International Journal of Nano and Biomaterials (12 papers in press)
ELECTROSPINNING PRODUCTION OF PVA/CS/HEMA/nHA BIONANOCOMPOSITE
by Victor Manuel Castano
Abstract: PVA/CS/HEMA/nHA membranes were prepared by electrospinning at different voltages, to produce osteoinductive scaffolds that promote bone extracellular matrix production and in-situ remodeling. Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of samples obtained at 25 and 30 kV and 60 min spun, reveal that the presence of chitosan generates some malformations, and glutaraldehyde generates agglomerations in the threads. FTIR do not show significant changes in the functional groups, which indicate that these PVA/CS/HEMA/nHA scaffolds may represent a promising biomaterial for bone tissue engineering.
Keywords: electrospinning; biopolymers; composite; membrane.
Hyaluronic Acid Carrier-Cell Interactions: A Tri-Culture Model of the Tumor Microenvironment to Study siRNA delivery under Flow Conditions
by Julio Manuel Rios De La Rosa, Nicola Tirelli, Annalisa Tirella
Abstract: CD44 is often overexpressed in solid tumors, rendering this protein a hot target in drug delivery. As CD44 is the main surface receptor of hyaluronic acid (HA), one of the most common therapeutic approaches consists of hijacking the cells mechanism of HA endocytosis to deliver active principles. This approach, however, presents two caveats: the poor understanding of HA-cell interactions and the ubiquitous expression of CD44 in other cell
types, e.g. stromal cells. To predict the interaction of HA-decorated nanocarriers with CD44-expressing cells in the multicellular and complex tumor microenvironment, we have established a tri-culture, non-contact in vitro model (PANC-1 tumoral cells, HDF stromal cells, THP-1 macrophages) and quantified the delivery and kinetics of nanoparticle internalization (via flow cytometry), investigating the system in both static and dynamic culturing conditions. We report that HA-decorated nanocarriers are able to preferentially deliver siRNA to pancreatic cancer cells, interestingly even under flow/dynamic conditions.
Keywords: Hyaluronic acid; CD44; tumor microenvironment; pancreatic cancer; macrophages; tumor-associated fibroblasts; nanoparticle; targeted drug delivery; siRNA.
Mechnosensitivity Response in Epithelial HT29 Cells on Titanium Dioxide Nanotube Arrays Surface via KRT8 Protein Expression
by Rabiatul Basria S M N Mydin, Srimala Sreekantan, Roshasnorlyza Hazan, Ekhlas Qaid Gazem, Mustafa Fadzil Farid Wajidi
Abstract: Titanium dioxide nanotube arrays (TNA) have been proposed as novel nano-surface modifications for biomaterial implants and nano-medicine applications. However, molecular mechanisms of cellTNA mechanosensitivity are not completely understood. Therefore, this study investigates the effect of cell-TNA mechanosensitivity activity via cytokeratin protein marker. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) characterization were conducted on TNA with Epithelial-HT29 cells followed by analysis of cytokeratin protein marker using immunoflurescent staining and immunobloting techniques. FESEM results showed that cells grown on TNA exhibit enhanced cytoplasmic extension and spreading characteristics. Furthermore, the cells interaction with TNA nanosurface showed higher KRT8 expression indicate the clustering or aggregation of the cytoskeleton proteins. Findings suggested that Epithelial HT29 cells on TNA nano-topography might involve cytoskeleton mechanosensitivity response for the cellular adaptation activity.
Keywords: Cellular Interaction with Nano-Topography; Titanium Dioxide Nanotube Arrays; Titania Nanotube Arrays; Cytoskeleton Reorganization; KRT8 protein; Cytokeratin-8; Bioengineered Nanomaterials; Mechanosensitivity.
Biogenic Nanosilver Inhibits Mycobacteria Using Nitrate Reductase Assay
by Adebayo J. Bello, Luqman A. Adams, Nneka N. Onyejepu, Justice I. Igbinehi, Omoboyede I. Igbari, Joy Okpuzor
Abstract: Nanosilver was synthesized by bioreduction using aqueous extracts of Moringa oleifera (MO-AgNPs) leaf and Allium cepa bulb (AC-AgNPs) as reducing and capping agents. The nanosilver was characterized with UV/Vis, FT-IR, and SEM-EDX. Microbiological activity on 5 Mycobacteria strains: ATCC-35882, ATCC-25177, Mycobacterium other-than tuberculosis (MOTT), Mycobacterium fortuitum and Multi-Drug Resistance M. tuberculosis (MDR-MTB) were investigated using Nitrate Reductase Assay (NRA). Results obtained for UV/Vis gave absorption maxima at 430nm for MO-AgNPs and 440nm for AC-AgNPs. FT-IR showed functional groups associated with the biomolecular capping agents. SEM showed the nanosilver formed aggregates spherical and/or in oval shape with smooth surface. EDX spectra exhibited the presence of elemental silver. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) study for both nanosilver against Mycobacteria indicated a higher inhibitory activity for MO-AgNPs over the AC-AgNPs. Here in, we have reported the first biosynthesized nanosilver activity against Mycobacteria using NRA. Nanosilver may therefore be developed as nanoaerosol for targeted and effective treatment of Mycobacteria infections.
