Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Power Electronics

International Journal of Power Electronics (IJPElec)

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International Journal of Power Electronics (29 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • New High Voltage Gain Using D-C Cell Suitable for PV Applications   Order a copy of this article
    by Arezu Azizi, Arash Kalami 
    Abstract: In this paper, a non-isolated DC-DC boost converter with high voltage gain and low voltage stress across semiconductors is presented suitable for PV applications. The proposed converter used voltage multiplier techniques Diode/Capacitor (D-C) for increasing the output voltage level. The main advantages of the proposed converter include low input current ripples, low voltage stress across semiconductor (power switch and power diodes), high overall efficiency and low conduction losses. Moreover, the proposed converter capable to achieve the maximum power by controlling the duty cycle values. The laboratory prototype of the proposed converter is built and tested at 33kHz with about 155W power level. Both simulation and experimental results confirm the validity theoretical of the proposed converter.
    Keywords: DC-DC non-isolated converter; high voltage gain; voltage stress; Renewable applications; maximum power point tracking.

  • Power quality improvement of the grid-tied hybrid AC-DC microgrids by adding the bi-directional series converter   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohsen Rezaie Estabragh, Ali Dastfan, Morteza Rahimiyan 
    Abstract: The power quality problems of the utility voltage are transferred to the grid-tied microgrid. With the conventional organisation of a hybrid AC-DC microgrid, the controller cannot compensate the voltage of the AC bus. The paper offers the bi-directional series converter between the common DC bus and the utility to compensate the sag/swell/harmonics of the utility voltage. The controllers are designed based on the instantaneous reactive power theory and predictive control. The interfacing converter compensates the reactive power and harmonics components of the nonlinear AC load and the voltage of the DC bus along with bi-directional transmission power. The performance verification is done by simulating the typical microgrid in MATLAB/Simulink. The AC bus voltage and utility current become pure sinusoid. The results show improvement in the THD of source current and load voltage while the voltage of the DC bus is controlled at the reference voltage.
    Keywords: suggested organisation of hybrid AC-DC microgrid; bi-directional AC-DC series converter; power quality improvement; instantaneous reactive power theory; predictive control.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2023.10048274
  • Design of a Novel Double Closed Loop System of the Vienna Rectifier in the Pre-stage of UPS   Order a copy of this article
    by Ningzhi Jin, Long Zhang, Hongchao Chen, Kai Zhou, Xiaogang Wu 
    Abstract: Aiming at the problems of complex parameter design and slow system dynamic response in the traditional double closed-loop PI control system of the Vienna rectifier, this paper proposes a novel double closed-loop control strategy of variable exponential approach law sliding mode control (SMC) and finite control set model predictive control (MPC). To begin with, a mathematical model of Vienna rectifier circuit is established. Then, the control algorithms of SMC voltage loop and MPC current loop are derived and designed. Finally, the applied control method is verified with simulation in MATLAB. The results show that the proposed system can improve the input current quality, and leads to a better steady-state response and dynamic performance of the DC output voltage, current and neutral point potential.
    Keywords: Vienna rectifier; double closed-loop control; sliding mode control; model predictive control.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2023.10048397
  • Comprehensive Analysis of BLDC Motor Faults in Electric Vehicle Transportation   Order a copy of this article
    by Adil Usman, Bharat Singh Rajpurohit 
    Abstract: The faults prospective are higher for any BLDC motor, driven under a constant and continuous operating period. The possibility of getting susceptible to winding short-circuit faults and rotor demagnetisation effects, is more frequently discerned. The winding insulation breakdown introduces stator inter-turn fault (SITF) conditions in the machine which has consequent detrimental impact on the rotor permanent magnets (PMs). The cumulative effect of fault stimulates rotor demagnetisation, intensifying the effect of faults. This paper aims in classifying the motor faults employed in electric vehicle (EV) transportation. Depending upon the machine’s characteristic performance in terms of electrical signatures like, motor current signature (MCS) and back-EMF (BEMF), and mechanical signatures like frequency and vibration spectrum; a unique classification to fault is provided. The proposed research models investigate the performance of a machine drive under both individual and combined fault conditions, to give a significant outcome to the research findings. The closed loop motor drive operation is performed using an advanced field remodelling (AFR)-based technique which employs fuzzy logic controller (FLC). The developed drive-controller-system minimises the steady state error under motor operating conditions and has a clear discrepancy in terms of machine quantities during faults.
