Forthcoming articles

International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation

International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation (IJMLO)

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International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation (27 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Implementation of mobile game-transformed lecture-based approach to promoting C programming language learning   Order a copy of this article
    by Kannika Daungcharone, Patcharin Panjaburee, Krittawaya Thongkoo 
    Abstract: Many studies have utilized the potential of mobile games to promote students learning performance, while few have transformed compiler working steps into mobile games. In this paper, the researchers developed a mobile game by simulating the C compiler working steps with daily life situations. Afterward, the researchers applied a lecture-based learning approach to implementing the game in a Thai university C programming language course. The group implemented a mobile game-transformed lecture-based approach by comparing it to conventional lecture-based approach and mobile game approach. The findings of this study support the notion that students can better achieve the C programming language concept through a mobile game, especially when integrated with the process of lecture-based approach. The findings of this study also highlight the mobile game-transformed lecture-based approach support the studentsmotivation to learn the C programming language.
    Keywords: mobile game-based learning; teaching and learning strategies; active learning; lecture-based learning; C programming language.

  • Tablets & apps for promoting Robotics, Mathematics, STEM Education and Literacy in Early Childhood Education   Order a copy of this article
    by Pandora Dorouka, Stamatios Papadakis, Michail Kalogiannakis 
    Abstract: New interactive technologies in terms of smart mobile devices and accompanied applications (apps) attract an increasing attention in the field of preschool and early-primary education. This has risen a great amount of academic literature, and numerous implementation initiatives. Despite this widespread interest, successful integration of interactive technologies in preschool and early-primary education still faces unresolved issues and challenges. This paper refers mostly to smart mobile devices and their accompanied mobile applications (apps) at the device/platform level. Robotics, Mathematics, STEM and Literacy are discussed below, since these are the fields found to provide most opportunities in early childhood, especially promising to cultivate interests early in computing. The ultimate objective is to present a greater comprehension of the influence of new technologies on young children's learning procedure and its potential for early childhood education. The study ends up with a general analysis of the research findings and a short proposal for the extension of the under-study subject as well.
    Keywords: New interactive technologies; early childhood; preschool and early-primary education; robotics; Mathematics; STEM education; Literacy.

  • A Comprehensive Framework for Designing and Evaluating Vocabulary Learning Apps --- From Multiple Perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Yuge Tu, Di Zou, Ruofei Zhang 
    Abstract: The integration of emerging mobile technology into the education domain has become increasingly ubiquitous. This research reviewed the advantages and challenges of mobile learning, discussed the key factors that promote effective vocabulary learning, and conducted a survey to investigate and identify the 10 most popular word learning apps. Based on the results, we analyzed the key features of the popular apps and summarized the elements that play crucial roles in leading to successful learning. Based on such analyses, we also developed a comprehensive framework for designing and evaluating vocabulary learning apps, covering dimensions, such as content quality, multimodal presentation, engagement, personalization, repetition, and usability. A popular app,, was also assessed utilizing the proposed framework. Users, evaluators, designers, and developers of word-learning apps are expected to benefit from this research by being provided with a comprehensive understanding of app-facilitated vocabulary learning and essential features of effective word learning apps.
    Keywords: word learning apps; mobile learning; vocabulary learning; technology-enhanced language learning; multimedia learning; engagement; personalization; repetition; usability; second language vocabulary acquisition.

  • Implementation of flipped classroom with personalised ubiquitous learning support system to promote the university student performance of information literacy   Order a copy of this article
    by Chuthathip Srisuwan, Patcharin Panjaburee 
    Abstract: In recent years, unfiltered information has become increasingly available to individuals. It is important to cultivate students information literacy, including evaluating, synthesizing, and using information appropriately and ethically. To reduce the limitations of course duration, this study applied the flipped-classroom pedagogy to create the in- and out-of-class learning environment in an information literacy course. Taking prior knowledge into account, a personalised ubiquitous learning support system was developed to support this pedagogy in this course. An experiment was conducted on an information literacy course at a university in Thailand to investigate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. The experimental results highlight that, in comparison with the flipped classroom with conventional ubiquitous learning support system, the proposed approach significantly improved students information literacy performance, self-efficacy, career motivation, and grade motivation.
    Keywords: Ubiquitous learning; Learning diagnosis; Information literacy; Teaching and learning strategies.

