International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation (19 papers in press)
The Role of Augmented Reality Based Unplugged Computer Programming Approach in the Effectiveness of Computational Thinking
by Arinchaya Threekunprapa, Pratchayapong Yasri
Abstract: Recently, pedagogical approaches to promote computational thinking among 21st century learners have increasingly become a topic of interest in educational research. Studies revealed that unplugged computer programming, learning coding without a computer, can enhance students computational thinking and positive attitudes towards computer programming. However, when dealing with complex computer science concepts, they face limitations. This study therefore developed a solution adopting unplugged coding using flowcharts integrated with augmented reality (AR) technology to help scaffold students (called AR semi-unplugged coding). It recruited 120 secondary students for data collection, divided into an experimental group and a control group (unplugged coding). It showed that although both exhibited improved computational thinking and increased self-efficacy after participating in their assigned activity, those in the experimental group outperformed their counterparts statistically. Moreover, the developed solution attracted a greater level of perceived usefulness by users which shows its potential to become an effective approach for promoting computational thinking.
Keywords: Computational thinking; Computer programming; Augmented reality; Semi-unplugged coding; Unplugged coding.
Exploring the Influence of Security/Privacy, Trialability, Output Quality and Anxiety on the Adoption of Mobile Decision Support Systems among Nurses: A Developing Country Context
by Mohammed-Issa Jaradat
Abstract: Nursing staff have been observed to be highly mobile in executing their routine work. For that reason, in some critical situations they may need to catch, deliver and/or receive critical information, orders or alerts via mobile/smart devices on their way or at any point of care which may assist them to take instant or on the spot useful decisions/actions or orders to accomplish their tasks quickly and more professionally. This paper studies the factors that affect the intention of nurses whether to adopt or not to adopt mobile decision support systems in Jordan. Besides, it examines the moderating effects of experience and voluntariness among the study factors. The proposed model was analyzed and tested by using a WarpPLS 5.0 software. This study shows that there is a promising and bright future for Nurse Mobile Decision Support Systems (NMDSSs) in Jordan. The empirical findings conclude that in order to increase the adoption rate of NMDSSs in Jordan the system should offer a good value and protect nurses privacy, and it should be useful, free of effort, understandable, safe and triable. The results reveal that nurses adoption of NMDSSs can be anticipated from nurses behavioural intention with approximately 65% in variance. Theoretical contributions and practical implications are outlined. Limitations and suggestions for future studies are discussed.
Keywords: Security/Privacy; Trialability; Output Quality; Anxiety; Mobile Decision Support Systems; Nurses; Jordan.
The effects of Augmented Reality-facilitated mobile game-based learning on the diversity of life for promoting learning at the Natural History Museum
by Nongluk Meekaew, Watcharee Ketpichainarong
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Augmented Reality-facilitated Mobile Game-based learning (MGAR) approach by comparing the learning achievement, learning motivation and cognitive load of the students who learned with this approach with those learning with the conventional Mobile Game-based Learning (MGL), Augmented Reality-based Learning (ARL), and conventional Web-based Learning (WL). All units were consistently designed for the concept of the diversity of life. The participants were 192 grade 9 students who were randomly assigned into four groups: MGAR (N=46), MGL (N=50), ARL (N=43), and WL (N=53). The instruments were the pre-test and post-test for achievements, the learning motivation questionnaire, the cognitive load questionnaire, and a semi-structured interview. The overall results show that MGAR was more effective in enhancing students understanding of the diversity of life and significantly more motivational than the other groups.
In addition, the MGAR decreased the cognitive load of the students when compared with the other groups.
Keywords: Augmented Reality; Mobile Game-based Learning; Museum Learning.
Investigating effects and learners perceptions of a student-led,
AR-based learning design for developing
students English speaking proficiency
by Keng-Chih Hsu, Gi-Zen Liu
Abstract: Recent years have witnessed successful application of AR-based, context-aware ubiquitous learning (CAUL) for students to acquire English as a foreign language (EFL). Nevertheless, only a dearth of research is conducted to examine the effectiveness and learners perceptions of student-led AR-based CAUL for enhancing students English speaking proficiency. The aim of the research is to gain more understanding on the use of the design in the tertiary education for facilitating EFL students oral proficiency. Both quantitative (pre and posttest, and a questionnaire) and qualitative (a semi-structured interview) methodology were employed in the study. The results revealed that students English speaking abilities were significantly developed after the activity; furthermore, the questionnaire also showed students positive learning attitudes, with more motivation and satisfaction. In alignment with the quantitative results, benefits of the activity were also elicited in the interview. Finally, some suggestions for practitioners interested in student-led AR CAUL design were also provided.
