Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation

International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation (IJMLO)

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International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation (37 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • A Bibliometric Analysis of Game-Based Collaborative Learning Between 2000 and 2019   Order a copy of this article
    by Xieling Chen, Di Zou, Haoran Xie, Gary Cheng, Fan Su 
    Abstract: This study examined a total of 296 articles on game-based collaborative learning (GBCL) published between 2000 and 2019 by using bibliometric analysis and mapping methodologies to present the current situation and trends of GBCL research. The papers were analysed from the influential scientific work, authors, institutions, countries/regions, and frequently discussed issues in the past 20 years. The bibliometric mapping and keyword analysis highlighted several important changes and future trends of the GBCL research. Based on the results, scholars are encouraged to pay more attention to analyzing dialogues and interaction in GBCL to understand learners' behaviour patterns. They are also recommended to continue applying various innovative technologies, such as mobile devices and virtual reality, to facilitate GBCL. The findings obtained provide meaningful implications for the future development of GBCL research.
    Keywords: bibliometric analysis; bibliometric mapping; research topic; research evolution; visualization; VOSviewer; keyword analysis; scientific collaboration; digital games; collaborative learning.

  • Mobile Game Based Learning System for a Local Language   Order a copy of this article
    by Melvin Inertia Soclo, Olufemi Deborah NINAN, Karen Cowan OLUFOKUNBI 
    Abstract: The problem of language endangerment as a result of deficiency among the Bassa natives of Liberia and the prevention of the extinction threat posed on the language motivates the need to explore the use of game-based learning system for its resolution. A bilingual electronic dictionary (ED) for automatic translation of English text to equivalent Bassa language text alongside its corresponding audio pronunciation on an Android based mobile device was developed. The system was designed using the Unified Modelling Language (UML) tools and implemented using the Java programming language in Android studio environment. The system was evaluated using Mean Opinion Score (MOS). Result of evaluation shows that age is directly proportional to the knowledge of Bassa language in Liberia. It was evident that the elderly Bassa natives have better knowledge of the language while the younger ones have less or do not understand at all. The mobile application software developed in this work will aid youth learner of the Bassa language.
    Keywords: digital game-based learning; Language Teaching; Bassa Language; games; motivation; information communication technology; mobile learning; mobile applications.

  • Understanding adoption of artificial intelligence-enabled language e-learning system: An empirical study of UTAUT model   Order a copy of this article
    by Hao-Chu Lin, Chih-Feng Ho, Han Yang 
    Abstract: The use of artificial intelligence is becoming a reality in the educational field. The development of AI technology, in addition to demand and popularity of technological innovations, has given rise to a large number of AI-education companies, and e-learning is poised to enter the advanced stage. The activities in which it is beginning to be implemented are the assessment of users achievement and provision of a live environment. In this study, a model of the willingness to continuously use AI-enabled language online e-learning products is constructed. The survey participants comprised users of online learning product in China and conclusions are drawn from the users perspective through empirical analysis based on the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology, combined with perceived risk and perceived entertainment variables. Therefore, based on a theoretical framework, suggestions are provided to optimize the design and marketing of AI-enabled e-learning products and leverage the users experiences to satisfy their needs. According to the results, from the perspective of users, we propose suggestions for the sustainable development and optimization of AI-enabled online education products and strategies to help operators reconcile the experiences and needs of the users.
    Keywords: e-learning; artificial intelligence; UTAUT model; adoption behavior; language learning.

  • Trends and Issues of Immersive Learning Environments in Higher Education from 2001 to 2020: Perspectives on Adaptive Ubiquitous Learning Experiences   Order a copy of this article
    by Pongpon Seprum, Charoenchai Wongwatkit 
    Abstract: Immersive Learning Environments (ILE) has been applied in many learning disciplines as a tool for providing a virtual interactive learning environment. With the advantages of ILE that could provide a playful and active learning experience in the learning processes, the ILE has been considered as another effective learning methodology using in learning processes together with the ubiquitous learning that provides the ease of access to the learners and encourage with self-learning management. This paper reviewed the ILE related 75 studies which were collected from the Web of Science database, then discovered the insights of the collected studies about the application of the ILE in various learning disciplines. The insights of integrating the adaptive learning experience toward the collected studies are discovered to present the ideas of ILE application with adaptive learning experience toward various learning disciplines. The review of ILE studies may provide the benefits for the education researchers by finding the technology used in the ILE studies, finding the ideas for integrating adaptive learning with ILE, and discovering new perspectives and ideas for studying and researching in the learning context.
    Keywords: immersive learning environments; adaptive learning; higher education; pedagogical issues; teaching strategies.

