Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation

International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation (IJMLO)

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International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation (30 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  •   Free full-text access Open AccessNavigating Multilevel Challenges in Learning Design: An Investigation of Novice Designer Teams’ Learning Trajectory
    ( Free Full-text Access ) CC-BY-NC-ND
    by Daisy CHEN, Leming Liang, Nancy W. Y. Law 
    Abstract: Learning design (LD) is a complex activity involving design decisions at multiple levels, from overall course objectives and pedagogical approach to task sequences, tasks, and resources. Traditionally, the higher-level design decisions from the course to task levels are made by teachers, whereas instructional designers are engaged mostly in distance/online learning contexts for the detail design of tasks and resources. This paper reports on a study of novice LDers taking a master’s level LD course underpinned by a 7-step model of LD spanning from the specification of course level outcomes to the design of learning tasks, resources, learning analytics (LA), and feedback. Students’ LD was supported by a technology platform, the Learning Design Studio (LDS). The findings reveal the challenges encountered by course participants. Further, the conceptual and technological LD tools used in the course fostered the articulation of pedagogical reasoning and helped to reveal incoherence and misalignment in the designs.
    Keywords: Learning Design; constructive alignment; Bloom's Taxonomy; learning outcomes; Learning Design Triangle.

  • L2 Learners Perceptions of a Chatbot as a Potential Independent Language Learning Tool   Order a copy of this article
    by Lucas Kohnke 
    Abstract: Independent language learning is paramount for those wishing to develop proficiency in a second or foreign language. Language learners often have few opportunities to communicate and interact actively in their target language. In this two-phase study, a chatbot was developed to assist second-language learners at a tertiary education institution in Hong Kong with independent language learning. I employed a questionnaire (N = 128) followed by semi-structured interviews (N = 12) to gain holistic insight into learners experiences with the chatbot. The results suggested that the participants enjoyed interacting with the chatbot both in and out of class and perceived that it improved their English skills. These findings have implications for language teachers and the future development of chatbots.
    Keywords: Chatbots; L2; EAP; tertiary education; independent language learning; language learning; Dialogflow.

  • Embedding Teacher Scaffolding in a Mobile Technology Supported Collaborative Learning Environment in English Reading Class: Students Learning Outcomes, Engagement, and Attitudes   Order a copy of this article
    by Qiwen Xu, Daner Sun, Ying Zhan 
    Abstract: Developing student ability to read effectively and efficiently is an integral goal of language education that challenges language teachers and policy makers. As one of the effective strategies, teacher scaffolding in technology supported language learning needs more exploration considering the advance of technologies and the needs of students. This study designed and implemented an innovative reading program that integrated teacher scaffolding into a mobile technology supported collaborative learning environment to engage students of English as a foreign language in reading activities and to develop their motivations in reading. The reading program was supported by a widely adopted learning management system of Edmodo and was conducted in a local secondary school in Hong Kong. During implementation, multiple data such as reading test results, log data, and interview data were collected to examine student learning outcomes, engagement, and attitudes toward the innovative reading program. The findings confirmed the positive impacts the program made on student learning. Harnessed the technological affordances of Edmodo and afforded by teacher scaffolding, the student participants improved in reading performance, and their overall experience with the program was positive. In addition, the analysis helped identify the effective features and characteristics of the learning system and the provision of teacher guidance and facilitation, which will inform future design and improvement of school-based innovative programs for mobile technology supported language learning.
    Keywords: mobile technology supported collaborative learning; teacher scaffolding; Edmodo learning management system; English reading; English as a foreign language.

  • Using mobile technologies to teach 21st century learning skills: A study of teachers acceptance in Thai secondary schools   Order a copy of this article
    by Jintavee Khlaisang, Fang Huang, Prakob Koraneekij, Timothy Teo 
    Abstract: Learning in the 21st century emphasizes the development of knowledge and skills required of learners, such as creativity, critical thinking and soft skills, which enable learners to exchange information and learn from one another and ultimately become active global citizens. This study investigated the factors affecting the attitudes and intention of secondary school teachers toward using mobile technologies to teach 21st century learning skills in Thai secondary schools. The researcher extended the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) as the modeling approach to examine the relationships between six factors: subjective norm (SN), constructivist teaching belief (CTB), relative advantage (ADV), school incentives (SCHI), facilitating conditions (FC), and perceived behavioral control (PBC). Data were obtained from 403 secondary school teachers in the northern, central, northeastern, and southern regions of Thailand through self-report questionnaires, which were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The proposed model demonstrated good fit. The study results contribute to existing theories of technology acceptance and extend previous research. This study contributes to the understanding of the use of mobile technologies to teach 21st century learning skills in the context of Thai secondary school. Knowing these secondary school teachers attitudes toward and behaviors regarding the use of such technology in this context could be informative and advantageous for national school policymakers and educators.
    Keywords: mobile technologies; secondary school students; intention to use; technology acceptance model; Thailand.