  • A taxonomy of mobile learning based on systematic review   Order a copy of this article
    by Sofia Moya Pereira, Mar Camacho Marti 
    Abstract: This study seeks to deepen the understanding of existing mobile learning research, summarize the relevant knowledge, and identify research gaps. This study is based on a systematic review of relevant studies conducted between 2009 and 2018; the final pool of studies comprised 25 studies, representing a total of 1828 original academic publications. A taxonomy was proposed based on 13 taxonomies, which were grouped into five domains: bibliometric statistics; research purposes; demographics and context; methodologies; and outcomes. The findings revealed the following: the number of articles published has increased over the last years, with significant contributions from Asia; most studies feature positive outcomes; the main focus is on learning effectiveness; the majority of the target sample comprises students, and the environment is hybrid, with a tendency to be informal; and mixed research methodologies are the common trend. The results also revealed a lack of current research in the field of strategies and frameworks, a common thread among all these studies.
    Keywords: mobile learning; taxonomy; science education; systematic review.

  • Acceptance and Implication of Smartphones for Informal Language Learning in Foreign Study Tours   Order a copy of this article
    by Tingting Li, Di Zou, Minhong Wang, Haoran Xie, Fu Lee Wang 
    Abstract: Technology development has brought tremendous influence to the field of mobile assisted language learning. To have a better understanding of the digital device application in the educational settings, this paper aims to assess the possible acceptance of smartphones for informal language learning in foreign study tours and investigate the main factors influencing the acceptance. The researcher has modified the United Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model as the technology acceptance framework to guide the study. A total of 94 secondary students and 104 in-service secondary school language teachers in Lanzhou, China has been surveyed. Regression analysis was conducted for the collected data. The results of the statistical analysis showed that students and language teachers shared a similar moderate to high level of acceptance of smartphone adoption for informal language learning in foreign study tours. In addition, the acceptance level was strongly influenced by the facilitating conditions, followed by other elements including social influence, attitude and performance expectancy successively.
    Keywords: United theory of acceptance and use of technology model; mobile learning; mobile assisted language learning; English language education; foreign study tours; APPs; regression analysis; secondary schools; teachers and students; smartphone adoption.

  • The uSAP Model: A Ubiquitous Observation Protocol for Improving Teamwork Skills, Time Management and Accuracy in High Fidelity Simulation among Nursing Students   Order a copy of this article
    by Nantakarn Maneejak, Pratchayapong Yasri 
    Abstract: High Fidelity Simulation (HFS) is a computerised manikin that can mimic physiological responses of patients which has been used in preclinical practices among nursing students. To make learning with HFS meaningful, an effective observation model has to be developed so as to improve motor skill practices. This study therefore develops a ubiquitous observation model, called uSAP which concerns specific tasks of an observed role (S), full attention to a particular psychomotor practice (A) and nursing procedures involved (P), all of which can be done ubiquitously (U). The effectiveness of this observation model is assessed among 98 nursing students who are divided into three groups: those using the uSAP model, those doing observation without a certain guideline, and those without observation. Three different aspects of performance are compared composting of teamwork ability, speed in completing HFS tasks and accuracy in administering nursing tasks related to five vital signs. In addition, the study explores the usefulness of the uSAP model using semi-structured interviews with 10 nursing students who use it. Statistical analysis reveals that those using the uSAP model outperform their counterparts in all three aspects. The interview results illustrate that the uSAP model helps nursing students learn from peers mistakes, structure their ideas orderly, stay more focused and apprehend detailed actions effectively. It is therefore recommended for nursing instructors dealing with HFS to consider using the uSAP model for enhancing the quality of observation which can subsequently help improve nursing students performances.
    Keywords: high fidelity simulation; nursing education; uSAP model; ubiquitous observation; vital signs.

