Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Power and Energy Conversion

International Journal of Power and Energy Conversion (IJPEC)

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International Journal of Power and Energy Conversion (12 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • A review paper on research advancement on analysis of substation grounding design   Order a copy of this article
    by Avani Mistry, Kaustubh Vyas, Ravindrakumar Yadav 
    Abstract: For ensuring the safety of persons and equipment in substation, ground potential rise (GPR) should be within the acceptable limits, IEEE Standard 80-2013 is widely accepted guide for substation grounding system design. This review papers deals with the various grounding system parameters, their mathematical equations, designs of grounding system in the substation soil, design and development of software, evaluating the results obtained and methods for improving grounding safety by suggesting alternative measures. Various case studies have been taken into account to analyse the latest trends in this field. Softwares like ESGSD, CDEGS are designed for implementing concepts given in the IEEE 80-2013 guide into analytical domains to obtain grid design and calculating various parameters of the design. Detailed analysis of soil resistivity is also done in this paper. Thus, judiciously designed grounding system is cost effective and it also increases the level of safety of person-equipments to acceptable level.
    Keywords: grounding; ground potential rise; GPR; touch potential; step potential; ground grid; soil resistivity.

  • Biomass as an alternative solution to energy production and reduction of the greenhouse gas emissions: a review   Order a copy of this article
    by Hafida Abouallal, Ayoub Najah El Idrissi, Nadia Dkhireche, Mohammed Ebn Touhami 
    Abstract: The increase in population and the expansion of transportation, agriculture, and industry drive the need for energy, leading to a reliance on fossil fuels as the primary energy source. This reliance results in heightened greenhouse gas emissions and environmental damage. To address this, efforts have been made to harness the diverse range of available biomass for energy production, including gas, heat, and electricity through various conversion methods. This article explores the global availability of biomass for energy production, current energy consumption and production trends, biomass classifications and sources, conversion techniques, challenges hindering biomass implementation, and the potential of biomass as an alternative energy source alongside wind, geothermal, and hydroelectric power to eventually replace fossil fuels. The analysis indicates that biomass holds promise for energy generation and can complement other renewable resources in transitioning away from fossil fuels.
    Keywords: biomass availability; energy conversion methods; biomass barriers; biomass energy production.

  • Developing and simulating an inexpensive solar irradiance metre for photovoltaic utilisation   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammed Rhiat, Mohammed Kerrouchi, Anas Hassari, Mustapha Melhaoui, Ilyas Atmane, Mostafa El Ouariachi, Pascal Schmitz, Bachir Benhala, Kamal Hirech 
    Abstract: Our study introduces a cost-effective design for a solar irradiance metre that uses a photovoltaic (PV) cell, offering an affordable alternative to traditionally expensive irradiance measuring devices like pyranometers. The core idea of our approach is to establish a straightforward correlation between the solar irradiance and the short circuit current produced by the PV cell. Through detailed simulations, we have shown that it is possible to accurately assess solar irradiance by monitoring the voltage difference across a shunt resistor linked to the PV cell. This voltage fluctuation is then amplified, filtered, and converted into a digital signal by a microcontroller, with real-time results promptly displayed on a small LCD screen for immediate feedback. Designed for use in solar energy projects, our system enables effective monitoring of direct solar irradiance, thus aiding in the estimation of power generation by PV panels.
    Keywords: photovoltaic cell; solar irradiance; metre; electronics; energy; power; measurement; acquisition; instrument.

  • Intelligent fault prediction method for traction transformers based on IGWO-SVM and QPSO-LSTM   Order a copy of this article
    by Haigang Zhang, Zizhuo Wang, Haoqiang Zhou, Song Zeng, Ming Yin, Junpeng Xu, Bulai Wang, Jinbai Zou 
    Abstract: To address the issue of imprecise fault diagnosis and forecasting in traction transformers, this study introduces a composite algorithm that integrates IGWO-SVM and QPSO-LSTM to realise the fault prediction of traction transformer. In this research, the focus is on utilising the concentration levels of dissolved gases in the oil of traction transformers as training data. A fault diagnosis model is constructed leveraging the capabilities of support vector machine (SVM) technology. To improve the performance of the model, this paper adopts an improved grey wolf optimisation algorithm (IGWO), which adjusts the parameters of SVM, enabling it to diagnose the faults of traction transformer effectively. To predict the faults of the traction transformer, this study introduces a model based on the long short-term memory (LSTM) network, which is further enhanced by the integration of the quantum particle swarm optimisation algorithm (QPSO). The QPSO algorithm is employed to fine-tune the parameters of the LSTM network, thereby enhancing the precision and efficiency of its predictive capabilities. Through experimental comparisons with alternative methodologies, the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed algorithm in fault diagnosis and prediction are verified, and the application value of the proposed algorithm in the field of traction transformer fault prediction is demonstrated.
    Keywords: traction transformer; fault prediction; gas concentration; improved grey wolf optimisation algorithm; IGWO; support vector machine; SVM; long short-term memory; LSTM; quantum particle swarm optimisation algorithm; QPSO.