  • Usage Patterns and Effects of Mobile Learning Activities Using Social Learning Apps on the Achievement of Undergraduate Students in a History of Art Course   Order a copy of this article
    by Aishah Siddiquah, Sharifullah Khan Khan, Gwo-Jen Hwang, Muhammad Azeem Abbas, Saheed Ajayi 
    Abstract: The main objective of the study was to identify the effect of mobile learning activities using social learning applications (apps) based on the principles of constructivist learning on students learning achievement and behavioral patterns in a History of Art Course. Accordingly, two mobile apps, Pinterest and Piazza, were adopted in the present study. A one-group pretest and posttest experimental design was implemented to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. The participants were 57 female students studying in the second semester of the Computer Arts program of a public sector women university of Pakistan. The intervention spanned 6 weeks, and comprised four assignments given alternately on Pinterest and Piazza each week so that the students could use both tools at least twice. Student performances were measured using a pretest and posttest. The results revealed that there was a significant effect of using the social learning apps on the students achievement in the History of Art Course. Low achievers gained significantly more than high achievers. The results suggest that well-designed activities using social learning apps need to be incorporated into the teaching of courses for undergraduate students.
    Keywords: Social Learning; Pinterest; Piazza; Constructive Learning; History of Art; Mobile Learning; Smartphones.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2021.10039617
     
  • Aim-Math: A Ubiquitous Mathematics Learning Tool for Blind and Visually Impaired Students   Order a copy of this article
    by Wararat Wongkia, Wanintorn Poonpaiboonpipat 
    Abstract: In the past decade, many studies that employ assistive technologies in various educational settings, such as the learning activities of computer, mathematics, and science courses, have been reported. Nevertheless, the assistive technologies themselves are inadequate for providing educational experiences for students with visual impairment, however; tools with teaching strategies and instructions can supplement the benefits in learning mathematics. Therefore, we present an assistive learning tool to drive the mathematical instruction for students with visual impairment; Aim-Math. Instructional-driven features and assistive features were designed to help the students understand a concept and ease the learning process. Aim-Math is an audio-based system that helps students with visual impairment learn exponents. In order to evaluate the overall understanding and satisfaction, participants were students with visual impairment in a secondary school level. We employed pre-test, intervention, and post-test design. The mean of students post-test scores was significantly higher than those pre-test scores which indicates that Aim-Math could enhance the students understanding of exponents. Moreover, the students were satisfied with the use of Aim-Math. In addition, practitioners, teachers, and other educators can simply apply the design of the instructional-driven system and assistive features for students with visual impairment in other desirable concepts.
    Keywords: mathematics; assistive learning tool; visual disability; ubiquitous learning.

  • Investigate the factors that influence the users' engagement, satisfaction, and loyalty towards smartphone apps notifications in Jordan from students perspective.   Order a copy of this article
    by Jehad Imlawi, Mohammed-Issa Jaradat 
    Abstract: The current study extends the customer value, satisfaction, and loyalty framework (VSL) to investigate factors that influence the students engagement, satisfaction, and loyalty towards smartphone apps notifications in Jordan. Furthermore, this study focused on identifying the moderating effects of gender, experience, apps popularity, and income. To test the research model, we collected data from 272 students via paper-based survey method. 250 respondents have returned the survey, leading to a 91.9% valid return rate. The findings showed that the students' perceived usefulness, perceived value, and the results demonstrability out of apps notifications, have a positive effect on students' loyalty, engagement, and satisfaction. Except that perception of the notification usefulness does not influence students' satisfaction. Students' engagement in mobile apps, their satisfaction, and their perceptions of the app value, positively affect their loyalty to the notifying app. The results also showed that gender, experience, app popularity and income, have moderated some of the relationships in the research model. Contributions to both theory and practice are also addressed by the authors.
    Keywords: Engagement; Perceived Value; Satisfaction; Loyalty; Smartphone Apps; Apps Notifications.

  • Trends and Research Issues of Technology-Enhanced Self-Regulated Learning in the mobile era: a review of SSCI journal articles   Order a copy of this article
    by Chiu-Lin Lai 
    Abstract: In this study, bibliographic analysis was used to examine the research trends of technology-enhanced self-regulated learning. We collected 948 papers that had been published in SSCI journals from 2001 to 2020. Co-occurrence and citation analysis was employed to explore the frequently used keywords, active countries, and active authors. The papers were also divided into four time periods to explore the research change in terms of educational issues, learning contexts, and educational objectives. The findings showed that the research issues and the use of technologies differed between countries and author groups. Some researchers discussed self-regulation in collaborative learning, whereas others explored the effectiveness of interactive systems for learning. It was found that motivation and metacognition were core concerns throughout the entire period. Finally, learning analysis and rarely discussed issues (e.g. reading comprehension and procrastination) have been highlighted in recent years. Based on the findings, some suggestions are recommended for future studies.
    Keywords: self-regulated learning; research trend; motivation; metacognition; collaborative learning.

  • Understanding mobile learning, imagination capacity, and team creativity through People-Learn-Framework and Creativity Theory Perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Anjum Razzaque 
    Abstract: Though empirically unevidenced assertions posit that m-learning enhances online participation and achieves learning outcomes, instructors continue observing a low rate of students virtual participation. Such an observation gets instructors sceptical if m-learning achieves learning outcomes. In parallel, employers complain of graduates lacking team creativity skills. This study investigated the m-learning and learning outcomes relationship through the How People Learn framework and comprehended how imagination capacity and team creativity allow digital learning to enhance online participation and facilitate m-learning for achieving learning outcomes, using the creativity theory. Hence, this study proposed a model bearing five hypotheses. This model was tested via an adopted questionnaire and received 307 higher-education students. Multiple regression analysis reveals a partial mediation of m-learning between imagination capacity and team creativity. Such mediation helps achieve the desired learning outcomes, improves online participation, and enhances team creativity. This study also proposes theoretical and practical implications
    Keywords: How People learn framework; Creativity theory; m-learning; imaginative capacity; team creativity; learning outcomes; higher education.

