Forthcoming articles

International Journal of Machining and Machinability of Materials

International Journal of Machining and Machinability of Materials (IJMMM)

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International Journal of Machining and Machinability of Materials (21 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Optimization of Spark Erosion Machining Process Parameters using Hybrid Grey Relational Analysis and Artificial Neural Network Model   Order a copy of this article
    by N. Manikandan, Ramesh Raju, D. Palanisamy, J.S. Binoj 
    Abstract: Haste Alloy C276 is a hard to machine superalloy and extensively used in various engineering applications such as aerospace, nuclear reactor and gas turbine industries. Haste Alloy C-276 possess good strength and lower thermal conductivity which results in decreased tool life and poor machinability by conventional machining methods. Advanced machining processes have developed over a period to fulfill the above mentioned demands and claimed to be an appropriate alternative method to traditional metal removal processes. Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) is one of the advanced machining process which has been used for machining of hard materials. This present investigation details an investigation on EDM process and development of hybrid Grey ANN model for EDM process. The experiments are designed by Taguchis design of experiments approach and the statistical analysis, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) has been used to ascertain the importance of process variables on output variables. Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) is employed for obtaining the grey relational grade to represent a multi aspect optimization model. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model has been evolved to predict the Grey Relational Grade (GRG). Grey Relational Coefficient (GRC) values are given as input for developing the neural network model. Hybrid Grey and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model have been developed to predict the desired multiple performance machining characteristics. A comparison has been performed between the experimental and the predicted values.
    Keywords: Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM); Hard Materials; Haste Alloy; Taguchi’s Methodology; Form and Orientation Tolerances; Grey Relational Analysis (GRA); Artificial Neural Network (ANN).
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMMM.2019.10024247
     
  • Influence of vibration on mechanical polishing micro-structured surface using discrete element method   Order a copy of this article
    by Guilian Wang 
    Abstract: A model using discrete element method (DEM) was conducted to simulate vibration assisted mechanical polishing micro-structured surface process by particle flow code in 3 dimensions (PFC3D). The effect laws of vibration frequency and amplitude on abrasive grains and polishing force were researched in detail according to the simulation results. The effects of vibration on the particles average motion velocity in one fluidcell were researched, and the simulation results show that average velocity increases with increase of vibration frequency and amplitude on the whole. The effects of vibration on the unbalanced force acting on the workpiece surface were quantified at first. The changes of average unbalanced force obviously increase for low feed rate with increase of frequency and increase approximately linearly with increase of amplitude. It is concluded that vibration with high frequency and great amplitude can significantly increase machining efficiency and improve surface quality in micro-structured surface polishing.
    Keywords: Polishing; vibration; micro-structured surface; discrete element method.

  • Powder Additives Influence on Dielectric Strength of EDM Fluid and Material Removal   Order a copy of this article
    by Jeavudeen Shiek, Siddhi Jailani H, Murugan Mariappan 
    Abstract: Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) is used to machine difficult-to-machine materials having high hardness and toughness. One of the recent advancements in the EDM process is the Powder Mixed EDM (PMEDM) process, in which the metallic or abrasive additives in the form of fine powders are added to the dielectric fluid. Powder Mixed EDM (PMEDM) was found to improve machinability in terms of higher material removal rate (MRR) and enhanced tool wear index (TWI), by reducing the breakdown strength of the dielectric. In PMEDM process, machining happens with relatively larger spark gap with enhanced machining characteristics. This paper investigates the influence of powder mixing on the breakdown strength of the liquid dielectric and the gap voltage. Determination of dielectric strength was carried out with a specially designed experimental set-up adhering to ASTM standard D1816 97. Tests were conducted using Silicon carbide, Alumina, Copper and Aluminium powders. The effect of varying the grain size was also studied. An experimental set-up was also designed and realized to measure the influence of powder mixing on the gap voltage and material removal rate in machining titanium alloy. The results have shown significant improvement in Material Removal Rate and Tool Wear Index.
    Keywords: PMEDM; Metallic and abrasive powders; Dielectric strength; Gap Voltage; Material Removal Rate; Tool Wear Index.

  • Machining of thin sections using multi-pass Wire Electrical Discharge Machining process   Order a copy of this article
    by Deba Kumar Sarma, Meinam Annebushan Singh 
    Abstract: The increasing application of fine metallic sections in various sophisticated areas has led to the growth of advanced machining technique to produce thin metallic sections. Wire electrical discharge machining process can prove to be an effective means to machine such sections. The current work identifies the thin wall machining of H13 tool steel using Taguchis design. An optimal parametric setting is identified using a regression model for lower kerf width (kf) and higher machining rate. The decrease in kf and increase in machining rate is found to be highly dominated by the variation of the input parametric conditions. Machining of thin wall sections is performed to identify the extent of minimum sections that can be machined. A mesh-like structure is observed at fine wall thickness of less than 80
    Keywords: WEDM; multipass; thin wall; recast layer; Taguchi; regression; optimisation.