  • An empirical study on mobile-assisted civic and e-learning service through sentiment analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Vanitha P S, Sreejith Alathur 
    Abstract: This paper aims to analyse the use of mobile phone assisted services in civic and academic learning. General and education-related learning applications useful to educate the users are considered as the input. This paper explores the literature into two different aspects: general and education-related mobile applications. The sentiment analysis is carried out to study users emotions towards the mobile learning (mLearning) service. More than thirty thousand tweets were collected. Through sentiment analysis, the users awareness about mLearning application is analysed and compared. Fewer studies have reported the usefulness of civic learning apps introduced by government agencies. Moreover, the users perceptions towards the mLearning apps in higher education are also less reported in the Indian context. The findings show the importance of improving mLearning services initiated by government agencies for civic and education-related learning. The suggestions are also provided for the improvement of mLearning services in India.
    Keywords: Keywords – mobile learning; civic learning; social media; sentiment analysis; e-governance India.

  • Mobile Learning for Preschoolers: A Systematic Literature Review   Order a copy of this article
    by Munil Shiva Goundar, Bimal Aklesh Kumar, Sailesh Saras Chand, Ronil Chand 
    Abstract: Mobile learning for preschoolers has evolved into a significant area of research. This paper reports on the Systematic Literature Review (SLR) carried out to investigate the state-of-art in mobile learning for preschoolers. SLR was conducted using research papers extracted from eight commonly used databases. A total of 72 papers were retrieved, from which 54 were relevant to our study. The results highlighted an upward publication trend, good quality studies published in the domain, and mobile applications like games, language and literacy, and art and coloring developed for preschoolers. Finally, the paper concludes by identifying the research gap and providing avenues for future research.
    Keywords: mobile learning; preschool; systematic literature review.

  • From blended to virtual learning: Insights from a language enhancement workshop programme   Order a copy of this article
    by Jun Pan, Jackie Xiu Yan, Jing ZHANG 
    Abstract: The past decades have witnessed great advances in the development of tools and resources for blended and virtual learning designs: the latter, in particular, have become a daily reality for many educational institutions during COVID-19. This study reports findings obtained from action research on a language enhancement workshop programme, a Chinese writing and translation workshop, which was carried out under the environment of blended and then virtual learning in AY2018/19 and AY2019/20 respectively. Through results obtained from the analysis of feedback gathered from participants of each workshop session, the study identified the challenges and merits associated with the two types of learning, as well as those of skill- and topic-based training. The study also addresses issues relating to the extracurricular training of learners from different backgrounds and discusses ways to better cope with a mixed-background educational setting in the future. Teachers need to be more creative and develop adaptable pedagogies.
    Keywords: blended learning; virtual learning; workshop series; skill-based training; topic-based training.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2022.10046494
  • Supportiveness of language MOOCs for self-regulated learning: A review of commercial language MOOCs on the market   Order a copy of this article
    by Ruofei Zhang, D.I. ZOU, Gary Cheng, Haoran Xie, Fu Lee Wang 
    Abstract: MOOCs have been frequently applied as an effective approach to language education, especially when they can support self-regulated learning. However, few studies have discussed the supportiveness of using MOOCs for language education (i.e. language MOOCs) on the markets for self-regulated learning. This study therefore presents a review of 78 commercial language MOOCs on the market, focusing on the supportive MOOC features for self-regulated learning. From this review, we identify that language MOOCs can support self-regulated learning by pre- and post-course surveys, frequently asked questions, information about instructors, follow-up questions, previews, summaries, discussion forums, social networking, learning progress bars, system-generated emails, multimedia supplementary learning materials, instructional games, wiki-based collaborative writing activities, as well as quizzes and final exams graded by peers and instructors. This study also discusses the implications of the results for the practitioners, designers, and researchers of language MOOCs.
    Keywords: computer-assisted language learning; distant learning; language learning; mobile-based language learning; MOOC; self-regulated learning; technology-enhanced learning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2022.10046495
  • Direct and Indirect Effects of Smartphone Use on Academic Performance of Undergraduate Students in Tanzania   Order a copy of this article
    by Julius Raphael Athuman Mhina, Deogratius Mathew Lashayo 
    Abstract: The global proliferation of Smartphone usage in higher learning institutions is high and specific in Tanzania. Students are struggling to find the best use of their smartphones; nevertheless, their contribution to their academic performance is still debatable. Little research has embarked on quantitative measurement and specifically on the causal relationship existing between general Smartphone use and academic performance whether direct or indirect using formal performance models and/or theory. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine the Direct and Indirect impact of general Smartphone-Use on the Academic Performance of undergraduate students in Tanzania. This study used a snowball sampling technique for the distribution of questionnaires to a total of 412 respondents. The combinations of descriptive, Confirmatory Factor Analysis, and Path Analysis using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) were employed. The results show that smartphone use by students in higher learning institutions has an indirect impact on their academic performance.
    Keywords: Smartphone Use; Task-Technology Fit; IS Success model; SEM; Student Academic Performance; HLIs.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2023.10047210

