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International Journal of Power Electronics

International Journal of Power Electronics (IJPElec)

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International Journal of Power Electronics (33 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Advanced sensorless nonlinear control strategy for grid-connected photovoltaic systems via the two-time scale singular perturbation technique   Order a copy of this article
    by Youssef MCHAOUAR, Abdelmajid ABOULOIFA, Aicha EL ALLALI, Ibtissam Lachkar, Josep M. Guerrero, Chaimaa Taghzaoui 
    Abstract: This paper presents a new control strategy for grid connected photovoltaic (PV) system. The system consists of a solar panel, a boost power converter, and a full-bridge inverter with filter inductor connected to the grid. The control objectives are threefold: i) tracking the maximum power point (MPPT) of the PV panel; ii) regulating the DC-link voltage to a given reference to ensure the power transferring from the PV panel to the grid; iii) ensuring a unity power factor in the grid such as the currents injected must be sinusoidal with the same frequency and the same phase as the grid voltage. To achieve these control objectives, a multi-loop controller is synthesised using a high-gain output feedback controller and the two-time- scales singular perturbation technique. The addressed control problem involves several difficulties including the nonlinear characteristic of the PV, the nonlinear dynamics of the converters, and the existence of a number of state variables that are inaccessible to measurement. To address this problem, two-time-scale sliding mode observers are added which allow estimating, simultaneously, the solar panel current and the grid voltage. To show that all control objectives are asymptotically accomplished, a formal analysis based on the singular perturbation method and the average theory is carried out. This theoretical result is confirmed by simulations under MATLAB Simulink illustrating the performances and the strong robustness with respect to climate changes.
    Keywords: Photovoltaic system; singular perturbation technique; two-time scales sliding mode observer; nonlinear control; averaging theory.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2023.10045024
  • Performance Investigation of Transformer-less DSTATCOM in Grid-connected Solar-PV Distributed Generation System with Insolation Variation   Order a copy of this article
    by Meenakshi Rastogi, Aijaz Ahmad, Abdul Hamid Bhat 
    Abstract: This paper addresses the application of DSTATCOM in a grid-connected solar PV distributed generation system when the insolation variation takes place. The solar-PV panel is connected to the grid at a point of common coupling to supply real power to the load and surplus real power to the grid at light loading conditions. When DSTATCOM is integrated with a grid-connected solar-PV system, it injects reactive power with real power simultaneously and contributes to the mitigation of power quality problems which is created by the solar-PV system or different loading conditions. DSTATCOM also results in power factor correction and zero voltage regulation of the distribution system. The solar-PV output power has fluctuations and its waveform carries harmonics with it. DSTATCOM also contributes to maintaining the power system stability, which may get deteriorated by the solar system as the solar-PV system is unstable. DSTATCOM maintains the DC-link voltage constant and helps the solar-PV system to work smoothly. In this paper, the simulation model of a 3-phase 3-wire Distributed Generation System based on Synchronous Reference Frame (SRF) control strategy has been designed to demonstrate the performance evaluation of DSTATCOM in a solar-PV distributed generation system with variation in solar insolation. The simulation model has been designed in MATLAB/Simulink and SimPowerSystems software. Various simulation results have been presented. The digital real-time simulator has also been used and the real-time experimental results have been presented to validate the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed system and its control.
    Keywords: Digital Real-time simulation; Distribution Static Synchronous Compensator (DSTATCOM); Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM); Synchronous Reference Frame (SRF) theory; Solar-PV panel; Distributed Generation System; Power Factor Correction (PFC); Zero voltage Regulation (ZVR); Solar Insolation.

  • New High Voltage Gain Using D-C Cell Suitable for PV Applications   Order a copy of this article
    by Arezu Azizi, Arash Kalami 
    Abstract: In this paper, a non-isolated DC-DC boost converter with high voltage gain and low voltage stress across semiconductors is presented suitable for PV applications. The proposed converter used voltage multiplier techniques Diode/Capacitor (D-C) for increasing the output voltage level. The main advantages of the proposed converter include low input current ripples, low voltage stress across semiconductor (power switch and power diodes), high overall efficiency and low conduction losses. Moreover, the proposed converter capable to achieve the maximum power by controlling the duty cycle values. The laboratory prototype of the proposed converter is built and tested at 33kHz with about 155W power level. Both simulation and experimental results confirm the validity theoretical of the proposed converter.
    Keywords: DC-DC non-isolated converter; high voltage gain; voltage stress; Renewable applications; maximum power point tracking.

  • Modulation Technique Based on Low Computational SVPWM for Reduced Switch Multilevel Inverter Hardware Implementation   Order a copy of this article
    by Jose Jacob, Sarin MV, Chitra A., RaziaSultana W 
    Abstract: This work envisages promoting an experimental analysis of a reduced switch asymmetrical multilevel topology when controlled with different modulation schemes. For Investigation, two modulation schemes are used, i.e (a) SPWM Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation and (b) SVPWM- Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation techniques. The algorithm proposed here is a general one, which can be applied to any N- level inverters without much complexity as compared with standard space vector techniques. The output of Multilevel Inverter (MLI) is evaluated by the presence of Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) for available modulation techniques. A seven-level output voltage has been generated by the proposed topology. Complete modeling by the numerical equation is done with MATLAB/Simulink tool. To give proof of the numerical results, an experimental setup has been implemented using dSPACE 1104. The effectiveness of the proposed space vector algorithm over SPWM technique is shown experimentally. The experimental verification reveals that the low computational SVPWM outperforms the conventional schemes.
