self-development behaviour pattern
by Azar Kaffashpoor, Gholamreza Malekzadeh, Ahmad Momeni, Alireza Khorakian
Abstract: The purpose of this article is to identify the components, causes and consequences of employee self-development behaviours in Razavi Khorasan, North Khorasan, and South Khorasan Gas Company. The present research is fundamental research and the population of the study is employees of Razavi Khorasan, North Khorasan, and South Khorasan Gas Company. The data were analysed by thematic analysis and the causes, components and consequences of the self-development behaviours of the employees were identified. Using semi-structured interviews, the self-developed behaviour patterns model was developed. Accordingly, the components of self-development behaviour include organisational commitment, self-awareness, self-efficacy, self-development, self-esteem, ability, flexibility, self-directed learning, resilience, and optimism and it is an effective individual, group, and organisational factor in enhancing or weakening such behaviours. Self-development behaviour has many advantages at an individual and organisational level. Some of the benefits of employee self-development behaviour include: increasing productivity, reducing organisational costs, increasing staffing ability, reducing organisational conflicts, providing a positive image of the organisation, responding to the environment, rewarding the client, increasing social capital, attracting efficient forces, creating a desirable organisational atmosphere, knowledge sharing, and organisational growth.
Keywords: Self-development Behaviour; Self-directed Behaviour; Self-empowerment; Human Resource Development.
Pricing Model for Deteriorating Items by Considering of Two Items
by Mohammad Mehdi Kazemi
Abstract: The main purpose of present study is to examine a three-level supply chain that comprises a manufacturer, major distributor and retailer in which two deteriorating items are manufactured. At the manufacturer level, production planning is studied. This production takes place in such a way that it can supply the needs of the wholesaler and, at the same time, prevent the increase in the rate of deteriorating of the manufactured items. At the wholesale level, warehousing management is considered in order to minimise the waste of items in the warehouse, in addition to estimating the amount of demand received by the retailer. At retail level, demand management is examined. In this paper, demand is assumed to be a linear function of price, and naturally with increasing prices, the demand decreases. The mathematical model obtained in this research is a nonlinear mathematical optimisation problem. The results of this research are generalisations of some of the mathematical models in the subject literature.
Keywords: Supply Chain; Deteriorating Item; Pricing; Production Management.
Economic Order Quantity Model for Two Generation Consecutive Technology Products under Permissible Delay in Payments
by Udayan Chanda, Gaurav Nagpal
Abstract: In this article, we discussed optimal replenishment policies for two succeeding generations technology products under partial trade credit financing. Life cycle dynamics is used to project demand rates of technology generations. It is often seen that advanced generation product plays an important role in cannibalizing the market of existing generation product. Demand estimation of technology products is a complex process, as the consumer buying behavior of technology generational products is not only depends on marketing mix variables but also associated with the time-to-market phenomenon of new technologies. In technology market, interaction among users of different generational products controls the rate of substitution of older technology products with the new one. Therefore, due to the substitution nature of demand of multi-generation product, it is important to incorporate the interaction-substitution effect in replenishment policies for these kind of products. We used life cycle dynamics to project demand rates of technology generations. In this paper, we formulate the total cost function for five different situations depending on the new generation introduction timing and length of trade credit period. A detail sensitivity analysis has been performed to explore the efficacy of the model in a given situation.
Keywords: Economic order quantity; Innovation Diffusion; Technological Innovations; Coefficient of Innovation; Coefficient of Imitation; Successive Generations; Trade credits.
DIRECT APPOINTMENT OF STATE-OWNED ENTERPRISES IN THE PROCUREMENT OF GOODS AND SERVICES: UNFAIR COMPETITION IN TENDER IN INDONESIA
by Mukti Fajar, Reza Fahlevi, Yati Nurhayati, Hilaire Tegnan
Abstract: This research aimed to analyse the provision of the direct appointment of state-owned enterprises in the procurement of goods and/or services in Indonesia. This is a qualitative normative legal research drawing on descriptive secondary data. The appointment of State-Owned Enterprises is regulated under the Ministerial Regulation on State-Owned Enterprises No. PER-05/MBU/2008 juncto Ministerial Regulation of State-Owned Enterprises No. PER-15/MBU/2012 on the General Guidance for the Implementation of Procurement of Goods and/or Services by State-Owned Enterprises. However, this business practice seems to have failed to bring about the results sought by the government. This study reveals that the regulation on General Guidance for the Implementation of Procurement of Goods and/or Services by State-Owned Enterprises contradicts Law No. 5/1999 on the Prohibition of Monopolistic Practices and Unfair Competition, especially Article 19d on discrimination and 22 on conspiracy with regard to the application of the principle of Lex Superior derogat Legi Inferior. The also shows that the appointment of State-Owned Enterprises in the procurement of goods and services entails corrupt practices and therefore does not guarantee a fair and competitive business environment in Indonesia. the study also reveals that there is corruption within the procurement of goods and services by State-Owned Enterprises in Indonesia.