    Keywords: advanced field remodelling method; AFR method; brushless DC motors; BLDC motors; demagnetisation; finite element method magnetics; FEMM; numerical methods; NMs.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2023.10048398
  • Research on Bidirectional Isolated On-board Charger Based on CLLC Resonant Converter   Order a copy of this article
    by Kai Zhou, Zan Liu, Dongyang Sun, Ningzhi Jin 
    Abstract: This paper presents a bidirectional isolated on-board charging system for electric vehicles. The charging system is composed of a front-end circuit and a back-end circuit. The front-end circuit is a bidirectional totem-pole power factor correction converter, and the back-end circuit is a bidirectional CLLC resonant converter. According to the design requirements of the charging power supply system, the key parameters of the CLLC resonant converter are selected and calculated. Through sampling, the output voltage and input current of the front-end circuit are obtained, and compared with the reference value and compensated, and the on-off time of the switch in the front-end circuit is finally controlled. The latter circuit uses the loop control mode to control the switch frequency of the switch to achieve constant voltage and current charging. A 3.3-kW vehicle charging system prototype was constructed. The simulation and experimental results verify the correctness of and design.
    Keywords: vehicle charging system; bidirectional totem-pole converter; CLLC resonant converter; zero-voltage switching.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2023.10048442
  • DCPWM based conducted EMI noise mitigation in ULL converter for EV applications   Order a copy of this article
    by Srinivasan Kalaiarasu, Sudhakar Natarajan 
    Abstract: Conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI) noises are produced due to the fast-switching process in power converters and result in the degradation of power electronic components in electric vehicles (EVs). In this work, a DCPWM technique-based EMI mitigation process has been proposed for a high gain ultra-lift Luo-converter. Due to the high switching frequency of 200 kHz, EMI noise has been generated. By implementing the DCPWM technique, the above-mentioned issues are nullified. The conducted EMI mitigation level is analysed through common-mode noise, differential-mode noise, and power spectrum density. In this proposed method, a field-programmable gate array has been used to generate digital chaotic pulses by applying an RCFMFD approach. From the observation, 16 dBV, which is equal to 6 V of conducted EMI noise, has been reduced as per EMC-CISPR 11 standard limit by executing the proposed DCPWM technique compared with the periodic PWM technique in the ultra-lift Luo-converter for EV applications.
    Keywords: conducted EMI; power spectrum density; PSD; digital chaotic pulse width modulation; DCPWM; field-programmable gate array; FPGA; randomised carrier frequency modulation with a fixed duty cycle; RCFMFD.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2023.10048443
    Abstract: This paper presents an efficient hybrid battery charger (HBC) for an electric vehicle (EV). The HBC incorporated with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm receives input from the PV panels to charge the batteries when the solar insolation levels are high and is shifted to the grid at times of reduced insolation level. The HBC is implemented using two topologies. A multi-stage charger (MSC) consisting of a boost and buck converter integrated together and a single-stage charger (SSC) consisting of single-ended primary-inductor converter (SEPIC). Both the topologies are simulated in MATLAB/Simulink environment and compared. The MPPT algorithm is applied and the charge control algorithm is devised and applied for HBC. Finally, a scaled down 250W SSC is implemented in a hardware model. A modified perturb and observe (MP&O) MPPT is applied that would reduce the time complexity of the algorithm and would be more efficient.
    Keywords: hybrid battery charger; HBC; maximum power point tracking; MPPT; MP&O; multi-stage charger; MSC; single-stage charger; SSC; SEPIC.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2023.10048743
  • A Novel Concept of Extreme Fine Tuning in Harmonic Profile Improvement in Multilevel Inverter for Electrical Drives   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: This article proposes a novel concept of improving harmonic profile in multilevel inverter (MLI) using ratio rule method. THD minimisation in MLI using selective harmonic elimination (SHE) approach using various optimisation techniques is covered in several literatures followed by further THD reduction using alterable DC sources. These methods discussed in various literatures uses rigorous derivations of constants that are used for further reduction of THD profile. This article introduces ratio rule method for further reduction of the THD in multilevel inverter, after optimisation process using various algorithms. The proposed study is conducted using the SHE approach for THD reduction using genetic algorithm followed by further THD reduction using ratio rule. A three-phase seven-level cascaded H-bridge inverter is simulated in MATLAB as well as its hardware is implemented for deriving the proof of proposed concept. It is found that the proposed method is faster, easier and produces a maximum of 12.60% reduction in THD profile.