  • Machining of aluminium based metal matrix composite - a particle swarm optimization approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Diptikanta Das, Vivek Chakraborty, Bijaya Bijeta Nayak, Chandrika Samal 
    Abstract: Machining performance of 5 wt.% silicon carbide particulate reinforced Al 7075 matrix composite was investigated in terms of cutting tool temperature (T), average surface roughness (Ra) and tool flank wear (VBc) during turning in pollution-free air water spray cooling environment. Metal was removed by multiple layers of TiN coated carbide inserts during turning. Non-linear regression models were developed and their adequacies were verified. Significance of process parameters on the responses was investigated through Analysis of Variance. The responses were optimized individually using Taguchi technique and then simultaneously through Particle Swarm Optimization technique. The proposed multi-objective algorithm outperformed the traditional Taguchi approach and effectively resulted to a group of non-dominated solutions. Pareto optimal fronts were compiled and plotted for T, Ra and VBc, which can be selected according to the production requirements.
    Keywords: Metal matrix composite; Turning; Regression; Analysis of Variance; Particle swarm optimization.

  • Machining of Titanium and Titanium Alloys by Electric Discharge Machining Process: A Review   Order a copy of this article
    by Vivudh Gupta, Balbir Singh, R.K. Mishra 
    Abstract: Electric Discharge Machining (EDM) process is a non-traditional thermal based machining process which is widely used for the machining of hard materials such as ceramics and super alloys. Titanium (Ti), whose hardness ranges from HRB 70-74, is one such hard material which can be machined by EDM process to create intricate shapes and contours. This review paper presents the contribution of different researchers in machining of Titanium and its alloys by EDM process. Problems encountered during machining of Ti and its alloys are also discussed. New research avenues like introduction of abrasives & powder in dielectric fluid, use of hybrid techniques, introduction of cryogenic treatment, etc to improve the machinability of Ti and its alloys by EDM process are highlighted. Use of modelling and optimization techniques like Taguchi Method, Response Surface Methodology, Artificial Neural Network, Grey Relational Analysis, etc to predict the behaviour of complex process during electric discharge machining of Ti & its alloys is also shown.
    Keywords: titanium; alloys; EDM; machining; Ti6Al4V.

  • Wear of Silicon Carbide Wheel During Grinding of Intermetallic Titanium Aluminide   Order a copy of this article
    by Nithin Tom Mathew, L. Vijayaraghavan 
    Abstract: An experimental investigation is reported on the wear of silicon carbide wheel and its influence on the wheel topography and grinding behaviour during the surface grinding of high performance intermetallic gamma titianium aluminide. The radial wear of the wheel was characterized by initial transient state followed by a steady state wear regime and finally a steel rise in wear rate. The initial transient region progressed up to a radial wear of 40
    Keywords: wear; grinding; silicon carbide; titanium aluminide; force; surface; integrity.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMMM.2019.10021469
     
  • Pulsed laser machining of high-performance engineering and biomedical alloys   Order a copy of this article
    by Asma Perveen, Adrian H.A. Lutey, Luca Romoli, Annamaria Cucinotta, Stefano Selleri 
    Abstract: The exceptional mechanical and thermal properties of high-performance engineering and biomedical alloys lead to difficulties in machining with conventional processes. This work explores nanosecond pulsed laser machining as a flexible alternative to overcome manufacturing-related limitations associated with Ni Hastelloy, Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy and Stellite 6K. An extensive experimental campaign was performed with a 1064 nm nanosecond pulsed fibre laser, quantifying the ablation threshold, penetration depth and material removal rate as functions of average laser power (2 − 20 W), repetition rate (20 − 80 kHz), scanning velocity (100 − 2000 mm/s) and number of laser passes (1 − 20). The single-pulse ablation threshold was established as 7 J/cm^2 for all tested alloys. Highest material removal rates were achieved with a single laser pass at 1000 mm/s with moderate pulse fluence (18 J/cm^2) and a repetition rate of 80 kHz; however, heat accumulation and weak material ejection led to macroscopic melting effects and unsuccessful machining at low scanning velocity or with a high number of laser passes. Higher pulse fluence and high scanning velocity with a lower repetition rate was instead found to achieve a more stable process due to stronger material ejection and more limited heat accumulation effects. Optimum conditions for machining were therefore achieved for all alloys with 20 W average power, 20 kHz repetition rate and 1000 mm/s scanning velocity due to strong ejection of the liquid phase with high pulse fluence (71 J/cm^2), good process stability and material removal rates in the range 0.08 − 0.17 mm^3/s.
    Keywords: Ni Hastelloy; Ti-6Al-4V; Stellite 6K; Pulsed Laser Machining; Nanosecond Ablation; Non-Conventional Machining; Heat Accumulation; Ablation Threshold; Removal Rate; Penetration Depth; Machining Quality.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMMM.2019.10023081
     
