International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation (21 papers in press)
Implementation of mobile game-transformed lecture-based approach to promoting C programming language learning
by Kannika Daungcharone, Patcharin Panjaburee, Krittawaya Thongkoo
Abstract: Many studies have utilized the potential of mobile games to promote students learning performance, while few have transformed compiler working steps into mobile games. In this paper, the researchers developed a mobile game by simulating the C compiler working steps with daily life situations. Afterward, the researchers applied a lecture-based learning approach to implementing the game in a Thai university C programming language course. The group implemented a mobile game-transformed lecture-based approach by comparing it to conventional lecture-based approach and mobile game approach. The findings of this study support the notion that students can better achieve the C programming language concept through a mobile game, especially when integrated with the process of lecture-based approach. The findings of this study also highlight the mobile game-transformed lecture-based approach support the studentsmotivation to learn the C programming language.
Keywords: mobile game-based learning; teaching and learning strategies; active learning; lecture-based learning; C programming language.
Tablets & apps for promoting Robotics, Mathematics, STEM Education and Literacy in Early Childhood Education
by Pandora Dorouka, Stamatios Papadakis, Michail Kalogiannakis
Abstract: New interactive technologies in terms of smart mobile devices and accompanied applications (apps) attract an increasing attention in the field of preschool and early-primary education. This has risen a great amount of academic literature, and numerous implementation initiatives. Despite this widespread interest, successful integration of interactive technologies in preschool and early-primary education still faces unresolved issues and challenges. This paper refers mostly to smart mobile devices and their accompanied mobile applications (apps) at the device/platform level. Robotics, Mathematics, STEM and Literacy are discussed below, since these are the fields found to provide most opportunities in early childhood, especially promising to cultivate interests early in computing. The ultimate objective is to present a greater comprehension of the influence of new technologies on young children's learning procedure and its potential for early childhood education. The study ends up with a general analysis of the research findings and a short proposal for the extension of the under-study subject as well.
Keywords: New interactive technologies; early childhood; preschool and early-primary education; robotics; Mathematics; STEM education; Literacy.
A Comprehensive Framework for Designing and Evaluating Vocabulary Learning Apps --- From Multiple Perspective
by Yuge Tu, Di Zou, Ruofei Zhang
Abstract: The integration of emerging mobile technology into the education domain has become increasingly ubiquitous. This research reviewed the advantages and challenges of mobile learning, discussed the key factors that promote effective vocabulary learning, and conducted a survey to investigate and identify the 10 most popular word learning apps. Based on the results, we analyzed the key features of the popular apps and summarized the elements that play crucial roles in leading to successful learning. Based on such analyses, we also developed a comprehensive framework for designing and evaluating vocabulary learning apps, covering dimensions, such as content quality, multimodal presentation, engagement, personalization, repetition, and usability. A popular app, Vocabulary.com, was also assessed utilizing the proposed framework. Users, evaluators, designers, and developers of word-learning apps are expected to benefit from this research by being provided with a comprehensive understanding of app-facilitated vocabulary learning and essential features of effective word learning apps.
Keywords: word learning apps; mobile learning; vocabulary learning; technology-enhanced language learning; multimedia learning; engagement; personalization; repetition; usability; second language vocabulary acquisition.
Implementation of flipped classroom with personalised ubiquitous learning support system to promote the university student performance of information literacy
by Chuthathip Srisuwan, Patcharin Panjaburee
Abstract: In recent years, unfiltered information has become increasingly available to individuals. It is important to cultivate students information literacy, including evaluating, synthesizing, and using information appropriately and ethically. To reduce the limitations of course duration, this study applied the flipped-classroom pedagogy to create the in- and out-of-class learning environment in an information literacy course. Taking prior knowledge into account, a personalised ubiquitous learning support system was developed to support this pedagogy in this course. An experiment was conducted on an information literacy course at a university in Thailand to investigate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. The experimental results highlight that, in comparison with the flipped classroom with conventional ubiquitous learning support system, the proposed approach significantly improved students information literacy performance, self-efficacy, career motivation, and grade motivation.