  • Effects of a mobile game on students learning achievements and motivations in a clinical chemistry course: Learning style differences   Order a copy of this article
    by Natinan Bunyakul, Nuwee Wiwatwattana, Patcharin Panjaburee 
    Abstract: Clinical chemistry has become an essential topic for medical technologist students to perform an authentic clinical laboratory. Therefore, it has been suggested to situate students to experience various clinical chemistry situations. Recently, it has been a common recognition that educational games can motivate students learning and help them acquire knowledge by participating in gaming scenarios. Since there are only a few digital games in clinical chemistry, this study proposes a mobile game to simulate students in a clinical chemistry laboratory and implement the game with 155 university students on the clinical chemistry course. The results revealed that the mobile game could trigger knowledge acquisition and enable students to analyze internal quality control data, leading to less anxiety for performing clinical chemistry assessments. Moreover, the impacts of the mobile game on the learning achievements and motivations of the students with different learning styles were investigated and found that visual and verbal learning styles yielded positive results during participating in the mobile game.
    Keywords: medical education; higher education; mobile learning; ubiquitous learning; computer simulation; learning styles.

  • Implementation of a robotic-transformed five-phase inquiry learning to foster students computational thinking and engagement: a mobile learning perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Sasithorn Chookaew, Patcharin Panjaburee 
    Abstract: Many studies have used a robot to engage students in higher-order thinking tasks. With such a learning task, it remains challenging to design instruction in deriving basic knowledge through technological tools to support students in developing their higher-order thinking skills. However, a computer-controlled robot maybe not a challenge yet, and it is not convenient to get the information or supplementary materials in a learning activity. Many scholars have recognized mobile technologies as a potential tool enabling students to learn across in and out-of-classes. This study developed a mobile application to control a robot and manipulate data in authentic situations. Afterward, this study applied a five-phase inquiry-based learning approach to implementing the mobile application in a Thai high school robotic learning class. A repeated measures research design was employed to examine the effectiveness of implementing a robot-transformed five-phase inquiry learning regarding students improvement of computational thinking concepts, practices, and perspectives. Besides, the students could be engaged to learn, leading to improvement of computational thinking.
    Keywords: robot in education; engineering education; mobile application; active learning; project-based learning.

  • Embedding Teacher Scaffolding in a Mobile Technology Supported Collaborative Learning Environment in English Reading Class: Students Learning Outcomes, Engagement, and Attitudes   Order a copy of this article
    by Qiwen Xu, Daner Sun, Ying Zhan 
    Abstract: Developing student ability to read effectively and efficiently is an integral goal of language education that challenges language teachers and policy makers. As one of the effective strategies, teacher scaffolding in technology supported language learning needs more exploration considering the advance of technologies and the needs of students. This study designed and implemented an innovative reading program that integrated teacher scaffolding into a mobile technology supported collaborative learning environment to engage students of English as a foreign language in reading activities and to develop their motivations in reading. The reading program was supported by a widely adopted learning management system of Edmodo and was conducted in a local secondary school in Hong Kong. During implementation, multiple data such as reading test results, log data, and interview data were collected to examine student learning outcomes, engagement, and attitudes toward the innovative reading program. The findings confirmed the positive impacts the program made on student learning. Harnessed the technological affordances of Edmodo and afforded by teacher scaffolding, the student participants improved in reading performance, and their overall experience with the program was positive. In addition, the analysis helped identify the effective features and characteristics of the learning system and the provision of teacher guidance and facilitation, which will inform future design and improvement of school-based innovative programs for mobile technology supported language learning.
    Keywords: mobile technology supported collaborative learning; teacher scaffolding; Edmodo learning management system; English reading; English as a foreign language.

  • Using mobile technologies to teach 21st century learning skills: A study of teachers acceptance in Thai secondary schools   Order a copy of this article
    by Jintavee Khlaisang, Fang Huang, Prakob Koraneekij, Timothy Teo 
    Abstract: Learning in the 21st century emphasizes the development of knowledge and skills required of learners, such as creativity, critical thinking and soft skills, which enable learners to exchange information and learn from one another and ultimately become active global citizens. This study investigated the factors affecting the attitudes and intention of secondary school teachers toward using mobile technologies to teach 21st century learning skills in Thai secondary schools. The researcher extended the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) as the modeling approach to examine the relationships between six factors: subjective norm (SN), constructivist teaching belief (CTB), relative advantage (ADV), school incentives (SCHI), facilitating conditions (FC), and perceived behavioral control (PBC). Data were obtained from 403 secondary school teachers in the northern, central, northeastern, and southern regions of Thailand through self-report questionnaires, which were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The proposed model demonstrated good fit. The study results contribute to existing theories of technology acceptance and extend previous research. This study contributes to the understanding of the use of mobile technologies to teach 21st century learning skills in the context of Thai secondary school. Knowing these secondary school teachers attitudes toward and behaviors regarding the use of such technology in this context could be informative and advantageous for national school policymakers and educators.
    Keywords: mobile technologies; secondary school students; intention to use; technology acceptance model; Thailand.

