Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation

International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation (IJMLO)

Forthcoming articles have been peer-reviewed and accepted for publication but are pending final changes, are not yet published and may not appear here in their final order of publication until they are assigned to issues. Therefore, the content conforms to our standards but the presentation (e.g. typesetting and proof-reading) is not necessarily up to the Inderscience standard. Additionally, titles, authors, abstracts and keywords may change before publication. Articles will not be published until the final proofs are validated by their authors.

Forthcoming articles must be purchased for the purposes of research, teaching and private study only. These articles can be cited using the expression "in press". For example: Smith, J. (in press). Article Title. Journal Title.

Articles marked with this shopping trolley icon are available for purchase - click on the icon to send an email request to purchase.

Online First articles are published online here, before they appear in a journal issue. Online First articles are fully citeable, complete with a DOI. They can be cited, read, and downloaded. Online First articles are published as Open Access (OA) articles to make the latest research available as early as possible.

Open AccessArticles marked with this Open Access icon are Online First articles. They are freely available and openly accessible to all without any restriction except the ones stated in their respective CC licenses.

Register for our alerting service, which notifies you by email when new issues are published online.

We also offer which provide timely updates of tables of contents, newly published articles and calls for papers.

International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation (19 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Direct and Indirect Effects of Smartphone Use on Academic Performance of Undergraduate Students in Tanzania   Order a copy of this article
    by Julius Raphael Athuman Mhina, Deogratius Mathew Lashayo 
    Abstract: The global proliferation of Smartphone usage in higher learning institutions is high and specific in Tanzania. Students are struggling to find the best use of their smartphones; nevertheless, their contribution to their academic performance is still debatable. Little research has embarked on quantitative measurement and specifically on the causal relationship existing between general Smartphone use and academic performance whether direct or indirect using formal performance models and/or theory. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine the Direct and Indirect impact of general Smartphone-Use on the Academic Performance of undergraduate students in Tanzania. This study used a snowball sampling technique for the distribution of questionnaires to a total of 412 respondents. The combinations of descriptive, Confirmatory Factor Analysis, and Path Analysis using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) were employed. The results show that smartphone use by students in higher learning institutions has an indirect impact on their academic performance.
    Keywords: Smartphone Use; Task-Technology Fit; IS Success model; SEM; Student Academic Performance; HLIs.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2023.10047210
  • Investigating the impact of a mobile learner-generated-content tool on pupils’ after-school English vocabulary behavioural learning patterns, learning performance and motivation: a case study   Order a copy of this article
    by Yanjie Song, Hiroaki Ogata, Yin Yang, Kousuke Mouri 
    Abstract: This paper reports on a case study of investigating the effect of a mobile learner-generated content (m-LGC) tool on pupils’ after-class English as a second language (ESL) vocabulary behavioural learning patterns, learning performance and motivation. Participants were 34 students in grade 4 from two classes in a primary school in Hong Kong. Data collection included students’ learning logs on the m-LGC tool, pre-and post-vocabulary tests and pre-and post-questionnaires. Both qualitative and quantitative data analysis methods were adopted. An active group (AG) and a passive group (PG) were categorised based on visualisation and the number of student created learning logs. The results show that: 1) student behavioural learning patterns varied across AG and PG; 2) students in the AG made significant improvement in their learning performance, but those in the PG did not; 3) student learning motivation in the AG was improved, but that in the PG dropped significantly.
    Keywords: vocabulary learning; mobile learner-generated-content tool; m-LGC; behavioural learning patterns; visualisation tool; motivation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2023.10048354
  • Scenario-based mobile application design for young dual-language learners: evidence from factor analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Athip Thumvichit, Watcharapol Wiboolyasarin, Singhanat Nomnian, Narongdej Phanthaphoommee, Koraya Techawongstien 
    Abstract: This article aimed to provide new insights into critical factors to consider when developing a scenario-based mobile application (SBMA) for dual-language learners (DLLs). It is intended to investigate the factorial structure of the SBMA for young students in an elementary school context using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The convenience sampling method was used to recruit 1,040 in-service teachers to complete the internet-based questionnaire. For half of the respondents, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted to identify the factors for SBMA design for young DLLs, and CFA was used to ascertain the model fit. The EFA identified five factors from 32 items, and through CFA, the results indicated that the five factors obtained from the EFA were validated: 1) application attribute; 2) lesson content; 3) immersive environment; 4) learning strategy; 5) instructional use. The findings shed light on how SBMA could be designed for DLLs.
    Keywords: dual language learner; DLL; factor analysis; mobile application; primary school student; scenario-based learning; SBL; scenario-based mobile application; SBMA.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2023.10048355
  • A Profile of College Students’ Mobile Learning Readiness: An Integrative Literature Review of Studies from 2007 to 2021   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiao Xu, J. Jessica Li 