Special Issue on: ELFA2020 eLearning Challenges and Opportunities Arising from the COVID-19 pandemic

  • Assessing the Effects of a Collaborative Problem-based Learning and Peer Assessment Method on Junior Secondary Students Learning Approaches in Mathematics Using Interactive Online Whiteboards during the COVID-19 Pandemic   Order a copy of this article
    by Chi Lok CHAN, Ronnie SHROFF, Wing Ki TSANG, Fridolin TING, Raycelle GARCIA 
    Abstract: Given the urgency of the COVID-19 pandemic, teachers have been compelled to integrate active learning pedagogies supported by mobile technologies to sustain students interactive engagement. This study describes the implementation of a novel active pedagogy the Collaborative Problem-based Learning and Peer Assessment (Co-PBLa-PA) method, implemented through interactive online whiteboards (IOWBs) on junior secondary mathematics classes in Hong Kong. According to the ICAP model, the Co-PBLa-PA method is among the most active teaching pedagogies. Data were collected and analysed to test three hypotheses postulating the main effects of the Co-PBLa-PA method on students learning approaches using IOWBs. Results of the study showed the Co-PBLa-PA method, supported by IOWBs, increased student learning performance and promoted significant deep learning among students. A significant positive correlation also emerged between deep learning approaches and students perceptions of technology-enabled active learning using interactive online whiteboards. Finally, implications, limitations and directions for future research are discussed.
    Keywords: collaborative learning; problem-based learning; peer assessment; learning approaches; deep learning; interactive online whiteboards; technology-enabled active learning; mathematics.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2023.10047228
  • Reaching out: Cultivating a learning community to facilitate video-based peer coaching on teaching practice in the 'extended' and online classroom   Order a copy of this article
    by Dave Gatrell 
    Abstract: This exploratory, qualitative study investigated four university teachers' experiences of video-based peer coaching and their understanding and potential enactment of a learning community that may develop around this approach. It also explored teachers' perceptions of the 'extended' classroom, an approach in which the same instructor teaches on-campus and online students at the same time. Video-based peer coaching was regarded as efficient, focused and characterised by peer support, provided peers had sufficient background information regarding the observed lesson. It was agreed that this approach could be effective within a cross-departmental learning community, although leadership and institutional recognition would be needed to ensure focus and a sustainable culture of collaboration. Despite inherent challenges, the extended classroom was perceived as a positive development which afforded new forms of interaction.
    Keywords: video; peer coaching; learning communities; online teaching; extended classroom; hybrid teaching.