    Keywords: cascaded H-bridge inverter; multilevel inverter; genetic algorithm; total harmonic distortion; THD; electrical drives; ratio rule method.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2023.10049569
  • Comprehensive Study for Two Stage Isolated LED Driver PFC Topologies   Order a copy of this article
    by VINOD KUMAR YADAV, Manikant Gupta, Ganesh Prajapat, Janardan Kundu, Atul Kumar Sharma 
    Abstract: Ever-increasing energy demand has put enormous pressure on the remaining conventional sources for countries like India, the world’s third-largest electricity consumer. An emphasis has been made to save the cost and wastage of electricity. A light-emitting diode (LED) has a promising note for this problem. The LED works in a constant current mode driven by a driver circuit, also known as an AC-DC system. This paper presents combinations of two-stage high PFC LED driver topologies driven by a few modified rectifiers as a first-stage driver. Their comparative analysis regarding selection criteria for components, control strategies, design analysis, power quality reflection, potential application, and some general guidelines depicting class C load is mentioned. This work, in general, is expected to be utilised by researchers and engineers to make an appropriate choice while selecting a driver circuit for LED and aims to improve LED technology. MATLAB/Simulink/PSIM environment is employed to study the comparative analysis of the discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) two-stage LED driver circuit. A 24 W/60 V hardware prototype is presented to verify the simulation results.
    Keywords: buck; boost; buck-boost; discontinuous conduction mode; DCM; light-emitting diode; LED; PFC.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2023.10051529
  • Wide Band Solution and Sensitivity Analysis for Lower Order Harmonics Control in Multilevel Converter   Order a copy of this article
    by Zahoor Ahmad Ganie, Abdul Hamid Bhat, Salman Ahmad 
    Abstract: Low switching frequency in medium voltage and high power application of power converters is desired in order to minimise the switching losses. Pre-programmed pulse width modulation technique is extensively used in such applications as it ensures better quality output waveform. But in its implementation, the main challenge is the calculation of switching angle values from the system of highly nonlinear transcendental equations which are obtained by Fourier series analysis of the output waveform. In this paper, a differential evolution-based evolutionary intelligent technique is proposed to calculate the optimised switching instants in a wide band range. The sensitivity of the switching instants as a function of modulation index is minimised as wide band solution permits flexibility in its operation. Computational, simulation and hardware results using DSP controller TMS320F2812 are presented to corroborate the concept.
    Keywords: pulse width modulation; PWM; harmonics minimisation; differential evolution; sensitivity; switching angles; DSP.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2023.10051591
  • Integration of Solar Powered DC Homes to DC Microgrid Using Dual Active Bridge Converter   Order a copy of this article
    by Praveen Shankar, Rakesh Maurya 
    Abstract: In this paper, the dual outputs dual active bridge (DAB) converter is proposed for the integration of solar powered DC homes with DC microgrid. The main features of this converter include reduced circuit complexity and ease the control using simple phase shift modulation. The revised P&O MPPT for the phase-shift modulation scheme is implemented to utilise PV modules efficiently. Based on the desired power levels, the converter is designed such that all the semiconductor switches operate in ZVS condition in most of the time. A simple control scheme is introduced to regulate the power flow among DC homes and DC microgrid. An experimental 300 W prototype is built to confirm the viability of the proposed converter and control.
    Keywords: dual active bridge; DAB; maximum power point tracking; MPPT; phase-shift modulation; PSM; zero voltage switching; ZVS.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2023.10051656
    Abstract: The fuel cells and solar-based energy sources have a significant role in several power system or electric vehicle (EV) applications. However, there exist the few limitations associated with the generation of very low output voltage. Hence, several cells are connected in series in order to realise much more output voltages. This can enhance the cost of the system besides the development of advanced manufacturing materials and fabrication methods. Therefore, it is important to design high gain dc-dc converters (HGCs) in order to realise higher output voltages from very low panel or stack output voltages. Therefore, this paper presents the design and simulation of the HGCs for the electric vehicle (EV) applications. The major focus is on the steady state and dynamic voltage regulations. The performance of the HGCs is compared in terms of the figure of merits (FOMs) such as steady state voltage error, transient voltage deviation and settling time. The eminent HGCs are simulated for the 45 V input to 400 V output voltage conditions. In addition, this research work also presents the efficiency analysis of the HGCs. This paper gives insightness for the researchers and design engineers while choosing the appropriate HGC topology.
