International Journal of Nano and Biomaterials (15 papers in press)
Synthesis of CuO and Ag doped CuO nanoparticles from Muntingia calabura leaf extract and evaluation of their antimicrobial potential
by Kiran Kumar Prem Kumar, Nandipura D. Dinesh, Satish Kumar Murari
Abstract: The present study explored Muntingia calabura leaf extract as a reducing and capping agent for synthesis of CuO as well as Ag doped CuO nanoparticles. The role of terpenoids and polyols of the plant extract in reduction and stabilisation of both doped and undoped nanoparticles was confirmed on an infrared spectrum. Subsequently the crystal structure transformed from monoclinic to cubic system and increased in size. While CuO nanoparticles exhibited maximum absorption in the UV range, doping with Ag resulted in enhanced absorbance in the visible range as well as a reduction in band gap energy. Zeta potential values approached the threshold of delicate dispersion and increased with Ag doping. Broader size distribution and relatively reduced agglomeration among doped nanoparticles could be observed. Differential antimicrobial effects of doped and undoped nanoparticles against selected strains of bacteria and fungi were confirmed.
Keywords: Antimicrobial activity; Green synthesis of CuO nanoparticles; ; CuO/Ag nanoparticles; Muntingia calabura leaf extract; Reducing and capping agent.
Polysaccharide capped antibacterial silver nanoparticles synthesis using green chemistry
by Joy Sarkar, Gajendra Nath Maity, Somanjana Khatua, Soumitra Mondal, Krishnendu Acharya
Abstract: Advancement of an environment friendly, trustworthy, and speedy route for the production of Ag-NP using natural system is an essential urge in nanotechnology. Biological synthetic techniques are considered as a better alternative over other conventional methods. Silver is a safe inorganic element that are projected as next-gen antimicrobial agent and had been extensively used against several bacterial strains from the ancient times. Here, we document a low-cost green synthesis approach for construction of Ag-NP using fruit extracted polysaccharide of Bruguiera cylindrica, a mangrove plant of Sundarban. During the investigation of GC-MS an adequate amount of glucose was found as major carbohydrate molecule in the extracted polysaccharide. Synthesized Ag-NP were also characteristically described by UV-Vis, DLS, TEM, EDAX, XRD and FTIR. The average diameter of the Ag-NP was 4.5
Keywords: Green synthesis; Bruguiera cylindrica; Polysaccharide; Silver Nanoparticle; Bacterial Growth.
Special Issue on: DevIC 2019 Impact of Nanotechnology on Devices for Integrated Circuits
Extended Nucleic Acid Memory as the Future of Data Storage Technology
by Saptarshi Biswas, Subhrapratim Nath, Jamuna Kanta Sing, Subir Kumar Sarkar
Abstract: The amount of operational data being generated at an exponential rate in various spheres of computing, in turn, has culminated in a pressure on the available silicon memory-constrained by its limited capacity. In recent times, research has been undertaken on DNA computing for memory technology where Nucleic Acid Memory (NAM) was formulated and found to be an efficient alternative for storing a large amount of digital data in the molecular space. This work presents a new encoding scheme which efficiently maps the binary data into a hybrid system of standard as well as non-standard genetic nucleotides to achieve a higher data capacity. Comparative studies have been done with existing encoding schemes, moreover, this work demonstrates the use of unnatural base pairs like Ds-Px and Im-Na which exhibit high stability and high selectivity in a DNA molecule.
Keywords: Memory technology; Nucleic Acid Memory (NAM); Unnatural base pair; Nonstandard nucleotide;.
Role of Stress/Strain Mapping and Random Dopant Fluctuation in Advanced CMOS Process Technology Nodes
by Taraprasanna Dash, Jhansirani Jena, Eleena Mohapatra, Sanghamitra Das, Suprava Dey, Chinmay Maiti
Abstract: Multiple-gate MOSFETs have emerged as potential candidates for the future device generations considering the continuous increase in performance requirements. Introduction of intentional or unintentional stress/strain in CMOS devices is now an integral part of semiconductor manufacturing. Therefore, a great demand to control strain/stress and study their variation in different regions of the MOSFETs has emerged. In this work, biaxial and uniaxial strain techniques are implemented in the channel for both p- and n-type FinFETs necessary for advanced CMOS applications. Stress/strain mapping in strained-Si (n-type) and strained-SiGe (p-type) channels (in trapezoidal tri-gate FinFET devices) are studied through three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulation, with particular focus on the enhancement of drain current. Following the strain/stress profiles simulated, the piezoresistive changes are implemented in the simulator to describe the strain effects on device operation. Further, using an advanced technology CAD (TCAD) simulation framework we have also examined the effects of process-induced variability source such as random discrete dopants (RDD) on the current-voltage characteristics of both types of FinFETs at 7nm Technology Node. We have investigated the impacts of random discrete dopant variability on the characteristics of a 14-nm gate length FinFET transistors (both n and p-type) using a 3D finite element quantum corrected drift-diffusion device simulator. We have also found the fluctuation of critical device parameters such as threshold voltage (VTH), subthreshold slope (SS), on current (ION), and off state current (IOFF), etc., mainly originated from the randomness of distribution of the dopants. Simulation results show the significant fluctuation of the crucial device parameters for both n and p-channel devices at 7nm technology node.