Keywords: English; AR; augmented reality; CAUL; context aware ubiquitous learning; speaking proficiency.
A Bibliometric Analysis of Game-Based Collaborative Learning Between 2000 and 2019
by Xieling Chen, Di Zou, Haoran Xie, Gary Cheng, Fan Su
Abstract: This study examined a total of 296 articles on game-based collaborative learning (GBCL) published between 2000 and 2019 by using bibliometric analysis and mapping methodologies to present the current situation and trends of GBCL research. The papers were analysed from the influential scientific work, authors, institutions, countries/regions, and frequently discussed issues in the past 20 years. The bibliometric mapping and keyword analysis highlighted several important changes and future trends of the GBCL research. Based on the results, scholars are encouraged to pay more attention to analyzing dialogues and interaction in GBCL to understand learners' behaviour patterns. They are also recommended to continue applying various innovative technologies, such as mobile devices and virtual reality, to facilitate GBCL. The findings obtained provide meaningful implications for the future development of GBCL research.
Keywords: bibliometric analysis; bibliometric mapping; research topic; research evolution; visualization; VOSviewer; keyword analysis; scientific collaboration; digital games; collaborative learning.
Mobile Game Based Learning System for a Local Language
by Melvin Inertia Soclo, Olufemi Deborah NINAN, Karen Cowan OLUFOKUNBI
Abstract: The problem of language endangerment as a result of deficiency among the Bassa natives of Liberia and the prevention of the extinction threat posed on the language motivates the need to explore the use of game-based learning system for its resolution. A bilingual electronic dictionary (ED) for automatic translation of English text to equivalent Bassa language text alongside its corresponding audio pronunciation on an Android based mobile device was developed. The system was designed using the Unified Modelling Language (UML) tools and implemented using the Java programming language in Android studio environment. The system was evaluated using Mean Opinion Score (MOS). Result of evaluation shows that age is directly proportional to the knowledge of Bassa language in Liberia. It was evident that the elderly Bassa natives have better knowledge of the language while the younger ones have less or do not understand at all. The mobile application software developed in this work will aid youth learner of the Bassa language.
Keywords: digital game-based learning; Language Teaching; Bassa Language; games; motivation; information communication technology; mobile learning; mobile applications.
Understanding adoption of artificial intelligence-enabled language e-learning system: An empirical study of UTAUT model
by Hao-Chu Lin, Chih-Feng Ho, Han Yang
Abstract: The use of artificial intelligence is becoming a reality in the educational field. The development of AI technology, in addition to demand and popularity of technological innovations, has given rise to a large number of AI-education companies, and e-learning is poised to enter the advanced stage. The activities in which it is beginning to be implemented are the assessment of users achievement and provision of a live environment. In this study, a model of the willingness to continuously use AI-enabled language online e-learning products is constructed. The survey participants comprised users of online learning product in China and conclusions are drawn from the users perspective through empirical analysis based on the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology, combined with perceived risk and perceived entertainment variables. Therefore, based on a theoretical framework, suggestions are provided to optimize the design and marketing of AI-enabled e-learning products and leverage the users experiences to satisfy their needs. According to the results, from the perspective of users, we propose suggestions for the sustainable development and optimization of AI-enabled online education products and strategies to help operators reconcile the experiences and needs of the users.
Keywords: e-learning; artificial intelligence; UTAUT model; adoption behavior; language learning.
Transforming a Blended Learning Course in Numerical Methods into a Flexible Digital Course During the Covid-19 Crisis
by Francisco Delgado
Abstract: While mobile learning began to be developed more than ten years ago, boosted by the revolution in mobile technology, its acceptance has been at different paces in the various sectors: fast among technology developers and slow in some educational sectors and countries. The Covid-19 crisis suddenly put an end to any possible delay in adopting educative technologies. Discussing contextual differences of adoption and adaptation in Mexico, this work describes the rapid adaptation of a blended learning course in Numerical Methods in higher education during the Covid-19 confinement. This research's primary intention was to determine the impact of the transformation into a flexible digital course on students' performance. It discusses the elements introduced, the analytical methods, and the assessment tools, including the grading register, learning analytics, and a final student opinion survey. The analyses also revealed social and behavioural aspects. Thus, combined with the impact-on-learning analysis, a second approach, related to learning social behaviors, focused on the students' virtual contact that was necessitated by the health contingency. Detailed graphics of the events correlating students' performance and calculations of the factors' statistical significance are presented, along with the observed behaviours and student feedback. We observed the students' adaptations of individual and team tasks under the new learning modality that impacted their performance. These findings highlight and support the belief that the context strongly influences blended learning success.