    Keywords: dc-dc converters; voltage gain; regulation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2023.10052176
  • An Improved SHM-PAM Method to Meet EN 50160 and CIGRE WG 36-05 Voltage Harmonic Standards Using Asymmetrical Cascaded H-bridge Natural Sequence Multi-level Inverter Structure   Order a copy of this article
    by Samudra Panda, SOURABH KUNDU, Subrata Banerjee 
    Abstract: An improved selective-harmonic-minimisation pulse-amplitude-modulation (SHM-PAM) method based on quarter-wave-symmetry (QWS) waveform for a three-phase seven-level asymmetrical CHB natural-sequence-multi-level-inverter (CHBNSMLI) is presented in this article. The proposed SHM-PAM method is capable of keeping the value of the harmonic components of inverter output voltage (up to 25th order) and THD under the specified limit of voltage harmonic standards EN50160/CIGRE WG 36-05. In the proposed strategy, first and second cell of the typical two-cell asymmetrical CHBNSMLI commutates once and thrice per quarter cycle respectively. The solution of switching positions and per unit voltages of each level is estimated using the particle swarm optimisation (PSO) technique. The performance of the suggested technique is then justified through simulation as well as hardware implementation on an FPGA-controlled asymmetrical CHBNSMLI for different loading conditions. Lastly, the effectiveness of the proposed SHM-PAM method has been established through a comparative study with some existing SHE/SHM methods.
    Keywords: cascaded H-bridge; CHB; harmonic analysis; harmonic distortion; selective-harmonic-minimisation pulse-amplitude-modulation; SHM-PAM; voltage harmonic standards.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2023.10052454
  • Five-Level Diode-Clamped Inverter-Fed Induction Motor Drive System   Order a copy of this article
    by Abdelnasser Nafeh, Alsayed Tantawy, Ashraf Hagras 
    Abstract: Multi-level inverters give a clear solution to bring the advantages of speed controlled induction motor drive. A nine-level hysteresis based direct torque control was proposed to provide accurate mapping of the torque errors and to prove five-level inverter diode-clamped multi-level inverter (DCMLI) superior performance compared to two-level inverter. The design of control system was given detailed. The proposed control strategy guaranteed excellent dynamic and steady state characteristics. The simulation results using MATLAB/SIMULINK show its superior performance in terms of torque and flux ripples decreasing and source current harmonics minimisation. The experimental implementation of the five-level DCMLI fed induction motor in open loop mode validated its theoretical analysis in the proposed strategy.
    Keywords: direct torque control; DTC; five-level; diode-clamped multi-level inverter; DCMLI; nine-level hysteresis torque controller; space vector PWM; induction motor.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2023.10053327
  • Optimization of PI Controller for Design and Modeling of Cuk, Forward, and SEPIC Converter   Order a copy of this article
    by Utkarsh Shukla, SHEKHAR YADAV, Nitesh Tiwari, Aayushi Priyadarshini 
    Abstract: In this paper, the mathematical modelling, designing, and testing of non-isolated and isolated converters like Cuk, SEPIC, and forward converters are described. All the tests were performed to obtain the best converter which plays a major part in the charging of the EV application. This can be done by using a PI controller-based closed-loop control technique that helps Cuk, SEPIC, and forward converters make it more robust. Since finding the value of Kp and Ki is a very difficult task in nonlinear systems like converters. Various optimisation techniques (OTs) like differential evolution (DE), particle swarm optimisation (PSO), artificial bee colony (ABC), and sparrow search optimisation (SSO) are utilised in this paper to find the optimum value of PI control gain. It is said that analysing the performance of all converters and OTs shows their best performance in a specific working condition.