Keywords: Ubiquitous learning; Learning diagnosis; Information literacy; Teaching and learning strategies.
A taxonomy of mobile learning based on systematic review
by Sofia Moya Pereira, Mar Camacho Marti
Abstract: This study seeks to deepen the understanding of existing mobile learning research, summarize the relevant knowledge, and identify research gaps. This study is based on a systematic review of relevant studies conducted between 2009 and 2018; the final pool of studies comprised 25 studies, representing a total of 1828 original academic publications. A taxonomy was proposed based on 13 taxonomies, which were grouped into five domains: bibliometric statistics; research purposes; demographics and context; methodologies; and outcomes. The findings revealed the following: the number of articles published has increased over the last years, with significant contributions from Asia; most studies feature positive outcomes; the main focus is on learning effectiveness; the majority of the target sample comprises students, and the environment is hybrid, with a tendency to be informal; and mixed research methodologies are the common trend. The results also revealed a lack of current research in the field of strategies and frameworks, a common thread among all these studies.
Keywords: mobile learning; taxonomy; science education; systematic review.
Acceptance and Implication of Smartphones for Informal Language Learning in Foreign Study Tours
by Tingting Li, Di Zou, Minhong Wang, Haoran Xie, Fu Lee Wang
Abstract: Technology development has brought tremendous influence to the field of mobile assisted language learning. To have a better understanding of the digital device application in the educational settings, this paper aims to assess the possible acceptance of smartphones for informal language learning in foreign study tours and investigate the main factors influencing the acceptance. The researcher has modified the United Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model as the technology acceptance framework to guide the study. A total of 94 secondary students and 104 in-service secondary school language teachers in Lanzhou, China has been surveyed. Regression analysis was conducted for the collected data. The results of the statistical analysis showed that students and language teachers shared a similar moderate to high level of acceptance of smartphone adoption for informal language learning in foreign study tours. In addition, the acceptance level was strongly influenced by the facilitating conditions, followed by other elements including social influence, attitude and performance expectancy successively.
Keywords: United theory of acceptance and use of technology model; mobile learning; mobile assisted language learning; English language education; foreign study tours; APPs; regression analysis; secondary schools; teachers and students; smartphone adoption.
The uSAP Model: A Ubiquitous Observation Protocol for Improving Teamwork Skills, Time Management and Accuracy in High Fidelity Simulation among Nursing Students
by Nantakarn Maneejak, Pratchayapong Yasri
Abstract: High Fidelity Simulation (HFS) is a computerised manikin that can mimic physiological responses of patients which has been used in preclinical practices among nursing students. To make learning with HFS meaningful, an effective observation model has to be developed so as to improve motor skill practices. This study therefore develops a ubiquitous observation model, called uSAP which concerns specific tasks of an observed role (S), full attention to a particular psychomotor practice (A) and nursing procedures involved (P), all of which can be done ubiquitously (U). The effectiveness of this observation model is assessed among 98 nursing students who are divided into three groups: those using the uSAP model, those doing observation without a certain guideline, and those without observation. Three different aspects of performance are compared composting of teamwork ability, speed in completing HFS tasks and accuracy in administering nursing tasks related to five vital signs. In addition, the study explores the usefulness of the uSAP model using semi-structured interviews with 10 nursing students who use it. Statistical analysis reveals that those using the uSAP model outperform their counterparts in all three aspects. The interview results illustrate that the uSAP model helps nursing students learn from peers mistakes, structure their ideas orderly, stay more focused and apprehend detailed actions effectively. It is therefore recommended for nursing instructors dealing with HFS to consider using the uSAP model for enhancing the quality of observation which can subsequently help improve nursing students performances.
Keywords: high fidelity simulation; nursing education; uSAP model; ubiquitous observation; vital signs.