  • The Age of Academic Integrity in COVID-19: New Normal Changes to the Health Professional Education   Order a copy of this article
    by Athena Chung Yan Tong, Justin Chak Ting Cheung, Yanny Wing Yan Wong, Colin Ho Lam Chung, Olivia Ngan, Isabel Hwang, Frederic Wai To Choi, Florence Mei Kuen Tang 
    Abstract: The compliance to academic integrity was questionable when teaching and learning were conveniently conducted online. Unlike the pen-and-paper format physical invigilation, online examinations were misperceived to be conducted in a regulatory vacuum. The study objective is to explore perceptions towards conducting online examinations among students. An anonymous online survey was conducted among students enrolled in health professional programme under the Faculty of Medicine during the academic year 2019-2020. A total of 156 students filled out the survey. The majority preferred traditional onsite examination (75%) over online examination (25%) for several seasons, including less technical requirement (86%), immediate support from invigilators for unanticipated situations (74%), and easiness to focus (64%). Some perceived online examination was more advantageous than traditional onsite examination for convenience (66%). The pressure and anxiety towards the examination were similar regardless of the examination method. The most compelling reasons lead to engaging cheating behaviour was the desire to pass the course (42%), the majority class cheat too (42%), achieve outstanding grade (38%), and ease to browse other websites (31%). Knowing the teacher is kind and would not report the misconduct was the least possible reason for cheating (9%), easy to chat with classmates (16%) were also not a likely cause of cheat. The combination of the Blackboard system, Respondus Lockdown Browser, with Zoom for the online examination environment minimises the chance of cheating, even though there is no foolproof method for zero prevention. While these technologies prove effective, they should be a supporting tool rather than a total solution.
    Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; remote teaching; online learning; academic integrity; academic dishonesty; online examination; remote invigilation; cheating temptation; invigilation method.

  • The Pyramid of Experiential Learning International Relations through NationStates Game   Order a copy of this article
    by Ronald Castillo, Paul Derick Olorga, Maria Francesca Lagran, Allen John Carpio 
    Abstract: NationStates is an online game that offers players a world to simulate international relations learning through the creation of their own countries and interacting with other players as international actors. This paper describes how the game mirrors the basic structure of international relations and global politics, and on how it can be used as an education technology during the Covid-19 New Normal Learning. Using qualitative case study design, researchers utilised virtual transect walk to note observations within the simulation and juxtaposed to interviews gathered from students who experienced the game. Thematic analysis framed both the levels of international relations analysis and Kolbs theory of experiential learning. Results show that that such a game allows learners to experience and understand national power and the conditions within ones state, dynamics of decision-making, participation in the political system and behaviour of the global political actors under the theories of international relations.
    Keywords: Experiential Learning; International Relations; NationStates; Simulation Games; Covid-19 New Normal Education.

  • Snapshot of the present, glimpse into the future: impact of COVID-19 on higher education and adult training   Order a copy of this article
    by Zan Chen, Sabrina Binte Hardy 
    Abstract: With the physical closure of university and college premises around the world, the COVID-19 global crisis has brought to the fore critical questions surrounding the future delivery of higher education and adult learning away from traditional classrooms. This paper reports the broad findings from a recent survey with adult educators (n = 1553) working in the Higher Education (HE) and Training and Adult Education (TAE) sectors in Singapore. It provides key insights into adult educators perceptions about the rapid changes in teaching and learning due to the pandemic and identifies challenges and impacts of moving to online mediums. COVID-19 is viewed as an opportunity for paradigm-change which HE and TAE organizations and educators should grasp. Respondents caution that those who fail to make the necessary digital leap will be in danger of being left behind. Implications for post-COVID HE and TAE practice and policy are discussed.
    Keywords: impact of COVID-19; online learning; Higher Education; Training and Adult Education; challenges; digitalization.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2023.10044417
  • Enabling In-Car Location-Based Experiential Learning with Presentria GO   Order a copy of this article
    by Ken Kwong-Kay Wong, Margaret Osborne 
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has changed how millions around the globe are educated. The 2nd or 3rd waves of the disease have made learning in classrooms unsafe once again. Many schools are forced to send their students home to take online classes under their governments lock-down protocols. For many young learners, engaging with school is a significant part of their well-being, which has been compromised by the extended period of remote learning and low social interaction levels during the pandemic. New and innovative solutions to address learners needs have been called during this pandemic. The Presentria GO system is an innovative solution that enables students from K-12 to higher education to learn experientially from their cars during a city excursion. Through a survey with 74 educators and a series of expert interviews and focus group discussions, insights into the feasibility of this active learning mode are explored. This paper proposes the concept of In-Car Location-Based Experiential Learning as one of the methods to engage students during the pandemic and beyond.
    Keywords: Active Learning; Experiential Learning; In-Car Learning; Location-based Learning; Mobile Learning.