    Abstract: An integrative literature review of 29 studies from the past 15 years (2007 to 2021) was conducted to understand and frame college students mobile learning readiness (MLR) comprehensively. A resultant conceptual profile with theoretical and practical implications is proposed that includes 13 factors grouped into three categories: learner traits (past mobile learning experience, self-efficacy, innovativeness, optimism, intention, self-regulated learning), technology expectations (expectations of mobile learning effort, performance and relative advantages), and external influences (facilitating conditions, subjective influence, infrastructure readiness and cost). The results from the analysis originally locate college students personality and psychological prerequisites for engaging in mobile learning; identify three relative advantages of mobile learning flexibility, interactions, and enjoyment; and pinpoint the external determinants for examining college students MLR including costs, public infrastructure resources associated with mobile learning, and student-peers and instructors subjective influences. Recommendations for fostering MLR are discussed as well.
    Keywords: conceptual profile; mobile learning readiness; college students; integrative literature review.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2023.10048393
  • Self-paced reading as a computer-based methodology for L2 assessment: A scoping review   Order a copy of this article
    by Liubov Darzhinova, D.I. ZOU 
    Abstract: This scoping review illuminates the self-paced reading task as a computer-based methodology for second language (L2) reading assessment. To find support for this methodology, the authors explored the research foci, language contexts, and types of self-paced reading studies over five years (2016 to 2021), as well as the self-paced reading task’s instruments and some significant study findings for L2 research. The review also showcases the most influential self-paced reading studies in the L2 context based on the author’s affiliation, research venue, and citation data. As a result, this scoping review examines possibilities and hindrances in integrating computer-based self-paced reading tasks into L2 assessment.
    Keywords: computer-assisted language assessment; L2 assessment; reading assessment; self-paced reading task; language learning; learning analytics; performance prediction; scoping review; task-based learning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2022.10048575
  • Ubiquitous game-based learning with a multimedia debriefing on cyberbullying during the COVID-19 pandemic   Order a copy of this article
    by Sasipim Poompimol, Patcharin Panjaburee, Suthiporn Sajjapanroj, Chanayuth Changpetch, Preeyada Tapingkae, Thanyaluck Ingkavara 
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic forced schools to move instruction online and learn from home, laying on learning anywhere and anytime upon the students’ self-pace. This study designed and implemented ubiquitous learning with the digital board game in response to government-issued learn-at-home and work-from-home orders. The present paper also shows how the multimedia debriefing method supports a digital board game for ubiquitous learning in the course of cyberbullying behaviour. A repeated measure experiment with 56 middle school students showed that students’ conceptions and perceptions of cyberbullying behaviours improved significantly after gaming with multimedia debriefing sessions compared to gaming without multimedia debriefing sessions. Additionally, the students were asked to respond to a self-reported questionnaire and interviewed. The results revealed that they had a positive experience with the multimedia debriefing method and perceived the ubiquitous game-based learning as an effective environment that helped improve their learning regarding cyberbullying conceptions.
    Keywords: ubiquitous learning; digital board game; debriefing method; game-based learning; digital citizenships; essential skills.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2023.10048576
  • Design and implementation of a breathing interaction system for autistic Thai children   Order a copy of this article
    by Pitsanu Chaichitwanidchakol, Witcha Feungchan 
    Abstract: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is utilised to treat a variety of abnormal symptoms and assist children with autism improve their development in a variety of areas. The goal of this study is to help children with autism practise breathing at a pace that is near normal in order to deliver more oxygen to the brain. As a result, breathing interactions with two VR games were created specifically for autistic youngsters. First, an ASD breathing game allows a child to interact with real-time respiration rate, the practitioners could assist the child to breathe near the norm. Second, an ASD underwater exercise game allows a youngster to practise breathing skills while underwater and in the water. It involves an interactional breathing pattern. Both games employ virtual reality (VR) technology to aid in teaching proper breathing techniques. The findings of the game test show that autistic children’s usage of breathing interaction patterns is successful.
    Keywords: pervasive learning; virtual reality; VR; bio interaction; breath interaction; virtual feedback; simulation; autism; respiratory; hyperbaric oxygen therapy.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2023.10048607
  • Learning Analytics and Evidence-based K12 Education in Japan: Usage of Data-driven Services and Mobile Learning Across Two Years.   Order a copy of this article
    by Hiroaki Ogata, Rwitajit Majumdar, Brendan Flanagan, Hiroyuki Kuromiya 
    Abstract: Learning and evidence analytics framework (LEAF) is a technology framework for data-driven services in education. LEAF helps to form an educational eco-system with new digital technologies with capabilities such as integrating AI-driven models for learning recommendations and connecting learning logs through blockchain technologies to support lifelong learning. Since 2018, its implementation in Japan has led to more than 1,000 students of Japanese public schools using LEAF on mobile tablets for their daily learning activities both inside and outside school. The data collected at the school level in LEAF further enabled the creation of computational models to support teaching and self-learning. This article presents the data-driven services built on the platform and how it was used in Japanese K-12 Mathematics and English classes. A study evaluates the usage and user perception of data-driven educational practices in the Japanese context and discusses its greater implications and challenges for learning analytics research.