    Keywords: Power converters (DC-AC);PWM inverters;SVPWM;power MOSFET;inverters;.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2023.10050173
  • A H∞-based approach for sensorless control of BLDC motors fed with four-switch inverters   Order a copy of this article
    by Nouha Triki, Mohamed Abbes, Souad Chebbi 
    Abstract: This paper presents the design and the implementation of a cost-effective sensorless control strategy for brushless DC motors fed with a four-switch inverter. In this method, a ℌ-controller was designed to control phase currents. A disturbance observer is used to estimate the back-EMFs of the rotor. These variables was used as the inputs of a phase locked loop to estimate the rotor position. The performances of this system were validated through simulation results. It was shown that the rotor speed remains close to the desired reference and the estimated angle is synchronised with the actual back-EMF. Compared with existing solutions, the proposed method allows the limitation of switching losses by the removal of the hysteresis controllers and the possibility to use standard driver circuits with internally set deadtime. Finally, an experimental prototype was built to verify the correctness of the presented control method.
    Keywords: BLDC motor; four-Switch inverter; H∞ control; disturbance observer; Sensorless control.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2023.10049941
  • Harmonic/Inter-harmonics Detection using Modified Exact Model Order based ESPRIT   Order a copy of this article
    by Ankit Srivastava, A.N. Tiwari, S.N. Singh, Praveen P. Singh 
    Abstract: Problems related to harmonics/interharmonics are growing in power system rapidly with the increasing use of power electronic devices. This paper focuses on estimating harmonics/interharmonics using MEMO-ESPRIT (Modified Exact Model Order Estimation of Signal Parameters via Rotational Invariance Technique). The modified EMO method is used to reduce the computational burden in detecting the harmonics/interharmonics components. The EMO estimation performs the calculation of the relative difference of every eigenvalue while modified-EMO utilizes the fact that two consecutive eigenvalues belong to the same frequency components and therefore, it removes those points and takes their average for RD calculation. Comparison has been made between EMO (Exact Model Order) and MEMO to demonstrate the effectiveness of MEMO. Moreover, various parameters values like noise, size of autocorrelation matrix, etc. are varied to see their effect on the computational burden and accuracy of the MEMO method. Performance of the MEMO-ESPRIT algorithm is analyzed with synthetic signals, single-phase PWM inverter and 250- kW grid-connected PV arrays using MATLAB/Simulink. The root-mean-square relative error has been obtained to validate the accuracy of the algorithm.
    Keywords: Harmonics/interharmonics estimation; MEMO; FFT; ESPRIT.

  • Modelling, Analysis & Control of Bidirectional SEPIC Converter for Energy Storage Applications   Order a copy of this article
    by Arnab Ghosh, Jayadev Meher, Subrata Banerjee 
    Abstract: Energy storage system appears to be very promising field of research for rapidly increased requirements of applications renewable sources in daily life. The DC-DC bidirectional converters (BDCs) are globally known for its versatile applications in battery chargers, electric vehicles (EVs), solar PV modules with energy storage systems, smart/ microgrid, telecommunication systems etc. Such demanding applications are mostly essential for suitable bidirectional converters for delivering the energy both the directions. In this work, the closed-loop analysis, modelling and control of a DC-DC bidirectional SEPIC converter with classical controllers (like as proportional integral derivative (PID) controller, Type-II controller & Type-III controller) and advanced controller (such as Internal Model Controller (IMC)) are demonstrated. The bidirectional SEPIC converter has been modelled here by using state-space averaging (SSA) method. It is noticed that bidirectional converter with IMC shows better controlling action compared to other classical control algorithms for its better steady-state and transient responses. Finally, experimental verification of proposed closed-loop converter control is performed.
    Keywords: Bidirectional SEPIC Converter; Small Signal Analysis; Classical Controllers; Advanced Controller; Energy Storage System;.

  • Single Phase Cross Connected Sources Asymmetric T-Type Multilevel Inverter with Fault Tolerant Capabilities   Order a copy of this article
    by Vinay Kumar, Sanjeev Singh, Shailendra Jain 
    Abstract: This work presents a cross connected sources asymmetric T-type multilevel inverter (CCSATT-MLI) for single phase operation with fault tolerant (FT) capabilities. The presented topology uses only one extra power semiconductor switch in the CCSATT thirteen-level (13L) inverter for fully FT operation. The paper uses two control schemes namely phase opposition disposition sinusoidal pulse width modulation (POD-SPWM) and nearest level control (NLC) for achievement of desired results under single switch open circuit (SSOC) fault. The obtained simulation results of proposed topology using MATLAB/Simulink are presented to show FT operation of the MLI under any SSOC fault. The simulation validation are validated under each switch fault using OpalRT hardware in loop (HIL) platform. The presented topology is also compared with recently reported MLI topologies for reduced number of count claim and effective FT operation in symmetric as well as asymmetric configurations.