    Keywords: artificial bee colony; ABC; DC-DC converter; differential evolution; DE; mathematical modelling; particle swarm optimisation; PSO; sparrow search optimisation; SSO.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2023.10053523
  • Circulating Current Suppression in Low Frequency Operation of Modular Multilevel Converters   Order a copy of this article
    by Divyesh Vaghela, Nilesh Patel, Mukesh Bhesaniya 
    Abstract: The modular multi-level converters (MMCs) have becomes hugely popular for high or medium power applications. One of major challenges associated with MMC is large capacitor voltage ripple with higher circulating current (icirc) during medium and low frequency operation. In this paper, circulating current control technique is proposed for MMC for entire frequency range operation. Voltage balance between the arms is achieved by controlling the upper and lower arm voltages. The proposed technique uses the linear current regulator to eliminate the lower order fundamental frequency current harmonic (I2f) from each arm. This leads to reduction in the arm current peak and the dc link current ripple. In addition, overall rating of switching device and switching losses are significantly reduced with the proposed method. A detailed simulation study with professional software MATLAB is carried out. A down-scaled laboratory prototype of MMC is prepared and tested with the proposed method.
    Keywords: modular multi-level converter; MMC; circulating current; sub-module capacitor voltage ripple; low frequency operation; current harmonics; arm voltage balancing.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2023.10053707
  • Synchronization of Solar PV-Wind-Battery-Based Water Pumping System Using Brushless DC Motor Drive   Order a copy of this article
    by Sunil Kumar Gautam, Rajan Kumar 
    Abstract: An environment-friendly, efficient and simple control method for solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind-based water pumping system using brushless DC (BLDC) motor drive and battery storage is proposed in this paper. This technology provides continuous water pumping under different climate conditions. By using perturb and observe (P&O) maximum power point tracking (MPPT), the solar PV and permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG)-based wind energy conversion system (WECS) generate maximum power, and feed it to a common DC bus. The power is delivered to a BLDC motor that operates the water pump. The motor speed and the battery charging are controlled, and the DC bus is always maintained at fixed voltage. Power generated by solar PV and WECS is delivered to charge the battery using a single-ended primary-inductor converter (SEPIC)-based charge controller if water pumping is not demanded. In MATLAB, the proposed model is developed and simulated, and demonstrated under various operating conditions.
    Keywords: Water pumping; Solar photovoltaic (PV) array; BLDC motor drive; Battery storage; MPPT; PMSG; Wind energy conversion system (WECS); SEPIC.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2023.10054250
  • An Approach for Commutation Current Ripple Alleviation in BLDCM Drive Using Novel DC-DC Converter   Order a copy of this article
    by Dileep Kumar, SURYA D.E.O. CHOUDHARY, Mohammad Tabrez 
    Abstract: Brushless direct current motors (BLDCMs) have gained widespread favour in several of applications, including residential, business, and industrial settings. In comparison to other drives, such as induction motor, DC, and synchronous motor drives, the BLDCM drives offer better performance. However, the BLDCM drive’s use is constrained by the significant problem of commutation current ripples (CCRs). These ripples are mostly caused by phase winding inductance. Unnecessary speed variations, oscillation, noise, and vibration are introduced by the CCR. To alleviate the CCR, a novel BLDCM drive based on DC-DC converters has been designed in this paper. Wide voltage gain is offered by the suggested DC-DC converter, along with minimal conduction losses. The regulated DC-bus voltage is drawn in the suggested topology configuration using a DC-DC converter, which creates an equal slope (slew rate) of the incoming and departing phase currents. Within the MATLAB/Simulink software environment, the suggested model is tested. Additionally, an experimental prototype has developed to confirm the viability of the suggested technique.
    Keywords: BLDC motor drive; commutation current ripple; CCR; high gain; SEPIC converter.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2024.10054623
  • Controller Optimization under Different Drive Cycles for Induction Motor Driven Electric Vehicle fed through Multilevel Inverter   Order a copy of this article
    by Paramjeet Singh Jamwal, Sanjeev Singh, Shailendra Jain 
    Abstract: Vector controlled induction motors (IMs) are used in electric vehicles (EVs) for effective speed control. Use of three-level inverter (3LI) offers the advantage of reduced switch stress along with lower total harmonic distortion in voltage (THDv) over two-level inverters. An indirect current vector control (ICVC) scheme has one proportional-integral (PI) controller for speed control of EV. The selection of controller coefficients affects the performance of complete drive. Therefore, this paper uses particle swarm optimisation technique for optimum selection of controller coefficients used for the control of CHB3LI fed IM drive. This drive is tested under CBD, COMMUTER, and EU driving cycles on three torque loadings through simulation in MATLAB Simulink and validated experimentally on a reduced scale laboratory setup. The obtained results are presented to demonstrate desired performance under all the driving cycles for optimised controller coefficients along with improved THDv and reduced losses in the IM.