  • An empirical study on mobile-assisted civic and e-learning service through sentiment analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Vanitha P S, Sreejith Alathur 
    Abstract: This paper aims to analyse the use of mobile phone assisted services in civic and academic learning. General and education-related learning applications useful to educate the users are considered as the input. This paper explores the literature into two different aspects: general and education-related mobile applications. The sentiment analysis is carried out to study users emotions towards the mobile learning (mLearning) service. More than thirty thousand tweets were collected. Through sentiment analysis, the users awareness about mLearning application is analysed and compared. Fewer studies have reported the usefulness of civic learning apps introduced by government agencies. Moreover, the users perceptions towards the mLearning apps in higher education are also less reported in the Indian context. The findings show the importance of improving mLearning services initiated by government agencies for civic and education-related learning. The suggestions are also provided for the improvement of mLearning services in India.
    Keywords: Keywords – mobile learning; civic learning; social media; sentiment analysis; e-governance India.

  • Mobile Learning for Preschoolers: A Systematic Literature Review   Order a copy of this article
    by Munil Shiva Goundar, Bimal Aklesh Kumar, Sailesh Saras Chand, Ronil Chand 
    Abstract: Mobile learning for preschoolers has evolved into a significant area of research. This paper reports on the Systematic Literature Review (SLR) carried out to investigate the state-of-art in mobile learning for preschoolers. SLR was conducted using research papers extracted from eight commonly used databases. A total of 72 papers were retrieved, from which 54 were relevant to our study. The results highlighted an upward publication trend, good quality studies published in the domain, and mobile applications like games, language and literacy, and art and coloring developed for preschoolers. Finally, the paper concludes by identifying the research gap and providing avenues for future research.
    Keywords: mobile learning; preschool; systematic literature review.

Special Issue on: ICOIE 2020 Breaking the Boundaries of Learning with Mobile Technological Advances

  • The Application and Effect of Smart Phones and an Online Tutoring System CSIEC for Vocabulary Drilling through Nine Semesters   Order a copy of this article
    by Jiyou Jia, Zhenzhen Chen, Jinjin Zhang 
    Abstract: In the past twenty years mobile-assisted language learning (MALL) has received a great deal of attention. However, most MALL application studies are on a trial basis which lasted for a short time, and there is a lack of MALL projects which integrate mobile learning into curriculum with a long implementation duration. This study explores the effect of MALL with smart phones and supported by a tutoring system CSIEC in a curriculum-integration project across nine semesters in an English as Foreign Language context. Results show mobile learning is effective for learning English as a foreign language when integrated into the curriculum and the overall effect size is large. Implications for MALL applications are discussed.
    Keywords: smart phones; language learning; MALL; effectiveness; vocabulary; CSIEC.

  • A Framework for Effectively Utilizing Human Grading Input in Automated Short Answer Grading   Order a copy of this article
    by Andrew Kwok-Fai Lui, Sin Chun Ng, Stella Wing-Nga Cheung 
    Abstract: Short answer questions are effective for knowledge assessment on a specific topic. As students are required to compose short answers with their own writing, luck plays a lesser role and the latent thinking process is better revealed. The concern in grading effort is a major reason of the limited use of short answer questions in mobile and online learning, especially in large-scale operations like MOOCs platforms. Automated grading uses a computing process and a grading model to divide answers into correct, wrong, and other discrete levels of correctness. In automated short answer grading, the input of human graders is necessary for specifying the grading model. The divide-and-grade approach is attractive because the level of human engagement is significantly lower than that of the conventional approaches. The answer set is first divided into clusters of similar answers, and at the minimal one human grading action is needed per cluster. This paper presents an improvement for the divide-and-grade approach that further enhances the effective utilization of human grading actions. A novel divide-and-grade short answer grading framework is proposed that addresses the selection of impactful answers for grading, the injection of the ground-truth grades for steering towards purer final clusters, and the handling of final grading of the clusters. Experiment results indicate the grading quality can be improved with the same level of human engagement.
    Keywords: automated short answer grading; clustering; semi-supervised clustering; MOOCs; automated grading.

  • Lessons Post-Lockdown: Science and Engineering Education Switching to Online Learning   Order a copy of this article
    by Amarpreet Gill, Derek Irwin, Dave Towey, James Walker, Yanhui Zhang 
    Abstract: For universities, COVID-19 made traditional means of providing quality teaching and learning impossible. Nevertheless, students required delivery and assessment to progress or graduate on time. Subjects in Science and Engineering with practical components presented a particular challenge, and this paper assesses institutional means and the perspectives of both instructors and students to determine best practice in this context. By triangulating institutional data (from pre- and post-pandemic policy and module delivery data) with staff and student surveys, followed up by semi-structured interviews, this paper examines both macro and micro perspectives and highlights successful and less-than-successful strategies for skill-based subjects. Somewhat surprisingly, our data indicates higher initial satisfaction among students than teachers. Further, we provide institutional and individual suggestions to implement successful online teaching and learning under different delivery scenarios (e.g., simulation vs. actualization, or the employment of virtual and augmented reality systems) while mitigating potential negative impacts on the experience.
    Keywords: COVID-19; Blended Learning; Online-learning; Quality Assurance; Student Engagement; Practical Subjects; Skill-based Learning; Teaching and Learning; Science and Engineering; Remote Teaching; Student Learning.

