Forthcoming and Online First Articles
International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation
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International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation (23 papers in press)
Abstract: Learning by putting our knowledge into practice is one of the best ways to impact our learning positively; where students or university graduates can put their knowledge into practice, gaining more experience and confidence to face the world of work, this can be achieved through a challenge-based methodology supported by intelligent technologies such as chatbots integrated into a mobile application. The objective is to create a mobile application using a personalised chatbot based on challenges to support students development. The proposal allows the creation of an ecosystem between universities, companies, and students. For the development of the mobile app, the agile scrum methodology was used together with lean startup for the workflow of the development group. The results show that it was possible to develop a mobile application that integrates learning based on challenges with a chatbot to encourage innovation in university students in an acceptable way, which was validated in terms of usability with the Brooke system usability scale (SUS) instrument, in 83% and with the ISO 9126 software quality tests with a real value of 79. Therefore, it is concluded that developing a mobile application that integrates challenge-based learning fosters innovation in university students.
Keywords: challenge-based learning; methodology; innovation; mobile application; chatbot; scrum.
A systematic review of mobile-based synchronous and asynchronous language teaching and learning
by Zilin Wang, D.I. ZOU, Lucas Kohnke, Gary Cheng, Lixun Wang
Abstract: Research on the use of mobile applications in language teaching and learning has been extensive, especially since the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic. In this review of articles, we systematically examine 112 empirical studies investigating the effectiveness of mobile-based synchronous and asynchronous language teaching and learning published from 2000 to 2022. We examined the languages, language skills that were learnt, the educational level of the learners, the mobile learning applications, and the learning activity durations. We also identified the effectiveness, challenges, and pedagogical implications of implementing mobile applications in online language teaching and learning. Based on the results, we propose a pedagogical model incorporating three online learning factors - participants, learning activities, and mobile applications - to identify the prerequisites for successful online language learning. We also suggest practical ideas for language teachers who are eager to integrate mobile applications into their online classes aimed at specific language skills. Finally, we identify potential trends in the research and suggest future research directions.
Keywords: systematic review; mobile-based language education; synchronous language education; asynchronous language education; mobile applications; online education; language skills; pedagogical implications.
Technologies in content and language integrated learning: types, purposes, and outcomes
by Xieling Chen, D.I. ZOU, Haoran Xie
Abstract: Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) has evolved into a catalyst for conceptualizing and re-conceptualizing how languages are adopted as both learning medium and object. Scholars are attempting to integrate technologies into traditional CLIL scenarios. This study systematically reviewed studies on technology-enhanced CLIL (T-CLIL) and the learning outcomes reported. A total of 23 eligible studies published from 2013 to 2021 were analyzed. We systematically reviewed T-CLIL literature from the perspectives of technology types, purposes of technology use, and outcomes due to technology use. Different technologies (e.g., multimedia, web 2.0, and learning management systems) were applied to deliver instructional content, facilitate interactions, promote practices, enhance problem-based learning, etc. Findings also revealed that T-CLIL improved students subject knowledge and language skills and promoted their learning motivation, engagement, problem-solving, and critical thinking abilities. The findings of this review demonstrated how state-of-the-art technologies could be utilized in CLIL classrooms to promote learners comprehension of non-linguistic concepts in a second language and their second-language use for real-world professional problem-solving.
Keywords: content and language integrated learning (CLIL); technology-enhanced CLIL; technology type; purpose; learning outcomes.
An Ethnic Context-focused Mobile Adaptive Learning Approach to Promoting Sexual Health Literacy in Non-Formal Education
by Suphaphan Chansiri, Charoenchai Wongwatkit
Abstract: The number of ethnic teenagers with unplanned pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases has been increasing. A few can access non-formal education and learn sexual health literacy under limited learning conditions. This study aims to address these issues by proposing a mobile adaptive learning approach focusing on ethnic context. In contrast, a personalised adaptive agent with an integrated anonymous mechanism and inquiry-based interactive lessons have been designed. To investigate the effects of the proposed approach, a mobile web-based learning system on non-formal educations sexual health literacy has been developed. Quasi-experimental research has been conducted with ethnic learners in Thailand. The findings reveal that the proposed learning approach can help improve their learning performances on sexual health literacy and gain positive learning perceptions. The significance of this study plays a vital role in understanding how to enhance sexual health literacy effectively and demonstrating better interactive lessons for the context-focused group.