Keywords: Covid-19; Blended learning; Mobile learning; Performance learning; Social learning behaviour; Mathematics; Numerical methods; Educational Innovation; Higher education.
Special Issue on: Research Trends and Future Developments of Artificial Intelligence in Education in the Mobile Era
Enhancing Skill Prediction through Generalizing Bayesian Knowledge Tracing
by Tak-Lam Wong, Di Zou, Gary Cheng, Jeff Kai Tai Tang, Yi Cai, Fu Lee Wang
Abstract: Learning Analytics (LA) have been widely investigated and applied to understand and optimize the learning process and environment. Among a number of LA tools, Bayesian Knowledge Tracing (BKT) was developed aiming at predicting the probability that a skill has been successfully acquired by a learner. While current development has proved BKT to be sufficiently accurate in prediction and useful, the state-of-the-art BKT methods suffer from a number of shortcomings such as the incapability to predict multiple skills learnt by a student. In this paper, we extend the ordinary BKT model to predict unlimited number of skills learned by a learner based on a non-parametric Dirichlet Process (DP). Another characteristic of our approach is that it can easily incorporate prior knowledge to our model resulting a more accurate prediction. The extended model is more generic and able to handle border applications. We have developed two efficient approximate inference methods based on Gibbs sampling and variational methods.
Keywords: Bayesian Knowledge Tracing; BKT; learning analytics.
Mobile-based Learning of Drug Prescription for Medical Education using Artificial Intelligence Techniques
by Xiaohui Tao, Wee Pheng Goh, Ji Zhang, Jianming Yong, Elizabeth Zhixin Goh, Xueling Oh
Abstract: Medical knowledge is constantly changing with advances in medical sciences and techniques. As such, it is becoming increasingly difficult to keep up to date with current medical information, especially for medical students. Integration of technology into medical education is deemed an efficient way to address the challenge by providing a means of consolidating learning. In particular, the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) can enable users to have a new experience that helps facilitate their learning and catch-up with the constant advance of knowledge and technology. This in turn can minimise errors and aid better clinical decisions, hence resulting in better patient care. This paper discusses the relevance of mobile learning in medical education and introduces an innovative mobile application design to practice drug prescription in medical education. A prototype system demonstrates the design of the framework and the potential usability of the mobile application for medical students. This is a pioneer exploration of applying AI and mobile technology to help foster the new generation of medical practitioners.
Keywords: mobile-based learning; drug prescription; drug interaction; medical education.
Context-Aware Recommender System for Adaptive Ubiquitous Learning
by Olutayo Boyinbode, Tunde Fatoke
Abstract: The use of context-aware recommender systems for adaptive ubiquitous learning has become a promising and interesting research direction in recent years, both as a result of the vast use of ubiquitous devices in our day-to-day lives and because of students increasing desire to learn with ease anytime and anywhere without restriction. This paper implements an RFID-based context-aware technology and recommender system for adaptive ubiquitous learning that will help learners to achieve personalised learning goals and greater learning efficiency. Our context-aware recommender suggests courseware to students based on their location, surrounding noise level and time of day. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology was used to acquire context awareness, and fuzzy logic was employed to develop courseware recommendations. The front end of the system was developed using Android Studio. Experimental results were obtained from selected students from different disciplines who evaluated the system.
Keywords: Context-aware; Recommender System; Ubiquitous learning; Radio Frequency Identification (RFID); Courseware; Noise level; Location; Time; Learning Management System (LMS).