  • Using Social Media in Mobile MOOC for Teacher Professional Development   Order a copy of this article
    by Esther Tan, Jun Xiao, Xuejiao Li, Mengying Cao, Marcus Specht 
    Abstract: This paper presents a ubiquitous and mobile MOOC platform to foster lifelong learning. Harnessing the technological affordances of WeChat (a mobile social media app), learners accessed micro-learning activities and received personal learning analysis report on their mobile phones. Premised on activity theory, the mobile MOOC design model spans across five dimensions of intelligent distribution: learning objective analysis, learner persona analysis, platform improvement based on learning analytics, m-learn tool selection and m-learn interactive environment where the latter forms the core of individual and collaborative learning. To investigate learning effectiveness, we analyzed the survey data of 117 Shanghai kindergarten, primary and secondary teachers in one mini-lecture. Findings showed that learning satisfaction and learning achievement is highly correlated with the learnability of the learning environment. The integration of a multidimensional activity and multi-scenario model showed great potential to successfully accommodate the complexity and diversity of mobile MOOC learning activities in a ubiquitous-learning environment.
    Keywords: Mobile MOOCs; mobile learning; ubiquitous learning; teacher training; lifelong learning.

  • Mobile-based Dynamic Assessment and the Development of EFL Students' Oral Fluency   Order a copy of this article
    by Abbas Ali Rezaee, Seyyed Mohammad Alavi, Parisa Razzaghifard 
    Abstract: This paper reports on a study investigating the potential effect ofthe impact of Mobile-based Dynamic Assessment (MbDA) on improving English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners' oral fluency. To fulfil the purpose of the study, 120 pre-intermediate learners of English were randomly assigned to one of three groups (two experimental groups and one control group), each consisting of 40 participants. The participants in the experimental groups completed eight communicative tasks via dynamic assessment under two different contexts: MbDA via text-chat context and MbDA via voice-chat context. The speech rate, average length of pauses, the number of repetitions, and the number of reformulation served as dependent variables. The study found that the participants in the experimental groups who received MbDA improved their speaking fluency significantly compared with their peers in the control group.
    Keywords: MALL; dynamic assessment; EFL; oral fluency; mobile phones.

  • Influential Factors of Working Adults Perceptions of Mobile-assisted Vocabulary Learning with Multimedia Annotations   Order a copy of this article
    by Ruofei Zhang, Di Zou 
    Abstract: With the development of technology-enhanced language learning, there have been increasingly more studies on mobile-assisted vocabulary learning with multimedia annotations. However, little research has been conducted to explore working adults use of multimedia annotations in authentic mobile learning environments, investigate their perceptions of diverse types of multimedia annotations, or discuss the factors that may influence their perceptions of multimedia annotations. To fill in these research gaps, the researchers of this project developed a multimedia-annotation-enhanced vocabulary learning app, iWORDS, and invited 24 working adults in Hong Kong to learn vocabulary using this app. After experiencing mobile-assisted vocabulary learning with four types of multimedia annotations (i.e., the textual, the pictorial, the text-plus-GIF, and the text-plus-video annotations), the participants were interviewed about their perceptions and preferences. The results indicated that working adults used textual annotations most frequently but showed strongest preference for text-plus-GIF annotations. Four factors, content quality, attractiveness, efficiency, and cognitive stimuli, played important roles in influencing working adults' preferences and perceptions of multimedia annotations. Based on the research results, we proposed some suggestions for the development, selection and usage of multimedia annotations in mobile-assisted vocabulary learning.
    Keywords: mobile learning; multimedia learning; technology-enhanced learning; word learning; computer-assisted language learning; autonomy; app; image; GIF; language learning.