Keywords: Strained-Si; Strained-SiGe; stress/strain mapping; FinFET; Technology computer aided design (TCAD); random discrete dopants (RDD).
Strain Engineering in AlGaN/GaN HEMTs for Performance Enhancement
by Eleena Mohapatra, Rajib Nanda, Sanghamitra Das, Taraprasanna Dash, Jhansirani Jena, Suprava Dey, Chinmay Maiti
Abstract: Power transistors based on gallium nitride enable electronic switches to operate at a much higher speed compared to those based on silicon. The primary focus of the work is to improve the GaN high electron mobility transistor design, to identify the parameters critical to the device breakdown and to develop techniques for high frequency device design with high breakdown voltage using field plate technology. In the first part of this work, using TCAD simulations, we examine the breakdown voltage as a function of field plate geometry. We study the electrostatics of the breakdown fields and the map the strain/stress profile as a function of field plate length and height. In the second part, we show that field plate based GaN HEMT structures can be optimized to have effectively reduced undesirable parasitic capacitances to greatly improve both the high transconductance and current gain cutoff frequency simultaneously. We report a new generation of high performance AlGaN/GaN HEMTs grown on high resistivity SiC substrates. We examine the small signal and large signal device performances against technological parameters such as the gate length, field plate length, and the source-drain contact separation. The device with a gate length of 0.25?m and field plate length of 0.3?m exhibits a maximum dc drain current density of 3.66 A/mm at VGS=3V with an extrinsic transconductance of 233.6 mS/mm and an extrinsic current gain cut-off frequency (ft) of 78.9 GHz.
Keywords: HEMT; AlGaN/GaN; SiC; field plate; drift-diffusion model; hydrodynamic model; TCAD.
All optical Four Bit Twos Complement Generator and Single Bit Comparator using Reflective Semiconductor Optical Amplifier
by Kousik Mukherjee, Kajal Maji, Ashif Raja
Abstract: All Optical Twos complement generator for four bit binary numbers and single bit comparator is proposed and analyzed using reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA). We use Soliton bits to implement the device and therefore, find application in long distance communication systems. The performance is analyzed in terms of input-output bit patterns, quality factor, extinction ratio, contrast ratio, quality factor, pseudo eye diagram, relative eye opening and amplified spontaneous emission characteristics.
Keywords: All Optical Logic; Two’s complement; Single bit comparator;Semiconductor Optical Amplifier; Soliton Pulse; Quality Factor.
Controlled Hardware Architecture for Fractal Image Compression
by Hasanujjaman ., U. Biswas, M.K. Naskar
Abstract: Fractal Image Compression utilising algorithms have a high demand rnon the memory interface and the processor's arithmetic unit, which in turn fails rnto utilise the full capabilities of a general purpose processor. Since the rnalgorithm is repetitive, the parallelization reduces the time complexity of the rnotherwise expensive coding scheme. The design for FIC is proposed in this rnpaper. It is based on the fact that the algorithm requires only integer arithmetic rnwith repetitive use of the same data set. Making use of multiple functional rnunits, controlled parallelism is introduced in this process. This makes encoding rntime 80 times faster than high-level software implementation. It is 25 times rnfaster than the assembly level implementation on a DSP Processor.
Keywords: FIC; Hardware Architecture; Iterated function systems; Verilog HDL.
Special Issue on: Bio-Nano Materials and Drug Delivery Systems
Preparation of Micelle Supported Magnetic Hydroxylated Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes Based Dispersive Solid-Phase Extraction for the Determination of PAHs in seawater
by Mingyu Wang, Shaojun ZHANG, Jiagan Li, Chengda Zhang, Shouwen Pang
Abstract: Measuring the impact of PAHs in seawater samples is often difficult due to the low concentrations in which they appear and the complexity of the sample matrix. Traditional methods for sample preparation such as liquid-liquid extraction and solid phase extraction require the use of excessive amounts of solvents and reagents, and sample handling. In this work, a micelle supported Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles decorated hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes material was synthesized. The material was facilely synthesized between Fe2+ and carbon nanotubes. The synthesized nanomaterial served as an excellent support for micelles, exhibiting high loading capacity and selectivity. The material could also be negatively charged by adjusting pH, exhibiting excellent extraction efficiency. The prepared material used in dispersive solid-phase extraction (DSPE) for investigation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from seawater for the first time. The application showed good response (R2 > 0.9981) in the range of 0.02 1.0
Keywords: micelle; hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; dispersive solid-phase extraction.
