Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation

International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation (IJMLO)

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International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation (38 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • L2 Learners Perceptions of a Chatbot as a Potential Independent Language Learning Tool   Order a copy of this article
    by Lucas Kohnke 
    Abstract: Independent language learning is paramount for those wishing to develop proficiency in a second or foreign language. Language learners often have few opportunities to communicate and interact actively in their target language. In this two-phase study, a chatbot was developed to assist second-language learners at a tertiary education institution in Hong Kong with independent language learning. I employed a questionnaire (N = 128) followed by semi-structured interviews (N = 12) to gain holistic insight into learners experiences with the chatbot. The results suggested that the participants enjoyed interacting with the chatbot both in and out of class and perceived that it improved their English skills. These findings have implications for language teachers and the future development of chatbots.
    Keywords: Chatbots; L2; EAP; tertiary education; independent language learning; language learning; Dialogflow.

  • Embedding Teacher Scaffolding in a Mobile Technology Supported Collaborative Learning Environment in English Reading Class: Students Learning Outcomes, Engagement, and Attitudes   Order a copy of this article
    by Qiwen Xu, Daner Sun, Ying Zhan 
    Abstract: Developing student ability to read effectively and efficiently is an integral goal of language education that challenges language teachers and policy makers. As one of the effective strategies, teacher scaffolding in technology supported language learning needs more exploration considering the advance of technologies and the needs of students. This study designed and implemented an innovative reading program that integrated teacher scaffolding into a mobile technology supported collaborative learning environment to engage students of English as a foreign language in reading activities and to develop their motivations in reading. The reading program was supported by a widely adopted learning management system of Edmodo and was conducted in a local secondary school in Hong Kong. During implementation, multiple data such as reading test results, log data, and interview data were collected to examine student learning outcomes, engagement, and attitudes toward the innovative reading program. The findings confirmed the positive impacts the program made on student learning. Harnessed the technological affordances of Edmodo and afforded by teacher scaffolding, the student participants improved in reading performance, and their overall experience with the program was positive. In addition, the analysis helped identify the effective features and characteristics of the learning system and the provision of teacher guidance and facilitation, which will inform future design and improvement of school-based innovative programs for mobile technology supported language learning.
    Keywords: mobile technology supported collaborative learning; teacher scaffolding; Edmodo learning management system; English reading; English as a foreign language.

  • Using mobile technologies to teach 21st century learning skills: A study of teachers acceptance in Thai secondary schools   Order a copy of this article
    by Jintavee Khlaisang, Fang Huang, Prakob Koraneekij, Timothy Teo 
    Abstract: Learning in the 21st century emphasizes the development of knowledge and skills required of learners, such as creativity, critical thinking and soft skills, which enable learners to exchange information and learn from one another and ultimately become active global citizens. This study investigated the factors affecting the attitudes and intention of secondary school teachers toward using mobile technologies to teach 21st century learning skills in Thai secondary schools. The researcher extended the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) as the modeling approach to examine the relationships between six factors: subjective norm (SN), constructivist teaching belief (CTB), relative advantage (ADV), school incentives (SCHI), facilitating conditions (FC), and perceived behavioral control (PBC). Data were obtained from 403 secondary school teachers in the northern, central, northeastern, and southern regions of Thailand through self-report questionnaires, which were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The proposed model demonstrated good fit. The study results contribute to existing theories of technology acceptance and extend previous research. This study contributes to the understanding of the use of mobile technologies to teach 21st century learning skills in the context of Thai secondary school. Knowing these secondary school teachers attitudes toward and behaviors regarding the use of such technology in this context could be informative and advantageous for national school policymakers and educators.
    Keywords: mobile technologies; secondary school students; intention to use; technology acceptance model; Thailand.

  • An empirical study on mobile-assisted civic and e-learning service through sentiment analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Vanitha P S, Sreejith Alathur 
    Abstract: This paper aims to analyse the use of mobile phone assisted services in civic and academic learning. General and education-related learning applications useful to educate the users are considered as the input. This paper explores the literature into two different aspects: general and education-related mobile applications. The sentiment analysis is carried out to study users emotions towards the mobile learning (mLearning) service. More than thirty thousand tweets were collected. Through sentiment analysis, the users awareness about mLearning application is analysed and compared. Fewer studies have reported the usefulness of civic learning apps introduced by government agencies. Moreover, the users perceptions towards the mLearning apps in higher education are also less reported in the Indian context. The findings show the importance of improving mLearning services initiated by government agencies for civic and education-related learning. The suggestions are also provided for the improvement of mLearning services in India.
    Keywords: Keywords – mobile learning; civic learning; social media; sentiment analysis; e-governance India.

  • Mobile Learning for Preschoolers: A Systematic Literature Review   Order a copy of this article
    by Munil Shiva Goundar, Bimal Aklesh Kumar, Sailesh Saras Chand, Ronil Chand 
    Abstract: Mobile learning for preschoolers has evolved into a significant area of research. This paper reports on the Systematic Literature Review (SLR) carried out to investigate the state-of-art in mobile learning for preschoolers. SLR was conducted using research papers extracted from eight commonly used databases. A total of 72 papers were retrieved, from which 54 were relevant to our study. The results highlighted an upward publication trend, good quality studies published in the domain, and mobile applications like games, language and literacy, and art and coloring developed for preschoolers. Finally, the paper concludes by identifying the research gap and providing avenues for future research.
    Keywords: mobile learning; preschool; systematic literature review.