    Keywords: Asymmetric T-type; cross connected source; fault tolerant; multilevel inverter; Nearest level Control; Pulse width Modulation; Single switch open circuit; Total Harmonic Distortion.

  • Coordinated control of wind farm and supercapacitor energy storage system for dynamic performance reinforcement of multi-area power systems   Order a copy of this article
    by Asima Syed, Mairaj Ud-Din Mufti 
    Abstract: In this paper, a simple and effective control approach to exploit the primary frequency support competency of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG)-based wind turbines (WT) is presented. Furthermore, a small rating supercapacitor energy storage system (SCESS) is also integrated to reinforce the frequency regulation in the studied multi-area power system. A control-oriented strategy is employed to develop a discrete-time predictive control (DPC) for SCESS. The dynamic energy level thresholds are generated by representing the SCESS primary control by a first-order lag block for obtaining a discrete-time state-space model which yields the modified power constraints. Furthermore, the power thresholds of the power conditioning system (PCS) are chosen meticulously. The uprightness of the proposed scheme is manifested by the time-domain simulation results exhibiting considerable damping of the power system oscillations along with substantial curtailment in frequency nadir, with all the power and energy constraints of SCESS accounted for. The eigenvalue analysis is also carried out to validate the MATLAB/Simulink-based simulation results.
    Keywords: doubly fed induction generator; frequency support; discrete-time predictive control; supercapacitor energy storage.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2023.10043312
  • Performance evaluation of a standalone hybrid microgrid for a rural community using various dispatch strategies   Order a copy of this article
    by Vijay Garg, Sudhir Sharma 
    Abstract: Distributed energy sources prove to be a viable alternative for electricity in rural/remote areas. In this paper, the performance of a standalone hybrid microgrid comprising of solar photovoltaic (PV), diesel generator (DG), and battery energy storage system (BESS) has been evaluated for a small rural community. The overall aim is to propose sustainable, economical and reliable electricity supply in rural/remote areas. The optimum sizing of various units has been evaluated using hybrid optimisations multiple energy resources (HOMER) simulations with four dispatch strategies, i.e., load following, cycle charging, combine dispatch, and predictive dispatch. The outcomes show that the PV-DG-BESS system is an optimal solution based on net present cost (NPC) and cost of energy (COE) parameters under a predictive dispatch strategy. The sustainability of the optimum hybrid microgrid has been evaluated using sensitivity analysis using various input parameters.
    Keywords: hybrid microgrid; solar photovoltaic; hybrid renewable energy sources; dispatch strategies; sensitivity analysis; cost of energy; COE; battery energy storage system; BESS.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2023.10044521
  • PV Micro-inverter with Passive Equalizer for High Power Acquisition Ratio   Order a copy of this article
    by Dongchun Wu, Fei Zhu, Jiawei Tang, Jun Liu, Yunya Wu 
    Abstract: Micro-inverter is one of the important and efficient utilisation forms of photovoltaic power generation. Generally, there are 34 sub-modules in a PV module. When the light intensity is different among sub-modules, the output power of the PV module is dramatically decreased even if a micro-inverter is equipped. A passive equaliser integrated into full-bridge PV micro-inverter is proposed, which is composed of cascaded voltage-doubler rectifiers and a LC series resonant network. The proposed equaliser can be well operated without any additional control and it can supply the current/energy to the sub-module under part shadow. At last, all of the PV sub-modules can be operated near their maximum power point. The operational modes and the design principle of parameters are analysed. The simulation and experimental results verify the obvious advantage in increasing the power acquisition rate to PV panel.
    Keywords: PV micro-inverter; voltage equaliser; differential power processing; DPP; LC resonance; power acquisition ratio.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2023.10045218
  • Performance Investigation of Reweighted Zero Attracting -LMS based Dynamic Voltage Restorer for Alleviating Diverse Power Quality Problems   Order a copy of this article
    by Humeera Altaf, Abdul Hamid Bhat 
    Abstract: Dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) has proven to be the most coherent, effective and economic answer to voltage based power quality problems. This work details the design, investigation and experimental validation of reweighted zero-attracting least mean square (RZA-LMS) based DVR addressing the issues like voltage sag, voltage swell, voltage harmonics, voltage imbalance and combination of these. The RZA-LMS based control algorithm is proposed for producing reference voltage signals. The features of proposed algorithm include finite-time convergence, simplicity and improvement in the robustness of the system against varying parameters. The viability of DVR controller is assessed by employing MATLAB/Simulink and Simpowersystem software. The performance of proposed DVR is experimentally investigated using digital real-time simulator.