  • How smart learning has been achieved: A review of the literature (20112020)   Order a copy of this article
    by Kam Cheong Li, Billy Tak-Ming Wong 
    Abstract: This paper presents a review of the contexts, objectives, means and features of smart learning practices. It covers a total of 107 articles collected from Scopus and ProQuest which were published between 2011 and 2020. The results illustrate the patterns and trends of smart learning which have been practised in a widening range of subject disciplines, educational levels and learning environments. They show the evolution of smart learning in terms of technological developments, featuring in particular an increasing use of mobile devices and learning analytics as well as practices in online and blended environments. Improving learning performance has become a major objective of smart learning. The findings also suggest future studies in relation to the smart learning design in subject disciplines which differ in nature; the effective interoperation of smart learning with emerging educational technologies and approaches such as learning analytics and personalised learning; and smart pedagogy design and technology-pedagogy integration.
    Keywords: smart learning; smart education; smart classroom; learning analytics; learner-centric; personalised learning; personalisation.

Special Issue on: ICEAI 2020 Intelligent Language Acquisition in the Mobile Era

  • Learning English with the mobile language learning application Duolingo: the experiences of three working adults at different proficiency levels   Order a copy of this article
    by Fan Su, Di Zou 
    Abstract: Duolingo is one of the most popular mobile applications for English learning, has been studied extensively to assess the effectiveness of Duolingo-assisted language learning (DALL). However, most studies have focused on the learning outcomes while few have discussed the learning process, and even fewer have investigated working adults. Accordingly, the present study investigated the DALL experiences of three Chinese working adults who graduated from college and continued to learn English for various purposes. The three who were at the basic, intermediate, and advanced levels, had been learning English with Duolingo for a month. Throughout this month, they reported their learning experiences through think-aloud protocols and reflective learning logs, after which they were interviewed. The results indicated that the basic-level learner used more strategies than the intermediate- and advanced-level learners, which enriched the literature. All three participants showed generally positive perceptions of Duolingo. They moved up to higher course levels after one-month of Duolingo learning indicating that language learners may consider using Duolingo for self-access language learning.
    Keywords: mobile-assisted language learning; Duolingo; English; learning experience; mobile app; language learning strategy; motivation; perception; self-access language learning; language proficiency.

  • Thirty years of Interactive Learning Environments: Contributors, collaborations, and research topics   Order a copy of this article
    by Xieling Chen, Di Zou, Gary Cheng, Haoran Xie 
    Abstract: Interactive Learning Environments (ILE) is an important and active international journal in the research field of interactive learning environments since 1990. Focusing on the major contributors, scientific collaborations, research topics, and topic evolution, this paper analyzes 784 ILE articles using topic modeling and bibliometrics to explore key milestones in ILEs history. Institutions from the USA and Taiwan have contributed the most to the community, as witnessed from their top ranks in both impact and productivity indicators. Scientific collaborations between institutions in the same regions are noteworthy, while cross-regional collaborations need to be enhanced. Diverse applications and technologies such as intelligent tutoring systems, concept maps, digital games, e-books, interactive response systems, digital storytelling, and augmented reality are increasingly integrated into interactive learning contexts to facilitate flipped learning, personalized learning, and project-based learning. Additionally, learners emotions, cognitive load, and acceptance of technologies are widely studied.
    Keywords: interactive learning environments; scientific collaborations; structural topic modeling; research topics; bibliometric analysis; social network analysis; scientific collaborations; topic evolution; academic contributors; literature analysis.

  • L2 Learners Perceptions of a Chatbot as a Potential Independent Language Learning Tool   Order a copy of this article
    by Lucas Kohnke 
    Abstract: Independent language learning is paramount for those wishing to develop proficiency in a second or foreign language. Language learners often have few opportunities to communicate and interact actively in their target language. In this two-phase study, a chatbot was developed to assist second-language learners at a tertiary education institution in Hong Kong with independent language learning. I employed a questionnaire (N = 128) followed by semi-structured interviews (N = 12) to gain holistic insight into learners experiences with the chatbot. The results suggested that the participants enjoyed interacting with the chatbot both in and out of class and perceived that it improved their English skills. These findings have implications for language teachers and the future development of chatbots.
    Keywords: Chatbots; L2; EAP; tertiary education; independent language learning; language learning; Dialogflow.

  • A Qualitative Exploration of Student Perspectives of Chatbot Use During Emergency Remote Teaching   Order a copy of this article
    by Lucas Kohnke 
    Abstract: The pandemic has changed how students and teachers engage with course content and make use of various technologies. By working with Dialogflow Messenger, a chatbot developed for this study to support learning during the suspension of face-to-face classes due to COVID-19, students of languages for specific purposes received guidance and assistance completing assignments. Twenty-two students participated in this interpretive qualitative study. Data were collected using focus group interviews and analysed thematically, the findings of which indicate that students found the pedagogical chatbot supportive through its provision of human-like interactions, which enhanced their sense of engagement. Participants also suggested that their interactions with the chatbot eased their sense of isolation, positively impacting their learning. The findings provide insight on and enrich the existing knowledge of the integration of chatbots into teaching and discuss the advantages of learning future chatbot design for language acquisition.
    Keywords: Chatbots; COVID-19; Dialogflow; Language Learning; Emergency Remote Teaching.