  • Direct and Indirect Effects of Smartphone Use on Academic Performance of Undergraduate Students in Tanzania   Order a copy of this article
    by Julius Raphael Athuman Mhina, Deogratius Mathew Lashayo 
    Abstract: The global proliferation of Smartphone usage in higher learning institutions is high and specific in Tanzania. Students are struggling to find the best use of their smartphones; nevertheless, their contribution to their academic performance is still debatable. Little research has embarked on quantitative measurement and specifically on the causal relationship existing between general Smartphone use and academic performance whether direct or indirect using formal performance models and/or theory. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine the Direct and Indirect impact of general Smartphone-Use on the Academic Performance of undergraduate students in Tanzania. This study used a snowball sampling technique for the distribution of questionnaires to a total of 412 respondents. The combinations of descriptive, Confirmatory Factor Analysis, and Path Analysis using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) were employed. The results show that smartphone use by students in higher learning institutions has an indirect impact on their academic performance.
    Keywords: Smartphone Use; Task-Technology Fit; IS Success model; SEM; Student Academic Performance; HLIs.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2023.10047210
  • Effects and core design parameters of digital game-based language learning in the mobile era: A meta-analysis and systematic review   Order a copy of this article
    by Panicha Nitisakunwut, Gwo-Jen Hwang 
    Abstract: This meta-analysis and systematic review study of digital game-based language learning (DGBL) research describes the impact of DGBL implementation on English language learning outcomes. Criteria were set for the inclusion of appropriate research articles on digital game-based English language learning published between 2000 and 2019. Two main sources of data: Academic Search Complete (EBSCOhost) and the Web of Science were employed to search for relevant articles from peer-reviewed journals, and the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (version 3) software was used to conduct a meta-analysis. The findings identify the overall effectiveness of digital games including research designs of digital game-based learning and digital game designs, and describe the impact of DGBL on language learning outcomes. This study also provides suggestions and implications for educational practitioners and researchers who intend to conduct digital game-based learning in the mobile era.
    Keywords: digital game-based learning; educational games; language learning; meta-analysis; systematic review.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2023.10048230
  • Investigating the impact of a mobile learner-generated-content tool on pupils’ after-school English vocabulary behavioural learning patterns, learning performance and motivation: a case study   Order a copy of this article
    by Yanjie Song, Hiroaki Ogata, Yin Yang, Kousuke Mouri 
    Abstract: This paper reports on a case study of investigating the effect of a mobile learner-generated content (m-LGC) tool on pupils’ after-class English as a second language (ESL) vocabulary behavioural learning patterns, learning performance and motivation. Participants were 34 students in grade 4 from two classes in a primary school in Hong Kong. Data collection included students’ learning logs on the m-LGC tool, pre-and post-vocabulary tests and pre-and post-questionnaires. Both qualitative and quantitative data analysis methods were adopted. An active group (AG) and a passive group (PG) were categorised based on visualisation and the number of student created learning logs. The results show that: 1) student behavioural learning patterns varied across AG and PG; 2) students in the AG made significant improvement in their learning performance, but those in the PG did not; 3) student learning motivation in the AG was improved, but that in the PG dropped significantly.
    Keywords: vocabulary learning; mobile learner-generated-content tool; m-LGC; behavioural learning patterns; visualisation tool; motivation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2023.10048354
  • Scenario-based mobile application design for young dual-language learners: evidence from factor analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Athip Thumvichit, Watcharapol Wiboolyasarin, Singhanat Nomnian, Narongdej Phanthaphoommee, Koraya Techawongstien 
    Abstract: This article aimed to provide new insights into critical factors to consider when developing a scenario-based mobile application (SBMA) for dual-language learners (DLLs). It is intended to investigate the factorial structure of the SBMA for young students in an elementary school context using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The convenience sampling method was used to recruit 1,040 in-service teachers to complete the internet-based questionnaire. For half of the respondents, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted to identify the factors for SBMA design for young DLLs, and CFA was used to ascertain the model fit. The EFA identified five factors from 32 items, and through CFA, the results indicated that the five factors obtained from the EFA were validated: 1) application attribute; 2) lesson content; 3) immersive environment; 4) learning strategy; 5) instructional use. The findings shed light on how SBMA could be designed for DLLs.
    Keywords: dual language learner; DLL; factor analysis; mobile application; primary school student; scenario-based learning; SBL; scenario-based mobile application; SBMA.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2023.10048355
  • A Profile of College Students’ Mobile Learning Readiness: An Integrative Literature Review of Studies from 2007 to 2021   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiao Xu, J. Jessica Li 
    Abstract: An integrative literature review of 29 studies from the past 15 years (2007 to 2021) was conducted to understand and frame college students mobile learning readiness (MLR) comprehensively. A resultant conceptual profile with theoretical and practical implications is proposed that includes 13 factors grouped into three categories: learner traits (past mobile learning experience, self-efficacy, innovativeness, optimism, intention, self-regulated learning), technology expectations (expectations of mobile learning effort, performance and relative advantages), and external influences (facilitating conditions, subjective influence, infrastructure readiness and cost). The results from the analysis originally locate college students personality and psychological prerequisites for engaging in mobile learning; identify three relative advantages of mobile learning flexibility, interactions, and enjoyment; and pinpoint the external determinants for examining college students MLR including costs, public infrastructure resources associated with mobile learning, and student-peers and instructors subjective influences. Recommendations for fostering MLR are discussed as well.
    Keywords: conceptual profile; mobile learning readiness; college students; integrative literature review.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2023.10048393