    Keywords: power quality problems; dynamic voltage restorer; DVR; reweighted zero-attracting least mean square; RZA-LMS; compensation technique.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2023.10046556
  • Power Quality Improvement of Microgrid Fed Electric Ship using Fuzzy Controlled Multi-Pulse/Multi-Level Converter Based VFD   Order a copy of this article
    by Ahmed Mansour, Ahmed Hossam-Eldin, Mohamed Elgamal, Karim Hassan 
    Abstract: This paper investigates a harmonic mitigation technique for modern Electrical Propulsion Ships (EPS) Microgrids (MG) using a fuzzy controlled Multi-Pulse Rectifier (MPR) and Multi-Level Inverter (MLI) based Variable Frequency Drive (VFD). In this paper, the proposed MPR-MLI-VFD system is studied using different-pulses rectifiers and different-levels inverters based VFD to achieve proper mitigation of the harmonics in the main generating power system of the ships within the marine classification societys limitations for harmonics. This is achieved using a proposed low harmonic multi-pulse rectifier based on zigzag transformers. Moreover, the voltage harmonic distortions at propulsion motor feeder buses are minimized using the proposed MLI. A simple fuzzy logic control system is proposed for the VFD speed control. The voltage balancing control system for the diode clamped multi-level inverters is implemented using a fuzzy control system. Matlab / Simulink is used for the simulation and validation process.
    Keywords: Power quality; Harmonic mitigation; Electrical propulsion ship; Multi-level inverter; MLI voltage balancing; Multi-pulses rectifier; Fuzzy logic control; VFD.

  • Review of on-board conductive charger topologies for electric transportation   Order a copy of this article
    by N. Vijaya Anand, A.V. Jaya Sai Praneeth, Naveen Yalla, Vijay K. Sood 
    Abstract: This paper presents an overview of on-board conductive charger topologies for electric vehicles (EVs). Battery packs in electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EVs/PHEVs) need frequent energy refills to fulfil their duty cycles and overcome the range anxiety of vehicle owners. Due to the limited availability of fast charging infrastructures, all automotive manufacturers prefer an on-board battery charger in their vehicles. However, there are power level limitations for these chargers because of the weight, space and cost constraints. On-board charging systems can be either conductive or inductive. This paper reviews the topologies that are involved in conductive charging only. Globally, all automotive companies provide levels 1 and 2 for residential charging of vehicles. Single- and two-stage power converter topologies are summarised with their limitations. Furthermore, the current trends in the DC-DC converters for the two-stage conversion battery charger topologies are also outlined. This paper provides an overview of various topologies and configurations involved in EV charging with their limitations.
    Keywords: AC-DC converters; DC-DC converters; electric vehicles; EVs; level 1 charger; level 2 charger; level 3 charger; on-board chargers; power factor correction; PFC.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2022.10047571
  • Common Mode Voltage Analysis and Reduction Technique for Nine Switch Inverter Fed Dual Load System   Order a copy of this article
    by Ashish Dongre, Jyoti Prakash Mishra, Ravi Kumar Majji 
    Abstract: Nine switch inverter (NSI) is a dual output topology that suffers from the common mode voltage (CMV) issues similar to conventional single output drive systems. A significant amount of literature is available to solve CMV in the traditional drive system, but there is a lack of literature on NSI CMV issues. The work presented in this paper serves to unify the understanding of different pulse width modulation (PWM) techniques applied to NSI and their effects on CMV. PWM techniques used in this study include sinusoidal, modified sinusoidal, discontinuous, and space vector PWM. This paper also investigates the possibility of reducing the CMV peak during zero vector states using two more switches in NSI without affecting the output voltage. To validate the proposed concept, an NSI fed dual load system is developed using MATLAB Simulink, and a real-time simulator OPALRT-OP4510 is used to support the findings.
    Keywords: common mode voltage; CMV; sinusoidal pulse width modulation; SPWM; discontinuous pulse width modulation; DPWM; SVPWM; nine switch inverter; NSI.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2023.10049437
  • A Single-Phase Level-Shifted Duty Controlled Multilevel Rectifier Based EV Charger for Wide Output Voltage Range   Order a copy of this article
    by Rheesabh Dwivedi, Sanjeev Singh, Bhim Singh 
    Abstract: Nowadays, electric vehicles (EVs) are gaining popularity as customers and environment-friendly option owing to the rise in petroleum prices and pollution, respectively. The battery is the prime source of power for EVs. This paper presents, a level-shifted duty controlled multilevel power factor correction (PFC) AC-DC converter, followed by a phase-shifted full-bridge converter (PSFBC) as an efficient charging solution for EVs. The adopted topology uses lesser semiconductor switching devices than traditional multilevel converters, which minimises switching losses, making it a good choice for compact EV charger. Complete system design is carried out for a single-phase, 3.3 kW, EV charger, with 220 vrms AC input and 4872 V DC output voltage for batteries. This EV charger has improved the system reliability and efficiency, along with the near-unity power factor (UPF) in compliance with the international IEC-61000-3-2 PQ standard. MATLAB/Simulink and experimental results are presented to validate the aforementioned functionalities of this EV charger.