  • Studio-Based Architecture Pedagogies in the New Normal   Order a copy of this article
    by Adam Fingrut, Hilary Ng 
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic struck Southeast Asia in early 2020 and forced entire communities into widespread social distancing. This impacted education with the cancelation of face-to-face learning and turning toward online, remote, and digital platforms for teaching and learning. The impact of this is heavily felt in studio-based subjects such as architecture, where working exclusively within the digital environment can create a false sense of objectivity by limiting material observation, fabrication, and assembly as part of an evidence-based design argument. As programs attempt to transpose their courses, and assignments into an eLearning solution, they face the challenge of meeting or reconsidering traditional approaches, supporting infrastructure and their definition of making culture in the context of a professional architecture degree. This paper presents findings from an ongoing research study investigating student reported perceptions toward novel teaching pedagogies.
    Keywords: Architecture Education; Haptic Knowledge; Design Technology; eLearning.

  • A Blended Peer-Assisted Learning Using Video Conference System for Anatomy Education: Student Learners and Student Facilitators Perspectives   Order a copy of this article
    by Justin Chak Ting Cheung, Carissa Ka Yu Kwan, Wing Hei Ng, Crystal Chi Ching Cheung, Olivia Miu Yung Ngan, Florence Mei Kuen Tang 
    Abstract: Anatomy education that traditionally relies on face-to-face delivery is disrupted by the outbreak of COVID-19. Due to suspension of face-to-face instruction in schools, our institution adopted a video conferencing system with peer-assisted learning (VCS-PAL). The study objectives are to (1) report our institutional experience in adopting blended VCS-PAL in anatomy teaching and (2) describe perceptions towards this pedagogy during the pandemic among student facilitators and learners. In the mixed-method educational research, 139 Year 2 Biomedical Engineering and Pharmacy students were surveyed regarding their VCS-PAL learning experience. A total of 85 returned the survey, with a response rate of 60.7% (85/139). Most students found the live demonstration of plastinated specimens helpful in learning anatomy (82%). The general feedback from both student learners and student facilitators are positive. The blended VCS-PAL approach in anatomy education provides an excellent adjustment opportunity amidst the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic.
    Keywords: COVID-19; Video Conferencing System; Peer-Assisted Learning; Blended VCS-PAL Approach; Anatomy Education; Remote Learning; Health Professional Training.

  • Teaching and Learning with Mobile Technologies Under COVID-19 Pandemic: Crisis or Opportunity   Order a copy of this article
    by Paul Lam, Hilary Ng 
    Abstract: To maintain social distance while resuming education, institutions turned to a new form of practice synchronized online virtual teaching with mobile technologies as an emergency response to continuing education amidst the recent COVID-19 pandemic outbreak. In this paper, we attempt to share our experience at a university level on teaching under pandemic and evaluate its effectiveness by (i) exploring the feedback collected when learning in synchronized online virtual learning with mobile device at different time points and (ii) obtaining feedback from students on the challenges of synchronized online virtual teaching with mobile technologies. Specifically, we invited 1,996 students and 413 students to complete Studies 1 and 2, respectively. They were invited to complete a survey on their perception, the learning process, and the challenges they encountered when learning with mobile device in the online virtual learning medium. Provided that the trend of technology-enhanced education is on the rise, our findings suggested that students show improvement to learn in the synchronized online virtual teaching with mobile technologies across time. Thus, this form of teaching model holds the promise of becoming the model for future teaching and learning practices. Hence, we hope to pave the way for research opportunities to advance our understanding of the new education model with mobile technologies and learning opportunities to continue teaching and learning under uncontrollable circumstances.
    Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; higher education; synchronized online virtual teaching; perceptions; challenges.

  • Impact of technology-enabled project-based assessments on learner outcomes in higher education   Order a copy of this article
    by Chee Kin Boey, Sowmya Sathish, Aubrey Soo Nghee Koh 
    Abstract: The classroom based applied-research explores a shift towards technology-enabled formative and summative project-based assessments as a replacement to campus-based in-person assessments. The study is conducted in the context of Polytechnics in Singapore adopting a practice-based and skills education. The investigation focuses on project-based assessments addressing two scenarios with two different target groups: student-generated video creation as summative assessment for full-time pre-employment training (PET) students and the application of Student Response System (SRS) for case-based formative tasks using a digital wall for part-time continuing education and training (CET) students who are adult learners. The authors investigated on project-based assessments by looking at how the integration of technology could help contribute to the development of specific attributes or learner profiles suitable for the workplace and real-world performance in todays context, while meeting the skill-based learning outcomes. The qualitative study uses a hermeneutic phenomenology coupled with a quantitative survey to ensure valid interpretation of student feedback. While video-enabled summative assessment helped develop transferable skills such as digital literacy, creativity, resourcefulness, and communication and teamwork skills amongst tertiary students, the application of an open-digital wall as a form of SRS to post responses from real-life contexts revealed higher intrinsic motivation towards life-long learning among adult learners encompassing inclusion, positive attitude, engagement, and authenticity.
    Keywords: Technology-enabled assessment; project-based assessment; formative assessment; student-generated video creation; student-response system (SRS); project-based learning; learner outcomes; intangible learning outcomes; desired graduate profile; student profile; lifelong learning.