Keywords: mobile learning; adaptive learning system; sexual health literacy; SHL; ethnic learners; learning performance; learning perception; non-formal education.
Effects of An Immersive Virtual Environment-based Gaming Approach on Students Occupational Health Performance, Immersion and Motivation
by Pongpon Seprum, Charoenchai Wongwatkit
Abstract: To investigate the effects of immersive virtual environment-based gaming approach and conventional mobile learning environments on learning performance, learning immersion, and learning motivation, this study developed the immersive virtual environment-based gaming approach for Occupational Health education in Emergency Response knowledge about fire and chemical emergency handling. The study results indicated that students in the immersive virtual environment-based gaming approach had higher learning achievements, immersion, and motivation levels than the conventional mobile learning approach. Furthermore, the high and low-achieving groups within the immersive game-based learning approach motivation are not different, which means that the students with high and low-achieving students still have high learning motivation toward the proposed immersive virtual environment-based gaming approach regardless of their learning capabilities.
Keywords: immersive learning system; virtual reality; game-based learning; occupational health; learning immersion.
An automated self-regulation advising mechanism in mobile learning environment to promote students' learning achievement, self-regulated awareness and approaches to science learning
by You-Hong Su, Shu-Yun Chien
Abstract: Mobile learning is a learner-centred mode, where students receive learning content from various sources without being limited by location or time. Self-regulated learning is crucial in mobile learning, as students have to take charge of their own learning by choosing what, when, where and how to learn. However, it can be challenging for students to regulate their learning effectively without guidance or support. Therefore, an automated self-regulation advising mechanism is proposed and implemented in a mobile learning environment to provide personalised advice and support to students in their learning process. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. The participants were 46 eighth graders from two classes of a junior high school in Taiwan. The experimental results show that the proposed approach promoted the students learning achievements, time management dimension of self-regulated awareness, and surface motivation of approaches to science learning.
Keywords: automated advice; mobile learning; self-regulated learning; SRL; science learning.
Factors affecting users continuance intention to use on social network sites A sample of Vietnamese Facebookers
by Nam Tien Duong
Abstract: This study adopts social exchange theory as the research framework to investigate the factors influencing users interactivity and self-disclosure on social media platforms, and explores which factors can successfully increase users intention to continue using the platform. A total of 874 valid samples were collected, and the results confirmed that: 1) benefit factors are the main antecedents affecting user interactivity and self-disclosure; 2) the determinative factors that affect users intention to continue using the platform are users perception of human-computer interaction, interpersonal interaction, and self-disclosure depth; 3) users immersion experience moderates the positive impact of interaction on intention to continue using. This study provides academic and practical management implications and recommendations for future researchers.
Keywords: interaction; Facebook; immersion; interaction; self-disclosure.
Advancements and paradigm shifts in mobile and ubiquitous learning: A bibliometric analysis of the sixteen years of the International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation
by Yun-Fang Tu
Abstract: Among the international journals, the International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation (IJMLO) is one of a small number that focus on mobile-enabled schooling and professional training. IJMLO has been widely referred and has been included in the SCOPUS database since its first publication in 2007. In 2022, IJMLO was included in the Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI) due to its high citation rates. To clearly understand the advancements and paradigm shift in mobile and ubiquitous learning over the past 16 years, a bibliometric analysis was performed to analyse publications in IJMLO from 2007 to 2022. The analysis included several key issues such as the publication and citation structure of the journal, the most cited articles, the relationship of leading authors and countries/regions in the journal, and the topics and thematic evolution.
Keywords: bibliometrics; citation analysis; mobile learning; ubiquitous learning; augmented reality.