  • Influence of performance and emission of diesel engine with alumina nano material-based catalyst biodiesel using IoT   Order a copy of this article
    by B. Venkatesh, Mudassir Khan, J. Chinna Babu, C.H. Nagaraju, R. Madhan Mohan 
    Abstract: In this study, the performance and emissions of Al2O3 alkaline cottonseed biodiesel-powered compression ignition engines were predicted. An experiment was conducted using different biodiesel blends made from cottonseed oil under various loading conditions. Biodiesel was produced using ethanol and Cao-mg/Al2O3 as catalysts through the transesterification process and blended with diesel to produce CBDN10, CBDN20, CBDN30, and CBDN40. The CBDN20 blends showed an evident reduction in fuel consumption by 8% and a 12% improvement in thermal efficiency at high static thrust. The use of these blends resulted in minimal CO, CO2 , and NOx emissions from engines. These emissions were monitored by an IoT system and analysed with gas analysers, which revealed CBDN20s ability to reduce nitrogen oxide and hydrocarbon emissions compared to diesel. Additionally, CBDN20 demonstrated improved thermal efficiency and reduced brake-specific fuel consumption compared to the other blends.
    Keywords: compression ignition engine; cotton seed oil; emission; IoT; performance.

  • Modified T2-DAB converter with bidirectional power flow capability and reduced voltage stress suitable for DC microgrid integration   Order a copy of this article
    by Kalash Srivastava, Abhik Jitendra Gazdha, Rakesh Maurya, Shailendra Kumar 
    Abstract: This paper presents a modified three-phase dual-active bridge converter (3p-DAB) for the charging/discharging of electric vehicle (EV) batteries. The proposed converter has two distinct features namely: 1) small resistance can be used because the switches are only under one-third of their corresponding voltage stress. As a result, conduction losses are decreased; 2) all switches are turned ON/OFF with soft switching to minimise switching losses. In this paper, mathematical modelling, control, and design of suggested three-phase DAB converter (T2-DAB)-based EV battery charging system are carried out under various operating conditions. In order to control the power flow, a single-phase shift (SPS) modulation strategy is employed during the constant current (CC) and constant voltage (CV) charging modes. A prototype of the suggested T2-DAB converter is developed in the laboratory. The comparison of experimental findings to the theoretical analysis is found favourable.
    Keywords: battery charging; CC/CV charging; DAB converters; electric vehicle; soft switching.

  • Power quality improvement in renewable energy integrated grid: a review   Order a copy of this article
    by Mathewos Lolamo, Rajan Kumar, Veena Sharma 
    Abstract: Incorporating renewable energy sources (RES), like wind and solar energy, is crucial for combating climate change and promoting sustainability. However, it introduces challenges to power quality (PQ) in distribution systems due to RES output variability, including voltage and frequency fluctuations and harmonics. Distributed flexible alternating current transmission system (DFACTS) devices like unified power quality conditioner and distributed static compensator effectively mitigate these challenges when appropriately controlled. Integrating energy storage systems (ESSs) like battery ESS with these devices and controlling them efficiently using traditional, AI-based, or adaptive control algorithms further enhances the mitigation performance of PQ in RES-connected grids. This review highlights PQ issues, categorisation, and mitigation strategies. It also highlights improving PQ in RES-integrated grids by enhancing DFACTS device performance through ESS combination and effective control. This review synthesises PQ enhancement strategies in RES-integrated grids from existing literature to support future research.
    Keywords: control technique; DFACTS devices; energy storage system; power quality; renewable energy source.

  • Reliability assessment of Fresnel lens under UV light for concentrated photovoltaic applications in Saudi Arabia   Order a copy of this article
    by Fahad Al-Alweet, Fawaz S. Al Hadlaq, Fawwaz A. Alkhaldi, Mohamed Sabry, Effat A. Rashed, Abdul-Wali Ajlouni 
    Abstract: Reliability testing is an important part of the life cycle of any product. Before launching a product for public use it is very important to perform a reliability test under severe conditions. A concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) plant consists of many components that undergo hours of accelerated testing before making their way to the market. A typical refractive CPV module consists of a Fresnel lens, a secondary optical element (SOE), and a solar cell. The Fresnel lens collects light and focuses it onto the solar cell through SOE. Continuous operation in sunlight has deteriorating effects on the lens and all the components inside the module. The Fresnel lens must be tested for reliable performance in ultraviolet light and other weather conditions like rain, hails, wind, sand, etc. The purpose of this research is to observe and analyse the effect of Ultraviolet rays with different intensities on the Poly Methyl Methacrylate (PMMA) Fresnel lens that is used frequently in refractive CPV designs. UV radiation causes photolysis in PMMA and hence breaks down large PMMA chains into smaller MMA monomers. Hence, the transmissivity dropped by 6% on average by the end of 50kWh/m2. This is because of increased yellowness, and the efficiency dropped depending on how much light is converted by the CPV.
    Keywords: reliability testing; Fresnel lens; concentrated photovoltaic; CPV; ultra-violet.