  • Analytics for WhatsApp chats: tracking and visualizing students collaboration in project teams   Order a copy of this article
    by Fedor Duzhin, Joo Seng Tan 
    Abstract: A popular theme in learning analytics is identifying patterns in online collaboration. The problem of quantitative and qualitative description of students interaction in learning teams to achieve learning outcomes remains a challenge. We introduce a framework for describing and visualizing students interactions in WhatsApp group chat. We present five studies (N = 123, N = 64, N = 106, N=55, N=46) in courses taken by mathematics and business students. We found that mathematics students wrote more messages and shorter messages than business students. We also found that average number of words per message correlated with the project mark positively in mathematics but negatively in business courses. We suggest a way to visualize a WhatsApp chat as a network and tested the hypothesis that the centralization coefficient of this network correlated negatively with the project score. The hypothesis was not confirmed. Implications and suggestions for further study are presented.
    Keywords: learning analytics; collaboration visualization; network science; student collaboration; WhatsApp chats.

Special Issue on: ICEAI 2020 Intelligent Language Acquisition in the Mobile Era

  • Learning English with the mobile language learning application Duolingo: the experiences of three working adults at different proficiency levels   Order a copy of this article
    by Fan Su, Di Zou 
    Abstract: Duolingo is one of the most popular mobile applications for English learning, has been studied extensively to assess the effectiveness of Duolingo-assisted language learning (DALL). However, most studies have focused on the learning outcomes while few have discussed the learning process, and even fewer have investigated working adults. Accordingly, the present study investigated the DALL experiences of three Chinese working adults who graduated from college and continued to learn English for various purposes. The three who were at the basic, intermediate, and advanced levels, had been learning English with Duolingo for a month. Throughout this month, they reported their learning experiences through think-aloud protocols and reflective learning logs, after which they were interviewed. The results indicated that the basic-level learner used more strategies than the intermediate- and advanced-level learners, which enriched the literature. All three participants showed generally positive perceptions of Duolingo. They moved up to higher course levels after one-month of Duolingo learning indicating that language learners may consider using Duolingo for self-access language learning.
    Keywords: mobile-assisted language learning; Duolingo; English; learning experience; mobile app; language learning strategy; motivation; perception; self-access language learning; language proficiency.

  • Bibliometric Analysis of Mobile Learning Research from 1984-2020   Order a copy of this article
    by Ayesha Gulzar, Shamshad Ahmed, Muhamad Ajmal Khan, Nadeem Siddique 
    Abstract: Main purpose of this study was bibliometrics analyses of literature published on mobile learning from 1984-2020 retrieved from Scopus database on February 18,2021. Total 7,404 records imported and download in BibTex, CSVs and RIS format were analyzed through MS Excel, MS Access, Biblioshiny, and Vosviewer. Results show that keywords (Mobile Learning, Higher Education and Mobile Devices) on mobile learning are used by different authors and United State is the most productive country in this area. Most of the articles were presented/written in conference proceeding (Lecture notes in computer science) and journal (International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation) by collaborative authors. China is the top most collaborative country with USA and Canada. Three filed plots show the most publishing authors on mobile learning belong to China, Indonesia, USA and Spain. Hwang G. J is the most prolific author having highest citation as well as highest h-index, g-index and m-index impact.
    Keywords: Mobile Learning; M-learning; Bibliometric; Scopus; Mobile Learning Trends.