  • Looking through the Fog of Remote Zoom Teaching: A Case Study of At-risk Student Prediction   Order a copy of this article
    by Andrew Kwok-Fai Lui, Sin-Chun Ng 
    Abstract: Identification of students who are at-risk of failing or dropping out from a course is a key part of instructional remediation for student retention. The data-driven machine learning approach has proven to be effective in utilising student information to make the prediction. The Zoom video conferencing platform, which has become widely adopted to replace in-person teaching and learning in the COVID-19 pandemic, poses a challenge to building effective at-risk student prediction model. Extracting information about students is made difficult by increased capacity to control self-disclosure and the manipulation of online communication. The case study described in the paper aims to find out the feasibility of at-risk student prediction in Zoom teaching and the capacity of engineering informative features based on the polling function. A number of prediction scenarios were defined and the performance of the corresponding models and the effectiveness of various machine learning algorithm were evaluated. It was found that formative assessment features were useful for prediction scenarios earlier in the course, and summative assessment features gave accurate predictions towards the end. The findings have filled the knowledge gap of at-risk student prediction in Zoom teaching.
    Keywords: Zoom platform; online learning; at-risk student prediction; COVID-19; machine learning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2023.10048482
  • Self-paced reading as a computer-based methodology for L2 assessment: A scoping review   Order a copy of this article
    by Liubov Darzhinova, D.I. ZOU 
    Abstract: This scoping review illuminates the self-paced reading task as a computer-based methodology for second language (L2) reading assessment. To find support for this methodology, the authors explored the research foci, language contexts, and types of self-paced reading studies over five years (2016 to 2021), as well as the self-paced reading task’s instruments and some significant study findings for L2 research. The review also showcases the most influential self-paced reading studies in the L2 context based on the author’s affiliation, research venue, and citation data. As a result, this scoping review examines possibilities and hindrances in integrating computer-based self-paced reading tasks into L2 assessment.
    Keywords: computer-assisted language assessment; L2 assessment; reading assessment; self-paced reading task; language learning; learning analytics; performance prediction; scoping review; task-based learning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2022.10048575
  • Ubiquitous game-based learning with a multimedia debriefing on cyberbullying during the COVID-19 pandemic   Order a copy of this article
    by Sasipim Poompimol, Patcharin Panjaburee, Suthiporn Sajjapanroj, Chanayuth Changpetch, Preeyada Tapingkae, Thanyaluck Ingkavara 
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic forced schools to move instruction online and learn from home, laying on learning anywhere and anytime upon the students’ self-pace. This study designed and implemented ubiquitous learning with the digital board game in response to government-issued learn-at-home and work-from-home orders. The present paper also shows how the multimedia debriefing method supports a digital board game for ubiquitous learning in the course of cyberbullying behaviour. A repeated measure experiment with 56 middle school students showed that students’ conceptions and perceptions of cyberbullying behaviours improved significantly after gaming with multimedia debriefing sessions compared to gaming without multimedia debriefing sessions. Additionally, the students were asked to respond to a self-reported questionnaire and interviewed. The results revealed that they had a positive experience with the multimedia debriefing method and perceived the ubiquitous game-based learning as an effective environment that helped improve their learning regarding cyberbullying conceptions.
    Keywords: ubiquitous learning; digital board game; debriefing method; game-based learning; digital citizenships; essential skills.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2023.10048576
  • Design and implementation of a breathing interaction system for autistic Thai children   Order a copy of this article
    by Pitsanu Chaichitwanidchakol, Witcha Feungchan 
    Abstract: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is utilised to treat a variety of abnormal symptoms and assist children with autism improve their development in a variety of areas. The goal of this study is to help children with autism practise breathing at a pace that is near normal in order to deliver more oxygen to the brain. As a result, breathing interactions with two VR games were created specifically for autistic youngsters. First, an ASD breathing game allows a child to interact with real-time respiration rate, the practitioners could assist the child to breathe near the norm. Second, an ASD underwater exercise game allows a youngster to practise breathing skills while underwater and in the water. It involves an interactional breathing pattern. Both games employ virtual reality (VR) technology to aid in teaching proper breathing techniques. The findings of the game test show that autistic children’s usage of breathing interaction patterns is successful.
    Keywords: pervasive learning; virtual reality; VR; bio interaction; breath interaction; virtual feedback; simulation; autism; respiratory; hyperbaric oxygen therapy.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2023.10048607
  • Learning Analytics and Evidence-based K12 Education in Japan: Usage of Data-driven Services and Mobile Learning Across Two Years.   Order a copy of this article
    by Hiroaki Ogata, Rwitajit Majumdar, Brendan Flanagan, Hiroyuki Kuromiya 
    Abstract: Learning and evidence analytics framework (LEAF) is a technology framework for data-driven services in education. LEAF helps to form an educational eco-system with new digital technologies with capabilities such as integrating AI-driven models for learning recommendations and connecting learning logs through blockchain technologies to support lifelong learning. Since 2018, its implementation in Japan has led to more than 1,000 students of Japanese public schools using LEAF on mobile tablets for their daily learning activities both inside and outside school. The data collected at the school level in LEAF further enabled the creation of computational models to support teaching and self-learning. This article presents the data-driven services built on the platform and how it was used in Japanese K-12 Mathematics and English classes. A study evaluates the usage and user perception of data-driven educational practices in the Japanese context and discusses its greater implications and challenges for learning analytics research.
    Keywords: evidence-based education; learning analytics; K-12 education; e-book platform; AI-driven services; Japanese school; learning and evidence analytics framework; LEAF; BookRoll; Japan.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2023.10048714
  • A Mobile Game for Learning Programming: Students’ Reactions in view of their Attitudes, Experiences and Expectations   Order a copy of this article