Using Social Media in Mobile MOOC for Teacher Professional Development
by Esther Tan, Jun Xiao, Xuejiao Li, Mengying Cao, Marcus Specht
Abstract: This paper presents a ubiquitous and mobile MOOC platform to foster lifelong learning. Harnessing the technological affordances of WeChat (a mobile social media app), learners accessed micro-learning activities and received personal learning analysis report on their mobile phones. Premised on activity theory, the mobile MOOC design model spans across five dimensions of intelligent distribution: learning objective analysis, learner persona analysis, platform improvement based on learning analytics, m-learn tool selection and m-learn interactive environment where the latter forms the core of individual and collaborative learning. To investigate learning effectiveness, we analyzed the survey data of 117 Shanghai kindergarten, primary and secondary teachers in one mini-lecture. Findings showed that learning satisfaction and learning achievement is highly correlated with the learnability of the learning environment. The integration of a multidimensional activity and multi-scenario model showed great potential to successfully accommodate the complexity and diversity of mobile MOOC learning activities in a ubiquitous-learning environment.
Keywords: Mobile MOOCs; mobile learning; ubiquitous learning; teacher training; lifelong learning.
Mobile-based Dynamic Assessment and the Development of EFL Students' Oral Fluency
by Abbas Ali Rezaee, Seyyed Mohammad Alavi, Parisa Razzaghifard
Abstract: This paper reports on a study investigating the potential effect ofthe impact of Mobile-based Dynamic Assessment (MbDA) on improving English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners' oral fluency. To fulfil the purpose of the study, 120 pre-intermediate learners of English were randomly assigned to one of three groups (two experimental groups and one control group), each consisting of 40 participants. The participants in the experimental groups completed eight communicative tasks via dynamic assessment under two different contexts: MbDA via text-chat context and MbDA via voice-chat context. The speech rate, average length of pauses, the number of repetitions, and the number of reformulation served as dependent variables. The study found that the participants in the experimental groups who received MbDA improved their speaking ﬂuency signiﬁcantly compared with their peers in the control group.
Keywords: MALL; dynamic assessment; EFL; oral fluency; mobile phones.
Influential Factors of Working Adults Perceptions of Mobile-assisted Vocabulary Learning with Multimedia Annotations
by Ruofei Zhang, Di Zou
Abstract: With the development of technology-enhanced language learning, there have been increasingly more studies on mobile-assisted vocabulary learning with multimedia annotations. However, little research has been conducted to explore working adults use of multimedia annotations in authentic mobile learning environments, investigate their perceptions of diverse types of multimedia annotations, or discuss the factors that may influence their perceptions of multimedia annotations. To fill in these research gaps, the researchers of this project developed a multimedia-annotation-enhanced vocabulary learning app, iWORDS, and invited 24 working adults in Hong Kong to learn vocabulary using this app. After experiencing mobile-assisted vocabulary learning with four types of multimedia annotations (i.e., the textual, the pictorial, the text-plus-GIF, and the text-plus-video annotations), the participants were interviewed about their perceptions and preferences. The results indicated that working adults used textual annotations most frequently but showed strongest preference for text-plus-GIF annotations. Four factors, content quality, attractiveness, efficiency, and cognitive stimuli, played important roles in influencing working adults' preferences and perceptions of multimedia annotations. Based on the research results, we proposed some suggestions for the development, selection and usage of multimedia annotations in mobile-assisted vocabulary learning.
Keywords: mobile learning; multimedia learning; technology-enhanced learning; word learning; computer-assisted language learning; autonomy; app; image; GIF; language learning.
An Exploration of Inquiry-based Authentic Learning enabled by Mobile Technology for Primary Science
by Wing Kei Yeung, Daner Sun
Abstract: In science class, few opportunities were provided for the students to do inquiry in authentic contexts. The pedagogical integration of mobile technology into science authentic learning needs more explorations. Thus, we conducted a study on inquiry-based science authentic learning enabled by a mobile tool: nQuire-it. In inquiry-based learning environment supported by nQuire-it, students experienced various tasks by personally experiencing science inquiry in authentic learning contexts, which is suitable for learning abstract concepts and developing deep understanding of the science concepts. To examine the effectiveness of the mobile technology supported science authentic learning, in the study, students performance on science inquiry, conceptual understanding and the linkage of knowledge with daily life experiences were analysed and compared between groups. The results suggested the effectiveness of nQuire-it in students science learning and in promoting students motivation and interests in science learning and improving the linkage of knowledge in and out of classroom.