  • A reading engagement-promoting strategy to facilitate EFL students mobile learning achievement, behavior, and engagement   Order a copy of this article
    by Mei-Rong Alice Chen, Gwo-Jen Hwang, Yi-Hsuan Lin, Victoria Abou-Khalil, Huiyong Li, Hiroaki Ogata 
    Abstract: Mobile learning (M-learning) refers to the use of mobile and wireless communication technologies to enable students to access learning materials in an interactive manner, regardless of location and time constraints. However, without a proper learning design or the provision of learning guidance, most students might fail to plan their learning schedule to effectively read and comprehend the learning materials on their own, which could significantly affect their learning engagement and outcomes. In this study, a Reading Engagement-Promotion Strategy (REPS) was proposed to tackle this issue. A quasi-experiment was designed to compare the students using the REPS approach and those using the conventional ones in terms of learning achievement, behaviors (i.e., frequency of use of markers, the number of words, and usage patterns), and engagement (i.e., time spent reading and learning). The results showed that the REPS approach could improve students' learning achievement and facilitate the high achievers engagement. These findings can serve as a valuable reference for those who intend to use learning systems for effective strategy-based learning to stimulate behavior and engagement.
    Keywords: Mobile learning; learning behavior; learning engagement; learning analytics; Learning achievement.

  • Proposal of remediation algorithms for school and university dropout years in post-conflict African countries in the face of covid-19: the case of the Central African Republic   Order a copy of this article
    by Ghislain Mervyl Saint-Juste Kossingou, Bessan Melckior Dégboé, Samuel Ouya, Gervais Mendy 
    Abstract: The 12 years of politico-military crises in the Central African Republic (CAR), has created an educational social imbalance in the rural areas of CAR compared to the capital city of Bangui. In some rural areas of CAR, children have not attended school during the 12-year war. The situation has worsened with the Covid-19 pandemic. We modeled two algorithms and materialized them by developing an API Framework Rasa chat bot that uses the main components Rasa NLU, Rasa Core and the programming language Python for the remediation of lost school and university years in African countries in conflict, particularly CAR. It also allows for the orientation in normal, professional and specific training in each province of the CAR, according to the level required of the learner. It takes into account the social distancing imposed by the Covid-19 pandemic.
    Keywords: educational social imbalance; API Chat bot; Rasa; out-of-school children; Remediation algorithms.

  • Bibliometric Analysis of Mobile Learning Research from 1984-2020   Order a copy of this article
    by Ayesha Gulzar, Shamshad Ahmed, Muhamad Ajmal Khan, Nadeem Siddique 
    Abstract: Main purpose of this study was bibliometrics analyses of literature published on mobile learning from 1984-2020 retrieved from Scopus database on February 18,2021. Total 7,404 records imported and download in BibTex, CSVs and RIS format were analyzed through MS Excel, MS Access, Biblioshiny, and Vosviewer. Results show that keywords (Mobile Learning, Higher Education and Mobile Devices) on mobile learning are used by different authors and United State is the most productive country in this area. Most of the articles were presented/written in conference proceeding (Lecture notes in computer science) and journal (International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation) by collaborative authors. China is the top most collaborative country with USA and Canada. Three filed plots show the most publishing authors on mobile learning belong to China, Indonesia, USA and Spain. Hwang G. J is the most prolific author having highest citation as well as highest h-index, g-index and m-index impact.
    Keywords: Mobile Learning; M-learning; Bibliometric; Scopus; Mobile Learning Trends.

Special Issue on: ELFA2020 eLearning Challenges and Opportunities Arising from the COVID-19 pandemic

  • Assessing the Effects of a Collaborative Problem-based Learning and Peer Assessment Method on Junior Secondary Students Learning Approaches in Mathematics Using Interactive Online Whiteboards during the COVID-19 Pandemic   Order a copy of this article
    by Chi Lok CHAN, Ronnie SHROFF, Wing Ki TSANG, Fridolin TING, Raycelle GARCIA 
    Abstract: Given the urgency of the COVID-19 pandemic, teachers have been compelled to integrate active learning pedagogies supported by mobile technologies to sustain students interactive engagement. This study describes the implementation of a novel active pedagogy the Collaborative Problem-based Learning and Peer Assessment (Co-PBLa-PA) method, implemented through interactive online whiteboards (IOWBs) on junior secondary mathematics classes in Hong Kong. According to the ICAP model, the Co-PBLa-PA method is among the most active teaching pedagogies. Data were collected and analysed to test three hypotheses postulating the main effects of the Co-PBLa-PA method on students learning approaches using IOWBs. Results of the study showed the Co-PBLa-PA method, supported by IOWBs, increased student learning performance and promoted significant deep learning among students. A significant positive correlation also emerged between deep learning approaches and students perceptions of technology-enabled active learning using interactive online whiteboards. Finally, implications, limitations and directions for future research are discussed.
    Keywords: collaborative learning; problem-based learning; peer assessment; learning approaches; deep learning; interactive online whiteboards; technology-enabled active learning; mathematics.

  • Reaching out: Cultivating a learning community to facilitate video-based peer coaching on teaching practice in the 'extended' and online classroom   Order a copy of this article
    by Dave Gatrell 
    Abstract: This exploratory, qualitative study investigated four university teachers' experiences of video-based peer coaching and their understanding and potential enactment of a learning community that may develop around this approach. It also explored teachers' perceptions of the 'extended' classroom, an approach in which the same instructor teaches on-campus and online students at the same time. Video-based peer coaching was regarded as efficient, focused and characterised by peer support, provided peers had sufficient background information regarding the observed lesson. It was agreed that this approach could be effective within a cross-departmental learning community, although leadership and institutional recognition would be needed to ensure focus and a sustainable culture of collaboration. Despite inherent challenges, the extended classroom was perceived as a positive development which afforded new forms of interaction.
    Keywords: video; peer coaching; learning communities; online teaching; extended classroom; hybrid teaching.