Safety Evaluation of Nanomaterials in Fitness Equipment Based on Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation
by Rui Hua
Abstract: In order to evaluate the nanomaterials safety level in fitness equipment effectively, the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method is applied in it. Firstly, the safety factors of nanomaterials in fitness equipment are discussed. Secondly, mathematical model and analysis procedure of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method are studied. Thirdly, the simulation analysis is carried out for nanomaterials in fitness equipment for a province, and simulation results show that safety level of nanomaterials in fitness equipment for this province has serious injury on healthy and environment, which offers effective theoretical basis for establishing safety protection measures for nanomaterials in fitness equipment to promote development of national fitness.
Keywords: Nanomaterials; Fitness equipment; Fuzzy comprehensive evalution; Safety evaluation.
Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous extract of Combretum molle leaves, their antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activity
by Zondi Nate, Makwena Justice Moloto, Nokwethemba Precious Sibiya, Pierre Kalenga Mubiayi, Fanyana Moses Mthunzi
Abstract: There are several reports on the use of the plant extracts from Combretum molle species but very limited to the extracts used effectively in the synthesis of metal nanoparticles The present study reports on the green synthetic method in the preparation of silver nanoparticles. Combretum molle leaves extracts were used as capping as well as reducing agent. Phytochemical studies carried out on the plant leaves showed the presence of tannins, proteins, flavonoids and phenols. The effect of capping agent concentration on the size and shape of silver nanoparticles followed by the antimicrobial activity of the synthesized particles were studied. Silver nanoparticles were characterized by a combination of spectroscopic(UV-VIS, FTIR, PL), X-ray diffractometric and microscopic techniques to confirm capping of the nanoparticles by the extracts. TEM results showed that the obtained particles were spherical in shape with the size ranging from 1 to 30 nm and they had face-centered cubic phase in their XRD patterns. The synthesized silver nanoparticle also showed slightly increased antifungal and antibacterial activity against Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as compared to the control. The MIC values obtained were between 0.20 and 6.25 mg/ml.
Keywords: Silver nanoparticles; Combretum molle; antibacterial activity; antioxidant activity.
Special Issue on: Intelligence in Applications of Bio and Nano Materials
A Self Adaptive Optimization for Diabetic Retinopathy Detection with Neural Classification
by Santosh Nagnath Randive, Amol D. Rahulkar, Ranjan K. Senapati
Abstract: Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is a health issue which curtailed from diabetes for over long periods. When symptoms are rigorous, the patient might be blinded. The only way to avoid this problem is screening by an ophthalmologist. Anyhow, the automated detection utilizes more time, and in addition, it includes several experts. Hence, this paper intends to propose a new diagnosis model of DR, which determines the severity of retinopathy. This model exploits three stages including Segmentation, Feature Extraction, and Classification. Here, Density Based Spatial Clustering model (DBSCAN) is exploited for segmentation process, where it segments the abnormalities of retina. Coming to the feature extraction stage, this paper proceeds to extract the GLCM and GLRM features from the given input fundus image. Exclusively, it aims at a subjective contribution, i.e., the required features are optimally selected in this phase. Finally, for classification, this paper deploys a renowned Neural Network (NN) model. As the second contribution, the weight in NN model is optimally chosen. The optimal issues (selection of optimal features and weights) are successively solved by a new Self Adaptive Grey Wolf optimization (SA-GWO) approach. Moreover, the proposed method is evaluated with other conventional schemes, and the outcomes are obtained.
Keywords: Diabetic Retinopathy; Segmentation; Feature extraction; Classification; Self-Adaptive Grey Wolf Optimization.
Energy Aware-Multi Path Transmission of ECG Signals for The Classification of Arrhythmia In Wireless Sensor Network
by Bhagya Lakshmi V, Ramchandra V. Pujeri, Geeta D
Abstract: ECG transmission and classification of arrhythmia stands as an effective area for dealing with the cardiac-related diseases since the world is reporting a higher rate of heart patients. Remote monitoring of the patients, being an effective solution in providing an effective diagnosis solution, wireless technology plays a significant role in ECG transmission. However, routing seems to be a hectic challenge and hence, the paper proposes an effective routing protocol, termed as Fractional Artificial Bee Colony BAT (FBeeBAT ) algorithm that is the integration of Fractional Concept, Artificial Bee Colony algorithm, and Bat optimization algorithm. The proposed algorithm enables the energy-aware multipath routing in the Wireless Body Area Network (WBANs), in which the ECG signal of the patient is transmitted to the destination. The received ECG signal is subjected to Arrhythmia classification using the Genetic Bat- Support Vector Neural Network (GB-SVNN). The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is analyzed by establishing the simulation environment using 50 and 100 nodes in transmitting and classifying the ECG signal. The proposed method assured a classification accuracy of 0.98 and the goodput of 0.058 that is better compared with the existing methods.
