Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation

International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation (IJMLO)

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International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation (29 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • A Profile of College Students’ Mobile Learning Readiness: An Integrative Literature Review of Studies from 2007 to 2021   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiao Xu, J. Jessica Li 
    Abstract: An integrative literature review of 29 studies from the past 15 years (2007 to 2021) was conducted to understand and frame college students mobile learning readiness (MLR) comprehensively. A resultant conceptual profile with theoretical and practical implications is proposed that includes 13 factors grouped into three categories: learner traits (past mobile learning experience, self-efficacy, innovativeness, optimism, intention, self-regulated learning), technology expectations (expectations of mobile learning effort, performance and relative advantages), and external influences (facilitating conditions, subjective influence, infrastructure readiness and cost). The results from the analysis originally locate college students personality and psychological prerequisites for engaging in mobile learning; identify three relative advantages of mobile learning flexibility, interactions, and enjoyment; and pinpoint the external determinants for examining college students MLR including costs, public infrastructure resources associated with mobile learning, and student-peers and instructors subjective influences. Recommendations for fostering MLR are discussed as well.
    Keywords: conceptual profile; mobile learning readiness; college students; integrative literature review.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2023.10048393
  • Ubiquitous game-based learning with a multimedia debriefing on cyberbullying during the COVID-19 pandemic   Order a copy of this article
    by Sasipim Poompimol, Patcharin Panjaburee, Suthiporn Sajjapanroj, Chanayuth Changpetch, Preeyada Tapingkae, Thanyaluck Ingkavara 
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic forced schools to move instruction online and learn from home, laying on learning anywhere and anytime upon the students’ self-pace. This study designed and implemented ubiquitous learning with the digital board game in response to government-issued learn-at-home and work-from-home orders. The present paper also shows how the multimedia debriefing method supports a digital board game for ubiquitous learning in the course of cyberbullying behaviour. A repeated measure experiment with 56 middle school students showed that students’ conceptions and perceptions of cyberbullying behaviours improved significantly after gaming with multimedia debriefing sessions compared to gaming without multimedia debriefing sessions. Additionally, the students were asked to respond to a self-reported questionnaire and interviewed. The results revealed that they had a positive experience with the multimedia debriefing method and perceived the ubiquitous game-based learning as an effective environment that helped improve their learning regarding cyberbullying conceptions.
    Keywords: ubiquitous learning; digital board game; debriefing method; game-based learning; digital citizenships; essential skills.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2023.10048576
  • Design and implementation of a breathing interaction system for autistic Thai children   Order a copy of this article
    by Pitsanu Chaichitwanidchakol, Witcha Feungchan 
    Abstract: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is utilised to treat a variety of abnormal symptoms and assist children with autism improve their development in a variety of areas. The goal of this study is to help children with autism practise breathing at a pace that is near normal in order to deliver more oxygen to the brain. As a result, breathing interactions with two VR games were created specifically for autistic youngsters. First, an ASD breathing game allows a child to interact with real-time respiration rate, the practitioners could assist the child to breathe near the norm. Second, an ASD underwater exercise game allows a youngster to practise breathing skills while underwater and in the water. It involves an interactional breathing pattern. Both games employ virtual reality (VR) technology to aid in teaching proper breathing techniques. The findings of the game test show that autistic children’s usage of breathing interaction patterns is successful.
    Keywords: pervasive learning; virtual reality; VR; bio interaction; breath interaction; virtual feedback; simulation; autism; respiratory; hyperbaric oxygen therapy.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2023.10048607
  • Learning Analytics and Evidence-based K12 Education in Japan: Usage of Data-driven Services and Mobile Learning Across Two Years.   Order a copy of this article
    by Hiroaki Ogata, Rwitajit Majumdar, Brendan Flanagan, Hiroyuki Kuromiya 
    Abstract: Learning and evidence analytics framework (LEAF) is a technology framework for data-driven services in education. LEAF helps to form an educational eco-system with new digital technologies with capabilities such as integrating AI-driven models for learning recommendations and connecting learning logs through blockchain technologies to support lifelong learning. Since 2018, its implementation in Japan has led to more than 1,000 students of Japanese public schools using LEAF on mobile tablets for their daily learning activities both inside and outside school. The data collected at the school level in LEAF further enabled the creation of computational models to support teaching and self-learning. This article presents the data-driven services built on the platform and how it was used in Japanese K-12 Mathematics and English classes. A study evaluates the usage and user perception of data-driven educational practices in the Japanese context and discusses its greater implications and challenges for learning analytics research.