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOBILE APPLICATION MODEL AND TEACHERS BEHAVIOUR INTENTION. EVIDENCE FROM EMERGING ECONOMY.
by Naveed Saif, Rahmatullah Shah, Mudassir Hussain, Uzma Syeda Gilani, Imrab Shaheen
Abstract: The current study applies the Gao model of a mobile application with its modified version among newly appointed teachers in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan, through an induction program management system. For this purpose, data were collected from national testing services based appointed teachers in District Bannu through stratified random sampling. Results was analysed through structural model assessment via AMOS. Findings reveal that context has a significant relationship with perceived usefulness and ease of use factors. In the current study, two additional features perceived enjoyment and perceived innovativeness significant relation with intention proved that it has important attributes that were never explored. Both (perceived enjoyment and perceived innovativeness) possess significant relation in shaping teacher behaviour for using mobile application for learning. However, perceived ease of usefulness did not evident any relation with behaviour intention to use mobile for learning. Model of mobile applications can be better understood.
Keywords: mobile learning; Gao model of mobile application; management system; perceived enjoyment; perceived innovativeness; perceived usefulness; ease of use.
Future Skillset of Higher Education Learners: Confirmatory Factor Analysis
by Jintavee Khlaisang, Prakob Koraneekij
Abstract: Changes in technology and labour market demand call on students to continually learn and develop themselves through lifelong learning. This extends to digital transformation, both during and post-COVID, as well as Industry 4.0, has become a challenge for higher education learning. This has caused learners to continue using digital technology for sustainability purposes while addressing future skill sets. This study conducted a second-order confirmatory factor analysis of future essential skill sets for higher education learners. For the future skill set, four components were identified: 1) problem-solving; 2) self-management; 3) working with people; 4) technology use and development. The factor loading for all latent variables was positive, ranging from 0.94 to 0.99. Self-management component had the highest factor loading (β = 0.99), followed by the technology use and development and problem-solving components, which had an equal factor loading (β = 0.95), and the working with people component (β = 0.94), respectively.
Keywords: future skill set; sustainable learning; lifelong learning; CFA; problem-solving; self-management; working with people; technology use and development; higher education.
Roles, Strategies, and Research Issues of Generative AI in the Mobile Learning Era
by Chui-Lin Lai, Yun-Fang Tu
Abstract: The emergence of generative AI (GAI) offers students an opportunity to experience learning interaction similar to that with real humans. This technology enables students to communicate with AI in natural language; GAI can also generate content more aligned with students needs. Notably, in the context of mobile learning, students will have more opportunities to interact with GAI. Therefore, exploring the role of GAI in the mobile learning environment and the possible combination with learning strategies is an important topic. In this position paper, we discuss this topic from the perspective of academic research and educational objectives. We also discuss the transformation of students roles in various educational objectives. Furthermore, this study explores potential research and educational issues, including integrating learning strategies, discussing student learning performance, integrating with other software and hardware, student interaction with GAI, and the issue of the right to learn GAI.
Keywords: artificial intelligence; AI; generative artificial intelligence; GAI; mobile learning; Blooms taxonomy; ChatGPT; intelligent tutoring system.
Virtual Educational Environments: An Investigation into Interactive Immersive Learning in Higher Education
by Amarpreet S. Gill, Derek Irwin, Sannia Mareta, Dave Towey, Alan Wang, Yanhui Zhang
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic rapidly accelerated the adoption of technology in educational environments. However, the technology initially employed during this period was limited in terms of interaction, engagement and enhancing motivation. Emerging technologies, such as immersive virtual reality, have the potential to resonate with, engage, and empower learners. This study focuses on the use of immersive virtual reality for the purposes of teaching and learning design history: specifically, the Bauhaus design movement. We examine students affective-motivational factors and their preferences regarding interaction interfaces and learning presentations, to understand how to inspire students in such a way that they enjoy learning and intrinsically wish to learn more. Results indicate that interaction interfaces and presentation type play pivotal roles in terms of immersion and engagement, which in turn impacts learners motivation. We also found that immersive virtual reality has the ability to increase intrinsic motivation. Insights and recommendations for instruction designers are provided.
Keywords: COVID-19; immersive learning; virtual reality; student preferences; motivation and engagement; design education; engineering education; digital pedagogy; educational technology.