    by Jakub Swacha, Karolina Muszynska, Magdalena Kowalska, Agnieszka Miluniec, Rytis Maskeliunas, Robertas Damasevicius, Audrius Kulikajevas, Tomas Blazauskas 
    Abstract: Numerous studies support the use of educational games in teaching, especially in the case of difficult subjects such as computer programming. In this paper, we contribute to this agenda by reporting students’ reactions to training featuring a new mobile educational game supporting learning JavaScript programming. We employ technology-enhanced training effectiveness model to investigate the impact of students’ prior experiences, expectations, and attitudes on their reactions to training. The obtained results bring several novel insights on the role of these factors, including a negative (rather than positive) impact of experience with video games on expectations regarding the app or a small (rather than large) positive impact of experience with video games on reactions to training. The findings can be useful in designing new educational games and putting them into educational practice.
    Keywords: game-based learning; programming education; m-learning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2022.10048930
  • Smartphone Apps for Child Sexual Abuse Education: Gaps and Design Considerations   Order a copy of this article
    by Sadia Tasnuva Pritha, Rahnuma Tasnim, Ashad Kabir, Sumaiya Amin, Anik Das 
    Abstract: The objectives of this study are understanding the requirements of a child sexual abuse (CSA) education app, identifying the limitations of existing apps, and providing guidelines for better app design. An electronic search across three major app stores was conducted and the selected apps were rated by a devised app rating scale. Our rating scale evaluates essential features, functionalities, and software quality characteristics that are necessary for CSA education apps, and determined their effectiveness for potential use as CSA education programs for children. User comments from the app stores are collected and analysed to understand their expectations and views. After analysing the feasibility of the reviewed apps, CSA app design considerations are proposed that highlight game-based teaching approaches. The evaluation results show that most of the reviewed apps are not suitable for being used as CSA education programs. Moreover, all the apps need to be improved in terms of their software qualities and CSA-specific features to be considered as potential CSA education programs. This study provides the necessary knowledge to developers and individuals regarding the essential features and software quality characteristics for designing and developing CSA education apps.
    Keywords: child sexual abuse; CSA; mobile learning; sexual abuse education; smartphone; mobile apps; design considerations; app rating scale.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2023.10049097
  • A multi-dimensional self-regulated learning model in the mobile era: implementation and evaluation in a long-term and large-scale promotion program in Taiwan   Order a copy of this article
    by Gwo-Jen Hwang, Hui-Chun Chu, Chui-Lin Lai, Shu-Yun Chien, Pei-Ying Chen 
    Abstract: In this study, a multi-dimensional self-regulated learning (MSRL) model is proposed. The model has been applied to a long-term and large-scale promotion program in Taiwan for helping school teachers guide students to be self-regulated learners from the stages of metacognition and cognition. To evaluate the relation of the MSRL, a survey study was conducted by analysing the feedback from 1,293 high school students using partial least squares structural equation modelling. The result showed that the students’ self-regulation had a solid relationship with their 5C (collaboration, communication, creativity, complex problem solving, and critical thinking) capabilities, especially a strong relationship with communication and collaboration. Furthermore, communication and collaboration are also associated with their complex problem-solving, critical thinking, and creativity. The results revealed that the MSRL model not only increased students’ learning engagement but also enhanced their higher order thinking.
    Keywords: self-regulation; self-regulated learning; metacognition; knowledge acquisition; knowledge application; mobile learning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2022.10049907
  • The Limited Usage and Effect of Smart Phones and an Online Tutoring System for Regular and Large-scale University English Teaching   Order a copy of this article
    by Jiyou Jia, Yuzhen Li, Huixiao Le 
    Abstract: This research integrates the online learning supported by students’ smart phones and a tutoring system CSIEC into a university course of English as foreign language through one semester with 548 students and eight lecturers from 13 classes. The treatment students used the system to learn vocabulary during the specified periods through voluntary participation and natural grouping, while the control students used alternative methods. The online learning activities analysis shows significant difference between the online learning behaviour of the treatment and control group, and demonstrates that the treatment group improved the vocabulary grade with a large effect size and decreased the time spent on completing the quiz. The treatment group improved better than the control group in overall learning, especially in vocabulary mastery and writing examined in regular university tests. The anonymous online survey results reveal that the students were satisfied with the English learning. The reasons leading to the findings are discussed. The implication for MALL research and future work are suggested.
    Keywords: smart phone; tutoring system; college English; vocabulary automaticity; effectiveness.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2023.10050362
  • Learners and system readiness for digital learning in the Ethiopian health sector: the path to blended learning   Order a copy of this article
    by Yifru Berhan, Muluken Dessalegn, Aranka Hetyey, Bekalu Assamnew, Sentayehu Tsegaye, Misrak Makonnen, Sintayehu Abebe 
    Abstract: The increasing global digital interconnectedness, the emerging user-friendly and cost-effective digital learning platforms are easing the barriers for reaching unlimited audience, and the lessons learned from coronavirus disease (COVID-19) restrictions have opened room for digital learning. In this study, quantitative and qualitative methods were employed by including 393 lower and mid-level health workers from different regions and 27 key informants from governmental and non-governmental organisations to get an insight into the learners and system readiness for digital learning. The most preferred delivery mode was blended learning. The cost-effectiveness of the method, high access to mobile devices, government and partners’ commitment along with trainees preference are persuasive conditions to implement and transform digital learning for health workers in Ethiopia and increase the health workforce as an important intervention for achieving universal health coverage and health-specific sustainable development goals at large.
    Keywords: blended learning; digital learning; Ethiopia; face-to-face learning; lower and mid-level health workers; quantitative and qualitative study.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2023.10050916