    Keywords: evidence-based education; learning analytics; K-12 education; e-book platform; AI-driven services; Japanese school; learning and evidence analytics framework; LEAF; BookRoll; Japan.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2023.10048714
  • Smartphone Apps for Child Sexual Abuse Education: Gaps and Design Considerations   Order a copy of this article
    by Sadia Tasnuva Pritha, Rahnuma Tasnim, Ashad Kabir, Sumaiya Amin, Anik Das 
    Abstract: The objectives of this study are understanding the requirements of a child sexual abuse (CSA) education app, identifying the limitations of existing apps, and providing guidelines for better app design. An electronic search across three major app stores was conducted and the selected apps were rated by a devised app rating scale. Our rating scale evaluates essential features, functionalities, and software quality characteristics that are necessary for CSA education apps, and determined their effectiveness for potential use as CSA education programs for children. User comments from the app stores are collected and analysed to understand their expectations and views. After analysing the feasibility of the reviewed apps, CSA app design considerations are proposed that highlight game-based teaching approaches. The evaluation results show that most of the reviewed apps are not suitable for being used as CSA education programs. Moreover, all the apps need to be improved in terms of their software qualities and CSA-specific features to be considered as potential CSA education programs. This study provides the necessary knowledge to developers and individuals regarding the essential features and software quality characteristics for designing and developing CSA education apps.
    Keywords: child sexual abuse; CSA; mobile learning; sexual abuse education; smartphone; mobile apps; design considerations; app rating scale.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2023.10049097
  • Facilitating creativity, collaboration, and computational thinking in group website design: A concept mapping-based mobile flipped learning approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Shu-Chen Cheng, Gwo-Jen Hwang, Pei-Ying Chen 
    Abstract: Group website design is an activity that aims to foster students’ creative thinking, computational thinking, and collaboration while developing websites in teams. A concept mapping-based mobile flipped learning approach was proposed in this study. A quasi-experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of the proposed model of student learning achievement, creativity, collaboration, and computational thinking in a technological learning context. Twenty-one at-work students in the experimental group applied the concept mapping-based mobile flipped learning, while 18 at-work students in the control group learned through conventional mobile flipped learning. The experimental results showed that the experimental group had better learning achievement, creativity, collaboration, and computational thinking than the control group. In addition, the experimental group also outperformed the control group on website design outcomes. The interviews further revealed that the proposed method positively impacted the students’ computational thinking skills. Accordingly, a discussion and several suggestions for future research are presented.
    Keywords: mobile learning; flipped learning; concept mapping; computational thinking; collaborative learning; website design.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2024.10051658
  • A systematic review of mobile-based synchronous and asynchronous language teaching and learning   Order a copy of this article
    by Zilin Wang, D.I. ZOU, Lucas Kohnke, Gary Cheng, Lixun Wang 
    Abstract: Research on the use of mobile applications in language teaching and learning has been extensive, especially since the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic. In this review of articles, we systematically examine 112 empirical studies investigating the effectiveness of mobile-based synchronous and asynchronous language teaching and learning published from 2000 to 2022. We examined the languages, language skills that were learnt, the educational level of the learners, the mobile learning applications, and the learning activity durations. We also identified the effectiveness, challenges, and pedagogical implications of implementing mobile applications in online language teaching and learning. Based on the results, we propose a pedagogical model incorporating three online learning factors - participants, learning activities, and mobile applications - to identify the prerequisites for successful online language learning. We also suggest practical ideas for language teachers who are eager to integrate mobile applications into their online classes aimed at specific language skills. Finally, we identify potential trends in the research and suggest future research directions.