Automatic Topic Detection on Chinese Essays: A Technology Enhanced Approach for Facilitating Formative Use of Summative Assessment
by Leonard K.M. Poon, Wing Shui Ng, Gary Cheng
Abstract: Essay writing is an important form of assessment. It is typically used as summative assessment and may not have some of the major benefits of formative assessment. Although there are considerations of formative use of summative assessment, such use remains limited in practice. It is because of the difficulty in presenting the results and the large amount of effort required. In this paper, we propose to use an automatic topic detection method, named hierarchical latent tree analysis, for analyzing students' essays. The method can identify topics in the essays and organize those topics in a hierarchy with multiple levels of granularity. It can possibly facilitate formative use of summative assessment by addressing the main reasons prohibiting such use. We present the empirical results of the method using the 54 Chinese essays written by students in an undergraduate course. We further discuss and demonstrate how the method can facilitate formative use of the essays.
Keywords: Topic detection; Hierarchical latent tree analysis; Formative use of summative assessment; Technology enhanced assessment; Chinese essays.
Advancements and hot research topics of artificial intelligence in mobile learning: A review of journal publications from 1995 to 2019
by Gwo-Jen Hwang, YUN-FANG TU, Chi-Jen Lin
Abstract: Based on the Technology-based Learning model, the present study reviewed the artificial intelligence-supported mobile learning (AImL) studies by searching for journal articles published from 1995 to 2019 in the Scopus database. Various dimensions, such as countries/areas, authors, subject areas and subject categories, hot topics and adopted technologies, were considered in this review study. Regarding the hot topics of AImL studies, the main focuses were situated learning in 1995-2007, mobile learning, intelligent tutoring systems and ubiquitous learning in 2008-2013, and mobile learning, artificial intelligence, machine learning and intelligent tutoring systems in 2014-2019. Moreover, in recent years, the number of applications regarding machine learning, artificial neural networks, cloud computing, data mining and opinion mining as well as other AI algorithms has been increasing. Accordingly, suggestions for future AImL studies are provided for the reference of researchers, teachers and educational policymakers.
Keywords: artificial intelligence; mobile learning; literature review; research trends.
Special Issue on: ICOIE 2019 Transforming Education with Mobile Technology Innovations
A Literature Review of Augmented Reality, Virtual Reality, and Mixed Reality in Language Learning
by Kam Cheong Li, Billy Tak-Ming Wong
Abstract: Technological advances in augmented reality (AR), virtual reality (VR) and mixed reality (MR) have been increasingly used for supporting language learning. They provide learners with an enhanced or simulated environment for exposure to a target language. This paper reviews the studies on AR/VR/MR-based language learning and surveys their major patterns and trends, covering a total of 111 studies published between 2004 and 2018 collected from the Web-of-Science and Scopus. The results show an increasing number of related studies conducted in various countries/regions at a wide range of educational levels, particularly since the early 2010s. English is the most popular target language to learn, but more languages have been covered in the studies in recent years. Speaking is the most frequent area for training, but its proportion has been decreasing over the years; and vocabulary learning has become more prevalent. The mainstream technology has evolved from VR environments in early studies into AR applications in recent ones; and the devices for accessing learning contents have become more portable from computers to tablets, smartphones, and headsets. The research issue of most concern is learning outcome and its proportion keeps growing. Further work is needed to address the limitations and issues still to be solved, in terms of technical, teachers and students perspectives. It is recognised that the use of technology alone will not suffice for improving learners language proficiency, but the design of curricular and learning contents also plays an important role.
Keywords: augmented reality; virtual reality; mixed reality; language learning; ubiquitous learning; computer-assisted language learning; CALL.
Shepherds for Modern Times: Designing a Blended Learning Course for Communication Theology
by Irudayaselvam Stanislaus, Virma Rea Lee
Abstract: Communication is the basic principle and an essential dimension of Christian theology. These recent advancements in information and communication technology compel theologians and seminarians to be creative users of this new technology. In addition, theological institutes recognize the importance of integrating teaching communication-related theology courses with that of information and communication technology. Hence, this paper aims to analyze the potential of teaching the new subject, communication theology, using blended learning modality. An online questionnaire was sent to theology students from Chile, India, Indonesia, and the Philippines to identify and to analyze the respondents learning needs. Findings reveal that the student-respondents have social media accounts and are willing to participate in a blended learning course on communication theology. Majority of them believe that blended learning will contribute to the efficient delivery of instruction. Recommendations are made on how theological institutes can proceed and established a blended learning course for communication theology.
Keywords: communication theology; theology students; learning needs; blended learning; learning management system; face-to-face learning.