  • Solar PV-fed cascaded multilevel inverters employing zeta converter   Order a copy of this article
    by Aquib Mehdi Naqvi, Pushkar Tripathi, S.P. Singh 
    Abstract: The photovoltaic cell produces DC power, while residential, industrial loads, and most modern equipment typically require AC power. Thus, there is a need for power converters that can efficiently convert DC to AC. Although two-level inverters are commonly used for this purpose, they suffer from higher total harmonic distortion (THD) and switching stresses. Multilevel inverter (MLI) technology emerges as an effective solution for high-power medium-voltage energy control. This paper examines cascaded multilevel inverters (CMLIs) of varying levels and multiple-carrier sinusoidal switching techniques, conducting a comparative analysis to identify the most suitable switching technique for implementation in solar stand-alone MLIs. Additionally, the study adjusts the duty ratio of the Zeta converter to optimise power extraction from the solar PV system. The primary focus is on the application of CMLIs in stand-alone solar photovoltaic systems, with the study conducted in the Simulink/MATLAB environment.
    Keywords: inverter; multilevel inverter; MLI; cascaded multilevel; total harmonic distortion; THD; SPWM; Simulink; solar; photovoltaic; maximum power point tracking; MPPT; perturb and observe; P&O; zeta converter; multiple-carrier SPWM.

  • Hybrid multi-objective optimisation for ancillary service procurement in renewable energy integrated deregulated environment   Order a copy of this article
    by Akanksha Sharma, Sanjay Kumar Jain, Navdeep Kaur 
    Abstract: In this manuscript, the reactive power control ancillary services are procured in a thermal-wind-solar deregulated system with renewable energy generation uncertainties. This procurement is devised as a dynamic bi-objective optimisation problem to find the optimum switching schedule of the shunt capacitor for cost and voltage fluctuations minimisation. The capacitors participate in offering ancillary services, and their switching decisions, constrained by their operational lifespan, are influenced by marginal pricing. A particle swarm and electric field hybrid optimisation (PSEFHO) algorithm is presented in this paper utilising Pareto-based approach and non-dominance sorting. The convergence of algorithm is assessed using statistical performance measures. The effectiveness of developed algorithm is verified using IEEE 118-bus and IEEE 300-bus test system. Moreover, an analysis is undertaken to accommodate seasonal variations in solar irradiance.
    Keywords: ancillary service; deregulated system; dynamic framework; multi-objective optimisation; renewable power generation.

  • Improved results on stability for time-delay descriptor systems   Order a copy of this article
    by Driss El-Jimi, Norddine Chaibi, Ismail Boumhidi, Mohammed Charqi 
    Abstract: We address the intricate issue of delay-dependent admissibility in descriptor time-delay systems. By employing the powerful generalised integral inequality method and introducing some slack variables, we present a suitable Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional to formulate novel delay-dependent criteria. These criteria not only guarantee the systems regularity and absence of impulses but also establish its stability, all achieved through the utilisation of linear matrix inequalities. To validate the effectiveness of the derived results and facilitate comparison with prior investigations, a numerical example is presented. Through this example, we illustrate the effectiveness and superiority of our proposed criteria over existing studies.
    Keywords: descriptor systems; stability; time-delay; linear matrix inequalities; LMIs.

  • Controlling power fluctuations in grid-connected hybrid PV system with energy management using hierarchical fuzzy logic   Order a copy of this article
    by Alankrita, Avadh Pati, Nabanita Adhikary 
    Abstract: This paper presents a novel approach for energy management in grid-connected hybrid PV system using hierarchical fuzzy logic control. The proposed method exploits limited control data available into a hierarchical structure where each layer is specialised for controlling different system parameters. The energy management is controlled by secondary control which has access to demand and supply whereas primary control restores busbar voltages as per requirement taking local conditions into account. Joint action between primary and secondary controllers reconfigures the system to operate with minimal power flow in tie line and maximum energy storage utilisation while maintaining optimal state of charge. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, different case studies are performed under various operating conditions and results show the system can maintain optimal power flow and effectively utilise batteries. This leads to longer battery life, reduced energy costs, and reliable power supply in different supply and loading situations.
    Keywords: energy management; fuzzy logic control; FLC; hierarchal control system; hybrid system; renewable energy; sustainable energy.