Special Issue on: Intelligent Language Acquisition in the Mobile Era

  • Learning English with the mobile language learning application 'Duolingo': the experiences of three working adults at different proficiency levels   Order a copy of this article
    by Fan Su, Di Zou 
    Abstract: Duolingo, one of the most popular mobile applications for English learning, has been studied extensively to assess the effectiveness of Duolingo-Assisted Language Learning (DALL). However, most studies have focused on learning outcomes, few have discussed the learning process, and even fewer have investigated working adults. Accordingly, the present study investigated the DALL experiences of three Chinese working adults who graduated from colleges and continued to learn English for various purposes. The three who were at the basic, intermediate and advanced levels had been learning English with Duolingo for a month. Throughout this month, they reported their learning experiences through think-aloud protocols and reflective learning logs, after which they were interviewed. The results indicated that the basic-level learner used more strategies than the intermediate- and advanced-level learners, which enriched the literature. All three participants showed generally positive perceptions of Duolingo. They moved up to higher course levels after one-month Duolingo learning, indicating that language learners may consider using Duolingo for self-access language learning.
    Keywords: mobile-assisted language learning; Duolingo; English; learning experience; learning process; learning strategies; psychological states; multi-case study; learning proficiency; working adults.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2022.10049576
  • Bibliometric analysis of mobile learning research from 1984 to 2020   Order a copy of this article
    by Ayesha Gulzar, Shamshad Ahmed, Muhammad Ajmal Khan, Nadeem Siddique 
    Abstract: The main purpose of this study was bibliometrics analysis of literature published on mobile learning from 1984-2020 retrieved from the Scopus database on 18 February 2021. Total 7404 records imported and download in BibTex, CSVs and RIS format were analysed through MS Excel, MS Access, Biblioshiny and Vosviewer. Results show that different authors use keywords (Mobile Learning, Higher Education and Mobile Devices) on mobile learning, and USA is the most productive country in this area. Most of the articles were presented/written in conference proceedings (Lecture Notes in Computer Science) and journal (International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation) by collaborative authors. China is the top collaborative country with the USA and Canada. Three filed plots show the most publishing authors on mobile learning belong to China, Indonesia, the USA and Spain. Hwang GJ is the most prolific author with the highest citation and highest h-index, g-index and m-index impact.
    Keywords: mobile learning; m-learning; bibliometrics; Scopus; mobile learning trends; scientometrics analysis; bibliometrics analysis; biblioshiny software; VOSviewer software; MS Access.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2022.10049577
  • Thirty years of interactive learning environments: contributors, collaborations and research topics   Order a copy of this article
    by Xieling Chen, Di Zou, Gary Cheng, Haoran Xie 
    Abstract: Interactive Learning Environments (ILE) is an important and active international journal in the research field of interactive learning environments since 1990. Focusing on the major contributors, scientific collaborations, research topics and topic evolution, this paper analyses 784 ILE articles using topic modelling and bibliometrics to explore key milestones in ILE's history. Institutions from the USA and Taiwan have contributed the most to the community, as witnessed from their top ranks in both impact and productivity indicators. Scientific collaborations between institutions in the same regions are noteworthy, while cross-regional collaborations need to be enhanced. Diverse applications and technologies such as intelligent tutoring systems, concept maps, digital games, e-books, interactive response systems, digital storytelling and augmented reality are increasingly integrated into interactive learning contexts to facilitate flipped learning, personalised learning and project-based learning. Additionally, learners' emotions, cognitive load and acceptance of technologies are widely studied.
    Keywords: interactive learning environments; structural topic modelling; research topics; bibliometric analysis; social network analysis; scientific collaborations; topic evolution; academic contributors; literature analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2022.10049578
  • A qualitative exploration of student perspectives of chatbot use during emergency remote teaching   Order a copy of this article
    by Lucas Kohnke 
    Abstract: In this study, a chatbot was developed using Dialogflow Messenger to support learning during face-to-face class suspension due to COVID-19. The pandemic has changed how students and teachers engage with course content and use technologies. By working with the chatbot, language for specific purposes students received guidance and support to complete homework and assignments during the face-to-face class suspension. Twenty-two (22) students participated in this interpretive qualitative study, and data were collected using focus group interviews and analysed thematically. The findings indicate that students found the pedagogical chatbot supportive by providing human-like interactions, which enhanced their sense of engagement. Participants also indicated that their interactions with the chatbot eased their sense of isolation, which had a positive impact on their learning. The findings provide insight and enrich existing knowledge for integrating chatbots into teaching and they discuss the advantages of learning future chatbot design for language acquisition.
    Keywords: chatbots; COVID-19; dialogflow; language learning; emergency remote teaching.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2022.10049579
  • A reading engagement-promoting strategy to facilitate EFL students' mobile learning achievement, behaviour and engagement   Order a copy of this article
    by Mei-Rong Alice Chen, Gwo-Jen Hwang, Yi-Hsuan Lin, Victoria Abou-Khalil, Huiyong Li, Hiroaki Ogata 
    Abstract: Mobile learning (M-learning) refers to the use of mobile and wireless communication technologies to enable students to access learning materials in an interactive manner, regardless of location and time constraints. However, without a proper learning design or the provision of learning guidance, most students might fail to plan their learning schedule to effectively read and comprehend the learning materials on their own, which could significantly affect their learning engagement and outcomes. In this study, a Reading Engagement-Promotion Strategy (REPS) was proposed to tackle this issue. A quasi-experiment was designed to compare the students using the REPS approach and those using the conventional ones in terms of learning achievement, behaviours (i.e., frequency of use of markers, the number of words, and usage patterns), and engagement (i.e., time spent reading and learning). The results showed that the REPS approach could improve students' learning achievement and facilitate the high achievers' engagement.
    Keywords: mobile learning; learning behaviour; learning engagement; learning analytics; learning achievement.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2022.10049580
  • Proposal of algorithms to make up for lost school and university years in post-conflict African countries in the face of Covid-19: case of the Central African Republic   Order a copy of this article
    by Ghislain Mervyl Saint-Juste Kossingou, Bessan Melckior Dégboé, Samuel Ouya, Gervais Mendy 
    Abstract: The 12 years of politico-military crises in the Central African Republic (CAR), has created an educational social imbalance in the rural areas of CAR compared to the capital city of Bangui. In some rural areas of CAR, children have not attended school during the 12-year war. The situation has worsened with the Covid-19 pandemic. We modelled two algorithms and materialised them by developing an API Framework Rasa chat bot that uses the main components Rasa NLU, Rasa Core and the programming language Python for the remediation of lost school and university years in African countries in conflict, particularly CAR. It also allows for the orientation in normal, professional and specific training in each province of the CAR, according to the level required of the learner. It takes into account the social distancing imposed by the Covid-19 pandemic.
    Keywords: educational social imbalance; API chatbot; Rasa; out-of-school children; remediation algorithms.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2022.10049581
  • An online database of English assessment tasks for developing student teachers' assessment literacy   Order a copy of this article
    by Qin Xie 
    Abstract: This paper reports a project that developed an online database of English assessment tasks for schools ( The project adopted a design-based approach. During the design phase, 92 student teachers designed language tests in groups; their designs were annotated with detailed task features before being moved to the open database. Two evaluative studies were conducted in 2018 (N = 48) and 2021 (N = 35) through a questionnaire; both studies found the participants showed a positive attitude toward the innovation but also uncovered several remaining issues through individual interviews (N = 10). Counter-intuitively, the 2021 cohort, whose learning experience had been compromised substantially due to the pandemic, was found to show more positive attitudes than the 2018 cohort. This finding along with others is discussed to inform researchers and educators elsewhere who are interested in harnessing the power of technology to develop student teachers' language assessment literacy in an even more challenging post-Covid era.
    Keywords: language teacher assessment literacy; design-based research; pre-service teacher education; experience-based learning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2022.10048804