    Keywords: systematic review; mobile-based language education; synchronous language education; asynchronous language education; mobile applications; online education; language skills; pedagogical implications.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2024.10054424
  • How does mobile learning support second language learning ? Evidence from CSL learners’ turn construction in online communication   Order a copy of this article
    by Haijing Zhang, CONG WANG, Fangwei Huang, Daner Sun 
    Abstract: Under global public health emergencies such as COVID-19 and monkeypox, online learning for the second language (L2) has become prevalent, especially mobile learning, which provides a new training form spanning time and space for L2 learners in listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Taking the turn construction of learners who learn Chinese as a second language (CSL) as a point cut, this study investigated L2 learners' communication strategies in a mobile learning context through conversation analysis, a qualitative method. The result showed that the CSL learner adopted self-turn construction, co-construction, and turn-taking in online communication. In turn-taking, the CSL learner raised the pitch at the beginning of a new turn to a position higher than the pitch at the end of the previous turn. This study revealed the structure and approach of CSL learners' turn construction in 'talk-in-interaction', enriching the theoretical research of turn construction under the transactional distance theory of L2 learning supported by mobile technologies.
    Keywords: mobile learning; L2 learning; Chinese as a second language; CSL learner; turn construction; online communication.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2024.10055036
  • Borderless Lab 365: A Real-time Web-based Remote Laboratory Platform for Hong Kong High School Students in Response to Pandemic   Order a copy of this article
    by Ka Lai Wong, Wang Fai Cheng, Ming Tak Sze, Siu Hong Choy, Kwok Lung Jim, Yuen Hong Tsang, Chi Wah Leung, Chee Leung Mak 
    Abstract: Due to COVID-19 pandemic, distance learning is inevitable, and technology is greatly incorporated in education. However, it is challenging for science educators as there are more physical and instrumental constraints in laboratory learning than usual. A real-time web-based remote laboratory platform provides more experimental opportunities for high school students anywhere/anytime. Current project is to develop an online laboratory platform, Borderless-Lab-365 (BL365). Through the server, the experiment setups residing in the University receive commands from users and make responses. The new designed platform is more engaging with live streaming and interactive interface adjusting parameters instantly. It stands out from virtual lab using computer simulations, randomness and errors arisen in real experiments can be investigated and experimental skills are needed. The platform was successfully implemented. One hundred and one participants aged 13 to 19 from five secondary schools completed a user survey after performing experiment on BL365. Students were encouraged to learn new things and gained better understanding.
    Keywords: remote laboratory; STEM education; student-centred learning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2024.10055037
  • Technologies in content and language integrated learning: types, purposes, and outcomes   Order a copy of this article
    by Xieling Chen, D.I. ZOU, Haoran Xie 
    Abstract: Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) has evolved into a catalyst for conceptualizing and re-conceptualizing how languages are adopted as both learning medium and object. Scholars are attempting to integrate technologies into traditional CLIL scenarios. This study systematically reviewed studies on technology-enhanced CLIL (T-CLIL) and the learning outcomes reported. A total of 23 eligible studies published from 2013 to 2021 were analyzed. We systematically reviewed T-CLIL literature from the perspectives of technology types, purposes of technology use, and outcomes due to technology use. Different technologies (e.g., multimedia, web 2.0, and learning management systems) were applied to deliver instructional content, facilitate interactions, promote practices, enhance problem-based learning, etc. Findings also revealed that T-CLIL improved students’ subject knowledge and language skills and promoted their learning motivation, engagement, problem-solving, and critical thinking abilities. The findings of this review demonstrated how state-of-the-art technologies could be utilized in CLIL classrooms to promote learners’ comprehension of non-linguistic concepts in a second language and their second-language use for real-world professional problem-solving.