Keywords: nQuire-it; science inquiry; authentic learning; mobile technologies.
A mobile game-based learning system with personalized conceptual level and mastery learning approach to promoting students learning perceptions and achievements
by Narisra Komalawardhana, Patcharin Panjaburee, Niwat Srisawasdi
Abstract: Mobile game, which is one of digital learning tools, has been widely used for encouraging students learning whenever and wherever. However, several previous studies have indicated that without properly incorporating students personalized characteristic and learning assistance mechanism into the digital game-based learning environment might fail to motivate students learning and to help them acquire knowledge. To address this issue, this study proposes an integrated learning diagnosis and mastery learning mechanism to generate appropriate gaming stage according to the conceptual levels of an individual student in a pre-test and monitor learning during the gaming process. A mobile game-based learning system was developed based on this approach, and an experiment on the general science course was conducted in four Thai elementary schools with 282 students to evaluate its effectiveness. The experimental results showed that the students achieved the concepts of force and motion through the proposed approach. The findings of this study also highlight relationships between the proposed game and the conventional game in terms of students achievement clusters, performance, and perceptions.
Keywords: technology-enhanced learning; elementary education; science education; mobile learning; individual learning.
Scaffolding spatial ability with augmented reality and virtual reality
by Jordan Wong, Kevin Yu, Nasser Giacaman
Abstract: Spatial ability is believed to aid comprehension of core STEM concepts. As there are no reliable methods for training spatial ability, this makes it a difficult skill to improve. This paper proposes Scaffolded Interactive Learning as a framework aiming to help students build on their spatial ability skills. It includes developing confidence, as well as scaffolding students to improve spatial ability. The framework is provided to scaffold students in solving questions that may otherwise perplex them. The framework was implemented in the form of two spatial ability trainer apps exploring the latest mobile technologies: augmented reality and virtual reality. A sample of 50 participants studying engineering were included in the evaluation, with the results showing that participants benefited in both skill and confidence from training in only a short period of time. The impact of the apps was analysed using in-app logging along with paper-based spatial tests. Participants with weak incoming spatial ability particularly benefited. These findings show the promising potential of augmented reality and virtual reality in improving spatial ability. Overall, targeted spatial ability tests showed statistically significant improvements while untargeted control tests showed insignificant differences.
Keywords: Spatial ability; augmented reality; virtual reality; STEM.
Special Issue on: Business and Social Issues in the Mobile Environment
Effect of information quality and system quality in information system (IS) success model as an antecedent of mobile learning in education institutions: case study in jordan
by Bilal Al-Nassar
Abstract: Educators and students in the higher institutions have reaped the benefits of wired technology in the past several years in the form of mobile learning. The main objective of the research is to develop and propose a service quality model for m-learning in university environment. The study proposed a service quality model based on the Information System (IS) Success Model for universities m-learning in a developing country, Jordan. This study was carried out through three stages; first, a questionnaire was used to obtain the perception of m-learning services among 360 students studying in different colleges of the Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST) and second, information quality was measured through (usefulness and adequacy), system quality (ease of use, accessibility and interactivity), and their causal relationship with learners perceived service quality. Lastly, the third stage involved the development of m-learning system prototype (MLSP) by using Rapid Application Development (RAD) technique. The prototype was then tested among students in JUST, Jordan.
Keywords: nformation quality ; system quality ; IS success model ; usefulness and adequacy ; ease of use ; accessibility and interactivity.
