International Journal of Product Lifecycle Management (13 papers in press)
MODELING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE OBSOLESCENCE PROCESS
by Carlos Armenta-Deu, Alberto Sánchez-Carralero
Abstract: A simulation model is developed to analyze the obsolescence criteria leading to the replacement of a system. The process defines the global benefit as a combination of servicing benefits through the so called operative function and economic profit. Parameterization of system performance is established based on specific characteristics of the technology used. The global benefit is simulated for the system operation time. A correction factor is introduced to determine the so called effective global benefit which accounts for the profit above an operative threshold. The analysis of obsolescence uses statistical analysis based on Weibull distribution related to system reliability. Simulation shows the best options for optimum performance are intermediate time use of current system followed by short time use of new one, or vice versa. The efficiency in achieving the benefits provided by the new system reduces with the increase of benefits of new technology although global benefit is enhanced
Keywords: Obsolescence. Economy balance. Technology adoption.
Rules-based process mining to discover PLM system processes
by Antonia Azzini, Paolo Ceravolo, Angelo Corallo, Ernesto Damiani, Mariangela Lazoi, Manuela Marra
Abstract: The value of product lifecycle management systems (PLMS) is more and
more recognized by companies and its use is currently enormous increased. It is
mainly used during the product design when dierent roles have to collaborate
for sharing models, take review decisions, approve or reject preliminary results.
Often, companies have a general "picture" about the processes involving PLMS
(who performs an activity, when it is performed, what is done) but this knowledge
can be reinforced, improved and in some cases, also modied using process
mining. In process mining, knowledge is extracted from the event logs generated
by information systems, and model-aware analytics are generated to evaluate
the modelled/known process and the executed one. The application of process
mining in logs extracted from PLMS is almost unexplored. In this study, we use
business rules to lter the event logs and verify the impact on the process mining
metrics to minimise the divergences between modelled and actual processes
and improve the resulting quality metrics. The approach is validated through a
case study using logs from a PLMS provided by a manufacturing company. The
achieved results help business users to identify lines of investigation for deviations from expected behaviour and propose alleviation/improvement measures
while academia can extend the approach also on other information systems,
supporting decisions about process monitoring and improvement.
Keywords: Process Mining; Business Rules; Business Process Assessment; Product Lifecycle Management.
PLM functionalities in the Fashion Industry. A classification framework
by Romeo Bandinelli, Virginia Fani, Bianca Bindi
Abstract: Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) is a set of solutions and tools to support business in the management of the entire lifecycle of the product portfolio. Recently, non-traditional sectors are increasing its adoption, even if it often requires customizations and dedicated functionalities due to the peculiarities of these industries. Focusing on the fashion one, literature is not exhaustive in a clear definition of PLM functionalities and a classification framework for its adoption. Different names of the same functionalities can be found and new features are rarely addressed. Emerging functionalities, such as the ones related to the Industry 4.0 paradigm, have been investigated to ensure the completeness of the framework, getting information from indirect sources and semi-structured interviews to industrial experts working in the fashion industry. According to this, the paper aims to present a comprehensive classification framework of the PLM functionalities in the fashion industry. To cover the entire lifecycle and specify where they are involved, functionalities have been grouped into macro-processes, supporting companies in the selection of features to be included during the implementation of a PLM software.
Keywords: Product Development (PD); Product Lifecycle Management (PLM); Fashion Industry; Framework; Functionalities.
Functionality roadmap to define a configuration scope for implementing a PLM system
by Darli Vieira, Eduardo Schmoller, Alencar Bravo, Milena Chang Chain
Abstract: The main benefits related to product lifecycle management (PLM) are reduced costs and time-to-market, but different levels must be considered during PLM implementation. The acronym PLM requires a holistic and practical understanding by companies since a realistic understanding of PLM provides the main guidance to handle PLM implementation. The definition of PLM must elucidate its different aspects: strategy, methodology, solution and system. Furthermore, tiers of definitions are needed to achieve the benefits of PLM. The aim of this work is to propose a holistic and practical definition of PLM and a PLM system functionality roadmap based on a PLM reference model to help companies define the scope of PLM system configuration, which is the critical point to achieve the benefits of PLM implementation. The proposed holistic and practical definition of PLM supports roadmap applicability.
Keywords: PLM; implementation; benefits; guidance; strategy; methodology; holistic; configuration; roadmap; lifecycle.