  • An Exploration of Inquiry-based Authentic Learning enabled by Mobile Technology for Primary Science
    by Wing Kei Yeung, Daner Sun 
    Abstract: In science class, few opportunities were provided for the students to do inquiry in authentic contexts. The pedagogical integration of mobile technology into science authentic learning needs more explorations. Thus, we conducted a study on inquiry-based science authentic learning enabled by a mobile tool: nQuire-it. In inquiry-based learning environment supported by nQuire-it, students experienced various tasks by personally experiencing science inquiry in authentic learning contexts, which is suitable for learning abstract concepts and developing deep understanding of the science concepts. To examine the effectiveness of the mobile technology supported science authentic learning, in the study, students’ performance on science inquiry, conceptual understanding and the linkage of knowledge with daily life experiences were analysed and compared between groups. The results suggested the effectiveness of nQuire-it in students’ science learning and in promoting students’ motivation and interests in science learning and improving the linkage of knowledge in and out of classroom.
    Keywords: nQuire-it; science inquiry; authentic learning; mobile technologies

Special Issue on: Business and Social Issues in the Mobile Environment

  • Effect of information quality and system quality in information system (IS) success model as an antecedent of mobile learning in education institutions: case study in jordan   Order a copy of this article
    by Bilal Al-Nassar 
    Abstract: Educators and students in the higher institutions have reaped the benefits of wired technology in the past several years in the form of mobile learning. The main objective of the research is to develop and propose a service quality model for m-learning in university environment. The study proposed a service quality model based on the Information System (IS) Success Model for universities m-learning in a developing country, Jordan. This study was carried out through three stages; first, a questionnaire was used to obtain the perception of m-learning services among 360 students studying in different colleges of the Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST) and second, information quality was measured through (usefulness and adequacy), system quality (ease of use, accessibility and interactivity), and their causal relationship with learners perceived service quality. Lastly, the third stage involved the development of m-learning system prototype (MLSP) by using Rapid Application Development (RAD) technique. The prototype was then tested among students in JUST, Jordan.
    Keywords: nformation quality ; system quality ; IS success model ; usefulness and adequacy ; ease of use ; accessibility and interactivity.

  • Consumer Perception towards Corporate Social Responsibility Practices: a study of the Malaysian Banking Sector   Order a copy of this article
    by Yeo Chu May, Amy, Steve Carter 
    Abstract: Organisations can gain enormous benefits when they are perceived as being socially responsible to their stakeholders. One of the important stakeholder groups that appear to be particularly susceptible to the banks Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) initiatives is their consumers. Thus, this research aims to investigate how banks customers perceived CSR practices in the banking industry in Malaysia. Administering through a Google-form survey instrument, supplemented with a created link via Facebook and Whatsapp, a total of 240 responses were collected, resulting in a response rate of 80 per cent. Data collected were analysed using statistical tools such as descriptive statistics, correlations and multiple regressions mainly on the predictive power of the constructs in this study. The notable results indicated consumer awareness tended to be positively correlated to CSR practice and it was also one of the most important constructs contributing to the prediction of CSR with the exception of knowledge of consumers and purchasing decision. This suggests that bank managers need to take seriously consumer awareness into the next level of analysis, in which social media has an essential role to play in disseminating important information relating to CSR practices and implementation, including the use of mobile learning as an educative tool.
    Keywords: CSR practices; consumer awareness; purchase decision; consumer knowledge; Malaysian banking industry.