    Keywords: content and language integrated learning (CLIL); technology-enhanced CLIL; technology type; purpose; learning outcomes.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2024.10055039
  • An Ethnic Context-focused Mobile Adaptive Learning Approach to Promoting Sexual Health Literacy in Non-Formal Education   Order a copy of this article
    by Suphaphan Chansiri, Charoenchai Wongwatkit 
    Abstract: The number of ethnic teenagers with unplanned pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases has been increasing. A few can access non-formal education and learn sexual health literacy under limited learning conditions. This study aims to address these issues by proposing a mobile adaptive learning approach focusing on ethnic context. In contrast, a personalised adaptive agent with an integrated anonymous mechanism and inquiry-based interactive lessons have been designed. To investigate the effects of the proposed approach, a mobile web-based learning system on non-formal education’s sexual health literacy has been developed. Quasi-experimental research has been conducted with ethnic learners in Thailand. The findings reveal that the proposed learning approach can help improve their learning performances on sexual health literacy and gain positive learning perceptions. The significance of this study plays a vital role in understanding how to enhance sexual health literacy effectively and demonstrating better interactive lessons for the context-focused group.
    Keywords: mobile learning; adaptive learning system; sexual health literacy; SHL; ethnic learners; learning performance; learning perception; non-formal education.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2024.10055040
  • Research tendencies and designs of mobile technology-supported reading education: A systematic review of journal publication from 2005 to 2020   Order a copy of this article
    by Chen-Chen LIU, Fu-Ning Guo, Hai-Jie Wang, You-Mei Wang 
    Abstract: Digital reading has been the research trend recently. This study reviewed studies published in the area of mobile technology-supported reading education (MTSRE) in the Scopus database from 2005 to 2020. The analysis was conducted from four aspects, namely the article information, the study design and execution, how mobile technology was used, and the statistical methods and research issues. The results indicated that: 1) MTSRE has aroused the research interest of researchers; 2) most studies on MTSRE explore its effects, elementary school students are the most common participants, the experimental design method was mostly adopted, and studies conducted with in-class activities were the most common; 3) the MTSRE research investigated how to introduce different instructional strategies in MTSRE, and it was found that inquiry-based learning was most frequently used; 4) for statistical methods, descriptive statistics, were the most frequently applied, and the research topics were mainly focused on the cognition domain.
    Keywords: reading education; mobile technology; technology-based review model; systematic review.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2024.10055041
  • Effects of An Immersive Virtual Environment-based Gaming Approach on Students’ Occupational Health Performance, Immersion and Motivation   Order a copy of this article
    by Pongpon Seprum, Charoenchai Wongwatkit 
    Abstract: To investigate the effects of immersive virtual environment-based gaming approach and conventional mobile learning environments on learning performance, learning immersion, and learning motivation, this study developed the immersive virtual environment-based gaming approach for Occupational Health education in Emergency Response knowledge about fire and chemical emergency handling. The study results indicated that students in the immersive virtual environment-based gaming approach had higher learning achievements, immersion, and motivation levels than the conventional mobile learning approach. Furthermore, the high and low-achieving groups within the immersive game-based learning approach motivation are not different, which means that the students with high and low-achieving students still have high learning motivation toward the proposed immersive virtual environment-based gaming approach regardless of their learning capabilities.
    Keywords: immersive learning system; virtual reality; game-based learning; occupational health; learning immersion.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2024.10056568
  • An automated self-regulation advising mechanism in mobile learning environment to promote students' learning achievement, self-regulated awareness and approaches to science learning   Order a copy of this article
    by You-Hong Su, Shu-Yun Chien 
    Abstract: Mobile learning is a learner-centred mode, where students receive learning content from various sources without being limited by location or time. Self-regulated learning is crucial in mobile learning, as students have to take charge of their own learning by choosing what, when, where and how to learn. However, it can be challenging for students to regulate their learning effectively without guidance or support. Therefore, an automated self-regulation advising mechanism is proposed and implemented in a mobile learning environment to provide personalised advice and support to students in their learning process. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. The participants were 46 eighth graders from two classes of a junior high school in Taiwan. The experimental results show that the proposed approach promoted the students’ learning achievements, time management dimension of self-regulated awareness, and surface motivation of approaches to science learning.