Adjusting the Logistic Function to Develop a More Realistic Product Life Cycle Model
by Seif El Din Abdel Rehim, Noha Mostafa, Tamer Mohamed
Abstract: Product Life Cycle (PLC) is one of the essential issues that influence supply chains. A good understanding of this cycle enables better demand forecast and hence optimal planning of resources, investments, marketing and sales. In literature, a logistic model is used to describe the first three stages of the PLC of any product; Introduction, Growth, and Maturity. However, this paper discusses the derivation of a mathematical model that can capture the other stages of the PLC; Declining; Phase-out and Obsolescence and explains the uses of the derived model. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the proposed model and the improvement it provides over the traditional normal distribution function. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is performed to illustrate the effect of changing the model parameters on the overall PLC shape. The results show that the proposed model is more reliable and realistic in capturing the PLC of any product.
Keywords: Logistic Model; Product Life Cycle; Obsolescence; Inventory Management.
Managing manufacturing data and information in product lifecycle management systems considering changes and revisions
by Iman Morshedzadeh, Amos H. C. Ng, Manfred Jeusfeld
Abstract: Manufacturing data and information are produced and used during the lifecycle of product development and product lifecycle management (PLM) systems provide a suitable platform for managing them. For appropriate management of these data, they need to be identified, classified, and stored based on the PLM system's structure. In this paper, the results of an industrial manufacturing data collection study have been explored and their relation to the main structures in PLM systems is specified. Subsequently, a new information model for assigning this data and information to the PLM data model has been presented. By defining classes of property and change for manufacturing data, and associating them appropriately to the PLM systems structure, changes and revisions of those data are formally defined and hence traceable.
Keywords: manufacturing data and information; product lifecycle management; information model; information structure; bill of material; bill of process; bill of resource; PPR; change; revision.
An approach and an illustrative case study for a hybrid development process in mechatronic system design
by Sagar Mule, Peter Hehenberger, Régis Plateaux, Olivia Penas, Stanislao Patalano, Ferdinando Vitolo
Abstract: In industry 4.0, the growing incorporation of cyber-physical systems (CPS) into manufacturing facilities composed of mechatronic products brings the need of reducing development cost while maintaining the quality and in parallel the need to adapt changes in the product development. It is then essential to identify the criticalities of mechatronic system development and to introduce an optimized product development approach. As a result, our research work focuses on combining traditional and agile approaches to improve mechatronic products development. To illustrate the advantages of such hybridization, we propose a first hybrid approach along with the case study, consisting of some elements of the Scrum method into the V-Model which include the freedom to propagate necessary changes in product architecture during the development of its different modules. This new approach also focuses on the required guidelines to adopt and use for enhanced mechatronic products development and criteria for evaluation of the proposed method. Finally, in order to provide flexibility in product architecture and modules design, the hybrid development process is presented with illustrative case study.
Keywords: Mechatronic products development; Hybrid approach; Agile approach; Scrum; V-Model; Case study; Black box analysis; White box analysis; MIL; SIL; HIL
Designing supplier networks in global product development
by Margherita Pero, Monica Rossi, Jinou Xu, Roberto Cigolini
Abstract: The ability to coordinate geographically dispersed supplier networks are vital for firms to successfully manage global product development (GPD). Whilst some interactions between suppliers during GPD have been observed to increase GPD performance, research effort has been primarily addressed to investigate buyer-supplier relationships. Therefore, this paper aims to explore the possible supplier network configurations in GPD and the contextual factors that influence the adoption of the different supplier network configurations. Based on the evidence from 17 case studies, a taxonomy of supplier network configurations in GPD, specified as supplier localisation and nature of the relationship between suppliers, has been empirically validated. Moreover, results reveal that collaboration between research and development units (R&D), modular product design and larger firm size help to establish cooperation between globally dispersed suppliers.
Keywords: supplier network; supplier-supplier relationship; global product development; GDP; new product development; supplier involvement.
Special Issue on: Uncertainty in the digital twin context
Quality Information Framework - Quantifying and Minimizing Uncertainty
by Thomas Kramer, Daniel Campbell
Abstract: The Quality Information Framework (QIF) is an ANSI and ISO information standard developed by the Digital Metrology Standards Consortium. When QIF was being developed, one of the aims was to make quality engineers as confident as possible in the data used to assess the quality of manufactured products. With that aim, a set of types of uncertainty about the data used to assess product quality was identified, and provisions of QIF were built to address them. This paper describes how QIF handles both aleatoric and epistemic uncertainties.
Keywords: QIF; standard; metrology; uncertainty; digital; information; XML; schema; MBD; model; design; feature; characteristic.