  • Thirty years of Interactive Learning Environments: Contributors, collaborations, and research topics   Order a copy of this article
    by Xieling Chen, Di Zou, Gary Cheng, Haoran Xie 
    Abstract: Interactive Learning Environments (ILE) is an important and active international journal in the research field of interactive learning environments since 1990. Focusing on the major contributors, scientific collaborations, research topics, and topic evolution, this paper analyzes 784 ILE articles using topic modeling and bibliometrics to explore key milestones in ILEs history. Institutions from the USA and Taiwan have contributed the most to the community, as witnessed from their top ranks in both impact and productivity indicators. Scientific collaborations between institutions in the same regions are noteworthy, while cross-regional collaborations need to be enhanced. Diverse applications and technologies such as intelligent tutoring systems, concept maps, digital games, e-books, interactive response systems, digital storytelling, and augmented reality are increasingly integrated into interactive learning contexts to facilitate flipped learning, personalized learning, and project-based learning. Additionally, learners emotions, cognitive load, and acceptance of technologies are widely studied.
    Keywords: interactive learning environments; scientific collaborations; structural topic modeling; research topics; bibliometric analysis; social network analysis; scientific collaborations; topic evolution; academic contributors; literature analysis.

  • A Qualitative Exploration of Student Perspectives of Chatbot Use During Emergency Remote Teaching   Order a copy of this article
    by Lucas Kohnke 
    Abstract: The pandemic has changed how students and teachers engage with course content and make use of various technologies. By working with Dialogflow Messenger, a chatbot developed for this study to support learning during the suspension of face-to-face classes due to COVID-19, students of languages for specific purposes received guidance and assistance completing assignments. Twenty-two students participated in this interpretive qualitative study. Data were collected using focus group interviews and analysed thematically, the findings of which indicate that students found the pedagogical chatbot supportive through its provision of human-like interactions, which enhanced their sense of engagement. Participants also suggested that their interactions with the chatbot eased their sense of isolation, positively impacting their learning. The findings provide insight on and enrich the existing knowledge of the integration of chatbots into teaching and discuss the advantages of learning future chatbot design for language acquisition.
    Keywords: Chatbots; COVID-19; Dialogflow; Language Learning; Emergency Remote Teaching.

  • A reading engagement-promoting strategy to facilitate EFL students mobile learning achievement, behavior, and engagement   Order a copy of this article
    by Mei-Rong Alice Chen, Gwo-Jen Hwang, Yi-Hsuan Lin, Victoria Abou-Khalil, Huiyong Li, Hiroaki Ogata 
    Abstract: Mobile learning (M-learning) refers to the use of mobile and wireless communication technologies to enable students to access learning materials in an interactive manner, regardless of location and time constraints. However, without a proper learning design or the provision of learning guidance, most students might fail to plan their learning schedule to effectively read and comprehend the learning materials on their own, which could significantly affect their learning engagement and outcomes. In this study, a Reading Engagement-Promotion Strategy (REPS) was proposed to tackle this issue. A quasi-experiment was designed to compare the students using the REPS approach and those using the conventional ones in terms of learning achievement, behaviors (i.e., frequency of use of markers, the number of words, and usage patterns), and engagement (i.e., time spent reading and learning). The results showed that the REPS approach could improve students' learning achievement and facilitate the high achievers engagement. These findings can serve as a valuable reference for those who intend to use learning systems for effective strategy-based learning to stimulate behavior and engagement.
    Keywords: Mobile learning; learning behavior; learning engagement; learning analytics; Learning achievement.

  • Proposal of remediation algorithms for school and university dropout years in post-conflict African countries in the face of covid-19: the case of the Central African Republic   Order a copy of this article
    by Ghislain Mervyl Saint-Juste Kossingou, Bessan Melckior Dégboé, Samuel Ouya, Gervais Mendy 
    Abstract: The 12 years of politico-military crises in the Central African Republic (CAR), has created an educational social imbalance in the rural areas of CAR compared to the capital city of Bangui. In some rural areas of CAR, children have not attended school during the 12-year war. The situation has worsened with the Covid-19 pandemic. We modeled two algorithms and materialized them by developing an API Framework Rasa chat bot that uses the main components Rasa NLU, Rasa Core and the programming language Python for the remediation of lost school and university years in African countries in conflict, particularly CAR. It also allows for the orientation in normal, professional and specific training in each province of the CAR, according to the level required of the learner. It takes into account the social distancing imposed by the Covid-19 pandemic.
    Keywords: educational social imbalance; API Chat bot; Rasa; out-of-school children; Remediation algorithms.

