International Journal of Nanoparticles (11 papers in press)
Preparation and characterization of Fe3O4@SiO2@MTX@Lipid nanoparticles as a controlled drug-delivery system
by Nazan Yilmaz, Serpil Edebali, Mehmet Galip Icduygu
Abstract: In this study, synthesis and characterization of mesoporous, super magnetic silica structures which have a part as a drug delivery system in controlled release of Methotrexate used in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis were aimed. Within this scope, magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized by coprecipitation method and then surfaces of these nanoparticles were coated fwith mesoporous silica and phospholipid layer. FT-IR, XRD, VSM, BET, TEM, EDX and FESEM analyses were performed for characterization The results of FT-IR analysis showed the existence of silica and lipid layers around magnetite. Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles have a surface area of 576.69 m2/g, a pore size of 8.21 nm and a mesoporous structure. The performed XRD analysis showed that the synthesized Fe3O4 and Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles have cubic spinel structures. In SEM and TEM analyses, the structure of nanoparticles was determined as spherical. As a result of VSM analysis nanoparticles have superparamagnetic characteristic.
Keywords: MTX; Drug Delivery; Magnetic Silica Nanoparticles.
Analysis of Fly Back Converter Design Using PV based MOSFET Switching
by Gourab Das
Abstract: The Flyback Converters have become one of the most popular used buck-boost topology because of their simple design and working efficiency. In this paper, the dynamic models of the PV based flyback converter design using MOSFET switch have been implemented. This novel design using MOSFET switching technique outperforms the Ideal Switching technique with proofs the superiority of the proposed approach. These models have respective advantages for example single switching, coupled inductor, output filter (capacitive) isolation and operating of these models at a particular value of frequency in a traditional PWM scheme. In the MOSFET Switch Flyback converter the PWM percentage period of Input Output can be increase or decrease. To access apparent parameters, a model is simulated to find the transformer parameters, capacitive parameters, frequency of operation. A simulation model for this purpose in MATLAB/SIMULINK has been devised and then affirmed by running this model on the simulation platform. Also find its various performance matrices with their verification. This paper comprises of the comparison of flyback converter with other DC-DC converters by analyzing the working of the flyback converter. Now-a-days, smaller-sized, high efficient DC-DC converters are having a wide range of applications in power electronics devices. Sometimes, they are used as converting unit, and sometimes as regulating unit. The developed power electronics DC-DC converters are capable of maximizing energy as well as efficiency of the energy conversion system. Some of these converters are analyzed here along with the flyback converter and found with some of their demerits which can be compensated by using flyback converter. The flyback converter can be used as both AC-DC and DC-DC converters. It is basically a Buck-Boost converter, in which the voltage ratios are being multiplied, which is done by splitting the inductor, used in converter, into two to work as a transformer. The voltage ratios can be enhanced by modifying the duty cycle of the switch used in this converter.
Keywords: Pulse Width Modulation (PWM),Flyback Converter,MOSFET,AC-DC Converter.
Investigation of the effectiveness of Biosynthesized Gold Nanoparticle from Garcinia kola leaves Against Fungal infections
by Akintelu Sunday Adewale, Folorunso Aderonke Similoluwa
Abstract: The ethno botanical significance of Garcinia kola is celebrated in West Africa especially in Nigeria where it is predominantly used locally as an antifungal remedy. This reserserch centered on the evaluation of the antifungal potency of gold nanoparticles AuNPs synthesized from Garcinia kola leaves. The leaves of Garcinia kola obtained were thoroughly rinsed with clean water, air dried, pulverized and extracted. The extract obtained was mixed with aqueous solution of gold chloride to form gold nanoparticle and were characterized. The antifungal screening of the synthesized gold nanoparticles was carried out via the Agar disc diffusion method. The Ultraviolet (UV) analysis showed an absorption wavelength at 536.12 nm on the spectrum which correspond to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of gold nanoparticles. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) study indicated that compounds with functional groups in the absorption wavelength region of 3330.41 to 3390.23cm-1, and 1628.24 to 1633.35 cm-1 found in the leaves are responsible for the capping and stabilization of the nanoparticles formed. The scanning electron microscopic (SEM) image confirmed uniformly distributed of the synthesized gold nanoparticles. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis further confirmed that the particle size are in the range of 8.21 to 19.00 nm. The energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis of this study revealed carbon, oxygen, and gold as elements present. The crystalline nature and crystalline size of the formed nanoparticles were deduced from X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD) analysis. The broad inhibitory zones against test fungi displayed by the synthesized nanoparticles confirmed the synthesized gold nanoparticles as a good antifungal source. This study establish a simple and easy approach of synthesizing gold nanoparticles. It also showcase the promising antifungal potency of Garcinia kola leaves which could support it usage as an important ingredient in production of novel antifungal agents or as remedy for treating infections caused by fungi.
Keywords: Garcinia kola leaf; gold nanoparticle; antifungal activity; medicinal plants.
