International Journal of Nanoparticles (11 papers in press)
Preparation and characterization of Fe3O4@SiO2@MTX@Lipid nanoparticles as a controlled drug-delivery system
by Nazan Yilmaz, Serpil Edebali, Mehmet Galip Icduygu
Abstract: In this study, synthesis and characterization of mesoporous, super magnetic silica structures which have a part as a drug delivery system in controlled release of Methotrexate used in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis were aimed. Within this scope, magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized by coprecipitation method and then surfaces of these nanoparticles were coated fwith mesoporous silica and phospholipid layer. FT-IR, XRD, VSM, BET, TEM, EDX and FESEM analyses were performed for characterization The results of FT-IR analysis showed the existence of silica and lipid layers around magnetite. Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles have a surface area of 576.69 m2/g, a pore size of 8.21 nm and a mesoporous structure. The performed XRD analysis showed that the synthesized Fe3O4 and Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles have cubic spinel structures. In SEM and TEM analyses, the structure of nanoparticles was determined as spherical. As a result of VSM analysis nanoparticles have superparamagnetic characteristic.
Keywords: MTX; Drug Delivery; Magnetic Silica Nanoparticles.
Analysis of Fly Back Converter Design Using PV based MOSFET Switching
by Gourab Das
Abstract: The Flyback Converters have become one of the most popular used buck-boost topology because of their simple design and working efficiency. In this paper, the dynamic models of the PV based flyback converter design using MOSFET switch have been implemented. This novel design using MOSFET switching technique outperforms the Ideal Switching technique with proofs the superiority of the proposed approach. These models have respective advantages for example single switching, coupled inductor, output filter (capacitive) isolation and operating of these models at a particular value of frequency in a traditional PWM scheme. In the MOSFET Switch Flyback converter the PWM percentage period of Input Output can be increase or decrease. To access apparent parameters, a model is simulated to find the transformer parameters, capacitive parameters, frequency of operation. A simulation model for this purpose in MATLAB/SIMULINK has been devised and then affirmed by running this model on the simulation platform. Also find its various performance matrices with their verification. This paper comprises of the comparison of flyback converter with other DC-DC converters by analyzing the working of the flyback converter. Now-a-days, smaller-sized, high efficient DC-DC converters are having a wide range of applications in power electronics devices. Sometimes, they are used as converting unit, and sometimes as regulating unit. The developed power electronics DC-DC converters are capable of maximizing energy as well as efficiency of the energy conversion system. Some of these converters are analyzed here along with the flyback converter and found with some of their demerits which can be compensated by using flyback converter. The flyback converter can be used as both AC-DC and DC-DC converters. It is basically a Buck-Boost converter, in which the voltage ratios are being multiplied, which is done by splitting the inductor, used in converter, into two to work as a transformer. The voltage ratios can be enhanced by modifying the duty cycle of the switch used in this converter.
Keywords: Pulse Width Modulation (PWM),Flyback Converter,MOSFET,AC-DC Converter.
Investigation of the effectiveness of Biosynthesized Gold Nanoparticle from Garcinia kola leaves Against Fungal infections
by Akintelu Sunday Adewale, Folorunso Aderonke Similoluwa
Abstract: The ethno botanical significance of Garcinia kola is celebrated in West Africa especially in Nigeria where it is predominantly used locally as an antifungal remedy. This reserserch centered on the evaluation of the antifungal potency of gold nanoparticles AuNPs synthesized from Garcinia kola leaves. The leaves of Garcinia kola obtained were thoroughly rinsed with clean water, air dried, pulverized and extracted. The extract obtained was mixed with aqueous solution of gold chloride to form gold nanoparticle and were characterized. The antifungal screening of the synthesized gold nanoparticles was carried out via the Agar disc diffusion method. The Ultraviolet (UV) analysis showed an absorption wavelength at 536.12 nm on the spectrum which correspond to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of gold nanoparticles. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) study indicated that compounds with functional groups in the absorption wavelength region of 3330.41 to 3390.23cm-1, and 1628.24 to 1633.35 cm-1 found in the leaves are responsible for the capping and stabilization of the nanoparticles formed. The scanning electron microscopic (SEM) image confirmed uniformly distributed of the synthesized gold nanoparticles. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis further confirmed that the particle size are in the range of 8.21 to 19.00 nm. The energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis of this study revealed carbon, oxygen, and gold as elements present. The crystalline nature and crystalline size of the formed nanoparticles were deduced from X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD) analysis. The broad inhibitory zones against test fungi displayed by the synthesized nanoparticles confirmed the synthesized gold nanoparticles as a good antifungal source. This study establish a simple and easy approach of synthesizing gold nanoparticles. It also showcase the promising antifungal potency of Garcinia kola leaves which could support it usage as an important ingredient in production of novel antifungal agents or as remedy for treating infections caused by fungi.