    Keywords: automated advice; mobile learning; self-regulated learning; SRL; science learning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2024.10056692
  • Factors affecting users’ continuance intention to use on social network sites A sample of Vietnamese Facebookers   Order a copy of this article
    by Nam Tien Duong  
    Abstract: This study adopts social exchange theory as the research framework to investigate the factors influencing users’ interactivity and self-disclosure on social media platforms, and explores which factors can successfully increase users’ intention to continue using the platform. A total of 874 valid samples were collected, and the results confirmed that: 1) benefit factors are the main antecedents affecting user interactivity and self-disclosure; 2) the determinative factors that affect users’ intention to continue using the platform are users’ perception of human-computer interaction, interpersonal interaction, and self-disclosure depth; 3) users’ immersion experience moderates the positive impact of interaction on intention to continue using. This study provides academic and practical management implications and recommendations for future researchers.
    Keywords: interaction; Facebook; immersion; interaction; self-disclosure.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2024.10056983
  • Advancements and paradigm shifts in mobile and ubiquitous learning: A bibliometric analysis of the sixteen years of the International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation   Order a copy of this article
    by Yun-Fang Tu 
    Abstract: Among the international journals, the International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation (IJMLO) is one of a small number that focus on mobile-enabled schooling and professional training. IJMLO has been widely referred and has been included in the SCOPUS database since its first publication in 2007. In 2022, IJMLO was included in the Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI) due to its high citation rates. To clearly understand the advancements and paradigm shift in mobile and ubiquitous learning over the past 16 years, a bibliometric analysis was performed to analyse publications in IJMLO from 2007 to 2022. The analysis included several key issues such as the publication and citation structure of the journal, the most cited articles, the relationship of leading authors and countries/regions in the journal, and the topics and thematic evolution.
    Keywords: bibliometrics; citation analysis; mobile learning; ubiquitous learning; augmented reality.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2024.10057098
    by Naveed Saif, Rahmatullah Shah, Mudassir Hussain, Uzma Syeda Gilani, Imrab Shaheen 
    Abstract: The current study applies the Gao model of a mobile application with its modified version among newly appointed teachers in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan, through an induction program management system. For this purpose, data were collected from national testing services based appointed teachers in District Bannu through stratified random sampling. Results was analysed through structural model assessment via AMOS. Findings reveal that context has a significant relationship with perceived usefulness and ease of use factors. In the current study, two additional features perceived enjoyment and perceived innovativeness significant relation with intention proved that it has important attributes that were never explored. Both (perceived enjoyment and perceived innovativeness) possess significant relation in shaping teacher behaviour for using mobile application for learning. However, perceived ease of usefulness did not evident any relation with behaviour intention to use mobile for learning. Model of mobile applications can be better understood.
    Keywords: mobile learning; Gao model of mobile application; management system; perceived enjoyment; perceived innovativeness; perceived usefulness; ease of use.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2024.10057419
  • Future Skillset of Higher Education Learners: Confirmatory Factor Analysis
    by Jintavee Khlaisang, Prakob Koraneekij 
    Abstract: Changes in technology and labour market demand call on students to continually learn and develop themselves through lifelong learning. This extends to digital transformation, both during and post-COVID, as well as Industry 4.0, has become a challenge for higher education learning. This has caused learners to continue using digital technology for sustainability purposes while addressing future skill sets. This study conducted a second-order confirmatory factor analysis of future essential skill sets for higher education learners. For the future skill set, four components were identified: 1) problem-solving; 2) self-management; 3) working with people; 4) technology use and development. The factor loading for all latent variables was positive, ranging from 0.94 to 0.99. Self-management component had the highest factor loading (β = 0.99), followed by the technology use and development and problem-solving components, which had an equal factor loading (β = 0.95), and the working with people component (β = 0.94), respectively.