  • Mobile Advergame: Analysis of Flow, Attitudes, and Competitor Trait as the Moderating Variable   Order a copy of this article
    by Sri Hartini 
    Abstract: The focus of this study will be on mobile advergame as the communication media of online marketing. Mobile advergame is a video game which in some ways it contains an advertisement for a product, a service, or a company. This study examines the relationships of consumer flow, attitude toward mobile advergame, attitude toward brand and consumer characteristics, especially competitor trait as the moderating variable. This study used quantitative approach with hypothetical analysis. To collect the data, this study used purposive sampling method. Six mobile advergames, especially adventure genre were used in this study. A total of 162 game players as participants were involved in the survey. The participants were obtained when they were playing the mobile advergame. The result shows that consumer flow influences the attitude toward mobile advergame and competitor trait moderates the relationships. Attitude toward mobile advergame influences attitude toward brand. Consumer flow does not influence attitude toward brand and competitor trait does not moderate relationship flow on attitudes toward brand.
    Keywords: flow; attitude; competitor trait; mobile advergame.

Special Issue on: Innovating Education with Mobile Technology Advancements

  • A mobile application with augmented reality in exploring the natural environment of Hong Kong   Order a copy of this article
    by Sin-Chun Ng, Ho-Chun Lee, King-Nam Cheng, Heung-Hang Ngan 
    Abstract: This paper introduces a mobile educational application using Augmented Reality (AR) called N-Trail for primary students to explore the natural environment of Hong Kong. Students studying in the primary schools in Hong Kong do not have many chances to go for a field trip in the nature parks. It will be beneficial for the students to learn outside of the classroom and explore the beauty of the nature. With the use of N-Trail, primary students can explore the Hong Kong natural environment effectively. N-Trail can provide the nearby flowering plants with the Global Positioning System (GPS) function. Students can take pictures for recognition of different flowering species. The augmented reality model in N-Trail can simulate the growth of the flowering plants. Students can learn more about the flower and insect species found in Hong Kong. User evaluation revealed that N-Trail is a useful and effective tool for primary students to explore the natural environment in Hong Kong.
    Keywords: augmented reality; image recognition; mobile application; natural environment of Hong Kong.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2020.10024692
  • Optimising the learning process with immersive virtual reality and non-immersive virtual reality in an educational environment   Order a copy of this article
    by Vivian W.Y. Lee, Paula Hodgson, Chung-Shing Chan, Agnes Fong, Sonia W.L. Cheung 
    Abstract: Teachers in higher education have a growing interest in embedding virtual reality in learning and teaching. This means that students can have a virtual exploration or a simulated experience in a range of situations. They can have an immersive virtual reality (IVR) experience using their smartphones mounted with cardboard boxes. Alternatively, tablets and notebook computers can also provide a non-immersive virtual reality (nIVR) experience. Given that bandwidth can be limited in many teaching environments, educators can arrange the options for both IVR and nIVR to maximise the possibility of learning engagement. This paper reports on student experiences of two undergraduate courses, 'Pharmacology and Therapeutics' and 'Understanding Ecotourism', in which educators deployed this innovative pedagogy. Survey and focus group interviews with students were conducted after the VR classes. These showed that students appreciated the VR experience, which broadened their awareness and knowledge.
    Keywords: immersive virtual reality; higher education; virtual simulation; virtual exploration.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2020.10024690
  • Using Kahoot in law school: differentiated instruction for working adults with diverse learning abilities   Order a copy of this article
    by Daniel Seah 
    Abstract: This paper explores the benefits of using Kahoot, a game-based learning application (app) to identify and bridge the learning gaps of working adults who are adult learners with diverse learning abilities at a Singapore university. It argues that the broader implications of differentiated instruction, to advance the teaching of adult learners, require further theoretical elaboration. This paper first surveys the extant literature, on differentiated instruction and gamification, to situate the particularities of law students within the university. Second, it examines some of differentiated instruction's limitations. Third, the paper illustrates how the teaching of tort and evidence law at this university is differentiated, on grounds of the students' diverse learning abilities. By using Kahoot, multiple-choice questions were created to test complex concepts. The lecturer differentiates his teaching by unpacking complex content, through Kahoot, in which he actively engages adult learners to share their reasons for choosing the correct and wrong answers.
    Keywords: differentiated instruction; legal education; student-centred learning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2020.10024694
  • Voluntary participation and natural grouping with smartphones: an effective and practical approach to implement a quasi-experiment   Order a copy of this article
    by Jiyou Jia, Zhenzhen Chen 
    Abstract: We propose a voluntary participation approach to naturally generate two groups facilitated with a CMS and the usage of students' smartphones. We applied it in a research of blending smartphones into the university English class for one semester. All students were invited to freely use smartphones in and outside the class to participant in the learning activities in a web-based instruction system and their usage data were stored. They were regarded as experiment students if they participated in at least two learning activities including pretest and posttest, otherwise as control students. The differences of the two groups, including the number and score sum of participated activities indicating participation quantity and the average score of participated activities indicating participation quality, were all statistically significant. The finding demonstrated that the proposed approach is practical for implementing quasi-experiment research in education and effective to improve university students' learning with the help of smartphones.