    Keywords: cascaded H-bridge; CHB; controller optimisation; driving cycle; electric vehicle; indirect current vector control; ICVC; induction motor drive; particle swarm optimisation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2024.10054731
  • Coordinated control of wind farm and supercapacitor energy storage system for dynamic performance reinforcement of multi-area power systems   Order a copy of this article
    by Asima Syed, Mairaj ud Din Mufti 
    Abstract: In this paper, a simple and effective control approach to exploit the primary frequency support competency of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG)-based wind turbines (WT) is presented. Furthermore, a small rating supercapacitor energy storage system (SCESS) is also integrated to reinforce the frequency regulation in the studied multi-area power system. A control-oriented strategy is employed to develop a discrete-time predictive control (DPC) for SCESS. The dynamic energy level thresholds are generated by representing the SCESS primary control by a first-order lag block for obtaining a discrete-time state-space model which yields the modified power constraints. Furthermore, the power thresholds of the power conditioning system (PCS) are chosen meticulously. The uprightness of the proposed scheme is manifested by the time-domain simulation results exhibiting considerable damping of the power system oscillations along with substantial curtailment in frequency nadir, with all the power and energy constraints of SCESS accounted for. The eigenvalue analysis is also carried out to validate the MATLAB/Simulink-based simulation results.
    Keywords: doubly fed induction generator; frequency support; discrete-time predictive control; supercapacitor energy storage.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2023.10043312
  • Single-phase cross-connected sources asymmetric T-type multilevel inverter with fault tolerant capabilities   Order a copy of this article
    by Vinay Kumar, Sanjeev Singh, Shailendra Jain 
    Abstract: This work presents a cross-connected sources asymmetric T-type multilevel inverter (CCSATT-MLI) for single-phase operation with fault tolerant (FT) capabilities. The presented topology uses only one extra power semiconductor switch in the CCSATT 13-level (13L) inverter for fully FT operation. The paper uses two control schemes namely phase opposition disposition sinusoidal pulse width modulation (POD-SPWM) and nearest level control (NLC) for achieving the desired results under single switch open circuit (SSOC) fault. The obtained simulation results of proposed topology using MATLAB/Simulink are presented to show FT operation of the MLI under any SSOC fault. The simulation validations are validated under each switch fault using OpalRT hardware in loop (HIL) platform. The presented topology is also compared with recently reported MLI topologies for reduced number of count claim and effective FT operation in symmetric as well as asymmetric configurations.
    Keywords: asymmetric T-type; cross-connected source; fault tolerant; multilevel inverter; MIL; nearest level control; NLC; pulse width modulation; single switch open circuit; SSOC; total harmonic distortion; THD.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2023.10053872
  • Modelling, analysis and control of bidirectional SEPIC converter for energy storage applications   Order a copy of this article
    by Arnab Ghosh, Jayadev Meher, Santosh Sonar, Subrata Banerjee 
    Abstract: Energy storage systems appear to be a very promising field of research for the rapidly increased requirements of the applications of renewable sources in daily life. The DC-DC bidirectional converters (BDCs) are globally known for their versatile applications in battery chargers, electric vehicles (EVs), solar PV modules with energy storage systems, smart/microgrid, telecommunication systems, etc. Such demanding applications are mostly essential for suitable bidirectional converters for delivering the energy in both directions. In this work, the closed-loop analysis, modelling and control of a DC-DC bidirectional SEPIC converter with classical controllers [such as proportional integral derivative (PID) controller, type-II controller and type-III controller] and advanced controller [such as internal model controller (IMC)] are demonstrated. The bidirectional SEPIC converter has been modelled here by using the state-space averaging (SSA) method. It is noticed that the bidirectional converter with IMC shows better controlling action compared to other classical control algorithms for its better steady state and transient responses. Finally, experimental verification of proposed closed-loop converter control is performed.