Special Issue on: ELFA2020 eLearning Challenges and Opportunities Arising from the COVID-19 pandemic

  • Assessing the Effects of a Collaborative Problem-based Learning and Peer Assessment Method on Junior Secondary Students Learning Approaches in Mathematics Using Interactive Online Whiteboards during the COVID-19 Pandemic   Order a copy of this article
    by Chi Lok CHAN, Ronnie SHROFF, Wing Ki TSANG, Fridolin TING, Raycelle GARCIA 
    Abstract: Given the urgency of the COVID-19 pandemic, teachers have been compelled to integrate active learning pedagogies supported by mobile technologies to sustain students interactive engagement. This study describes the implementation of a novel active pedagogy the Collaborative Problem-based Learning and Peer Assessment (Co-PBLa-PA) method, implemented through interactive online whiteboards (IOWBs) on junior secondary mathematics classes in Hong Kong. According to the ICAP model, the Co-PBLa-PA method is among the most active teaching pedagogies. Data were collected and analysed to test three hypotheses postulating the main effects of the Co-PBLa-PA method on students learning approaches using IOWBs. Results of the study showed the Co-PBLa-PA method, supported by IOWBs, increased student learning performance and promoted significant deep learning among students. A significant positive correlation also emerged between deep learning approaches and students perceptions of technology-enabled active learning using interactive online whiteboards. Finally, implications, limitations and directions for future research are discussed.
    Keywords: collaborative learning; problem-based learning; peer assessment; learning approaches; deep learning; interactive online whiteboards; technology-enabled active learning; mathematics.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2023.10047228
  • Reaching out: Cultivating a learning community to facilitate video-based peer coaching on teaching practice in the 'extended' and online classroom   Order a copy of this article
    by Dave Gatrell 
    Abstract: This exploratory, qualitative study investigated four university teachers' experiences of video-based peer coaching and their understanding and potential enactment of a learning community that may develop around this approach. It also explored teachers' perceptions of the 'extended' classroom, an approach in which the same instructor teaches on-campus and online students at the same time. Video-based peer coaching was regarded as efficient, focused and characterised by peer support, provided peers had sufficient background information regarding the observed lesson. It was agreed that this approach could be effective within a cross-departmental learning community, although leadership and institutional recognition would be needed to ensure focus and a sustainable culture of collaboration. Despite inherent challenges, the extended classroom was perceived as a positive development which afforded new forms of interaction.
    Keywords: video; peer coaching; learning communities; online teaching; extended classroom; hybrid teaching.