Keywords: Garcinia kola leaf; gold nanoparticle; antifungal activity; medicinal plants.
Photocatalytic Degradation of Victoria Blue B a Cationic Dye by Synthesized Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle
by Santhosh A M, Yogendra K, Mahadevan K M, Mallikarjuna I H, Madhusudhana N
Abstract: Synthesis of Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles through solution combustion method using fuel Urea helped us to synthesis a simple photocatalysts, which were then characterized by UV-absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer Emmett-Teller surface area determination, scanning electron microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDAX) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The results suggested that, the band gap was found to be 2.94eV, average particles size was found to be 27nm and size less than 60nm confirmed by TEM. The photodegradation of zinc oxide nanoparticle was successfully examined against the Victoria Blue B dye under the solar and visible light. Form the experimental results the photocatalytic degradation was achieved 97.30% for solar light and 93.45% for visible light degradation at pH 6.
Keywords: Degradation; Nanoparticle; Victoria Blue B; Zinc Oxide.
Synthesis, characterization and spectral studies of surfactant (PVP, CTAB, and SDS) based ultrafine Ir-Cu bimetallic nanoparticles
Abstract: In this study, ultrafine bimetallic nanoparticles of Ir and Cu have been synthesized by chemical reduction method. The effect of stabilizer on the particle size of Ir-Cu bimetallic nanoparticles was investigated. The resultant particles nature, size, surface morphology and elemental composition were computed through the course of XRD, TEM and Field-emission electron microscopy (FE-SEM) respectively. CTAB, SDS and PVP were used to study the effect of cationic, anionic and nonionic surfactant on the particle size and their stability. We found ultimate results with PVP (polyvinyl pyrrolidone) in performance as size regulator as well as particle stabilizing agent rather than CTAB and SDS. XRD results show that, the bimetallic nanoparticles are small in size, less dispersed, amorphous in nature and polygonal in shape. The approximate size of PVP, CTAB & SDS supported particles is 1.32, 8.0, 11.6 nm respectively as calculated by TEM monographs. From EDX data it can be revealed that they are core - shell, with copper core and iridium shell. The XPS results of Ir-Cu/PVP-BMNPs show a deconvulated peak at 59.77 and 62.62 eV binding energy devoted to Ir(0) 4f7/2 and Ir(0) 4f5/2 respectively. The peak at 931.17 eV is the distinctive features of the Cu2p3/2 signal for Cu (0). In BMNPs carbon also recognized with a virtually stable ratio from the surface to the core, and with a C1s binding energy of 282.5eV.
Keywords: Keywords: Bimetallic nanoparticles (BMNPs); PVP; SDS; CTAB.
Types of nanomaterials in the food packaging: A review
by Kambiz Sadeghi, Mohammad Shahedi, Mohammadali Najafi, Amireh Sadeghi, Mohsen Shirani
Abstract: The advent of nanotechnology has provided remarkable methods for fabricating advanced materials. As such, packaging nanocomposite as one of the research hotspots in the nano-sized science, tends to extend shelf life of fresh food items. Active and intelligent packaging are two great achievements of nanotechnology in which organic and inorganic nanoparticles have showed great effects on the packaging matrix. In particular, nanosensor as an emerging technology can convert data from food items into intelligible signals to communicate with consumers. The objectives of this study are aligned with investigation of various nanostructures commonly used in the packaging industry, and providing an overview of their effects on the packaging performance. This review also elaborates human and environmental safety concerns regarding the application of nanoparticles, and identifies the legislation that has been recently launched.
Keywords: Nanomaterials; food packaging; Nanosensors; Safety concerns.
Investigation of DC Performance of Ge-Source Pocket Silicon-on-Insulator Tunnel Field Effect Transistor in Nano Regime
by Sanjeet Kumar Sinha, Sweta Chander
Abstract: As devices are scaled down in nano regime the steepest sub-threshold swing becomes the most desirable characteristics for the improvement of the performance of devices. To address this issue, Tunnel Field Effect Transistor is one of the promising candidates for replacing conventional MOS device. This paper investigates the impact of source pocket on switching behavior of n-type Ge-source SOI-TFET and shows improvements in the device performance in terms of SS, ION, IOFF and ION/IOFF. The proposed device is compared with the homo-junction SOI-TFET. The improved electrical characteristics of device are analyzed on the basis of simulation results and justify by the theoretical concept. The device offers the steepest SS of 11mV/decade, higher ION of 120
Keywords: Tunnel Field Effect Transistor; Heterojunction; Homojunction; Subthreshold swing;SOI-TFET.
ANTICANDIDAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF SILVER AND GOLD NANOPARTICLES BIOSYNTHESISED USING MATURED ARECA NUT HUSK EXTRACT
by Bhavana Pradeep, Priyanaka Hemba, Anusha Kunnathuli Jagadeesh, Chaitra Ganappa Ramakkanavar, Sneha Nayak, Chandrayan Vaman Rao
Abstract: The present work focuses on biosynthesis of silver as well as gold nanoparticles using matured Areca catechu (Areca nut) husk extract and study on their functional properties. Change in the colour of the extract from pale-yellow to orange and purple, surface plasmon resonance in the region of 400-450 nm and 500-550 nm, respectively indicated the formation of silver and gold nanoparticles. When subjected to anticandidal test, it was found that the nanoparticles could inhibit the growth of Candida albicans, where an inhibition zone of 9 mm and 6 mm was observed for silver and gold nanoparticles, respectively. It was found that silver and gold nanoparticles exhibit better antioxidant capacity than the husk extract. These antioxidant properties of nanoparticles can be used in the production of various pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. Using this approach, areca nut husk can be put into good use, which otherwise, is treated as waste.
Keywords: Anticandidal activity; antioxidant activity; biosynthesis; Candida albicans; gold nanoparticles; matured areca nut husk extract; particle size distribution; phytochemicals; silver nanoparticles; zeta potential.
Synthesis And Characterization Of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles And Its Antimicrobial Activity Against Staphylococcus Aureus And Micrococcus
by Gagandeep Kaur, Sonica Sondhi, Palki Sahib Kaur, Anjoo Kamboj, Shalini Verma
Abstract: A detailed analysis of synthesis and characterization of Zinc oxide(ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) with a motive of demonstrating the effect of of ZnO on its antibacterial effect is reported herein. A rapid synthesis method of highly dispersed zinc oxide nanoparticles by using zinc acetate dihydrate and ammonium carbonate as a precursor and Polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a capping agent is presented in this study. The results of characterization techniques like ultraviolet visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, zeta potential and particle size analyzer confirmed ZnO NPs of better quality and of uniform sized. Further, the ZnO NPs revealed promising inhibitory activity against the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus.
Keywords: Synthesis; Nanoparticles; Zinc oxide; Microbial activity,Spectroscopy; zeta potential; particle size analyzer; S. aureus; Micrococcus; Characterization; Zone of Inhibition.
Performance Assessment of Double Gate Graded Junction-Less-FET Device with Temperature Variations
by Sanjeet Kumar Sinha
Abstract: This paper reports a simulation-based study of double gate graded channel junctionless metal field effect transistor (MOSFET) incorporating the effects of doping engineering. The proposed device has been optimized to study the effect of temperature on the device characteristics such as surface potential, transfer characteristics, ION/IOFF ratio and, threshold voltage. To justify the enhanced performance of the Graded Double Gate Junctionless (DG-JL) FET, it is compared with non-graded DG-JL-FET. To design and optimize the device, the simulation as a tool take part in understanding of basic physics.The Graded DG-JL-FET have better performance over the conventional DG-JL-FET, in terms of ION/IOFF ratio. The temperature effects on various parameters for 1:3 graded structure is obtained and compared with conventional non-graded structure. The shift in potential towards one side and deeper in case of graded structures, IOFF current reduced significantly without affecting ION current. The threshold voltage roll-off with temperature is found slower in Graded structure than that in Conventional non-graded structure.In this work, Visual TCAD a simulation tool is used to simulate the electrical characteristics of the proposed device.
Keywords: MOSFET; TFET; Temperature; junctionless.
Heavy metal removal from polluted water by Nopal cactus biopolymer based magnetic nanocomposites
by Nghia Bui, Loan Duong, Thach Nguyen, Ngoc Tran
Abstract: In present study, Nopal cactus biopolymer based magnetic nanocomposites were generated by a two-step process in which cobalt superparamagnetic (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles were firstly synthesized following a co-precipitation method with the aid of surfactants. Then, the composite materials with the nanoparticles dispersed in the matrix of biopolymer, which was extracted from Nopal cactus, were achieved with the support of ultrasonication. The obtained black nanocomposites were fully characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). The nanocomposites as novel nano-adsorbents were used for removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution. In addition, the nanocomposites were strongly attracted by permanent magnet due to superparamagnetism, making it easy to completely isolate them from water and exhibiting good reusability
Keywords: heavy metal; polluted water; nanocomposites; magnetic; Nopal cactus; biopolymer; CoFe2O4 nanoparticles; superparamagnetism; nano-adsorbents.