  • The Age of Academic Integrity in COVID-19: New Normal Changes to the Health Professional Education   Order a copy of this article
    by Athena Chung Yan Tong, Justin Chak Ting Cheung, Yanny Wing Yan Wong, Colin Ho Lam Chung, Olivia Ngan, Isabel Hwang, Frederic Wai To Choi, Florence Mei Kuen Tang 
    Abstract: The compliance to academic integrity was questionable when teaching and learning were conveniently conducted online. Unlike the pen-and-paper format physical invigilation, online examinations were misperceived to be conducted in a regulatory vacuum. The study objective is to explore perceptions towards conducting online examinations among students. An anonymous online survey was conducted among students enrolled in health professional programme under the Faculty of Medicine during the academic year 2019-2020. A total of 156 students filled out the survey. The majority preferred traditional onsite examination (75%) over online examination (25%) for several seasons, including less technical requirement (86%), immediate support from invigilators for unanticipated situations (74%), and easiness to focus (64%). Some perceived online examination was more advantageous than traditional onsite examination for convenience (66%). The pressure and anxiety towards the examination were similar regardless of the examination method. The most compelling reasons lead to engaging cheating behaviour was the desire to pass the course (42%), the majority class cheat too (42%), achieve outstanding grade (38%), and ease to browse other websites (31%). Knowing the teacher is kind and would not report the misconduct was the least possible reason for cheating (9%), easy to chat with classmates (16%) were also not a likely cause of cheat. The combination of the Blackboard system, Respondus Lockdown Browser, with Zoom for the online examination environment minimises the chance of cheating, even though there is no foolproof method for zero prevention. While these technologies prove effective, they should be a supporting tool rather than a total solution.
    Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; remote teaching; online learning; academic integrity; academic dishonesty; online examination; remote invigilation; cheating temptation; invigilation method.

  • The Pyramid of Experiential Learning International Relations through NationStates Game   Order a copy of this article
    by Ronald Castillo, Paul Derick Olorga, Maria Francesca Lagran, Allen John Carpio 
    Abstract: NationStates is an online game that offers players a world to simulate international relations learning through the creation of their own countries and interacting with other players as international actors. This paper describes how the game mirrors the basic structure of international relations and global politics, and on how it can be used as an education technology during the Covid-19 New Normal Learning. Using qualitative case study design, researchers utilised virtual transect walk to note observations within the simulation and juxtaposed to interviews gathered from students who experienced the game. Thematic analysis framed both the levels of international relations analysis and Kolbs theory of experiential learning. Results show that that such a game allows learners to experience and understand national power and the conditions within ones state, dynamics of decision-making, participation in the political system and behaviour of the global political actors under the theories of international relations.
    Keywords: Experiential Learning; International Relations; NationStates; Simulation Games; Covid-19 New Normal Education.

  • Snapshot of the present, glimpse into the future: impact of COVID-19 on higher education and adult training   Order a copy of this article
    by Zan Chen, Sabrina Binte Hardy 
    Abstract: With the physical closure of university and college premises around the world, the COVID-19 global crisis has brought to the fore critical questions surrounding the future delivery of higher education and adult learning away from traditional classrooms. This paper reports the broad findings from a recent survey with adult educators (n = 1553) working in the Higher Education (HE) and Training and Adult Education (TAE) sectors in Singapore. It provides key insights into adult educators perceptions about the rapid changes in teaching and learning due to the pandemic and identifies challenges and impacts of moving to online mediums. COVID-19 is viewed as an opportunity for paradigm-change which HE and TAE organizations and educators should grasp. Respondents caution that those who fail to make the necessary digital leap will be in danger of being left behind. Implications for post-COVID HE and TAE practice and policy are discussed.
    Keywords: impact of COVID-19; online learning; Higher Education; Training and Adult Education; challenges; digitalization.

  • Enabling In-Car Location-Based Experiential Learning with Presentria GO   Order a copy of this article
    by Ken Kwong-Kay Wong, Margaret Osborne 
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has changed how millions around the globe are educated. The 2nd or 3rd waves of the disease have made learning in classrooms unsafe once again. Many schools are forced to send their students home to take online classes under their governments lock-down protocols. For many young learners, engaging with school is a significant part of their well-being, which has been compromised by the extended period of remote learning and low social interaction levels during the pandemic. New and innovative solutions to address learners needs have been called during this pandemic. The Presentria GO system is an innovative solution that enables students from K-12 to higher education to learn experientially from their cars during a city excursion. Through a survey with 74 educators and a series of expert interviews and focus group discussions, insights into the feasibility of this active learning mode are explored. This paper proposes the concept of In-Car Location-Based Experiential Learning as one of the methods to engage students during the pandemic and beyond.
    Keywords: Active Learning; Experiential Learning; In-Car Learning; Location-based Learning; Mobile Learning.