An approach for mastering data-induced conflicts in the digital twin context
by Tugrul Öztürk, Georg Staudter, Daniel Martin, Jakob Hartig, Dirk Molitor, Florian Hoppe, Reiner Anderl, Peter Groche, Peter Pelz, Matthias Weigold
Abstract: Decision-making highly relies on the accuracy and veracity of data. Therefore, redundant data acquisition and fusion has established but lack the ability to handle conflicting data correctly. Especially digital twins, which complement physical products with physical models, contribute to redundancy. Uncertainty propagates through the digital twin and provides the opportunity to check data for conflicts, to identify affected subsystems and to infer a possible cause. This work presents an approach that combines a digital twin with the ability of uncertainty propagation, conflict detection, -processing and -visualization techniques for mastering data-induced conflicts. The capability of this method to identify and isolate faults was examined on a technical system with a multitude of sensors.
Keywords: data-induced conflicts; digital twin; uncertainty propagation; error detection; soft-sensor.
Managing the Uncertainty in Data-Acquisition by In Situ Measurments: A Review and Evaluation of Sensing Machine Element Approaches in the Context of Digital Twins
by Maximilian Hausmann, Yanik Koch, Eckhard Kirchner
Abstract: The acquisition of data is important for the digitalisation of production and product development as well as for digital twins. In the scope of this contribution, the integration of sensors close to a process for measuring the quantity of interest at its point of origin is presented. Therefore, a classification of measurement locations in in situ and ex situ measurements based on the complexity of the required transfer path of the quantity of interest and the prevailing uncertainty is proposed. A promising way for sensor integration are Sensing Machine Elements (SME), which are suitable for capturing data for digital twins due to their simple applicability, measurement at the point of interest as well as reduced structural changes. In a short overview, possible uncertainties for different measurement locations are presented and potentials as well as challenges for the in situ measurement in the context of digital twins are derived.
Keywords: uncertainty; digitalisation; metrology; digital twin; sensor integration; in situ measurement; sensing machine element.
Integration of MBSE and PLM: complexity and uncertainty
by Yaroslav Menshenin, Carolina Moreno, Yana Brovar, Clement Fortin
Abstract: A Digital Engineering implementation relies on a high-quality integration of Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) and Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) methods and solutions. Currently, MBSE and PLM methods and solutions are not well aligned with each other resulting in excessive complexity and uncertainty. All agree that their full-scale integration would facilitate the development of products and complex systems, and possible avenues are being considered. Better data flow from conceptual design to detailed design and also feedback from later stages of product development are needed. In this paper, we analyse the MBSE and PLM integration from a System of Systems (SoS) perspective and apply some of the methods used in systems engineering to better understand their nature, quantify their epistemic uncertainty and propose possible solutions which would reduce the complexity and uncertainty of Digital Engineering solutions. To achieve these goals, we study systems ontologies, such as the Object-Process Methodology (OPM), the Core Product Model (CPM), and Manufacturing Process Management (MPM), which represent essential elements of a Digital Engineering solution at the conceptual and detailed product development stage, and support the definition of a well-structured Digital Twin. We also propose a measure of complexity to better quantify the structure of the interfaces between MBSE and PLM solutions through the Design Structure Matrix (DSM)-based approach. We describe core artifacts of these models, including those entities and specific structural relationships.
Keywords: complexity; product design; MBSE; PLM; ontology; uncertainty.
Reducing the Uncertainty in Engineering Change Management Using Historical Data and Simulation Modeling: a Process Twin Concept
by Eldar Shakirov, Niklas Kattner, Clement Fortin, Ighor Uzhinsky, Udo Lindemann
Abstract: Engineering Change Management (ECM) makes up a large portion of overall product development effort and provokes significant uncertainty in planning and executing the product development operations. By enabling better planned ECMs, practitioners can improve overall project management. This work introduces the concept of the Digital Twin for the ECM process to enable its continuous quantitative assessment and improvement of engineering process planning. For this, we bring forward two key contributions: the concept of the framework for ECM process simulation and analysis, and the approach to refine the ECM modeling parameters using historical data and thus reduce associated uncertainty. This work proposes that by using past information, we can improve the accuracy of ECM modeling and enable more precise predictions on process lead time and its standard deviation. We conclude the article with an outlook for further research pointing at the current limitations and challenges.
Keywords: Engineering Change Management; Uncertainty; Design Structure Matrix; Discrete-Event Simulation; Process Twin.