Photocatalytic Degradation of Victoria Blue B a Cationic Dye by Synthesized Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle
by Santhosh A M, Yogendra K, Mahadevan K M, Mallikarjuna I H, Madhusudhana N
Abstract: Synthesis of Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles through solution combustion method using fuel Urea helped us to synthesis a simple photocatalysts, which were then characterized by UV-absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer Emmett-Teller surface area determination, scanning electron microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDAX) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The results suggested that, the band gap was found to be 2.94eV, average particles size was found to be 27nm and size less than 60nm confirmed by TEM. The photodegradation of zinc oxide nanoparticle was successfully examined against the Victoria Blue B dye under the solar and visible light. Form the experimental results the photocatalytic degradation was achieved 97.30% for solar light and 93.45% for visible light degradation at pH 6.
Keywords: Degradation; Nanoparticle; Victoria Blue B; Zinc Oxide.
Synthesis, characterization and spectral studies of surfactant (PVP, CTAB, and SDS) based ultrafine Ir-Cu bimetallic nanoparticles
Abstract: In this study, ultrafine bimetallic nanoparticles of Ir and Cu have been synthesized by chemical reduction method. The effect of stabilizer on the particle size of Ir-Cu bimetallic nanoparticles was investigated. The resultant particles nature, size, surface morphology and elemental composition were computed through the course of XRD, TEM and Field-emission electron microscopy (FE-SEM) respectively. CTAB, SDS and PVP were used to study the effect of cationic, anionic and nonionic surfactant on the particle size and their stability. We found ultimate results with PVP (polyvinyl pyrrolidone) in performance as size regulator as well as particle stabilizing agent rather than CTAB and SDS. XRD results show that, the bimetallic nanoparticles are small in size, less dispersed, amorphous in nature and polygonal in shape. The approximate size of PVP, CTAB & SDS supported particles is 1.32, 8.0, 11.6 nm respectively as calculated by TEM monographs. From EDX data it can be revealed that they are core - shell, with copper core and iridium shell. The XPS results of Ir-Cu/PVP-BMNPs show a deconvulated peak at 59.77 and 62.62 eV binding energy devoted to Ir(0) 4f7/2 and Ir(0) 4f5/2 respectively. The peak at 931.17 eV is the distinctive features of the Cu2p3/2 signal for Cu (0). In BMNPs carbon also recognized with a virtually stable ratio from the surface to the core, and with a C1s binding energy of 282.5eV.
Keywords: Keywords: Bimetallic nanoparticles (BMNPs); PVP; SDS; CTAB.
Types of nanomaterials in the food packaging: A review
by Kambiz Sadeghi, Mohammad Shahedi, Mohammadali Najafi, Amireh Sadeghi, Mohsen Shirani
Abstract: The advent of nanotechnology has provided remarkable methods for fabricating advanced materials. As such, packaging nanocomposite as one of the research hotspots in the nano-sized science, tends to extend shelf life of fresh food items. Active and intelligent packaging are two great achievements of nanotechnology in which organic and inorganic nanoparticles have showed great effects on the packaging matrix. In particular, nanosensor as an emerging technology can convert data from food items into intelligible signals to communicate with consumers. The objectives of this study are aligned with investigation of various nanostructures commonly used in the packaging industry, and providing an overview of their effects on the packaging performance. This review also elaborates human and environmental safety concerns regarding the application of nanoparticles, and identifies the legislation that has been recently launched.
Keywords: Nanomaterials; food packaging; Nanosensors; Safety concerns.
Investigation of DC Performance of Ge-Source Pocket Silicon-on-Insulator Tunnel Field Effect Transistor in Nano Regime
by Sanjeet Kumar Sinha, Sweta Chander
Abstract: As devices are scaled down in nano regime the steepest sub-threshold swing becomes the most desirable characteristics for the improvement of the performance of devices. To address this issue, Tunnel Field Effect Transistor is one of the promising candidates for replacing conventional MOS device. This paper investigates the impact of source pocket on switching behavior of n-type Ge-source SOI-TFET and shows improvements in the device performance in terms of SS, ION, IOFF and ION/IOFF. The proposed device is compared with the homo-junction SOI-TFET. The improved electrical characteristics of device are analyzed on the basis of simulation results and justify by the theoretical concept. The device offers the steepest SS of 11mV/decade, higher ION of 120µA, and higher ION/IOFF ratio of 8.64×1011.The device characteristics are investigated by using TCAD tool.
Keywords: Tunnel Field Effect Transistor; Heterojunction; Homojunction; Subthreshold swing;SOI-TFET
Special Issue on: DevIC 2019 Advanced Nanoscale Devices/MEMS/NEMS for Application in Microsystems
Wideband Piezoelectric Energy Harvester design using parallel connection of multiple beams
by Sourav Naval, Prasun Kumar Sinha, Nikhil Kumar Das, Ashutosh Anand, Sudip Kundu
Abstract: Microelectromechanical System (MEMS) based piezoelectric energy harvesters have been successful in harvesting optimum power output from the low-frequency vibrations in the environment. Their ability to operate over a wide range of frequencies is quite essential because the vibrations occurring in the environment are random and occur at different frequencies. In this paper, we try to increase the operating bandwidth of a MEMS-based energy harvester using parallel connection of multiple cantilever beam structures. The operating bandwidth of the energy harvester increases as the number of beams is increased, provided the resonant frequencies of the beams differ from each other by a sufficient margin. Here we consider the operating bandwidth of the energy harvesters to be the range of frequencies over which they generate an output voltage greater than or equal to 1 V. The single beam, parallelly connected two-beam, three-beam and four-beam structures have an operating bandwidth of 26 Hz, 27 Hz, 28 Hz, and 31 Hz, respectively. Thus, the bandwidth of parallelly connected four-beam structure is wider than that of single beam structure by 5 Hz.