Special Issue on: Research Trends and Future Developments of Artificial Intelligence in Education in the Mobile Era

  • Enhancing Skill Prediction through Generalizing Bayesian Knowledge Tracing   Order a copy of this article
    by Tak-Lam Wong, Di Zou, Gary Cheng, Jeff Kai Tai Tang, Yi Cai, Fu Lee Wang 
    Abstract: Learning Analytics (LA) have been widely investigated and applied to understand and optimize the learning process and environment. Among a number of LA tools, Bayesian Knowledge Tracing (BKT) was developed aiming at predicting the probability that a skill has been successfully acquired by a learner. While current development has proved BKT to be sufficiently accurate in prediction and useful, the state-of-the-art BKT methods suffer from a number of shortcomings such as the incapability to predict multiple skills learnt by a student. In this paper, we extend the ordinary BKT model to predict unlimited number of skills learned by a learner based on a non-parametric Dirichlet Process (DP). Another characteristic of our approach is that it can easily incorporate prior knowledge to our model resulting a more accurate prediction. The extended model is more generic and able to handle border applications. We have developed two efficient approximate inference methods based on Gibbs sampling and variational methods.
    Keywords: Bayesian Knowledge Tracing; BKT; learning analytics.

  • Automatic Topic Detection on Chinese Essays: A Technology Enhanced Approach for Facilitating Formative Use of Summative Assessment   Order a copy of this article
    by Leonard K.M. Poon, Wing Shui Ng, Gary Cheng 
    Abstract: Essay writing is an important form of assessment. It is typically used as summative assessment and may not have some of the major benefits of formative assessment. Although there are considerations of formative use of summative assessment, such use remains limited in practice. It is because of the difficulty in presenting the results and the large amount of effort required. In this paper, we propose to use an automatic topic detection method, named hierarchical latent tree analysis, for analyzing students' essays. The method can identify topics in the essays and organize those topics in a hierarchy with multiple levels of granularity. It can possibly facilitate formative use of summative assessment by addressing the main reasons prohibiting such use. We present the empirical results of the method using the 54 Chinese essays written by students in an undergraduate course. We further discuss and demonstrate how the method can facilitate formative use of the essays.
    Keywords: Topic detection; Hierarchical latent tree analysis; Formative use of summative assessment; Technology enhanced assessment; Chinese essays.

  • Mobile-based Learning of Drug Prescription for Medical Education using Artificial Intelligence Techniques   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiaohui Tao, Wee Pheng Goh, Ji Zhang, Jianming Yong, Elizabeth Zhixin Goh, Xueling Oh 
    Abstract: Medical knowledge is constantly changing with advances in medical sciences and techniques. As such, it is becoming increasingly difficult to keep up to date with current medical information, especially for medical students. Integration of technology into medical education is deemed an efficient way to address the challenge by providing a means of consolidating learning. In particular, the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) can enable users to have a new experience that helps facilitate their learning and catch-up with the constant advance of knowledge and technology. This in turn can minimise errors and aid better clinical decisions, hence resulting in better patient care. This paper discusses the relevance of mobile learning in medical education and introduces an innovative mobile application design to practice drug prescription in medical education. A prototype system demonstrates the design of the framework and the potential usability of the mobile application for medical students. This is a pioneer exploration of applying AI and mobile technology to help foster the new generation of medical practitioners.
    Keywords: mobile-based learning; drug prescription; drug interaction; medical education.

  • Context-Aware Recommender System for Adaptive Ubiquitous Learning   Order a copy of this article
    by Olutayo Boyinbode, Tunde Fatoke 
    Abstract: The use of context-aware recommender systems for adaptive ubiquitous learning has become a promising and interesting research direction in recent years, both as a result of the vast use of ubiquitous devices in our day-to-day lives and because of students increasing desire to learn with ease anytime and anywhere without restriction. This paper implements an RFID-based context-aware technology and recommender system for adaptive ubiquitous learning that will help learners to achieve personalised learning goals and greater learning efficiency. Our context-aware recommender suggests courseware to students based on their location, surrounding noise level and time of day. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology was used to acquire context awareness, and fuzzy logic was employed to develop courseware recommendations. The front end of the system was developed using Android Studio. Experimental results were obtained from selected students from different disciplines who evaluated the system.
    Keywords: Context-aware; Recommender System; Ubiquitous learning; Radio Frequency Identification (RFID); Courseware; Noise level; Location; Time; Learning Management System (LMS).
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2021.10034146
     
  • Advancements and hot research topics of artificial intelligence in mobile learning: A review of journal publications from 1995 to 2019   Order a copy of this article
    by Gwo-Jen Hwang, YUN-FANG TU, Chi-Jen Lin 
    Abstract: Based on the Technology-based Learning model, the present study reviewed the artificial intelligence-supported mobile learning (AImL) studies by searching for journal articles published from 1995 to 2019 in the Scopus database. Various dimensions, such as countries/areas, authors, subject areas and subject categories, hot topics and adopted technologies, were considered in this review study. Regarding the hot topics of AImL studies, the main focuses were situated learning in 1995-2007, mobile learning, intelligent tutoring systems and ubiquitous learning in 2008-2013, and mobile learning, artificial intelligence, machine learning and intelligent tutoring systems in 2014-2019. Moreover, in recent years, the number of applications regarding machine learning, artificial neural networks, cloud computing, data mining and opinion mining as well as other AI algorithms has been increasing. Accordingly, suggestions for future AImL studies are provided for the reference of researchers, teachers and educational policymakers.
    Keywords: artificial intelligence; mobile learning; literature review; research trends.