    Keywords: bidirectional SEPIC converter; small signal analysis; classical controllers; advanced controller; energy storage system.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2023.10053871
  • PV micro-inverter with passive equaliser for high power acquisition ratio   Order a copy of this article
    by Dongchun Wu, Fei Zhu, Jiawei Tang, Jun Liu, Yunya Wu 
    Abstract: The micro-inverter is one of the important and efficient utilisation forms of photovoltaic power generation. Generally, there are 3-4 sub-modules in a PV module. When the light intensity is different among sub-modules, the output power of the PV module is dramatically decreased even if a micro-inverter is equipped. A passive equaliser integrated into full-bridge PV micro-inverter is proposed, which is composed of cascaded voltage-doubler rectifiers and a LC series resonant network. The proposed equaliser can be well operated without any additional control and it can supply the current/energy to the sub-module under part shadow. At last, all of the PV sub-modules can be operated near their maximum power point. The operational modes and the design principle of parameters are analysed. The simulation and experimental results verify the obvious advantage in increasing the power acquisition rate to PV panel.
    Keywords: PV micro-inverter; voltage equaliser; differential power processing; DPP; LC resonance; power acquisition ratio.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2023.10045218
  • Performance evaluation of a standalone hybrid microgrid for a rural community using various dispatch strategies   Order a copy of this article
    by Vijay Kumar Garg, Sudhir Sharma 
    Abstract: Distributed energy sources prove to be a viable alternative for electricity in rural/remote areas. In this paper, the performance of a standalone hybrid microgrid comprising of solar photovoltaic (PV), diesel generator (DG), and battery energy storage system (BESS) has been evaluated for a small rural community. The overall aim is to propose sustainable, economical and reliable electricity supply in rural/remote areas. The optimum sizing of various units has been evaluated using hybrid optimisations multiple energy resources (HOMER) simulations with four dispatch strategies, i.e., load following, cycle charging, combine dispatch, and predictive dispatch. The outcomes show that the PV-DG-BESS system is an optimal solution based on net present cost (NPC) and cost of energy (COE) parameters under a predictive dispatch strategy. The sustainability of the optimum hybrid microgrid has been evaluated using sensitivity analysis using various input parameters.
    Keywords: hybrid microgrid; solar photovoltaic; hybrid renewable energy sources; dispatch strategies; sensitivity analysis; cost of energy; COE; battery energy storage system; BESS; hybrid optimisations multiple energy resources; HOMER; net present cost; NPC.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2023.10044521
  • Performance investigation of reweighted zero attracting LMS-based dynamic voltage restorer for alleviating diverse power quality problems   Order a copy of this article
    by Humeera Altaf, Abdul Hamid Bhat 
    Abstract: Dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) has proven to be the most coherent, effective and economic answer to voltage-based power quality problems. This work details the design, investigation and experimental validation of reweighted zero-attracting least mean square (RZA-LMS) based DVR addressing the issues like voltage sag, voltage swell, voltage harmonics, voltage imbalance and combination of these. The RZA-LMS based control algorithm is proposed for producing reference voltage signals. The features of proposed algorithm include finite-time convergence, simplicity and improvement in the robustness of the system against varying parameters. The viability of DVR controller is assessed by employing MATLAB/Simulink and Simpowersystem software. The performance of proposed DVR is experimentally investigated using digital real-time simulator.
    Keywords: power quality problems; dynamic voltage restorer; DVR; reweighted zero-attracting least mean square; RZA-LMS; compensation technique.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2023.10046556
  • Review of on-board conductive charger topologies for electric transportation   Order a copy of this article
    by N. Vijaya Anand, A.V. Jaya Sai Praneeth, Naveen Yalla, Vijay K. Sood 
    Abstract: This paper presents an overview of on-board conductive charger topologies for electric vehicles (EVs). Battery packs in electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EVs/PHEVs) need frequent energy refills to fulfil their duty cycles and overcome the range anxiety of vehicle owners. Due to the limited availability of fast charging infrastructures, all automotive manufacturers prefer an on-board battery charger in their vehicles. However, there are power level limitations for these chargers because of the weight, space and cost constraints. On-board charging systems can be either conductive or inductive. This paper reviews the topologies that are involved in conductive charging only. Globally, all automotive companies provide levels 1 and 2 for residential charging of vehicles. Single- and two-stage power converter topologies are summarised with their limitations. Furthermore, the current trends in the DC-DC converters for the two-stage conversion battery charger topologies are also outlined. This paper provides an overview of various topologies and configurations involved in EV charging with their limitations.