    Keywords: quasi-experiment; voluntary participation; natural grouping; smartphone; classroom instruction; academic performance.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2020.10024693
  • The use of student response systems with learning analytics: a review of case studies (2008-2017)   Order a copy of this article
    by Kam Cheong Li, Billy Tak-Ming Wong 
    Abstract: This paper reviews the case studies on the use of student response systems (SRSs) with learning analytics. A total of 26 case studies published between 2008 and 2017 were collected from Scopus and Google Scholar. The review covers the functions of the SRSs, the learning contexts for their use, the data collected and the use of analysis results, as well as their benefits and limitations. The findings showed an increasing use of SRSs with learning analytics in recent years, mainly in an in-class environment, for collecting students' responses to exercises, quizzes or polls. The SRS use has been shown to support tracking and maintain students' in-class engagement level, understand their learning experience and evaluate the effectiveness of teaching. However, there are also constraints on the learning activities and subject disciplines which are suitable for SRS use, which calls for further work to identify the underlying factors and promote the use of SRS in a broader range of learning analytics practices.
    Keywords: student response system; classroom response system; audience response system; immediate response system; clicker; learning analytics.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2020.10024689
  • Stakeholders' perceptions of integrating mobile devices in teaching and learning   Order a copy of this article
    by Aisha Salim Ali Al-Harthi, Chris Campbell, Houda Abdullah Al-Hosni 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential impact of using iPads in teaching and learning and to capture stakeholders' perceptions of using iPads in an international school in the Middle East. The study uses a case study methodology and collects both quantitative and qualitative data. The results show that all stakeholders reported positive perceptions about using the iPad. IPad use may have increased students' chances to communicate and ask for help from peers. Teachers reported they still need more help to plan for using iPads in their teaching. Some parents felt alienated from the types of learning their children used the iPad for. The qualitative results explain the stakeholders' experience in terms of technology access, ownership, integration, connectivity and institutional support. Based on the study results, specific recommendations are provided to improve integrating mobile technology in schools.
    Keywords: iPad; technology integration; mobile learning; BYOD.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2020.10024687
  • Effects of a mobile technology-supported peer assessment approach on students' learning motivation and perceptions in a college flipped dance class   Order a copy of this article
    by Lu-Ho Hsia, Han-Yu Sung 
    Abstract: The present study integrated mobile technology into a flipped dance class. An experiment was conducted to understand the effects of the proposed approach on students' motivation and self-efficacy as well as the correlation between self-efficacy and motivation in the flipped learning context. A total of 65 university students from two classes were recruited for the study. The two classes adopted a traditional feedback approach and a mobile technology-supported peer assessment approach, respectively; the flipped teaching experiment lasted for eight weeks. The results showed that there was a significant positive correlation between students' self-efficacy and motivation in the flipped teaching context. Additionally, the mobile technology-supported peer assessment approach was found to be an instructional approach with great benefits, which could significantly enhance students' intrinsic motivation and strengthen their focus and reflection during activities.
    Keywords: flipped classroom; peer assessment; dance education; higher education.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2020.10024688
  • Advancement and research trends of smart learning environments in the mobile era   Order a copy of this article
    by Gwo-Jen Hwang, Qing-Ke Fu 
    Abstract: Currently, the rapid development of modern technologies has been influencing and changing every aspect of our society, in an attempt to make our lives more convenient and intelligent. Constructing and applying Smart Learning Environments (SLEs) is such an effort to offer learners personalised learning experiences both effectively and efficiently. In the past half century, a steady development in the literature on SLEs has been identified. Moreover, most studies have been conducted in the fields of computer science, engineering, mathematics and social science. In the meantime, several technological components of SLEs have been identified as follows: overall, dynamic and open models of learners, mobile technologies and innovative technologies, intelligent cloud service, educational big data and learning analytics. Some salient pedagogical affordances of SLEs have also been presented, such as personalised learning content and paths, cognitive guiding, developing high-order abilities, facilitating diverse learning modes, and fostering autonomous learning and lifelong learning abilities. Finally, several future developmental trends or suggestions are proposed, such as taking learners' self-assessments into consideration when making decisions on personalised guiding, investigating the implementation of strategies and the application effects of the mixed learning modes based on SLEs in different teaching contexts, and so on.
    Keywords: smart learning environments; trend analysis; educational big data; learning analytics; mobile learning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2020.10024691