    Keywords: future skill set; sustainable learning; lifelong learning; CFA; problem-solving; self-management; working with people; technology use and development; higher education.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2025.10058392
  • Broad sense and narrow sense perspectives on the metaverse in education: Roles of virtual reality, augmented reality, artificial intelligence and pedagogical theories   Order a copy of this article
    by Gwo-Jen Hwang, Shu-Yun Chien 
    Abstract: There are different definitions of the metaverse. Some are from technical perspectives, which emphasise multiple criteria for identifying a metaverse system, such as being persistent, shared, and decentralised. On the other hand, some researchers consider metaverse as a virtual learning environment which enables people to interact with others or experience authentic contexts. Owing to the diverse notations of the metaverse, educational researchers might feel confused and wonder how the metaverse can be used in educational settings and whether the systems they have used can be called the metaverse. In this paper, we address this issue from different angles, the broad sense and the narrow sense. In particular, the broad sense definition is proposed from the perspective of educational objectives and needs. Moreover, research design modes regarding the metaverse in education are discussed by considering the roles played by emerging technologies, such as virtual reality (VR), artificial intelligence (AI), and mobile technologies.
    Keywords: metaverse; emerging technologies; virtual learning; augmented reality; AR; artificial intelligence; AI.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2024.10058828

Special Issue on: Enhancing Flexibility in Learning with Mobile and Ubiquitous Technologies

  • Effects and core design parameters of digital game-based language learning in the mobile era: a meta-analysis and systematic review   Order a copy of this article
    by Panicha Nitisakunwut, Gwo-Jen Hwang 
    Abstract: This meta-analysis and systematic review study of digital game-based language learning (DGBL) research describes the impact of DGBL implementation on English language learning outcomes. Criteria were set for the inclusion of appropriate research articles on digital game-based English language learning published between 2000 and 2019. Two main sources of data: Academic Search Complete (EBSCOhost) and the Web of Science were employed to search for relevant articles from peer-reviewed journals, and the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (version 3) software was used to conduct a meta-analysis. The findings identify the overall effectiveness of digital games including research designs of digital game-based learning and digital game designs, and describe the impact of DGBL on language learning outcomes. This study also provides suggestions and implications for educational practitioners and researchers who intend to conduct digital game-based learning in the mobile era.
    Keywords: digital game-based learning; educational games; language learning; meta-analysis; systematic review.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2023.10048230
  • Looking through the fog of remote Zoom teaching: a case study of at-risk student prediction   Order a copy of this article
    by Andrew Kwok-Fai Lui, Sin-Chun Ng 
    Abstract: Identification of students who are at-risk of failing or dropping out from a course is a key part of instructional remediation for student retention. The data-driven machine learning approach has proven to be effective in utilising student information to make the prediction. The Zoom video conferencing platform, which has become widely adopted to replace in-person teaching and learning in the COVID-19 pandemic, poses a challenge to building effective at-risk student prediction model. Extracting information about students is made difficult by increased capacity to control self-disclosure and the manipulation of online communication. The case study described in the paper aims to find out the feasibility of at-risk student prediction in Zoom teaching and the capacity of engineering informative features based on the polling function. A number of prediction scenarios were defined and the performance of the corresponding models and the effectiveness of various machine learning algorithm were evaluated. It was found that formative assessment features were useful for prediction scenarios earlier in the course, and summative assessment features gave accurate predictions towards the end. The findings have filled the knowledge gap of at-risk student prediction in Zoom teaching.
    Keywords: Zoom platform; online learning; at-risk student prediction; COVID-19; machine learning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2023.10048482
  • The limited usage and effect of smart phones and an online tutoring system for regular and large-scale university English teaching   Order a copy of this article
    by Jiyou Jia, Yuzhen Li, Huixiao Le 
    Abstract: This research integrates online learning supported by students' smart phones and a tutoring system CSIEC into a university course of English as a foreign language, through one semester with 548 students and eight lecturers from 13 classes. The treatment students used the system to learn vocabulary during the specified periods through voluntary participation and natural grouping, while the control students used alternative methods. The online learning activities analysis shows significant difference between the online learning behaviour of the treatment and control group, and demonstrates that the treatment group improved the vocabulary grade with a large effect size and decreased the time spent on completing the quiz. The treatment group improved better than the control group in overall learning, especially in vocabulary mastery and writing examined in regular university tests. The anonymous online survey results reveal that the students were satisfied with the English learning. The reasons leading to the findings are discussed. The implication for MALL research and future work are suggested.