Consumer Perception towards Corporate Social Responsibility Practices: a study of the Malaysian Banking Sector
by Yeo Chu May, Amy, Steve Carter
Abstract: Organisations can gain enormous benefits when they are perceived as being socially responsible to their stakeholders. One of the important stakeholder groups that appear to be particularly susceptible to the banks Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) initiatives is their consumers. Thus, this research aims to investigate how banks customers perceived CSR practices in the banking industry in Malaysia. Administering through a Google-form survey instrument, supplemented with a created link via Facebook and Whatsapp, a total of 240 responses were collected, resulting in a response rate of 80 per cent. Data collected were analysed using statistical tools such as descriptive statistics, correlations and multiple regressions mainly on the predictive power of the constructs in this study. The notable results indicated consumer awareness tended to be positively correlated to CSR practice and it was also one of the most important constructs contributing to the prediction of CSR with the exception of knowledge of consumers and purchasing decision. This suggests that bank managers need to take seriously consumer awareness into the next level of analysis, in which social media has an essential role to play in disseminating important information relating to CSR practices and implementation, including the use of mobile learning as an educative tool.
Keywords: CSR practices; consumer awareness; purchase decision; consumer knowledge; Malaysian banking industry.
Mobile Advergame: Analysis of Flow, Attitudes, and Competitor Trait as the Moderating Variable
by Sri Hartini
Abstract: The focus of this study will be on mobile advergame as the communication media of online marketing. Mobile advergame is a video game which in some ways it contains an advertisement for a product, a service, or a company. This study examines the relationships of consumer flow, attitude toward mobile advergame, attitude toward brand and consumer characteristics, especially competitor trait as the moderating variable. This study used quantitative approach with hypothetical analysis. To collect the data, this study used purposive sampling method. Six mobile advergames, especially adventure genre were used in this study. A total of 162 game players as participants were involved in the survey. The participants were obtained when they were playing the mobile advergame. The result shows that consumer flow influences the attitude toward mobile advergame and competitor trait moderates the relationships. Attitude toward mobile advergame influences attitude toward brand. Consumer flow does not influence attitude toward brand and competitor trait does not moderate relationship flow on attitudes toward brand.
Keywords: flow; attitude; competitor trait; mobile advergame.
Special Issue on: Pedagogical Applications of Mobile Technology and Environment in STEM Disciplines
Trends and strategies for conducting effective STEM research and applications: a mobile and ubiquitous learning perspective
by Gwo-Jen Hwang, Kam-Cheong Li, Chiu-Lin Lai
Abstract: STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics) has been recognized by educators as an important educational objective in the 21st century. It provides a new vision of education by encouraging school teachers to engage students in problem-solving, critical-thinking and creative-thinking tasks using the knowledge and skills learned from multiple disciplines. While the effectiveness of STEM has been recognized by educators, the challenges of applying it to school settings have also been indicated, such as the difficulties in designing cross-disciplinary tasks and measuring students learning performances. Mobile and ubiquitous technologies have been regarded as a potential facilitator which enables learners to learn across contexts with access to learning resources in anywhere and at any time. The use of these new technologies could provide new perspectives and opportunities for developing STEM activities and studies. This paper highlights the challenges as well as the strategies for implementing STEM activities in school settings and designing STEM research. It proposes several models for guiding researchers and school teachers to develop STEM learning design are proposed. In addition, it provides several strategies and measuring tools for developing in-depth experimental STEM studies.
Keywords: STEM education; mobile learning; teaching strategies.
A Personalized Mobile Learning System for Promoting STEM Discipline Teachers TPACK Development
by Tanachai Kajonmanee, Pawat Chaipidech, Niwat Srisawasdi, Kornchawal Chaipah
Abstract: The contemporary educational environment presents many challenges to improve teaching quality of teachers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines. In-service teachers knowledge of instructional practices in the fields of STEM is currently considered to be crucial to deal with the challenges. To promote teaching competency for STEM teachers, the epistemology of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) is recognized as the essential qualities of knowledge for highly qualified teachers. This research proposed the design and development of a personalized mobile learning platform through computer engineering processes for improving the quality of teaching knowledge, regarding TPACK, for in-service STEM teachers. We designed algorithms to select particular digital content for learning by analysing data, consisting of in-service teachers' learning styles, TPACK-oriented problems, digital content attributes, mobile device capabilities and internet network quality to create a personalized learning system. The aim of this study is to explore an effect of the personalized mobile learning system on in-service teachers TPACK, and 78 in-service science teachers in secondary education schools located in North-eastern region of Thailand participated in this study. The results of our study indicated that the algorithms can work effectively with more than 65% of in-service science teachers satisfaction in at least good level, and more than 90% of their satisfaction in at least moderate level. Moreover, they have significantly improved learning achievements in almost all kinds of knowledge based on the TPACK framework. The results show that our system is promising to provide learning tools to improve STEM teachers proficiencies under the TPACK framework.