    Keywords: AC-DC converters; DC-DC converters; electric vehicles; EVs; level 1 charger; level 2 charger; level 3 charger; on-board chargers; power factor correction; PFC.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2022.10047571
  • A single-phase level-shifted duty controlled multilevel rectifier-based EV charger for wide output voltage range   Order a copy of this article
    by Rheesabh Dwivedi, Sanjeev Singh, Bhim Singh 
    Abstract: Nowadays, electric vehicles (EVs) are gaining popularity with customers and as an environmentally-friendly option owing to the rise in petroleum prices and pollution, respectively. The battery is the prime source of power for EVs. This paper presents, a level-shifted duty controlled multilevel power factor correction (PFC) AC-DC converter, followed by a phase-shifted full-bridge converter (PSFBC) as an efficient charging solution for EVs. The adopted topology uses fewer semiconductor switching devices than traditional multilevel converters, which minimises switching losses, making it a good choice for a compact EV charger. Complete system design is carried out for a single-phase, 3.3 kW, EV charger, with 220 vrms AC input and 48-72 V DC output voltage for batteries. This EV charger has improved the system reliability and efficiency, along with the near-unity power factor (UPF) in compliance with the international IEC-61000-3-2 PQ standard. MATLAB/Simulink and experimental results are presented to validate the aforementioned functionalities of this EV charger.
    Keywords: five-level converter; level-shifted PWM; electric vehicles; battery charging; power quality.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2023.10048019
  • Common mode voltage analysis and reduction technique for nine switch inverter fed dual load system   Order a copy of this article
    by Ashish A. Dongre, Jyoti Prakash Mishra, Ravi Kumar Majji 
    Abstract: Nine switch inverter (NSI) is a dual output topology that suffers from the common mode voltage (CMV) issues similar to conventional single output drive systems. A significant amount of literature is available to solve CMV in the traditional drive system, but there is a lack of literature on NSI CMV issues. The work presented in this paper serves to unify the understanding of different pulse width modulation (PWM) techniques applied to NSI and their effects on CMV. PWM techniques used in this study include sinusoidal, modified sinusoidal, discontinuous, and space vector PWM. This paper also investigates the possibility of reducing the CMV peak during zero vector states using two more switches in NSI without affecting the output voltage. To validate the proposed concept, an NSI fed dual load system is developed using MATLAB Simulink, and a real-time simulator OPALRT-OP4510 is used to support the findings.
    Keywords: common mode voltage; CMV; sinusoidal pulse width modulation; SPWM; discontinuous pulse width modulation; DPWM; SVPWM; nine switch inverter; NSI.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2023.10049437
  • Power quality improvement of microgrid fed electric ship using fuzzy controlled multi-pulse/multi-level converter-based VFD   Order a copy of this article
    by Ahmed Abdel Hamid Mansour, Ahmed A. Hossam-Eldin, Mohamed Elsaid Elgamal, Mohamed Elsaid Elgamal, Karim Hassan Youssef, Karim Hassan Youssef 
    Abstract: This paper investigates a harmonic mitigation technique for modern electrical propulsion ships (EPS) microgrids (MG) using a fuzzy controlled multi-pulse rectifier (MPR) and multi-level inverter (MLI)-based variable frequency drive (VFD). In this paper, the proposed MPR-MLI-VFD system is studied using different-pulses rectifiers and different-level inverter-based VFD to achieve proper mitigation of the harmonics in the main generating power system of the ships within the marine classification society's limitations for harmonics. This is achieved using a proposed low harmonic multi-pulse rectifier based on zigzag transformers. Moreover, the voltage harmonic distortions at propulsion motor feeder buses are minimised using the proposed MLI. A simple fuzzy logic control system is proposed for the VFD speed control. The voltage balancing control system for the diode clamped multi-level inverters is implemented using a fuzzy control system. MATLAB/Simulink is used for the simulation and validation process.
    Keywords: power quality; harmonic mitigation; electrical propulsion ship; EPS; multi-level inverter; MLI; MLI voltage balancing; multi-pulses rectifier; MPR; fuzzy logic control; variable frequency drive; VFD.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPELEC.2023.10054829