Keywords: MEMS; Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters; Wideband; Multi-beam; COMSOL.
Vertically-Stacked Silicon Nanosheet Field Effect Transistors at 3nm Technology Nodes Simulation at Nanoscale
by Eleena Mohapatra, Taraprasanna Dash, Suprava Dey, Jhansirani Jena, Sanghamitra Das, Chinmay Maiti
Abstract: Feasibility of vertically-stacked silicon nanosheet FETs (SNS-FETs) for extreme scaling at 3nm technology node are investigated for the first time as one of the possible solutions to continue to enhance the performances of the CMOS technology. In this work, we use 3-D predictive simulations to study the performance potential of SNS-FETs at 3nm technology node. With the end of happy scaling era, change of device architecture has raised integration complexity along with severe short channel effects, mobility degradation, variability and quantum tunneling leakage. These are the major challenges as device dimensions are scaled for ultimate scaling below 7nm. Towards low power and high speed (More-than-Moore applications), nanowires and nanosheet transistors are being proposed. Today, the possibility of FinFET downscaling is still open and more than ever alternatives to CMOS transistors, such as, vertically-stacked SNS-FETs are showing their potential to surpass FinFETs. Variability due to metal grain granularity (MGG) is critical at 3nm technology nodes, as such, the device threshold voltage variation due to MGG is examined for single nanosheet NS-FET. Finally, we calculate the mean and standard deviation of these parameters to quantify the variability.
Keywords: Nanosheet FETs (NS-FETs); quantum confinement; technology computer aided design (TCAD); drift diffusion; density-gradient; metal grain granularity.
Line outage identification using comparison of bus power mismatch considering PMU outage
by MEHEBUB ALAM, Shubhrajyoti Kundu, Siddhartha Sankar Thakur, Sumit Banerjee
Abstract: In this study, a novel algorithm for line outage identification is developed utilizing the PMU provided phasor angles. For various outage cases the simulated bus power mismatches (SBPM) using bus susceptance matrix of full network are to be stored. As soon as actual outage occurs the bus power mismatches are computed using PMU provided pre outage and post outage phasor angles.The proposed algorithm is based on comparison of simulated bus power mismatches with computed bus power mismatches (CBPM) through L-2 norm minimization approach. Additionally, optimal PMU placement issue is also addressed to ensure the network observability in case of PMU outage. Moreover, random Gaussian noise with zero mean and standard deviation (SD) from 1% to 5% is incorporated in the developed model to reflect the measurement error in real power network. New performance indices namely estimation accuracy excluding critical cases(EAECC ) and estimation accuracy including critical cases (EAICC) is introduced to test the efficiency of the algorithm by comparing with existing methods. Simulation was carried out on standard IEEE 5 bus, 14 bus, 30 bus, 57 bus and 118 bus system to check the viability and applicability of the proposed methodology. The obtained test results are found to be competitive with the existing methods.
Keywords: Phasor measurement unit (PMU); line outage identification (LOI); optimal PMU placement; noise; power systems.
Comparative Analysis of Silicon Nano Tube FET for switching applications using High K and workfunction modulation
by Avtar Singh, Chandan Kumar Pandey, Saurabh Chaudhury, Chandan Kumar Sarkar
Abstract: In this paper we have studied the impact of variation of k dielectric constant and alternation of gate work function on Silicon Nano Tube FET for low power and high speed switching applications. The Silicon Nano tubular structure offers better immunity towards short channel effects (SCEs) because of the better control of channel region due to the double gate all around. Due to the gate engineered structure high K value structures possess high value of electron velocity as compare to low k dielectric structure, which helps in improving the efficiency of carrier transport. In this paper we have considered a Silicon Di-oxide(SiO2), Silicon Nitride(Si3N4), Hafnium Oxide(HfO2), Hafnium Silicate (HfSiO4),Tin oxide (SnO2) and Titanium Oxide (TO2) as a gate dielectric. It is found that when the high k is replaced with SiO2 then the switching performance of the device is enhanced which makes it suitable for the SOC applications. Further by tuning the gate work function of the device we can able to achieve multiple threshold voltages and optimize the performance of the device. Here in this paper we discuss the impact of work function variation on ON-current , OFF- current and threshold voltage . From the analysis it has been found that HFO2 in SINTFET will be a superior alternative for future tubular FET devices and by tuning the gate work function nearby to 4.8 eV the silicon nano tube shows optimized better performance among all other values.
Keywords: High K.Silicon nano Tube FET ; workfunction modulation; Ion / IOff ratio ,tubular structure.