    Keywords: five-level converter; level-shifted PWM; electric vehicles; battery charging; power quality.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2023.10048019
  • Power quality improvement of the grid-tied hybrid AC-DC microgrids by adding the bi-directional series converter   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohsen Rezaie Estabragh, Ali Dastfan, Morteza Rahimiyan 
    Abstract: The power quality problems of the utility voltage are transferred to the grid-tied microgrid. With the conventional organisation of a hybrid AC-DC microgrid, the controller cannot compensate the voltage of the AC bus. The paper offers the bi-directional series converter between the common DC bus and the utility to compensate the sag/swell/harmonics of the utility voltage. The controllers are designed based on the instantaneous reactive power theory and predictive control. The interfacing converter compensates the reactive power and harmonics components of the nonlinear AC load and the voltage of the DC bus along with bi-directional transmission power. The performance verification is done by simulating the typical microgrid in MATLAB/Simulink. The AC bus voltage and utility current become pure sinusoid. The results show improvement in the THD of source current and load voltage while the voltage of the DC bus is controlled at the reference voltage.
    Keywords: suggested organisation of hybrid AC-DC microgrid; bi-directional AC-DC series converter; power quality improvement; instantaneous reactive power theory; predictive control.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2023.10048274
  • Design of a Novel Double Closed Loop System of the Vienna Rectifier in the Pre-stage of UPS   Order a copy of this article
    by Ningzhi Jin, Long Zhang, Hongchao Chen, Kai Zhou, Xiaogang Wu 
    Abstract: Aiming at the problems of complex parameter design and slow system dynamic response in the traditional double closed-loop PI control system of the Vienna rectifier, this paper proposes a novel double closed-loop control strategy of variable exponential approach law sliding mode control (SMC) and finite control set model predictive control (MPC). To begin with, a mathematical model of Vienna rectifier circuit is established. Then, the control algorithms of SMC voltage loop and MPC current loop are derived and designed. Finally, the applied control method is verified with simulation in MATLAB. The results show that the proposed system can improve the input current quality, and leads to a better steady-state response and dynamic performance of the DC output voltage, current and neutral point potential.
    Keywords: Vienna rectifier; double closed-loop control; sliding mode control; model predictive control.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2023.10048397
  • Comprehensive Analysis of BLDC Motor Faults in Electric Vehicle Transportation   Order a copy of this article
    by Adil Usman, Bharat Singh Rajpurohit 
    Abstract: The faults prospective are higher for any BLDC motor, driven under a constant and continuous operating period. The possibility of getting susceptible to winding short-circuit faults and rotor demagnetisation effects, is more frequently discerned. The winding insulation breakdown introduces stator inter-turn fault (SITF) conditions in the machine which has consequent detrimental impact on the rotor permanent magnets (PMs). The cumulative effect of fault stimulates rotor demagnetisation, intensifying the effect of faults. This paper aims in classifying the motor faults employed in electric vehicle (EV) transportation. Depending upon the machine’s characteristic performance in terms of electrical signatures like, motor current signature (MCS) and back-EMF (BEMF), and mechanical signatures like frequency and vibration spectrum; a unique classification to fault is provided. The proposed research models investigate the performance of a machine drive under both individual and combined fault conditions, to give a significant outcome to the research findings. The closed loop motor drive operation is performed using an advanced field remodelling (AFR)-based technique which employs fuzzy logic controller (FLC). The developed drive-controller-system minimises the steady state error under motor operating conditions and has a clear discrepancy in terms of machine quantities during faults.
    Keywords: advanced field remodelling method; AFR method; brushless DC motors; BLDC motors; demagnetisation; finite element method magnetics; FEMM; numerical methods; NMs.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2023.10048398
  • Research on Bidirectional Isolated On-board Charger Based on CLLC Resonant Converter   Order a copy of this article
    by Kai Zhou, Zan Liu, Dongyang Sun, Ningzhi Jin 
    Abstract: This paper presents a bidirectional isolated on-board charging system for electric vehicles. The charging system is composed of a front-end circuit and a back-end circuit. The front-end circuit is a bidirectional totem-pole power factor correction converter, and the back-end circuit is a bidirectional CLLC resonant converter. According to the design requirements of the charging power supply system, the key parameters of the CLLC resonant converter are selected and calculated. Through sampling, the output voltage and input current of the front-end circuit are obtained, and compared with the reference value and compensated, and the on-off time of the switch in the front-end circuit is finally controlled. The latter circuit uses the loop control mode to control the switch frequency of the switch to achieve constant voltage and current charging. A 3.3-kW vehicle charging system prototype was constructed. The simulation and experimental results verify the correctness of and design.