    Keywords: smart phone; tutoring system; college English; vocabulary automaticity; effectiveness.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2023.10050362
  • Effects of the iPad use on K-12 students' STEM achievement: a meta-analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Yu Xiao, Yeping Li, Jamaal R. Young, Ke Wang 
    Abstract: Considerable research has been conducted globally to explore the effects of handheld devices on students' academic achievement, but no consistent conclusions from individual studies have been reached. Specifically, iPads accounted for 94% of the educational handheld device market and US school districts have recently allocated significant funding for iPads amid COVID-19; it is important to learn about the effectiveness of using iPads in school education. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis of related literature to examine the potential impact of iPad-assisted instructional approaches in K-12 STEM classrooms compared with traditional instruction. After analysing 17 selected studies, we found a significant overall effect (RE = 0.37, p = 0.008) that suggests a better effect of iPad-assisted instruction than traditional instruction. Additionally, moderator analysis revealed that the two factors of subjects and assessment tools played a statistically significant moderator role in the effect of iPads on students' STEM achievement.
    Keywords: handheld devices; iPad; meta-analysis; mobile technology; STEM education.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2023.10051538
  • Learners and system readiness for digital learning in the Ethiopian health sector: the path to blended learning   Order a copy of this article
    by Yifru Berhan, Muluken Dessalegn, Aranka Hetyey, Bekalu Assamnew, Sentayehu Tsegaye, Misrak Makonnen, Sintayehu Abebe 
    Abstract: The increasing global digital interconnectedness, the emerging user-friendly and cost-effective digital learning platforms are easing the barriers for reaching unlimited audience, and the lessons learned from coronavirus disease (COVID-19) restrictions have opened room for digital learning. In this study, quantitative and qualitative methods were employed by including 393 lower and mid-level health workers from different regions and 27 key informants from governmental and non-governmental organisations to get an insight into the learners and system readiness for digital learning. The most preferred delivery mode was blended learning. The cost-effectiveness of the method, high access to mobile devices, government and partners' commitment along with trainees' preference are persuasive conditions to implement and transform digital learning for health workers in Ethiopia and increase the health workforce as an important intervention for achieving universal health coverage and health-specific sustainable development goals at large.
    Keywords: blended learning; digital learning; Ethiopia; face-to-face learning; lower and mid-level health workers; quantitative and qualitative study.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2023.10050916
  • When smartphones meet mindful learning: the cluster profiles of passion toward smartphone use, creativity mindsets, and creativity self-efficacy   Order a copy of this article
    by Yu-chu Yeh, Yueh-Yin Peng 
    Abstract: Based on the advantages of smartphones and the importance of mindful learning, we developed a smartphone-based mindfulness intervention for creativity learning that can be easily implemented in daily life, by which we examined the relationship between personality traits and self-efficacy of creativity. The concerned personal traits included four types of passion towards smartphones and four types of creativity mindsets. Eighty-four college students participated in a ten-day intervention that requested participants to take photos of their surroundings using smartphones with an emphasis on self-determination and knowledge sharing. The results of cluster analysis revealed three distinctive patterns of clusters about creativity self-efficacy, mindsets, and passion, suggesting that creativity self-efficacy can be predicted by creativity growth mindsets and harmonious passion toward smartphones. The profiles of specific traits we identified in this study shed light on how different types of mindsets and passion toward smartphones may influence self-efficacy.
    Keywords: mindful learning; passion; mindset; self-efficacy; smartphones.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2023.10053326

Special Issue on: Personalising Learning in Mobile and Ubiquitous Environments

  • Ubiquitous Teaching Design and Implementation of Open Education based on OMO model: A Case Study of Software Engineering Course   Order a copy of this article
    by Junjie Cao, Zhonghua Jiang, Wenchun Zhao 
    Abstract: This study aimed to explore the effect of OMO instructional design and implementation. It focused on whether the ubiquitous teaching model is helpful to students' learning participation and initiative in open education, and their recognition was also surveyed. Taking the "Software Engineering" course for example, lecturers had redesigned the course contents and teaching methods. The hardware environment support of smart classroom and the functions of auxiliary software were used to realize the teaching interaction and data statistics. Students could choose their preferred learning approach in each class, face-to-face or live online. Some experiments were used to verify the effect of teaching implementation, such as learning situation analysis and surveys before class, analysis and evaluations of the teaching process during class, questionnaires and interviews after class. The results showed the OMO-based teaching concept had positives effect on improving students' learning interest and initiative as well as subjective emotions in open education.