Special Issue on: Pedagogical Applications of Mobile Technology and Environment in STEM Disciplines

  • Trends and strategies for conducting effective STEM research and applications: a mobile and ubiquitous learning perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Gwo-Jen Hwang, Kam-Cheong Li, Chiu-Lin Lai 
    Abstract: STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics) has been recognized by educators as an important educational objective in the 21st century. It provides a new vision of education by encouraging school teachers to engage students in problem-solving, critical-thinking and creative-thinking tasks using the knowledge and skills learned from multiple disciplines. While the effectiveness of STEM has been recognized by educators, the challenges of applying it to school settings have also been indicated, such as the difficulties in designing cross-disciplinary tasks and measuring students learning performances. Mobile and ubiquitous technologies have been regarded as a potential facilitator which enables learners to learn across contexts with access to learning resources in anywhere and at any time. The use of these new technologies could provide new perspectives and opportunities for developing STEM activities and studies. This paper highlights the challenges as well as the strategies for implementing STEM activities in school settings and designing STEM research. It proposes several models for guiding researchers and school teachers to develop STEM learning design are proposed. In addition, it provides several strategies and measuring tools for developing in-depth experimental STEM studies.
    Keywords: STEM education; mobile learning; teaching strategies.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2020.10022182
  • A Personalized Mobile Learning System for Promoting STEM Discipline Teachers TPACK Development   Order a copy of this article
    by Tanachai Kajonmanee, Pawat Chaipidech, Niwat Srisawasdi, Kornchawal Chaipah 
    Abstract: The contemporary educational environment presents many challenges to improve teaching quality of teachers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines. In-service teachers knowledge of instructional practices in the fields of STEM is currently considered to be crucial to deal with the challenges. To promote teaching competency for STEM teachers, the epistemology of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) is recognized as the essential qualities of knowledge for highly qualified teachers. This research proposed the design and development of a personalized mobile learning platform through computer engineering processes for improving the quality of teaching knowledge, regarding TPACK, for in-service STEM teachers. We designed algorithms to select particular digital content for learning by analysing data, consisting of in-service teachers' learning styles, TPACK-oriented problems, digital content attributes, mobile device capabilities and internet network quality to create a personalized learning system. The aim of this study is to explore an effect of the personalized mobile learning system on in-service teachers TPACK, and 78 in-service science teachers in secondary education schools located in North-eastern region of Thailand participated in this study. The results of our study indicated that the algorithms can work effectively with more than 65% of in-service science teachers satisfaction in at least good level, and more than 90% of their satisfaction in at least moderate level. Moreover, they have significantly improved learning achievements in almost all kinds of knowledge based on the TPACK framework. The results show that our system is promising to provide learning tools to improve STEM teachers proficiencies under the TPACK framework.
    Keywords: Mobile learning; personalized learning; mobile technology; TPACK; in-service teacher.