    Keywords: vehicle charging system; bidirectional totem-pole converter; CLLC resonant converter; zero-voltage switching.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2023.10048442
  • DCPWM based conducted EMI noise mitigation in ULL converter for EV applications   Order a copy of this article
    by Srinivasan Kalaiarasu, Sudhakar Natarajan 
    Abstract: Conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI) noises are produced due to the fast-switching process in power converters and result in the degradation of power electronic components in electric vehicles (EVs). In this work, a DCPWM technique-based EMI mitigation process has been proposed for a high gain ultra-lift Luo-converter. Due to the high switching frequency of 200 kHz, EMI noise has been generated. By implementing the DCPWM technique, the above-mentioned issues are nullified. The conducted EMI mitigation level is analysed through common-mode noise, differential-mode noise, and power spectrum density. In this proposed method, a field-programmable gate array has been used to generate digital chaotic pulses by applying an RCFMFD approach. From the observation, 16 dBV, which is equal to 6 V of conducted EMI noise, has been reduced as per EMC-CISPR 11 standard limit by executing the proposed DCPWM technique compared with the periodic PWM technique in the ultra-lift Luo-converter for EV applications.
    Keywords: conducted EMI; power spectrum density; PSD; digital chaotic pulse width modulation; DCPWM; field-programmable gate array; FPGA; randomised carrier frequency modulation with a fixed duty cycle; RCFMFD.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2023.10048443
    Abstract: This paper presents an efficient hybrid battery charger (HBC) for an electric vehicle (EV). The HBC incorporated with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm receives input from the PV panels to charge the batteries when the solar insolation levels are high and is shifted to the grid at times of reduced insolation level. The HBC is implemented using two topologies. A multi-stage charger (MSC) consisting of a boost and buck converter integrated together and a single-stage charger (SSC) consisting of single-ended primary-inductor converter (SEPIC). Both the topologies are simulated in MATLAB/Simulink environment and compared. The MPPT algorithm is applied and the charge control algorithm is devised and applied for HBC. Finally, a scaled down 250W SSC is implemented in a hardware model. A modified perturb and observe (MP&O) MPPT is applied that would reduce the time complexity of the algorithm and would be more efficient.
    Keywords: hybrid battery charger; HBC; maximum power point tracking; MPPT; MP&O; multi-stage charger; MSC; single-stage charger; SSC; SEPIC.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2023.10048743
  • A Novel Concept of Extreme Fine Tuning in Harmonic Profile Improvement in Multilevel Inverter for Electrical Drives   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: This article proposes a novel concept of improving harmonic profile in multilevel inverter (MLI) using ratio rule method. THD minimisation in MLI using selective harmonic elimination (SHE) approach using various optimisation techniques is covered in several literatures followed by further THD reduction using alterable DC sources. These methods discussed in various literatures uses rigorous derivations of constants that are used for further reduction of THD profile. This article introduces ratio rule method for further reduction of the THD in multilevel inverter, after optimisation process using various algorithms. The proposed study is conducted using the SHE approach for THD reduction using genetic algorithm followed by further THD reduction using ratio rule. A three-phase seven-level cascaded H-bridge inverter is simulated in MATLAB as well as its hardware is implemented for deriving the proof of proposed concept. It is found that the proposed method is faster, easier and produces a maximum of 12.60% reduction in THD profile.
    Keywords: cascaded H-bridge inverter; multilevel inverter; genetic algorithm; total harmonic distortion; THD; electrical drives; ratio rule method.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2023.10049569
  • Comprehensive Study for Two Stage Isolated LED Driver PFC Topologies   Order a copy of this article
    by VINOD KUMAR YADAV, Manikant Gupta, Ganesh Prajapat, Janardan Kundu, Atul Kumar Sharma 
    Abstract: Ever-increasing energy demand has put enormous pressure on the remaining conventional sources for countries like India, the world’s third-largest electricity consumer. An emphasis has been made to save the cost and wastage of electricity. A light-emitting diode (LED) has a promising note for this problem. The LED works in a constant current mode driven by a driver circuit, also known as an AC-DC system. This paper presents combinations of two-stage high PFC LED driver topologies driven by a few modified rectifiers as a first-stage driver. Their comparative analysis regarding selection criteria for components, control strategies, design analysis, power quality reflection, potential application, and some general guidelines depicting class C load is mentioned. This work, in general, is expected to be utilised by researchers and engineers to make an appropriate choice while selecting a driver circuit for LED and aims to improve LED technology. MATLAB/Simulink/PSIM environment is employed to study the comparative analysis of the discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) two-stage LED driver circuit. A 24 W/60 V hardware prototype is presented to verify the simulation results.
    Keywords: buck; boost; buck-boost; discontinuous conduction mode; DCM; light-emitting diode; LED; PFC.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2023.10051529
  • Wide Band Solution and Sensitivity Analysis for Lower Order Harmonics Control in Multilevel Converter   Order a copy of this article
    by Zahoor Ahmad Ganie, Abdul Hamid Bhat, Salman Ahmad 
    Abstract: Low switching frequency in medium voltage and high power application of power converters is desired in order to minimise the switching losses. Pre-programmed pulse width modulation technique is extensively used in such applications as it ensures better quality output waveform. But in its implementation, the main challenge is the calculation of switching angle values from the system of highly nonlinear transcendental equations which are obtained by Fourier series analysis of the output waveform. In this paper, a differential evolution-based evolutionary intelligent technique is proposed to calculate the optimised switching instants in a wide band range. The sensitivity of the switching instants as a function of modulation index is minimised as wide band solution permits flexibility in its operation. Computational, simulation and hardware results using DSP controller TMS320F2812 are presented to corroborate the concept.