Keywords: Direct Appointment; Procurement; State Owned Enterprises; Unfair Competition; and Tender.
Reviewing procurement: a change management model based on action research
by Tony Cragg, Sarrah Chraibi
Abstract: This paper proposes an iterative model for the make or buy of procurement linked to organisational change management. In a multi-year action research case study, the researcher was part of the project team reviewing procurement at the French Railway company. Both the outsourcing of procurement, as a strategic activity of the firm and the proposal of a model for the review process remain underexplored in the academic literature. This paper aims to contribute knowledge to how the key function of procurement can be successfully reorganised in a large firm as part of a change process. The authors find that within the structured change process, an underlying process is detectable, characterized by initiatives being launched, resistance to them (varying in scope and scale), followed by mitigation. Thus, in this case study, changing the procurement organisation of a large firm is shown to be an adaptive and emergent process, where what lies beneath the surface is as important as what is planned.
Keywords: make or buy decision process; outsourcing; procurement; organizational change management; action research.
A Performance Evaluation Model for Irans Special Economic Zones through Export Marketing
by Azarnoush Ansari, Saeedeh Ketabi, Majid Foruzan
Abstract: This paper aimed to evaluate the performance of Irans special economic export zones by considering export performance improvement criteria of companies operating in these zones. The panel data envelopment analysis was employed for performance evaluation from 2005 to 2016. The Delphi method and snowball sampling were utilized to obtain evaluation criteria from the participation of 77 experts and directors of special zones in three stepsThe research questionnaires were filled out by 212 representatives of companies based in special economic zones to survey qualitative evaluation criteria such as zone brand image and zone corporate marketing knowledge.
Keywords: Special economic zones; Export performance;Export marketing;international business relationships;Panel Data Envelopment Analysis.
Optimisation on Multi-Period Raw Material Procurement and Product Mixing Under Uncertain Demand via Probabilistic Multi-objective Model Approach
by Sutrisno Sutrisno, Solikhin Solikhin, Purnawan Adi Wicaksono
Abstract: Raw material procurement and product mixing plan are two important components in manufacturer industries since they contribute significantly to the production cost and profit. This article is addressed to describe a newly developed mathematical model in the form of multiobjective optimisation model as an alternative approach which can be used to optimise a multi-period raw material procurement and product mixing plan under uncertain demand. First, we have formulated two objective functions which are the amount of the product planned to be produced which should be maximised and the raw material procurement cost which should be minimised. Next, we have formulated a weighted objective function that is used to calculate the Pareto solution. Finally, we solve this optimisation problem to obtain the optimal value for all decision variables. Numerical experiments were conducted to evaluate the model which resulting the optimal value for each decision variable.
Keywords: Raw material procurement; product mixing; bi-objective optimisation; Pareto optimal.
Day ahead forecast of complex seasonal natural gas data to enhance procurement efficiency
by Iram Naim, Tripti Mahara, Sharfuddin Ahmed Khan
Abstract: Natural gas is one of the important commodities used by industry. With the volatility in market prices of this resource, it is essential to accurately forecast the consumption of natural gas at an organization level. This will not only aid in effective procurement but also help in reducing various penalties associated with it. The forecasting task becomes more complicated with the existence of multiple seasonality in consumption data. A daily natural gas consumption data of a manufacturing plant with multiple and non-integer seasonality is analyzed. The selected forecasted model provides recognition and identification of the existence of seasonality. RMSE and MAPE are compared for distinct forecasting horizons to examine the performance of forecasting. TBATS model represents excellent forecasting results for individual prediction horizons with minimum error. The forecasted outcome suggests the daily contracted quantity of natural gas that falls within the limits of procurement without any penalty.