  • The Age of Academic Integrity in COVID-19: New Normal Changes to the Health Professional Education   Order a copy of this article
    by Athena Chung Yan Tong, Justin Chak Ting Cheung, Yanny Wing Yan Wong, Colin Ho Lam Chung, Olivia Ngan, Isabel Hwang, Frederic Wai To Choi, Florence Mei Kuen Tang 
    Abstract: The compliance to academic integrity was questionable when teaching and learning were conveniently conducted online. Unlike the pen-and-paper format physical invigilation, online examinations were misperceived to be conducted in a regulatory vacuum. The study objective is to explore perceptions towards conducting online examinations among students. An anonymous online survey was conducted among students enrolled in health professional programme under the Faculty of Medicine during the academic year 2019-2020. A total of 156 students filled out the survey. The majority preferred traditional onsite examination (75%) over online examination (25%) for several seasons, including less technical requirement (86%), immediate support from invigilators for unanticipated situations (74%), and easiness to focus (64%). Some perceived online examination was more advantageous than traditional onsite examination for convenience (66%). The pressure and anxiety towards the examination were similar regardless of the examination method. The most compelling reasons lead to engaging cheating behaviour was the desire to pass the course (42%), the majority class cheat too (42%), achieve outstanding grade (38%), and ease to browse other websites (31%). Knowing the teacher is kind and would not report the misconduct was the least possible reason for cheating (9%), easy to chat with classmates (16%) were also not a likely cause of cheat. The combination of the Blackboard system, Respondus Lockdown Browser, with Zoom for the online examination environment minimises the chance of cheating, even though there is no foolproof method for zero prevention. While these technologies prove effective, they should be a supporting tool rather than a total solution.
    Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; remote teaching; online learning; academic integrity; academic dishonesty; online examination; remote invigilation; cheating temptation; invigilation method.

  • The Pyramid of Experiential Learning International Relations through NationStates Game   Order a copy of this article
    by Ronald Castillo, Paul Derick Olorga, Maria Francesca Lagran, Allen John Carpio 
    Abstract: NationStates is an online game that offers players a world to simulate international relations learning through the creation of their own countries and interacting with other players as international actors. This paper describes how the game mirrors the basic structure of international relations and global politics, and on how it can be used as an education technology during the Covid-19 New Normal Learning. Using qualitative case study design, researchers utilised virtual transect walk to note observations within the simulation and juxtaposed to interviews gathered from students who experienced the game. Thematic analysis framed both the levels of international relations analysis and Kolbs theory of experiential learning. Results show that that such a game allows learners to experience and understand national power and the conditions within ones state, dynamics of decision-making, participation in the political system and behaviour of the global political actors under the theories of international relations.
    Keywords: Experiential Learning; International Relations; NationStates; Simulation Games; Covid-19 New Normal Education.

  • Snapshot of the present, glimpse into the future: impact of COVID-19 on higher education and adult training   Order a copy of this article
    by Zan Chen, Sabrina Binte Hardy 
    Abstract: With the physical closure of university and college premises around the world, the COVID-19 global crisis has brought to the fore critical questions surrounding the future delivery of higher education and adult learning away from traditional classrooms. This paper reports the broad findings from a recent survey with adult educators (n = 1553) working in the Higher Education (HE) and Training and Adult Education (TAE) sectors in Singapore. It provides key insights into adult educators perceptions about the rapid changes in teaching and learning due to the pandemic and identifies challenges and impacts of moving to online mediums. COVID-19 is viewed as an opportunity for paradigm-change which HE and TAE organizations and educators should grasp. Respondents caution that those who fail to make the necessary digital leap will be in danger of being left behind. Implications for post-COVID HE and TAE practice and policy are discussed.
    Keywords: impact of COVID-19; online learning; Higher Education; Training and Adult Education; challenges; digitalization.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2023.10044417
  • Enabling In-Car Location-Based Experiential Learning with Presentria GO   Order a copy of this article
    by Ken Kwong-Kay Wong, Margaret Osborne 
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has changed how millions around the globe are educated. The 2nd or 3rd waves of the disease have made learning in classrooms unsafe once again. Many schools are forced to send their students home to take online classes under their governments lock-down protocols. For many young learners, engaging with school is a significant part of their well-being, which has been compromised by the extended period of remote learning and low social interaction levels during the pandemic. New and innovative solutions to address learners needs have been called during this pandemic. The Presentria GO system is an innovative solution that enables students from K-12 to higher education to learn experientially from their cars during a city excursion. Through a survey with 74 educators and a series of expert interviews and focus group discussions, insights into the feasibility of this active learning mode are explored. This paper proposes the concept of In-Car Location-Based Experiential Learning as one of the methods to engage students during the pandemic and beyond.
    Keywords: Active Learning; Experiential Learning; In-Car Learning; Location-based Learning; Mobile Learning.

  • Studio-Based Architecture Pedagogies in the New Normal   Order a copy of this article
    by Adam Fingrut, Hilary Ng 
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic struck Southeast Asia in early 2020 and forced entire communities into widespread social distancing. This impacted education with the cancelation of face-to-face learning and turning toward online, remote, and digital platforms for teaching and learning. The impact of this is heavily felt in studio-based subjects such as architecture, where working exclusively within the digital environment can create a false sense of objectivity by limiting material observation, fabrication, and assembly as part of an evidence-based design argument. As programs attempt to transpose their courses, and assignments into an eLearning solution, they face the challenge of meeting or reconsidering traditional approaches, supporting infrastructure and their definition of making culture in the context of a professional architecture degree. This paper presents findings from an ongoing research study investigating student reported perceptions toward novel teaching pedagogies.
    Keywords: Architecture Education; Haptic Knowledge; Design Technology; eLearning.