Special Issue on: ICOIE 2020 Breaking the Boundaries of Learning with Mobile Technological Advances

  • The Application and Effect of Smart Phones and an Online Tutoring System CSIEC for Vocabulary Drilling through Nine Semesters   Order a copy of this article
    by Jiyou Jia, Zhenzhen Chen, Jinjin Zhang 
    Abstract: In the past twenty years mobile-assisted language learning (MALL) has received a great deal of attention. However, most MALL application studies are on a trial basis which lasted for a short time, and there is a lack of MALL projects which integrate mobile learning into curriculum with a long implementation duration. This study explores the effect of MALL with smart phones and supported by a tutoring system CSIEC in a curriculum-integration project across nine semesters in an English as Foreign Language context. Results show mobile learning is effective for learning English as a foreign language when integrated into the curriculum and the overall effect size is large. Implications for MALL applications are discussed.
    Keywords: smart phones; language learning; MALL; effectiveness; vocabulary; CSIEC.

  • A Framework for Effectively Utilizing Human Grading Input in Automated Short Answer Grading   Order a copy of this article
    by Andrew Kwok-Fai Lui, Sin Chun Ng, Stella Wing-Nga Cheung 
    Abstract: Short answer questions are effective for knowledge assessment on a specific topic. As students are required to compose short answers with their own writing, luck plays a lesser role and the latent thinking process is better revealed. The concern in grading effort is a major reason of the limited use of short answer questions in mobile and online learning, especially in large-scale operations like MOOCs platforms. Automated grading uses a computing process and a grading model to divide answers into correct, wrong, and other discrete levels of correctness. In automated short answer grading, the input of human graders is necessary for specifying the grading model. The divide-and-grade approach is attractive because the level of human engagement is significantly lower than that of the conventional approaches. The answer set is first divided into clusters of similar answers, and at the minimal one human grading action is needed per cluster. This paper presents an improvement for the divide-and-grade approach that further enhances the effective utilization of human grading actions. A novel divide-and-grade short answer grading framework is proposed that addresses the selection of impactful answers for grading, the injection of the ground-truth grades for steering towards purer final clusters, and the handling of final grading of the clusters. Experiment results indicate the grading quality can be improved with the same level of human engagement.
    Keywords: automated short answer grading; clustering; semi-supervised clustering; MOOCs; automated grading.

  • Lessons Post-Lockdown: Science and Engineering Education Switching to Online Learning   Order a copy of this article
    by Amarpreet Gill, Derek Irwin, Dave Towey, James Walker, Yanhui Zhang 
    Abstract: For universities, COVID-19 made traditional means of providing quality teaching and learning impossible. Nevertheless, students required delivery and assessment to progress or graduate on time. Subjects in Science and Engineering with practical components presented a particular challenge, and this paper assesses institutional means and the perspectives of both instructors and students to determine best practice in this context. By triangulating institutional data (from pre- and post-pandemic policy and module delivery data) with staff and student surveys, followed up by semi-structured interviews, this paper examines both macro and micro perspectives and highlights successful and less-than-successful strategies for skill-based subjects. Somewhat surprisingly, our data indicates higher initial satisfaction among students than teachers. Further, we provide institutional and individual suggestions to implement successful online teaching and learning under different delivery scenarios (e.g., simulation vs. actualization, or the employment of virtual and augmented reality systems) while mitigating potential negative impacts on the experience.
    Keywords: COVID-19; Blended Learning; Online-learning; Quality Assurance; Student Engagement; Practical Subjects; Skill-based Learning; Teaching and Learning; Science and Engineering; Remote Teaching; Student Learning.

  • How smart learning has been achieved: A review of the literature (20112020)   Order a copy of this article
    by Kam Cheong Li, Billy Tak-Ming Wong 
    Abstract: This paper presents a review of the contexts, objectives, means and features of smart learning practices. It covers a total of 107 articles collected from Scopus and ProQuest which were published between 2011 and 2020. The results illustrate the patterns and trends of smart learning which have been practised in a widening range of subject disciplines, educational levels and learning environments. They show the evolution of smart learning in terms of technological developments, featuring in particular an increasing use of mobile devices and learning analytics as well as practices in online and blended environments. Improving learning performance has become a major objective of smart learning. The findings also suggest future studies in relation to the smart learning design in subject disciplines which differ in nature; the effective interoperation of smart learning with emerging educational technologies and approaches such as learning analytics and personalised learning; and smart pedagogy design and technology-pedagogy integration.
    Keywords: smart learning; smart education; smart classroom; learning analytics; learner-centric; personalised learning; personalisation.