    Keywords: pulse width modulation; PWM; harmonics minimisation; differential evolution; sensitivity; switching angles; DSP.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2023.10051591
  • Integration of Solar Powered DC Homes to DC Microgrid Using Dual Active Bridge Converter   Order a copy of this article
    by Praveen Shankar, Rakesh Maurya 
    Abstract: In this paper, the dual outputs dual active bridge (DAB) converter is proposed for the integration of solar powered DC homes with DC microgrid. The main features of this converter include reduced circuit complexity and ease the control using simple phase shift modulation. The revised P&O MPPT for the phase-shift modulation scheme is implemented to utilise PV modules efficiently. Based on the desired power levels, the converter is designed such that all the semiconductor switches operate in ZVS condition in most of the time. A simple control scheme is introduced to regulate the power flow among DC homes and DC microgrid. An experimental 300 W prototype is built to confirm the viability of the proposed converter and control.
    Keywords: dual active bridge; DAB; maximum power point tracking; MPPT; phase-shift modulation; PSM; zero voltage switching; ZVS.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2023.10051656
    Abstract: The fuel cells and solar-based energy sources have a significant role in several power system or electric vehicle (EV) applications. However, there exist the few limitations associated with the generation of very low output voltage. Hence, several cells are connected in series in order to realise much more output voltages. This can enhance the cost of the system besides the development of advanced manufacturing materials and fabrication methods. Therefore, it is important to design high gain dc-dc converters (HGCs) in order to realise higher output voltages from very low panel or stack output voltages. Therefore, this paper presents the design and simulation of the HGCs for the electric vehicle (EV) applications. The major focus is on the steady state and dynamic voltage regulations. The performance of the HGCs is compared in terms of the figure of merits (FOMs) such as steady state voltage error, transient voltage deviation and settling time. The eminent HGCs are simulated for the 45 V input to 400 V output voltage conditions. In addition, this research work also presents the efficiency analysis of the HGCs. This paper gives insightness for the researchers and design engineers while choosing the appropriate HGC topology.
    Keywords: dc-dc converters; voltage gain; regulation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2023.10052176
  • An Improved SHM-PAM Method to Meet EN 50160 and CIGRE WG 36-05 Voltage Harmonic Standards Using Asymmetrical Cascaded H-bridge Natural Sequence Multi-level Inverter Structure   Order a copy of this article
    by Samudra Panda, SOURABH KUNDU, Subrata Banerjee 
    Abstract: An improved selective-harmonic-minimisation pulse-amplitude-modulation (SHM-PAM) method based on quarter-wave-symmetry (QWS) waveform for a three-phase seven-level asymmetrical CHB natural-sequence-multi-level-inverter (CHBNSMLI) is presented in this article. The proposed SHM-PAM method is capable of keeping the value of the harmonic components of inverter output voltage (up to 25th order) and THD under the specified limit of voltage harmonic standards EN50160/CIGRE WG 36-05. In the proposed strategy, first and second cell of the typical two-cell asymmetrical CHBNSMLI commutates once and thrice per quarter cycle respectively. The solution of switching positions and per unit voltages of each level is estimated using the particle swarm optimisation (PSO) technique. The performance of the suggested technique is then justified through simulation as well as hardware implementation on an FPGA-controlled asymmetrical CHBNSMLI for different loading conditions. Lastly, the effectiveness of the proposed SHM-PAM method has been established through a comparative study with some existing SHE/SHM methods.
    Keywords: cascaded H-bridge; CHB; harmonic analysis; harmonic distortion; selective-harmonic-minimisation pulse-amplitude-modulation; SHM-PAM; voltage harmonic standards.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2023.10052454
  • Phase locked loop parameterisation in AC/DC interconnected system for a multi-source AGC system under open market environment   Order a copy of this article
    by Saha Debdeep, Saikia Lalit Chandra 
    Abstract: This article emphasises on deregulated AGC of a realistic multi-machine gas - thermal plant with dish-Stirling solar-thermal (DSTS) as additional power generation sources in each control area by taking into accounts of AC/DC with phase locked loop (PLL) dynamics. Eigenvalue analysis confirms the steadiness of the reasonable power system with various interconnections such as AC, AC/DC link and AC/DC with PLL dynamics. A series form of proportional-integral-derivative (PID) namely proportional gain cascaded with integral and double-derivative (PI+DD+) controller is employed as secondary controller in each control areas for robust AGC to carry out market transactions under deregulated environment. Exploring the system with different type of interconnections infer that proper tuning of PLL function parameters may synchronise the grid better than without employing PLL. The performance of PI+DD+ controller along with optimum PLL gains commensurate with wide variations in governor, turbine, fuel and compressor discharge time constant of gas turbine plant.