Keywords: Mycobacteria; tuberculosis; nanosilver; biosynthesis; Moringa oleifera; Allium cepa; nitrate reductase assay; MO-AgNPs; AC-AgNPs; Minimum Inhibitory Complex.
Synthesis and evaluation of regenerated cellulose and fibrin biocomposite impregnated with silver nanoparticles as a wound dressing material
by Niyas Ahamed, P.Mohammed Kashif, S. Sankar, T.P. Sastry
Abstract: In the present study, a composite wound dressing material containing fibrin (F) and regenerated cellulose (RC) impregnated with silver nanoparticles (Ag) with and without antibiotic gentamicin (G) were primed. The biocomposites prepared were characterized for their physicochemical investigation using conventional techniques. The results obtained showed that with the increase of fibrin level in the complex results in reduce in its water absorption ability. The FTIR and SEM studies have shown the composite nature of the biocomposites prepared. RC-F-Ag and RC-F-Ag-G composites were used as wound dressing materials on experimental wounds of rats. The healing pattern of the wounds was evaluated by planimetric studies, macroscopic observations and biochemical studies. The results have shown faster healing pattern in the wounds treated with RC-F-Ag and RC-F-Ag-G composites compared to untreated controls. This study suggests RC-F-Ag biocomposite may be a potential candidate as a wound dressing material and may be tried on the clinical wounds of animals before being applied on humans.
Keywords: Fibrin; Regenerated cellulose; Silver nanoparticles; Wound healing; Biocomposite.
Synthesis of CuO and Ag doped CuO nanoparticles from Muntingia calabura leaf extract and evaluation of their antimicrobial potential
by Kiran Kumar Prem Kumar, Nandipura D. Dinesh, Satish Kumar Murari
Abstract: The present study explored Muntingia calabura leaf extract as a reducing and capping agent for synthesis of CuO as well as Ag doped CuO nanoparticles. The role of terpenoids and polyols of the plant extract in reduction and stabilisation of both doped and undoped nanoparticles was confirmed on an infrared spectrum. Subsequently the crystal structure transformed from monoclinic to cubic system and increased in size. While CuO nanoparticles exhibited maximum absorption in the UV range, doping with Ag resulted in enhanced absorbance in the visible range as well as a reduction in band gap energy. Zeta potential values approached the threshold of delicate dispersion and increased with Ag doping. Broader size distribution and relatively reduced agglomeration among doped nanoparticles could be observed. Differential antimicrobial effects of doped and undoped nanoparticles against selected strains of bacteria and fungi were confirmed.
Keywords: Antimicrobial activity; Green synthesis of CuO nanoparticles; ; CuO/Ag nanoparticles; Muntingia calabura leaf extract; Reducing and capping agent.
Special Issue on: Intelligence in Applications of Bio and Nano Materials
Energy Aware-Multi Path Transmission of ECG Signals for The Classification of Arrhythmia In Wireless Sensor Network
by Bhagya Lakshmi V, Ramchandra V. Pujeri, Geeta D
Abstract: ECG transmission and classification of arrhythmia stands as an effective area for dealing with the cardiac-related diseases since the world is reporting a higher rate of heart patients. Remote monitoring of the patients, being an effective solution in providing an effective diagnosis solution, wireless technology plays a significant role in ECG transmission. However, routing seems to be a hectic challenge and hence, the paper proposes an effective routing protocol, termed as Fractional Artificial Bee Colony BAT (FBeeBAT ) algorithm that is the integration of Fractional Concept, Artificial Bee Colony algorithm, and Bat optimization algorithm. The proposed algorithm enables the energy-aware multipath routing in the Wireless Body Area Network (WBANs), in which the ECG signal of the patient is transmitted to the destination. The received ECG signal is subjected to Arrhythmia classification using the Genetic Bat- Support Vector Neural Network (GB-SVNN). The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is analyzed by establishing the simulation environment using 50 and 100 nodes in transmitting and classifying the ECG signal. The proposed method assured a classification accuracy of 0.98 and the goodput of 0.058 that is better compared with the existing methods.
Keywords: Wireless sensor networks; Routing protocol; Arrhythmia classification; ECG signal transmission; Energy-aware routing.
A Self Adaptive Optimization for Diabetic Retinopathy Detection with Neural Classification
by Santosh Nagnath Randive, Amol D. Rahulkar, Ranjan K. Senapati
Abstract: Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is a health issue which curtailed from diabetes for over long periods. When symptoms are rigorous, the patient might be blinded. The only way to avoid this problem is screening by an ophthalmologist. Anyhow, the automated detection utilizes more time, and in addition, it includes several experts. Hence, this paper intends to propose a new diagnosis model of DR, which determines the severity of retinopathy. This model exploits three stages including Segmentation, Feature Extraction, and Classification. Here, Density Based Spatial Clustering model (DBSCAN) is exploited for segmentation process, where it segments the abnormalities of retina. Coming to the feature extraction stage, this paper proceeds to extract the GLCM and GLRM features from the given input fundus image. Exclusively, it aims at a subjective contribution, i.e., the required features are optimally selected in this phase. Finally, for classification, this paper deploys a renowned Neural Network (NN) model. As the second contribution, the weight in NN model is optimally chosen. The optimal issues (selection of optimal features and weights) are successively solved by a new Self Adaptive Grey Wolf optimization (SA-GWO) approach. Moreover, the proposed method is evaluated with other conventional schemes, and the outcomes are obtained.
