Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Nanoparticles

International Journal of Nanoparticles (IJNP)

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International Journal of Nanoparticles (9 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Synthesis and characterization of Manganese and Nickel doped Zinc Oxide nanoparticles: Photocatalytic and Antibacterial activity   Order a copy of this article
    by M. Prakash, Helen P. Kavitha, S. Abinaya, T.V. Rajendran 
    Abstract: The structural, morphological, photocatalytic and antibacterial behaviour of manganese and nickel doped zinc oxide nanoparticles were investigated using the sol-gel process. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy were used to describe the synthesised Mn and Ni-doped ZnO nanoparticles. UV-visible spectroscopy is now used. The hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO nanoparticles is shown by X-ray diffraction studies and it shows Mn and Ni doping reduce the crystallite size. The surface morphology of zinc oxide nanoparticles is significantly altered by doping with Mn and Ni according to a scanning electron microscopy report. The dopants Mn and Ni have been successfully integrated into the ZnO nanoparticles, according to energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Using the disc diffusion process, the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) by synthesised nanoparticles confirms that they act as photocatalysts. The antibacterial activities of ZnO, Mn and Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles were investigated against two pathogenic bacteria and their results were analysed.
    Keywords: ZnO; nanoparticles; methylene blue and antibacterial activity; methylene blue; MB; sol-gel method.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJNP.2022.10046927

Special Issue on: Frontiers of Nano-dimensional Devices Materials, Physics, Modeling and Simulation