  • OPTIMIZATION OF TURNING PARAMETERS FOR MINIMIZING SPECIFIC CUTTING ENERGY WITH USE OF DIFFERENT COOLING/LUBRICATING TECHNIQUES   Order a copy of this article
    by Djordje Cica, Branislav Sredanovic, Sasa Tesic, Davorin Kramar 
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is optimization of the machining parameters using the Taguchi method to obtain minimum specific cutting energy. Considering the machining parameters such as speed, depth of cut and feed rate, a series of turning experiments were conducted to measure the main cutting force required to calculate specific cutting energy. The experiments were performed on C45E steel bars using coated carbide inserts under different cooling/lubrication conditions, namely, flooded cooling, minimal quantity lubrication and high pressure cooling cutting. The concept of signal-to-noise ratio was employed to find the optimal levels of the process parameters. Analysis of variance was applied to estimate the significance of control factors affecting specific cutting energy. Finally, the results of confirmation experiments with optimal process parameters settings showed that the Taguchi method can be successfully applied in the optimization of process parameters for minimum specific cutting energy.
    Keywords: specific cutting energy; optimization; Taguchi method.

  • Rotary ultrasonic machining of ZrO2-NbC and ZrO2-WC ceramics   Order a copy of this article
    by Alejandro Sanda, Carmen Sanz 
    Abstract: ZrO2 based ceramics are extremely difficult to manufacture, being rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM) an interesting machining process for these materials. In this work, ZrO2-NbC and ZrO2-WC ceramic composites have been RUM processed and the differences in cutting forces, surface quality and dominant machining mechanisms under different machining operations and conditions have been studied. In ZrO2-NbC the presence of the ductile fracture material removal mode is more evident than in ZrO2-WC, where the brittle fracture mode seems to be dominant. This contributes to a slightly better machinability of ZrO2-NbC compared to ZrO2-WC, what results in slightly higher material removal rates (MRR) and lower surface roughness.
    Keywords: Rotary Ultrasonic Machining (RUM); ZrO2-WC; ZrO2-NbC; Ceramic.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMMM.2019.10023737
     
  • Micro milling of polymeric micro injected specimens with randomly oriented Carbon Nanotube fillers   Order a copy of this article
    by Claudia Pagano, Aldo Attanasio, Lara Rebaioli, Elisabetta Ceretti, Irene Fassi 
    Abstract: The interest in the application of Carbon Nanotube (CNT) composites is recently increasing in several industrial sectors. The main reason for this growing attention is the reinforcing effect of the CNTs. However, the composite use is limited by technological issues concerning the manufacturing processes when small features are required. A multistage process chain could exploit the advantages of suitable processes to enhance the control of the filler orientation. This paper investigates the feasibility of milling micro features on micro injected specimens of POM/CNT and LCP/CNT composites. Design of Experiment is used to study a suitable experimental design to investigate the influence of the material and the process parameters on the machinability and the feature geometry. POM-based composites showed a better machinability and allowed a fabrication of more accurate features, while LCP showed high cutting forces and the presence of diffused burrs, preventing the fabrication of very small features.
    Keywords: Micro machining; micro milling; micro injection moulding; carbon nanotubes; polymer composites.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMMM.2019.10022891
     
  • An approach to residual stress measurement in ball-end milling process on Ti-6Al-4V ELI titanium alloy   Order a copy of this article
    by Jorge Andrés García-Barbosa, Ernesto Córdoba-Nieto 
    Abstract: Evaluation of the residual stress state in a surface, obtained by means of the ball-end milling process, is important to ensure the reliability of the machined product during its life cycle. X-ray diffraction is one of the techniques most commonly used for evaluating residual stresses. A review of the specialized bibliography shows the shortage of a methodology for this type of studies on materials with more than one crystalline phase. In this experimental research for evaluating the state of residual stress in a series of samples machined with a ball-end mill on the Ti-6Al-4V ELI titanium alloy, it was found that they were subject to compressive residual stress. An electropolished surface of the same material was taken as a reference pattern. The X-ray diffraction analyses were carried out on the crystallographic planes {10-12} and {10-13} of the alpha phase of the alloy.
    Keywords: X-ray diffraction; residual stress measurement; residual stress state; surface integrity; ball-end milling; Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy.