Keywords: Wireless sensor networks; Routing protocol; Arrhythmia classification; ECG signal transmission; Energy-aware routing.
Analysis on Mechanical and Metallurgical Characterization of FBTIG Weldments using 15CDV6 Steel
by Skariya P D, Satheesh M., J. Edwin Raja Dhas
Abstract: The minimum and maximum level in welding current, speed, flow rate, torch angle and arc gap of the GTAW process is done by conducting real time experiments. Then with the outcomes of the experiment, the further work is carried under DOE, and it includes the necessary optimization concept. This research continues with the NN-based GWO for modeling the welding parameters. This research work presents the PFTIG and FBTIG welding with the help of optimum nano powder and optimum flux gap. Next stage of research is fabrication and it is done in square butt joint by utilizing the both optimum parameters. Moreover, in the PWHT condition, both the mechanical and metallurgical characterization of FBTIG weldments takes place in this paper and the strength of the fabricated butt joint is found by LSP, as it is due to the failure in the weld zone. Finally, a comparison is carried out between PWHT and the PWHT+LSP conditions in terms of mechanical properties and the residual stress measurements.
Keywords: TIG; FBTIG; Optimum Nano Powder; Optimum Flux Gap; Matallurgical and Mechanical Characteristics.
Hybrid image inpainting using Reproducing kernal Hilbert space and Dragonfly inspired wavelet transform
by Balasaheb H. Patil, Patil P.M.
Abstract: One of the recent research topics is digital inpainting, which is considered as the major issue in multimedia computing. This is a technique that automatically restores the partially smashed photos, videos or filling the holes in 3D surfaces. Such damages in original photo could be due to aging, scratching, or because of other factors. Ultimately, inpainting must take place in a way that when the end user views the result, it must be impossible for the subjective observer to define that the given image has been manipulated or reformed. However, this strategy often fails due to the inaccuracy of the process model. Numerous researches are still going on about this topic to attain the efficient inpainting model. Hence, this paper intends to propose a new inpainting model that based on Mumford Shah (MS) modeling, where the original image is gained accurately by doing inpainting process in the masked image. Here Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) is used for processing with the digital image. Further, to find the optimal filter coefficients from DWT, a renowned optimization technique named Dragonfly (DA) is used. Moreover, the smoothing of image is process via Reproducing kernel Hilbert smoothing model. The proposed Dragonfly Optimized DWT Kernel-MS (DODWTK-MS) model compares its performance with other conventional methods in terms of Second Derivative Measure of Enhancement (SDME), Peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), Mean Squared error (MSE) and Edge similarity and the efficiency of the developed model is explained.
Keywords: Image inpainting; Mumford Shah model; Discrete Wavelet Transform; Filter coefficient; Crow Search Optimization.
Special Issue on: Smart and Nano Materials Applications
Investigation on microstructures and phases of Fe-Ga alloy films deposited by magnetron sputtering
by Jianwu Yan, Ran Zhao, Yingpeng Cha, Qingpeng Li
Abstract: Galfenol (Fe-Ga alloy), as a new magnetostrictive materials, has potentially wide applications in magnetostrictive devices. In this work, Fe-Ga alloy thin films were prepared by slice-style target magnetron sputtering and investigations on microstructures and phases of Fe-Ga alloy films were made to explore the relationship of properties and microstructures. The results show that the component of alloy thin film is related to physical properties of the material itself as well as the area ratio of the patch and target. The phase formed in the films in is disorderly A2 phase with face-centered cubic structure. The films prepared by magnetron sputtering exist in the form of polycrystalline with <110> crystallographic texture perpendicular to the film plane. The structure shape of as-deposited specimens present a maze domain with different contrast and resolution and the magnetic domain decreased with the increase of the Ga content. With the increase of the Ga content, the magnetic domains become more and more irregular. Fe-Ga thin film morphology is related to the growth mode of the film. The microstructures of Fe-Ga alloy films can be controlled by magnetron sputtering technology.
Keywords: Fe-Ga alloy films; magnetron sputtering; magnetic domain; A2 phase.