Keywords: Diabetic Retinopathy; Segmentation; Feature extraction; Classification; Self-Adaptive Grey Wolf Optimization.
Special Issue on: Bio-Nano Materials and Drug Delivery Systems
Preparation of Micelle Supported Magnetic Hydroxylated Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes Based Dispersive Solid-Phase Extraction for the Determination of PAHs in seawater
by Mingyu Wang, Shaojun ZHANG, Jiagan Li, Chengda Zhang, Shouwen Pang
Abstract: Measuring the impact of PAHs in seawater samples is often difficult due to the low concentrations in which they appear and the complexity of the sample matrix. Traditional methods for sample preparation such as liquid-liquid extraction and solid phase extraction require the use of excessive amounts of solvents and reagents, and sample handling. In this work, a micelle supported Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles decorated hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes material was synthesized. The material was facilely synthesized between Fe2+ and carbon nanotubes. The synthesized nanomaterial served as an excellent support for micelles, exhibiting high loading capacity and selectivity. The material could also be negatively charged by adjusting pH, exhibiting excellent extraction efficiency. The prepared material used in dispersive solid-phase extraction (DSPE) for investigation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from seawater for the first time. The application showed good response (R2 > 0.9981) in the range of 0.02 1.0
Keywords: micelle; hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; dispersive solid-phase extraction.
Safety Evaluation of Nanomaterials in Fitness Equipment Based on Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation
by Rui Hua
Abstract: In order to evaluate the nanomaterials safety level in fitness equipment effectively, the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method is applied in it. Firstly, the safety factors of nanomaterials in fitness equipment are discussed. Secondly, mathematical model and analysis procedure of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method are studied. Thirdly, the simulation analysis is carried out for nanomaterials in fitness equipment for a province, and simulation results show that safety level of nanomaterials in fitness equipment for this province has serious injury on healthy and environment, which offers effective theoretical basis for establishing safety protection measures for nanomaterials in fitness equipment to promote development of national fitness.
Keywords: Nanomaterials; Fitness equipment; Fuzzy comprehensive evalution; Safety evaluation.
Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous extract of Combretum molle leaves, their antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activity
by Zondi Nate, Makwena Justice Moloto, Nokwethemba Precious Sibiya, Pierre Kalenga Mubiayi, Fanyana Moses Mthunzi
Abstract: There are several reports on the use of the plant extracts from Combretum molle species but very limited to the extracts used effectively in the synthesis of metal nanoparticles The present study reports on the green synthetic method in the preparation of silver nanoparticles. Combretum molle leaves extracts were used as capping as well as reducing agent. Phytochemical studies carried out on the plant leaves showed the presence of tannins, proteins, flavonoids and phenols. The effect of capping agent concentration on the size and shape of silver nanoparticles followed by the antimicrobial activity of the synthesized particles were studied. Silver nanoparticles were characterized by a combination of spectroscopic(UV-VIS, FTIR, PL), X-ray diffractometric and microscopic techniques to confirm capping of the nanoparticles by the extracts. TEM results showed that the obtained particles were spherical in shape with the size ranging from 1 to 30 nm and they had face-centered cubic phase in their XRD patterns. The synthesized silver nanoparticle also showed slightly increased antifungal and antibacterial activity against Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as compared to the control. The MIC values obtained were between 0.20 and 6.25 mg/ml.
Keywords: Silver nanoparticles; Combretum molle; antibacterial activity; antioxidant activity.
Special Issue on: Smart and Nano Materials Applications
Investigation on microstructures and phases of Fe-Ga alloy films deposited by magnetron sputtering
by Jianwu Yan, Ran Zhao, Yingpeng Cha, Qingpeng Li
Abstract: Galfenol (Fe-Ga alloy), as a new magnetostrictive materials, has potentially wide applications in magnetostrictive devices. In this work, Fe-Ga alloy thin films were prepared by slice-style target magnetron sputtering and investigations on microstructures and phases of Fe-Ga alloy films were made to explore the relationship of properties and microstructures. The results show that the component of alloy thin film is related to physical properties of the material itself as well as the area ratio of the patch and target. The phase formed in the films in is disorderly A2 phase with face-centered cubic structure. The films prepared by magnetron sputtering exist in the form of polycrystalline with <110> crystallographic texture perpendicular to the film plane. The structure shape of as-deposited specimens present a maze domain with different contrast and resolution and the magnetic domain decreased with the increase of the Ga content. With the increase of the Ga content, the magnetic domains become more and more irregular. Fe-Ga thin film morphology is related to the growth mode of the film. The microstructures of Fe-Ga alloy films can be controlled by magnetron sputtering technology.
Keywords: Fe-Ga alloy films; magnetron sputtering; magnetic domain; A2 phase.