  • Investigations into the influence of tool helix angle during end milling of open straight and curved thin-wall parts   Order a copy of this article
    by Gururaj Bolar, Shrikrishna Nandkishor Joshi 
    Abstract: In this paper, the influence of cutting tool helix angle on performance parameters viz., milling force, part deflection, surface finish, chip morphology and micro-hardness considering open straight and curvilinear thin-walled parts is analyzed. It was found that end mills with helix angle of 45
    Keywords: thin-wall; helix angle; chip morphology; micro hardness; milling force; surface roughness; built-up-edge; finite element simulation.

  • Fabrication of Cascade Micropattern by Maskless Electrochemical Micromachining   Order a copy of this article
    by SANDIP KUNAR, B. Bhattacharyya 
    Abstract: Cascade micropattern is the basic complex textured surface, which is generated on different microdevices for various advanved micromanufacturing applications. This paper highlights the experimental analysis into generation of cascade micropatterns on stainless steel (SS 304) by maskless electrochemical micromachining (EMM). The experimental setup consisting of electrode fixtures, EMM cell, power supply unit and electrolyte flow system is indigenously developed for fabrication of cascade micropatterns inexpensively without fabrication of one by one complex microfeature of cascade profile by a single microtool. One textured tool with SU-8 2150 mask can fabricate more than twenty five cascade micropatterns. Influences of EMM parameters such as electrolyte concentration, electrolyte flow rate, pulse frequency and inter electrode gap on depth, width overcut and surface roughness (Ra) is studied during generation of cascade micropattern. An attempt has also been done to analysis the micrographs of generated cascade micropattern for investigating the suitable parameter setting. This investigation will be needful and fruitful for machining of need-based cascade micropatterns on microdevices like micromixers, microactuators, microcoolers, etc.
    Keywords: Maskless EMM; cascade micropattern; reused textured tool; width overcut; depth; surface roughness.

  • Dynamical Analysis for the Motorized Spindles of Machine Tools   Order a copy of this article
    by Nguyen Ngoc Nam, Sam-Sang You, Sang-Do Lee, Pham Dinh Tung 
    Abstract: The spindle dynamics directly affect the cutting forces, and typically the topography of machined surface of workpieces. In this study, the dynamical behaviours of spindle system are considered in details for accuracy monitoring of CNC machines. Firstly, the rotational model has been established for the spindle with the servo motor. Secondly, the phase portraits of the dynamical models are provided by vector field analysis, depicting rotational behaviours for the spindle operations. In addition, the bifurcation analysis shows that the machining process can be dynamically stable and unstable by changing control parameters. Spindle rotational behaviours are described by the cutting forces which have significant influence on overall machining performance. Finally, it is noted that stability analysis of spindle speed is essential to characterize tool behaviours and machining accuracy while avoiding chattering.
    Keywords: Spindle dynamics; cutting forces; dynamical analysis; machining process; bifurcation; nonlinear model.

  • Some Investigations on Surface Quality Indicators for OHNS Die Steel Machined with Suspended Powder EDM Process   Order a copy of this article
    by Nitin Khedkar, Arunkumar Bongale, Satish Kumar, Vijayshri Khedkar, Vinay Kumar D 
    Abstract: The study focuses on the evaluation of surface quality characteristics of oil hardened non shrinking die steel surface machined with suspended powder electrical discharge machining process. Pure copper metal is used as an electrode material, and tungsten powder is used as suspended medium for the purpose. Machining experiments were carried out by varying one parameter at a time. After each test, the machined surface is analyzed for evaluating its surface roughness and microhardness values. It is found that combination of 4 A gap current, 12
    Keywords: SPEDM; Surface Finish; Microhardness; Recast Layer; White Layer; OHNS steel.