  • On the Exploration of a Mobile Executive Functioning Coaching Solution for Students with and without Disabilities in Post-Secondary STEM Education   Order a copy of this article
    by Jingrong Xie 
    Abstract: This study investigated the insights of post-secondary science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) students with and without disabilities regarding their experiences with academic coaching through mobile phones and examined whether e-mentoring is effective in supporting the executive function skills (EFs) of those students. The researcher explored the design of a mobile EF coaching solution to satisfy individuals with diverse learning needs, especially students with disabilities, and to provide academic support to their post-secondary STEM gateway course. A parallel mixed methods study design was adopted. A total of seven participants completed the mobile coaching study. The pre/post-test results and the analysis of qualitative content showed improved EFs and learning strategies/skills for those students. Two levels of coding were used to analyze the qualitative data. This study added to the limited but growing research on implementing EF coaching via innovative technology tools to support students academic goals and performance.
    Keywords: students with and without disabilities; EF coaching; mobile technology; success and persistence; post-secondary STEM.

  • Integrating Research-Based Practices and Mobile Technology to Support Students with Executive Functioning Challenges in Post-Secondary STEM   Order a copy of this article
    by Jingrong Xie, James Basham, Alyse Bensel 
    Abstract: The Universal Design for Learning (UDL) framework addresses the diverse learning needs of students with disabilities (SWDs) in post-secondary STEM education. The authors argue that supporting executive function skills (EFs) and learning strategies for students with disabilities (SWDs) during their learning process is important to the persistence and success of SWDs in post-secondary STEM education. Reviewed research indicates that EF challenges in post-secondary STEM education are a critical area for SWDs. Understanding current studies on the effectiveness of providing research-based practices (i.e., EF coaching, e-mentoring) for SWDs in post-secondary education can support the success of SWDs in post-secondary STEM education and diversify STEM workforce. We highlight how emerging mobile platforms, integrated with research-based instructional practices, can support SWDs success and persistence in post-secondary STEM education. The implications and limitations are discussed.
    Keywords: EF challenges; research-based practices; mobile technology; success and persistence of SWDs; post-secondary STEM education.

  • Surveying China Teachers Technological Pedagogical STEM Knowledge: A Pilot Validation of STEM-TPACK Survey   Order a copy of this article
    by Ching Sing Chai, Morris Jong, Zhiming Yan 
    Abstract: As STEM education is increasingly drawing attention from different parts of the world, there is also an emerging call for STEM education to be synthesized with the TPACK framework for the purpose of teacher professional development. Unfortunately, teacher professional development for integrative STEM education anchored by engineering design has been lacking. This study attempts to integrate STEM and TPACK framework as a means to advance the state of affairs. In particular, a STEM TPACK survey was created and validated in this study. The exploratory factor analysis indicates that the four factors, i.e. the technological pedagogical science knowledge, technological pedagogical mathematics knowledge, technological pedagogical engineering knowledge and integrative STEM can be identified. The regression analysis indicates that the three TPACK factors can predict the teachers integrative STEM efficacy. In addition, teachers who have experienced teaching STEM classes are generally more efficacious in their STEM TPACK knowledge. Overall, the study indicates that teachers TPACK are associated with their efficacy in implementing STEM education. This implies that it is important to expound further teacher professional development efforts using the TPACK framework and the inclusion of mobile apps could be important.
    Keywords: Science; Technology; Engineering and Mathematics (STEM); Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK); Teacher professional development.