The Role of Organisational Performance in Moderating Human Resource Management and Outstanding Outcomes in Open Distance Learning Context
by Maximus Gorky Sembiring, Gayuh Rahayu, Rizki Hersada Sembiring
Abstract: Plausible factors interrelated in human resource management (HRM), organisational performance (OP), and outstanding outcomes (OO) in open distance learning (ODL) context laden tightly with educational technology were explored. It was aimed at exposing the moderating role of OP between HRM and OO (services, products, and systems). Qualitatively, HRM included selection and recruitment, work definition, training program, performance measurement, compensation scheme, career planning, quality assurance, and employee participation. OP was influenced by HRM and leading to OO. Quantitatively, HRM, OP, and OO were independent, moderating, and dependent variables respectively. Responses from 158 faculty were completed. Eight of 11 hypotheses assessed were validated by the analysis utilising structural equation modelling (SEM). Career planning was the most significant influence while selection and recruitment, work definition, and quality assurance were not validated. Besides, OP led to OO. Importance-performance analysis (IPA) and customer-satisfaction index (CSI) discovered 18 attributes as the pillars of HRM and OP.
Keywords: ODL; HRM; OP; IPA-CSI; SEM.
Exploring Learning Behaviour Under an Integrated Mobile and Web-based Learning Environment
by S.S. Lam, Samuel P. M. Choi, C.Y. Ng
Abstract: Mobile learning plays a paramount role in supporting e-learning and distance learning through enabling learners to carry out learning activities independent of time or space constraints. In designing and developing an integrated mobile and web-based learning environment to fulfill the ever-changing needs of learners, a good understanding of how they utilise such platforms in their learning is essential. This study investigated students learning behaviour across the mobile and web-based platforms by examining how learning activities were mixed and matched on the platforms. Exploratory analysis and clustering technique were applied to gain holistic understanding of usage pattern and learning sequence from click stream data. Findings show that students used the mobile platform to supplement the web-based learning and self-regulated their learning across the mobile and web-based platforms leading to considerable differences in the learning behaviour on the platforms for different performing students. Strategies to improve self-efficacy of students in learning across mobile and web platforms are discussed.
Keywords: learning behaviour; mobile learning; web-based learning; multi-platform learning.
Special Issue on: ICOIE 2019 Transforming Education with Mobile Technology Innovations
Learning curriculum vocabulary through mobile learning:Impact on vocabulary gains and automaticity
by Zhenzhen Chen, Jiyou Jia, Wenhui Li
Abstract: In recent years there has been a great deal of attention on mobile-assisted language learning. However, studies integrated with the curriculum are still lacking. This study adopts a quasi-experimental design to investigate the effect of mobile learning on curriculum vocabulary. 59 students participated in a mobile-assisted vocabulary learning project which lasted for a semester, and 60 students in another intact class used the traditional learning approach. Data were collected from the vocabulary pretest and post-test, as well as response times in the pre and post-test. Students grades from the final exam were also collected for analysis. Results show mobile-assisted vocabulary learning can improve the students vocabulary gains, automaticity and overall academic performance.
Keywords: mobile learning;mobile-assisted language learning;vocabulary;automaticity.
Special Issue on: Research Trends and Future Developments in Personalised/Adaptive Ubiquitous Learning
Trends and Issues of Immersive Learning Environments in Higher Education from 2001 to 2020: Perspectives on Adaptive Ubiquitous Learning Experiences
by Pongpon Seprum, Charoenchai Wongwatkit
Abstract: Immersive Learning Environments (ILE) has been applied in many learning disciplines as a tool for providing a virtual interactive learning environment. With the advantages of ILE that could provide a playful and active learning experience in the learning processes, the ILE has been considered as another effective learning methodology using in learning processes together with the ubiquitous learning that provides the ease of access to the learners and encourage with self-learning management. This paper reviewed the ILE related 75 studies which were collected from the Web of Science database, then discovered the insights of the collected studies about the application of the ILE in various learning disciplines. The insights of integrating the adaptive learning experience toward the collected studies are discovered to present the ideas of ILE application with adaptive learning experience toward various learning disciplines. The review of ILE studies may provide the benefits for the education researchers by finding the technology used in the ILE studies, finding the ideas for integrating adaptive learning with ILE, and discovering new perspectives and ideas for studying and researching in the learning context.
Keywords: immersive learning environments; adaptive learning; higher education; pedagogical issues; teaching strategies.