    Keywords: evidence-based education; learning analytics; K-12 education; e-book platform; AI-driven services; Japanese school; learning and evidence analytics framework; LEAF; BookRoll; Japan.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2023.10048714
  • A Mobile Game for Learning Programming: Students’ Reactions in view of their Attitudes, Experiences and Expectations   Order a copy of this article
    by Jakub Swacha, Karolina Muszynska, Magdalena Kowalska, Agnieszka Miluniec, Rytis Maskeliunas, Robertas Damasevicius, Audrius Kulikajevas, Tomas Blazauskas 
    Abstract: Numerous studies support the use of educational games in teaching, especially in the case of difficult subjects such as computer programming. In this paper, we contribute to this agenda by reporting students’ reactions to training featuring a new mobile educational game supporting learning JavaScript programming. We employ technology-enhanced training effectiveness model to investigate the impact of students’ prior experiences, expectations, and attitudes on their reactions to training. The obtained results bring several novel insights on the role of these factors, including a negative (rather than positive) impact of experience with video games on expectations regarding the app or a small (rather than large) positive impact of experience with video games on reactions to training. The findings can be useful in designing new educational games and putting them into educational practice.
    Keywords: game-based learning; programming education; m-learning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2022.10048930
  • Smartphone Apps for Child Sexual Abuse Education: Gaps and Design Considerations   Order a copy of this article
    by Sadia Tasnuva Pritha, Rahnuma Tasnim, Ashad Kabir, Sumaiya Amin, Anik Das 
    Abstract: The objectives of this study are understanding the requirements of a child sexual abuse (CSA) education app, identifying the limitations of existing apps, and providing guidelines for better app design. An electronic search across three major app stores was conducted and the selected apps were rated by a devised app rating scale. Our rating scale evaluates essential features, functionalities, and software quality characteristics that are necessary for CSA education apps, and determined their effectiveness for potential use as CSA education programs for children. User comments from the app stores are collected and analysed to understand their expectations and views. After analysing the feasibility of the reviewed apps, CSA app design considerations are proposed that highlight game-based teaching approaches. The evaluation results show that most of the reviewed apps are not suitable for being used as CSA education programs. Moreover, all the apps need to be improved in terms of their software qualities and CSA-specific features to be considered as potential CSA education programs. This study provides the necessary knowledge to developers and individuals regarding the essential features and software quality characteristics for designing and developing CSA education apps.
    Keywords: child sexual abuse; CSA; mobile learning; sexual abuse education; smartphone; mobile apps; design considerations; app rating scale.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2023.10049097
  • A multi-dimensional self-regulated learning model in the mobile era: implementation and evaluation in a long-term and large-scale promotion program in Taiwan   Order a copy of this article
    by Gwo-Jen Hwang, Hui-Chun Chu, Chui-Lin Lai, Shu-Yun Chien, Pei-Ying Chen 
    Abstract: In this study, a multi-dimensional self-regulated learning (MSRL) model is proposed. The model has been applied to a long-term and large-scale promotion program in Taiwan for helping school teachers guide students to be self-regulated learners from the stages of metacognition and cognition. To evaluate the relation of the MSRL, a survey study was conducted by analysing the feedback from 1,293 high school students using partial least squares structural equation modelling. The result showed that the students’ self-regulation had a solid relationship with their 5C (collaboration, communication, creativity, complex problem solving, and critical thinking) capabilities, especially a strong relationship with communication and collaboration. Furthermore, communication and collaboration are also associated with their complex problem-solving, critical thinking, and creativity. The results revealed that the MSRL model not only increased students’ learning engagement but also enhanced their higher order thinking.
    Keywords: self-regulation; self-regulated learning; metacognition; knowledge acquisition; knowledge application; mobile learning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2022.10049907
  • The Limited Usage and Effect of Smart Phones and an Online Tutoring System for Regular and Large-scale University English Teaching   Order a copy of this article
    by Jiyou Jia, Yuzhen Li, Huixiao Le 
    Abstract: This research integrates the online learning supported by students’ smart phones and a tutoring system CSIEC into a university course of English as foreign language through one semester with 548 students and eight lecturers from 13 classes. The treatment students used the system to learn vocabulary during the specified periods through voluntary participation and natural grouping, while the control students used alternative methods. The online learning activities analysis shows significant difference between the online learning behaviour of the treatment and control group, and demonstrates that the treatment group improved the vocabulary grade with a large effect size and decreased the time spent on completing the quiz. The treatment group improved better than the control group in overall learning, especially in vocabulary mastery and writing examined in regular university tests. The anonymous online survey results reveal that the students were satisfied with the English learning. The reasons leading to the findings are discussed. The implication for MALL research and future work are suggested.
    Keywords: smart phone; tutoring system; college English; vocabulary automaticity; effectiveness.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2023.10050362
  • Learners and system readiness for digital learning in the Ethiopian health sector: the path to blended learning   Order a copy of this article
    by Yifru Berhan, Muluken Dessalegn, Aranka Hetyey, Bekalu Assamnew, Sentayehu Tsegaye, Misrak Makonnen, Sintayehu Abebe 