Keywords: Time Series Analysis; Complex Seasonality; Procurement; Penalty; Forecasting.
The impact of power on the depth of sustainability collaboration in the supply chain network for Australian food retailers
by Hadi Rezaei Vandchali, Stephen Cahoon, Shu-Ling Chen
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of supplier power within supply chain networks (SCN) on the depth of sustainability collaboration with their focal firms. A web-based survey was applied to two large Australian retailers SCNs which resulted in receiving 67 completed questionnaires. A cluster analysis was conducted to create a suppliers power taxonomy. ANOVA and Tukey tests were also used to explain the mean differences in the depth of collaborative relationships. This paper identifies four quadrants for suppliers based on their power at both network and node levels, highlighting the impact of power on the depth of collaboration in each quadrant. The results also indicate that the depth of collaboration between the focal firm and its suppliers increases when the suppliers power increases at the network level and decreases at the node level.
Keywords: power; sustainability practices; supply chain network; SCN; focal firms; retail.
The effect of purchasing strategy on the economic production quantity model subject to random machine breakdown
by Farzad Dehghanian, Mehdi Deiranlou, Mohammadali Pirayesh
Abstract: In this article, we develop an economic production quantity (EPQ) model subject to process deterioration, machine breakdown and two types of repair, and study the influence of purchasing strategy on the systems expected total cost, as an alternative option to holding safety stock. We assume that the manufacturer could purchase some quantities from an available supplier with fixed non-zero lead-time This paper looks for the optimal value of production lot size and purchasing lot size in order to minimize the expected total cost The model is developed under general machine breakdown and repairs time distributions The optimality of the model under exponential failure and exponential repair times are studied For the numerical example, we illustrate the outcome of the proposed model and perform a sensitivity analysis on parameters, which directly influence optimal decisions.
Keywords: Economic production quantity; process deterioration; Machine breakdown; Defective items; Purchasing.
Improving Public Private Partnership Project Procurement, Addressing Major Shortfalls in the Standard-Form Contract
by Amin Alvanchi, MohammadHosein Nili-Ahamdabadi, Seyed M. T. Hosseini, Amir AmiriDiba
Abstract: Standard-form contracts facilitate the sophisticated public-private-partnership (PPP) procurement process. Special care should be taken during the preparation of these documents since any remaining flaws affect subsequent projects. Reviewing the standard-form contract capabilities after its application help to identify its major flaws and improve the contract clauses. This research proposes a structured method to address this need. Inspired by the Pareto principle, the proposed method seeks for maximal improvement in the contract through minimal changes. In this method, first, a comprehensive list of prioritized PPP project risks is created. Then, contractual responses to the top-ranked risks are assessed. The method was applied to the PPP standard-form contract in Iran. Among nine top-ranked risks, only contract risk responses to two risks were found appropriate; improvements were recommended for other seven risks.
Keywords: PPP Procurement; contract risk response; risk prioritization; standard-form contract.
The Mediating Role of Jordanian Joint Procurement Law (JPD); An Examination of the Effects of E-procurement Enablers on the Reduction of Expenditure
by Monira Mofleh
Abstract: This work seeks to investigate the mediation role of JPD law to reduce expenditure by enhancing, through e-procurement enablers: trust in information technology (IT), IT infrastructure and the procurement process. This study brings together three significant models in the e-procurement arena, namely that presented by Turban et al. (2017) in identifying enablers of e-procurement, the model of Vaidya and Campbell (2016), which measures expenditure reduction, and the JPD law of 2002, as a mediating factor. The work further aims to determine the effects of such elements on the reduction of expenditure through the completion of an empirical survey carried out through questionnaire distribution; a total of 352 questionnaires were collected and underwent analysis with the use of the smart partial least square (PLS) approach. The findings show significant influences in all relations ensured in hypotheses testing, in regards the three enablers of e-procurement, namely IT infrastructure, trust on IT and processes of e-procurement, on expenditure reduction, with the Jordanian Joint Procurement Law utilised as a mediator, with a positive amount of path coefficient (beta) despite the relation between IT infrastructure and JPD.
Keywords: Joint Procurement Law (JPD); E-procurement enablers; Expenditure Reduction.