Keywords: Mobile learning; personalized learning; mobile technology; TPACK; in-service teacher.
On the Exploration of a Mobile Executive Functioning Coaching Solution for Students with and without Disabilities in Post-Secondary STEM Education
by Jingrong Xie
Abstract: This study investigated the insights of post-secondary science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) students with and without disabilities regarding their experiences with academic coaching through mobile phones and examined whether e-mentoring is effective in supporting the executive function skills (EFs) of those students. The researcher explored the design of a mobile EF coaching solution to satisfy individuals with diverse learning needs, especially students with disabilities, and to provide academic support to their post-secondary STEM gateway course. A parallel mixed methods study design was adopted. A total of seven participants completed the mobile coaching study. The pre/post-test results and the analysis of qualitative content showed improved EFs and learning strategies/skills for those students. Two levels of coding were used to analyze the qualitative data. This study added to the limited but growing research on implementing EF coaching via innovative technology tools to support students academic goals and performance.
Keywords: students with and without disabilities; EF coaching; mobile technology; success and persistence; post-secondary STEM.
Integrating Research-Based Practices and Mobile Technology to Support Students with Executive Functioning Challenges in Post-Secondary STEM
by Jingrong Xie, James Basham, Alyse Bensel
Abstract: The Universal Design for Learning (UDL) framework addresses the diverse learning needs of students with disabilities (SWDs) in post-secondary STEM education. The authors argue that supporting executive function skills (EFs) and learning strategies for students with disabilities (SWDs) during their learning process is important to the persistence and success of SWDs in post-secondary STEM education. Reviewed research indicates that EF challenges in post-secondary STEM education are a critical area for SWDs. Understanding current studies on the effectiveness of providing research-based practices (i.e., EF coaching, e-mentoring) for SWDs in post-secondary education can support the success of SWDs in post-secondary STEM education and diversify STEM workforce. We highlight how emerging mobile platforms, integrated with research-based instructional practices, can support SWDs success and persistence in post-secondary STEM education. The implications and limitations are discussed.
Keywords: EF challenges; research-based practices; mobile technology; success and persistence of SWDs; post-secondary STEM education.
Surveying China Teachers Technological Pedagogical STEM Knowledge: A Pilot Validation of STEM-TPACK Survey
by Ching Sing Chai, Morris Jong, Zhiming Yan
Abstract: As STEM education is increasingly drawing attention from different parts of the world, there is also an emerging call for STEM education to be synthesized with the TPACK framework for the purpose of teacher professional development. Unfortunately, teacher professional development for integrative STEM education anchored by engineering design has been lacking. This study attempts to integrate STEM and TPACK framework as a means to advance the state of affairs. In particular, a STEM TPACK survey was created and validated in this study. The exploratory factor analysis indicates that the four factors, i.e. the technological pedagogical science knowledge, technological pedagogical mathematics knowledge, technological pedagogical engineering knowledge and integrative STEM can be identified. The regression analysis indicates that the three TPACK factors can predict the teachers integrative STEM efficacy. In addition, teachers who have experienced teaching STEM classes are generally more efficacious in their STEM TPACK knowledge. Overall, the study indicates that teachers TPACK are associated with their efficacy in implementing STEM education. This implies that it is important to expound further teacher professional development efforts using the TPACK framework and the inclusion of mobile apps could be important.
Keywords: Science; Technology; Engineering and Mathematics (STEM); Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK); Teacher professional development.