  • Y-Shaped Double-Gate High Electron Mobility Transistor for Radio Frequency Applications   Order a copy of this article
    by Santashraya Prasad, Aminul Islam 
    Abstract: This paper presents a new Y-shaped double-gate high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) and studies the effect of recessing gate1 (G1). Various optimisation schemes have been incorporated in the newly proposed HEMT structure. The double-gate design shows a desirable RF characteristic such as transition frequency (fT) and maximum oscillation frequency (fMAX). Various DC characteristics such IDS
    Keywords: mobility; transconductance; transition frequency; maximum oscillation frequency; minimum noise figure; optimum reflection coefficient; noise conductance; high electron mobility transistor.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJNP.2022.10044639
  • Performance Parameter Analysis and Estimation of High-K Induced Three Fin SOI n-FinFET at 14 nm Gate Length   Order a copy of this article
    by Rudra Sankar Dhar, Sumit Kumar Sinha, Abhishek Verma, Taniya Chowdhury, Harshit Singh Tomar, Swagat Nanda, Zohmingmawia Renthlei 
    Abstract: The FinFET performances started degrading below the 32-nm technology node as a consequence of shrinking gate oxide thicknesses below 2 nm. Thus, the inclusion of high-k dielectric materials as gate oxides has become pivotal for efficient suppression of short channel effects (SCEs). Although the incorporation of high-k materials has diminished leakage currents, the drive currents have also lessened. It is observed that increasing the number of fins in the device significantly enhances the drain current. This paper describes the implementation of a 3-fin tri-gate (TG) SOI FinFET structure with high-k dielectric materials like Si3N4, Al2O3, ZrO2 and HfO2 replacing SiO2 as gate oxide. An effective oxide thickness (EOT) of 1 nm is considered for the study of the electrical characteristics of all the devices. It was established that the use of 3-fin structure notably enhanced the drive currents while HfO2 decreased the leakage currents leading to excellent switching speeds of the FinFET structure.
    Keywords: tri-gate SOI FinFET; 3-fin structure; high-k dielectrics; short channel effects; Silvaco TCAD.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJNP.2022.10046024
  • Electronic and optical properties of 2D metal/ semi-metal - ReS2 van der Waals heterostructures from first principles calculations   Order a copy of this article
    by Amretashis Sengupta 
    Abstract: In this work we present an investigation of bilayer van der Waals heterostructures (vdWh) of two dimensional (2D) ReS2 with of monolayers of Cu, Ag, Sn and Te, with first principles calculations. With density functional theory (DFT), the bilayer 2D heterostructures namely Ag-ReS2, Cu-ReS2, Sn-ReS2 and Te-ReS2, were studied in details. Upon structural optimisation of the bilayer vdWh, the electronic properties such as density of states and charge distribution by means of electron localisation function were investigated. Thereafter the optical properties such as the joint density of states, dielectric function and absorption of these all 2D (semi) metal-semiconductor heterostructures were also investigated with random phase approximation (RPA) calculations. The results show the vdWh to have highly interesting optical properties suitable for wide spectrum optical absorption in an ultra-thin bilayer material, which holds much promise for future device applications, especially in the fields of photovoltaics and optoelectronics.
    Keywords: density functional theory; 2D materials; ReS2; 2D metals; van der Waals heterostructure.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJNP.2022.10046025
  • Improved Noise Rejection Mechanism for Optical Frequency Comb designed at 94 GHz Window Spectrum   Order a copy of this article
    by Rajarshi Dhar, Arpan Deyasi 
    Abstract: In this present work, novel mechanisms are described to reduce the noise in optical frequency comb through subsequent optical and electrical mixing and amplification techniques, which provides almost sinusoidal response in electrical domain and negligible ripple when viewed the entire spectrum. The combination that we have used here consists of an optical Bessel filter centred at 1,310 nm which is the laser frequency having linewidth of 10 GHz, followed by an optical amplifier (OA) with gain of about 10
    Keywords: optical filtering; noise rejection; amplification; electrical filtering; optical frequency comb; OFC.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJNP.2022.10046909
  • Design and Analysis of Tri- Layered Strained Channel HOI CGAA FET   Order a copy of this article
    by Rasmita Barik, Kuleen Kumar, Rudra Sankar Dhar 
    Abstract: Introducing three ultrathin-strained layers in the channel forming heterostructure-on-insulator (HOI) cylindrical gate-all-around (CGAA) FET is the requisite at nano regime. The outermost-layer and the central-layer of the CGAA is strained silicon (s-Si) while the middle-layer sandwiched between the two s-Si layers is strained silicon germanium (s-SiGe). Congealing the channel with these strained layers quantum carrier confinement prompts, enhancing carrier mobility and counter threshold voltage roll-off. The tri-layer HOI device enhances device performance in comparison to conventional silicon CGAA. The newly developed CGAA at 22 nm gate length displays 20.6% enhancement in on-current in comparison to silicon CGAA. Further analysis of the novel device shows 92% and 80.2% improvement in Ion/Ioff ratio as compared to silicon CGAA and strained channel rectangular GAA, respectively. The CGAA also provided 16.2% augmentation on drain current as compare to 22 nm strained silicon channel rectangular GAA FET.
    Keywords: carrier mobility; carrier confinement; current density; electric field.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJNP.2022.10046910
  • Characterization of Short Channel Effects for 14 nm Tri-Layered Strained Channel HOI FinFET using High-K dielectric materials   Order a copy of this article
    by Priyanka Saha, Rudra Sankar Dhar 
    Abstract: In strain technology a modification in the MOSFET by growing heterostructure channel embedded with Si/SiGe/Si layers within the system enhances its working tremendously. Developing a tri-layered HOI n-channel FinFET device at 14 nm gate length having two strained Si layers and one strained SiGe in between along with the use of high-k dielectric materials like HfO2, ZrO2 and Si3N4 as gate oxide decreases the short channel effects like DIBL and enhances the Ion/Ioff, threshold voltage. These parameters have been analysed for better performance by replacing SiO2 as gate oxide with the different high permittivity materials. This paper explores considering equivalent oxide thickness calculations, and is optimised using Silvaco TCAD software. Also HOI device is compared with the results obtained for a FinFET and the results are observed in both cases with the drain current enhancement. Thus, it is perceived that this HOI device with HfO2 gives the utmost outcome.
    Keywords: HOI; high-K dielectric; Silvaco TCAD; EOT; strained silicon.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJNP.2022.10046911
  • A zero bias highly efficient active diode circuit for piezoelectric energy harvester   Order a copy of this article
    by Geetanjali Singh, Srikanta Pal, Sudip Kundu 
    Abstract: This paper presents a MOS based active diode circuit for efficient rectification of piezoelectric energy harvester (PZEH). The active diode consists of a PMOS switch along with auto tuned control circuit to control the gate of the PMOS. The strength of gate voltage of the PMOS in conducting state has been improved to provide the low forward resistance at high current. In the on state, the voltage drop across the active diode is 33 mV at diode current of 136
    Keywords: piezoelectric energy harvester; PZEH; full bridge rectifier; FBR; forward voltage drop; active diode.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJNP.2022.10046912
  • All-Optical Frequency Encoded 2-bit Comparator using Dibit-based logic and Reflective Semiconductor Optical Amplifier   Order a copy of this article
    by Surajit Bosu, Baibaswata Bhattacharjee 
    Abstract: In a decade, photon emerges as a transporter of information at ultra-high speed. So the optical devices acquire an attraction towards the research community. Therefore, researchers have developed different types of digital devices in the all-optical domain. In this communication, a design of frequency encoded dibit-based 2-bit comparator is devised using reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) and add/drop multiplexer (ADM). Encoding of a signal is necessary for long-range transmission. So we have adopted frequency encoding because it has proved efficacious in long-range transmission. The dibit-based concept encourages a high degree of parallelism. The proposed design achieves the qualities such as high switching speed, low noise, high gain, and low power consumption because of RSOA. This design has been simulated in MATLAB (2018a) and the simulated outputs accurately compare dibit-based 2-bit input data.
    Keywords: optical communication; add/drop multiplexer; comparator; frequency encoding; dibit logic system; reflective semiconductor optical amplifier; RSOA.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJNP.2022.10046913