    Keywords: automatic generation control; dish-Stirling solar thermal; deregulated; eigenvalue; phase locked loop; PLL; series controller.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2023.10052288
  • Performance investigation of a transistor clamped H-bridge inverter-based dynamic voltage restorer for mitigating various power quality problems   Order a copy of this article
    by Humeera Altaf, Abdul Hamid Bhat 
    Abstract: This paper presents design and analysis of dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) employing five-level transistor clamped H-bridge (TCHB) inverter that increases the applicability of DVR to medium voltage networks. TCHB inverter is a newly developed topology of multilevel inverters (MLIs) which uses lesser number of components as compared to other topologies. Synchronous reference frame theory (SRFT)-based control algorithm is used for implementation of proposed DVR. The compensation capability of proposed DVR is tested for various voltage related power quality problems like sag, swell, harmonics, imbalance and their combinations through MATLAB/Simulink software and the simulation results are verified experimentally by using digital real-time simulator.
    Keywords: dynamic voltage restorer; DVR; multilevel inverter; MLI; transistor clamped H-bridge inverter; transistor clamped H-bridge; TCHB; medium voltage application; power quality problems.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2023.10052289
  • A novel hybrid discontinuous PWM algorithm for 3L-NPC inverter   Order a copy of this article
    by Liping Zhong, Song Hu 
    Abstract: Wider linear modulation range, less switching loss and simplicity are the goals pursued by various modulation methods of multilevel inverters. This paper proposes a new hybrid discontinuous pulse width modulation (HDPWM) strategy for 3L-NPC inverter that can achieve the above goals to a certain extent. According to the position of the reference voltage vector and the actual situation of the neutral point voltage, different control modes and clamping types are selected. The neutral point voltage is controlled by DPWM strategy, which cannot only greatly reduce the switch loss, but also maintain the balance of the neutral point voltage and expand the linear modulation range. The implementation of the algorithm combines the advantages of carrier-based PWM (CBPWM) and space vector PWM (SVPWM). There is no need to select the nearest three vectors (NTV) and calculate their dwell time. Only the reference voltage needs to be modified according to the control requirements, and then by comparing the modified reference voltage with the carrier, the driver pulse required by the switching devices can be generated. Compared with the existing PWM methods, it is more simple and easy to implement. Experimental results verify the validity of the method.
    Keywords: HDPWM; SVPWM; neutral point voltage balancing; clamping type; output level sequency type.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2023.10052290
  • Optimum regulation of THD profile in multilevel inverter using parameter-less AI technique for electrical vehicle application   Order a copy of this article
    by Kaushal Bhatt, Sandeep Chakravorty 
    Abstract: This article proposes investigation on harmonic profile improvement using a novel fitness function in the multiphase multilevel inverter. For the proposed study in this paper, three-phase, seven-level cascaded H-bridge (CHB) multilevel inverter (MLI) is considered. Modulation of the stepped waveform output of the MLI is done using selective harmonic elimination (SHE) method. Many algorithms are proposed for solving the set of nonlinear transcendental trigonometric equations for SHE methods. Teaching learning-based optimisation (TLBO) algorithm is a parameter less optimisation technique. Due to the lack of controlling parameters, the proposed algorithm is most robust among the family of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques. In this paper, an investigation is carried out on a novel fitness function proposed for controlling total harmonic distortion (THD) for the proposed inverter. It is observed that the proposed fitness function improves THD profile below IEEE standards. It is also observed that THD profile obtained through this method is far better than THD profile obtained through various proposed methods so far. The results of THD profile from the MATLAB Simulink simulations are verified experimentally using seven-level three-phase hardware controlled by Arduino MEGA 2560 low-cost controller.
    Keywords: multilevel inverter; artificial intelligent algorithm; teaching learning-based optimisation technique; selective harmonic elimination; SHE; total harmonic distortion; THD.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2023.10050536
  • Design, implementation and performance evaluation of different digital control techniques for current controlled DC-DC Buck converter   Order a copy of this article
    by Dipen M. Vachhani, Rajesh Arya, Uma Rathore Bhatt 
    Abstract: The paper presents modelling, control architecture, analysis and design of digital compensators for single feedback-loop voltage mode control as well as two feedback-loop average current mode control and peak current mode control of current controlled DC-DC Buck converter operating in continuous conduction mode with output current as control variable. The compensators are derived using digital redesign approach, simulated on MATLAB, implemented as control algorithms on Texas Instruments' 32-bit TMS320F28069M microcontroller platform, and experimentally validated by testing with a laboratory prototype of current controlled Buck converter. Simulation and experimental results are discussed, compared and evaluated for converter output current performance in tracking reference current signal as well as in regulation against input voltage and load disturbances. Salient features of each control technique are identified and described to determine its suitability in applications of DC-DC converters requiring controlled output current.
    Keywords: digital control techniques; digital voltage mode control; digital average current mode control; digital peak current mode control; current controlled DC-DC Buck converter; continuous conduction mode; digital redesign; digital compensators; type-2 compensator; 2p2z compensator.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2022.10045545