    Abstract: The increasing global digital interconnectedness, the emerging user-friendly and cost-effective digital learning platforms are easing the barriers for reaching unlimited audience, and the lessons learned from coronavirus disease (COVID-19) restrictions have opened room for digital learning. In this study, quantitative and qualitative methods were employed by including 393 lower and mid-level health workers from different regions and 27 key informants from governmental and non-governmental organisations to get an insight into the learners and system readiness for digital learning. The most preferred delivery mode was blended learning. The cost-effectiveness of the method, high access to mobile devices, government and partners’ commitment along with trainees preference are persuasive conditions to implement and transform digital learning for health workers in Ethiopia and increase the health workforce as an important intervention for achieving universal health coverage and health-specific sustainable development goals at large.
    Keywords: blended learning; digital learning; Ethiopia; face-to-face learning; lower and mid-level health workers; quantitative and qualitative study.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2023.10050916
  • Effects of the iPad use on K-12 students' STEM achievement: a meta-analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Yu Xiao, Yeping Li, Jamaal Young, Ke Wang 
    Abstract: Considerable research has been conducted globally to explore the effects of handheld devices on students' academic achievement, but no consistent conclusions from individual studies have been reached. Specifically, iPads accounted for 94% of the educational handheld device market and US school districts have recently allocated significant funding for iPads amid COVID-19, it is important to learn about the effectiveness of using iPads in school education. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis of related literature to examine the potential impact of iPad-assisted instructional approaches in K-12 STEM classrooms compared with traditional instruction. After analysing 17 selected studies, we found a significant overall effect (RE = 0.37, p = 0.008) that suggests a better effect of iPad-assisted instruction than traditional instruction. Additionally, moderator analysis revealed that the two factors of subjects and assessment tools played a statistically significant moderator role in the effect of iPads on students' STEM achievement.
    Keywords: handheld devices; iPad; meta-analysis; mobile technology; STEM education.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2023.10051538
  • Facilitating creativity, collaboration, and computational thinking in group website design: A concept mapping-based mobile flipped learning approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Shu-Chen Cheng, Gwo-Jen Hwang, Pei-Ying Chen 
    Abstract: Group website design is an activity that aims to foster students’ creative thinking, computational thinking, and collaboration while developing websites in teams. A concept mapping-based mobile flipped learning approach was proposed in this study. A quasi-experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of the proposed model of student learning achievement, creativity, collaboration, and computational thinking in a technological learning context. Twenty-one at-work students in the experimental group applied the concept mapping-based mobile flipped learning, while 18 at-work students in the control group learned through conventional mobile flipped learning. The experimental results showed that the experimental group had better learning achievement, creativity, collaboration, and computational thinking than the control group. In addition, the experimental group also outperformed the control group on website design outcomes. The interviews further revealed that the proposed method positively impacted the students’ computational thinking skills. Accordingly, a discussion and several suggestions for future research are presented.
    Keywords: mobile learning; flipped learning; concept mapping; computational thinking; collaborative learning; website design.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2024.10051658
  • Roles and research issues of robots in education: A review of the 2011-2021 publications   Order a copy of this article
    by Gwo-Jen Hwang, Shih-Ting Chu 
    Abstract: In recent years, with the development of digital technology and artificial intelligence, robotics has gradually aroused the attention of researchers and has become one of the most important emerging technologies. At present, the application of robots in all walks of life has achieved outstanding results, and robot-assisted teaching has increasingly become a popular teaching and research issue. This study analysed the trends and outcomes of applying robots in educational settings around the world, and illustrated their application domains/activities and participants. In addition, the present study explained the roles of robots in education according to the following aspects: 1) teachers; 2) teaching assistants; 3) students/peers; 4) distance learning tools/agents; 5) learning materials/platforms. Finally, this study provides suggestions for future development in practice by analysing the advantages and challenges of applying robots in educational settings.
    Keywords: robot; robot-assisted teaching; artificial intelligence; systematic review; educational robot.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2023.10052140
  • When Smartphones Meet Mindful Learning: The Cluster Profiles of Passion Toward Smartphone Use, Creativity Mindset, and Creativity Self-Efficacy   Order a copy of this article
    by Yu-Chu Yeh, Yueh-Yin Peng 
    Abstract: Based on the advantages of smartphones and the importance of mindful learning, we developed a smartphone-based mindfulness intervention for creativity learning that can be easily implemented in daily life, by which we examined the relationship between personality traits and self-efficacy of creativity. The concerned personal traits included four types of passion towards smartphones and four types of creativity mindsets. Eighty-four college students participated in a ten-day intervention that requested participants to take photos of their surroundings using smartphones with an emphasis on self-determination and knowledge sharing. The results of cluster analysis revealed three distinctive patterns of clusters about creativity self-efficacy, mindsets, and passion, suggesting that creativity self-efficacy can be predicted by creativity growth mindsets and harmonious passion toward smartphones. The profiles of specific traits we identified in this study shed light on how different types of mindsets and passion toward smartphones may influence self-efficacy.
    Keywords: mindful learning; passion; mindset; self-efficacy; smartphones.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2023.10053326