  • Impact of technology-enabled project-based assessments on learner outcomes in higher education   Order a copy of this article
    by Chee Kin Boey, Sowmya Sathish, Aubrey Soo Nghee Koh 
    Abstract: The classroom based applied-research explores a shift towards technology-enabled formative and summative project-based assessments as a replacement to campus-based in-person assessments. The study is conducted in the context of Polytechnics in Singapore adopting a practice-based and skills education. The investigation focuses on project-based assessments addressing two scenarios with two different target groups: student-generated video creation as summative assessment for full-time pre-employment training (PET) students and the application of Student Response System (SRS) for case-based formative tasks using a digital wall for part-time continuing education and training (CET) students who are adult learners. The authors investigated on project-based assessments by looking at how the integration of technology could help contribute to the development of specific attributes or learner profiles suitable for the workplace and real-world performance in todays context, while meeting the skill-based learning outcomes. The qualitative study uses a hermeneutic phenomenology coupled with a quantitative survey to ensure valid interpretation of student feedback. While video-enabled summative assessment helped develop transferable skills such as digital literacy, creativity, resourcefulness, and communication and teamwork skills amongst tertiary students, the application of an open-digital wall as a form of SRS to post responses from real-life contexts revealed higher intrinsic motivation towards life-long learning among adult learners encompassing inclusion, positive attitude, engagement, and authenticity.
    Keywords: Technology-enabled assessment; project-based assessment; formative assessment; student-generated video creation; student-response system (SRS); project-based learning; learner outcomes; intangible learning outcomes; desired graduate profile; student profile; lifelong learning.

  • Analytics for WhatsApp chats: tracking and visualizing students collaboration in project teams   Order a copy of this article
    by Fedor Duzhin, Joo Seng Tan 
    Abstract: A popular theme in learning analytics is identifying patterns in online collaboration. The problem of quantitative and qualitative description of students interaction in learning teams to achieve learning outcomes remains a challenge. We introduce a framework for describing and visualizing students interactions in WhatsApp group chat. We present five studies (N = 123, N = 64, N = 106, N=55, N=46) in courses taken by mathematics and business students. We found that mathematics students wrote more messages and shorter messages than business students. We also found that average number of words per message correlated with the project mark positively in mathematics but negatively in business courses. We suggest a way to visualize a WhatsApp chat as a network and tested the hypothesis that the centralization coefficient of this network correlated negatively with the project score. The hypothesis was not confirmed. Implications and suggestions for further study are presented.
    Keywords: learning analytics; collaboration visualization; network science; student collaboration; WhatsApp chats.

  • A Blended Peer-Assisted Learning Using Video Conference System for Anatomy Education: Student Learners and Student Facilitators Perspectives   Order a copy of this article
    by Justin Chak Ting Cheung, Carissa Ka Yu Kwan, Wing Hei Ng, Crystal Chi Ching Cheung, Olivia Miu Yung Ngan, Florence Mei Kuen Tang 
    Abstract: Anatomy education that traditionally relies on face-to-face delivery is disrupted by the outbreak of COVID-19. Due to suspension of face-to-face instruction in schools, our institution adopted a video conferencing system with peer-assisted learning (VCS-PAL). The study objectives are to (1) report our institutional experience in adopting blended VCS-PAL in anatomy teaching and (2) describe perceptions towards this pedagogy during the pandemic among student facilitators and learners. In the mixed-method educational research, 139 Year 2 Biomedical Engineering and Pharmacy students were surveyed regarding their VCS-PAL learning experience. A total of 85 returned the survey, with a response rate of 60.7% (85/139). Most students found the live demonstration of plastinated specimens helpful in learning anatomy (82%). The general feedback from both student learners and student facilitators are positive. The blended VCS-PAL approach in anatomy education provides an excellent adjustment opportunity amidst the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic.
    Keywords: COVID-19; Video Conferencing System; Peer-Assisted Learning; Blended VCS-PAL Approach; Anatomy Education; Remote Learning; Health Professional Training.

  • Teaching and Learning with Mobile Technologies Under COVID-19 Pandemic: Crisis or Opportunity   Order a copy of this article
    by Paul Lam, Hilary Ng 
    Abstract: To maintain social distance while resuming education, institutions turned to a new form of practice synchronized online virtual teaching with mobile technologies as an emergency response to continuing education amidst the recent COVID-19 pandemic outbreak. In this paper, we attempt to share our experience at a university level on teaching under pandemic and evaluate its effectiveness by (i) exploring the feedback collected when learning in synchronized online virtual learning with mobile device at different time points and (ii) obtaining feedback from students on the challenges of synchronized online virtual teaching with mobile technologies. Specifically, we invited 1,996 students and 413 students to complete Studies 1 and 2, respectively. They were invited to complete a survey on their perception, the learning process, and the challenges they encountered when learning with mobile device in the online virtual learning medium. Provided that the trend of technology-enhanced education is on the rise, our findings suggested that students show improvement to learn in the synchronized online virtual teaching with mobile technologies across time. Thus, this form of teaching model holds the promise of becoming the model for future teaching and learning practices. Hence, we hope to pave the way for research opportunities to advance our understanding of the new education model with mobile technologies and learning opportunities to continue teaching and learning under uncontrollable circumstances.
    Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; higher education; synchronized online virtual teaching; perceptions; challenges.