    Keywords: OMO; ubiquitous teaching process redesign; teaching implementation analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2024.10054470
  • A Comparison of a Computerized Adaptive Test for Mathematics Instruction with the Classical Test   Order a copy of this article
    by Jiyou Jia, Yuyue Zhang, Huixiao Le 
    Abstract: Computerised adaptive test (CAT) may enable the individualised and adaptive homework and assessment which seem difficult to be practiced in traditional school settings. The authors developed a web-based mathematics intelligent assessment and tutoring system (MIATS) assessing the learner’s math content mastery status by a CAT. This research uses a simulation experiment to simulate the performance of 53 middle school students who used all questions included in the MIATS with their authentic answers in the CAT. The data analysis shows that the trait values measured by a CAT have significantly strong and positive coefficients with the correctness rates measured by a classical test with the same questions from the CAT. The data visualisation of questions used in the CAT and the question sequences demonstrate that all the examinees complete the CAT with differentiated questions and various pathways. This research innovatively provides convincing evidence for the effectiveness and equality of the CAT.
    Keywords: computerised adaptive test; CAT; personalised assessment; mathematics assessment; mathematics intelligent assessment and tutoring system; MIATS; assessment result; personalised homework.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2024.10055038
  • Transformation of Workplace Learning After the Pandemic in Indonesia: Middle-aged Employees' Experiences   Order a copy of this article
    by Gita Aulia Nurani, Ya-Hui Lee 
    Abstract: This study aimed to explore middle-aged transformation related to implementing workplace learning during the pandemic. This study utilised semi-structured in-depth interviews by the qualitative phenomenological methodology. The participants are middle-aged employees from national or multinational companies who used offline learning before the pandemic and then transformed to online learning. Results mention that middle-aged face some difficulties when they use online learning tools: they need more time to adapt to the technology features, keep a mindset as an independent learner, feel exhausted easily, have less engagement with facilitators, and struggle to find an effective learning method. The findings identified five stages of workplace learning techniques that combine online and offline strategies to overcome these situations: the initial phase, establishing a framework, using online quizzes for learning evaluation, conducting offline learning for practical skills, and using coaching or mentoring to mature personal values.
    Keywords: adult; middle-age; transformation; workplace learning; Indonesia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2024.10055719
  • Investigating students’ perceptions of the use of a multifunctional mobile-based virtual reality application for English/Chinese interpreting learning   Order a copy of this article
    by Venus Chan 
    Abstract: This study aimed to develop a mobile-based virtual reality (VR) application for English/Chinese bi-directional interpreting education — 'Virtual Interpreting Practice' (VIP) — and to study Chinese students’ perceptions in terms of their overall satisfaction, learning experience and outcomes (including interpreting competence as well as cognitive and affective development). The results of quantitative and qualitative analyses of the pre-and post-study questionnaires revealed that VIP was a useful tool for enhancing students’ interpreting and bilingual competence, improving their learning motivation and strengthening their independent skills. Moreover, it was found that learning experiences were positively correlated to learning outcomes. In particular, while the VR feature enabled immersive learning which enhanced learning effectiveness, engagement and language proficiency, the use of mobile devices facilitated learning autonomy and flexibility. The findings suggested that with more opportunities for situated learning in the virtual immersive learning environments, learners could acquire better interpreting techniques and metacognitive skills.
    Keywords: English/Chinese Interpreting learning; Immersive learning; Language proficiency; Learning experience; Leaning outcomes; Mobile-assisted language learning; Students’ perceptions; Virtual reality.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2024.10056650