  • Hybrid Taguchi-GRA-PCA Approach for Multi-Response Optimization of Turning Process Parameters under HPC Condition   Order a copy of this article
    by Prianka B. Zaman, S. Saha, N.R. Dhar 
    Abstract: Process parameter optimization is important in manufacturing. An effective and efficient manufacturing process offers low temperature, low force and high material removal rate without compromising the product quality. An experimental investigation designed by Taguchis orthogonal array for turning AISI 1060 steel by uncoated carbide insert under High-Pressure Coolant (HPC) condition. Since all these aforementioned responses are mutually conflicting, simultaneous multi-response optimization is required to acquire a trade-off among the responses. Standalone Taguchi method is not sufficient for multi-response optimization. Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) can be coupled with Taguchi method to overcome this complexity, where overall process performance index Grey Relational Grade (GRG) is calculated and used for the optimization of the process by using Taguchi's S/N ratio. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) can be utilized to determine the individual importance of each response, which facilitate accurate computation of overall GRG. The effect of process parameters on GRG was analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Validation by confirmation test was also performed.
    Keywords: Multi-response optimization (MRO); Taguchi method; grey relational analysis (GRA); principal component analysis (PCA); high-pressure coolant (HPC).

  • Increasing productivity in hard turning of steels using CVD-coated carbide   Order a copy of this article
    by Armansyah Ginting, Issam Bencheikh, Mohammed Nouari 
    Abstract: An effort to achieve high Material Removal Rate (MRR) that could be gained by a triple-layer TiN/Al2O3/TiCN CVD-coated carbide tool in hard turning of steels AISI 1045 (42
    Keywords: flank wear; metal removal rate; surface roughness; triple-layer coating; volume of material removal.

  • Forming and finishing surface by sequential electrochemical-electrodischarge machining of precision magnetic optics parts   Order a copy of this article
    by Oleksandr Plakhotnyi, Vasyl Osypenko 
    Abstract: A method for calculating the formation of a hyperbolic ruled surface with wire electri-cal discharge machining is proposed, considering errors caused by the deflection of wire electrode. The given approach of calculation of technological parameters for further electrochemical dimensional processing with a wire electrode is presented in order to increase reproduction accuracy and improve surface quality. The obtained accuracy and qualitative parameters of manufactured parts satisfy rigorous requirements for magnet pole tips of quadrupole lenses of nuclear microprobes. The latest combined technology of sequential electrodischarge and electrochemical processing with wire electrode in the production of precision parts of magnetic optics, which is given in the article, will be useful to specialists working with processing technologies and precision engineering.
    Keywords: wire electrical discharge machining; WEDM; electrochemical machining; ECM; EDM/ECM combined process; ECM finishing; wire electrodes; surface shape accuracy; surface quality; surface science.

  • Influence of process parameters on the ultrasonic assisted edge trimming of aerospace CFRP laminates using MQL   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohamed O. Helmy, Mohamed El-Hofy, Hassan El-Hofy 
    Abstract: The use of carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) composites is increasing rapidly especially in applications demanding high performance such as aerospace structural components. Edge trimming of CFRP parts is essential for controlling the dimensional tolerances and/or the product quality to meet the industrial standards or specification. This article investigates the ultrasonic-assisted edge-trimming of multidirectional CFRP laminates when minimum quantity lubricant (MQL) was employed for the first time. Statistical analysis was conducted to assess the effect of process parameters on the performance characteristics. Cutting speed, feed rate, and radial depth of cut were selected as process parameters while the performance characteristics were cutting forces, bouncing-back, material removal rate (MRR), and surface integrity in terms of surface roughness (Ra, Rz) as well as delamination. The most significant process parameter affecting each performance characteristic was determined using ANOVA test. Regression equations were also developed to predict the magnitude of bouncing back and MRR.
    Keywords: Carbon fibre reinforced plastic; CFRP; Edge trimming; Ultrasonic; MQL.

  • Studies on surface quality of stainless-steel implant material while machining with WEDM process
    by Sivakumar S, M. Adam Khan, Muralidharan B 
    Abstract: In this research work machinability studies on stainless steel (SS – 107.12) implant by wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) process was studied. The effect of heat affected zone (HAZ), mechanical load experienced and chemical effects after implantation are the significant factors influencing the degradation of machined surface. The metallurgical behaviour of the machined implant is investigated in detail. The experiments are conducted based on design of experiments by considering the input factors like pulse on time, pulse off time and voltage. The influencing responses measured are material removal rate and surface roughness. Further the machined samples are subjected to metallurgical characterisation, using scanning electron microscope (SEM), spectroscopic (EDS) analysis and atomic force microscope (AFM). From the results it is observed that, increase in voltage has produced better surface finish and reduced the Material removal rate (MRR).
    Keywords: implant, steel, WEDM, SEM image, EDS, MRR, Ra