Special Issue on: Enhancing Flexibility in Learning with Mobile and Ubiquitous Technologies

  • Effects and core design parameters of digital game-based language learning in the mobile era: A meta-analysis and systematic review   Order a copy of this article
    by Panicha Nitisakunwut, Gwo-Jen Hwang 
    Abstract: This meta-analysis and systematic review study of digital game-based language learning (DGBL) research describes the impact of DGBL implementation on English language learning outcomes. Criteria were set for the inclusion of appropriate research articles on digital game-based English language learning published between 2000 and 2019. Two main sources of data: Academic Search Complete (EBSCOhost) and the Web of Science were employed to search for relevant articles from peer-reviewed journals, and the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (version 3) software was used to conduct a meta-analysis. The findings identify the overall effectiveness of digital games including research designs of digital game-based learning and digital game designs, and describe the impact of DGBL on language learning outcomes. This study also provides suggestions and implications for educational practitioners and researchers who intend to conduct digital game-based learning in the mobile era.
    Keywords: digital game-based learning; educational games; language learning; meta-analysis; systematic review.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2023.10048230
  • Looking through the Fog of Remote Zoom Teaching: A Case Study of At-risk Student Prediction   Order a copy of this article
    by Andrew Kwok-Fai Lui, Sin-Chun Ng 
    Abstract: Identification of students who are at-risk of failing or dropping out from a course is a key part of instructional remediation for student retention. The data-driven machine learning approach has proven to be effective in utilising student information to make the prediction. The Zoom video conferencing platform, which has become widely adopted to replace in-person teaching and learning in the COVID-19 pandemic, poses a challenge to building effective at-risk student prediction model. Extracting information about students is made difficult by increased capacity to control self-disclosure and the manipulation of online communication. The case study described in the paper aims to find out the feasibility of at-risk student prediction in Zoom teaching and the capacity of engineering informative features based on the polling function. A number of prediction scenarios were defined and the performance of the corresponding models and the effectiveness of various machine learning algorithm were evaluated. It was found that formative assessment features were useful for prediction scenarios earlier in the course, and summative assessment features gave accurate predictions towards the end. The findings have filled the knowledge gap of at-risk student prediction in Zoom teaching.
    Keywords: Zoom platform; online learning; at-risk student prediction; COVID-19; machine learning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2023.10048482