Developing a New Ensemble Method for Sentiment Analysis in Mobile Assisted Language Learning: A case study for Duolingo
by Hakan KEKÜL, Mesut Polatgil
Abstract: In todays world, mobile devices and mobile technologies have become one of the indispensable elements, especially for young people. Learning activities using these technologies have also become widespread, and mobile assisted language learning (MALL) has become even more important. This study was conducted to evaluate users opinions about MALL methods. For this purpose, Duolingo user comments, which is currently the most known and used mobile application in foreign language education, were used. One million comments to the app are classified in terms of sentiment analysis. In the study, a new model was proposed by combining different feature extraction and classification methods and the results were compared. It has been determined that the proposed model has high classification success. With the proposed model, it is thought that user opinions can be analysed and software and applications can be developed according to user needs, especially for foreign language learning.
Keywords: mobile assisted language learning; MALL; Duolingo; sentiment analysis; classification; ensemble machine learning.
Analysis of the Effectiveness of online Learning based on the number of Eye Movement Regression
by Cheng Huang, Xiangyang Huang
Abstract: With the sudden outbreak of COVID-19, various countries suddenly turned to emergency online distance learning, which caused doubts about the effectiveness of online learning, and more and more attention was paid to the research on the effectiveness of online learning. Under this background, in this study, the GazeQuiz program, which was developed in-house, was used to collect eye-tracking data to capture the subjects staring and eye movement regression counts for each question, and to capture the subjects cognitive styles based on Felder and Solomans learning style index. With the help of Tobbi eye movement meter, this paper analyses the relevant data of students eye movement regression, understands the cognitive process of students online learning, the analysis of students eye movement regression and staring time on questions can facilitate teachers understanding of students cognitive processes, cognitive characteristics, overall learning content mastery, which can have a positive effect on improving educational teaching strategies.
Keywords: e-learning effect; eye movement regression; eye tracking.
Ubiquitous game-based learning with a multimedia debriefing on cyberbullying during the COVID-19 pandemic
by Sasipim Poompimol, Patcharin Panjaburee, Suthiporn Sajjapanroj, Chanayuth Changpetch, Preeyada Tapingkae, Thanyaluck Ingkavara
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic forced schools to move instruction online and learning from home, laying on learning anywhere and anytime at the students' own pace. This study designed and implemented ubiquitous learning with the digital board game in response to government-issued learn-at-home and work-from-home orders. The present paper also shows how the multimedia debriefing method supports a digital board game for ubiquitous learning in the course of cyberbullying behaviour. A repeated measure experiment with 56 middle school students showed that students' conceptions and perceptions of cyberbullying behaviours improved significantly after gaming with multimedia debriefing sessions compared to gaming without multimedia debriefing sessions. Additionally, the students were asked to respond to a self-reported questionnaire and were interviewed. The results revealed that they had a positive experience with the multimedia debriefing method and perceived the ubiquitous game-based learning as an effective environment that helped improve their learning regarding cyberbullying conceptions.
Keywords: ubiquitous learning; digital board game; debriefing method; game-based learning; digital citizenships; essential skills.
Facilitating creativity, collaboration, and computational thinking in group website design: a concept mapping-based mobile flipped learning approach
by Shu-Chen Cheng, Gwo-Jen Hwang, Pei-Ying Chen
Abstract: Group website design is an activity that aims to foster students' creative thinking, computational thinking, and collaboration while developing websites in teams. A concept mapping-based mobile flipped learning approach was proposed in this study. A quasi-experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of the proposed model of student learning achievement, creativity, collaboration, and computational thinking in a technological learning context. Twenty-one at-work students in the experimental group applied the concept mapping-based mobile flipped learning, while 18 at-work students in the control group learned through conventional mobile flipped learning. The experimental results showed that the experimental group had better learning achievement, creativity, collaboration, and computational thinking than the control group. In addition, the experimental group also outperformed the control group on website design outcomes. The interviews further revealed that the proposed method positively impacted the students' computational thinking skills. Accordingly, a discussion and several suggestions for future research are presented.
Keywords: mobile learning; flipped learning; concept mapping; computational thinking; collaborative learning; website design.
Borderless Lab 365: a real-time web-based remote laboratory platform for Hong Kong high school students in response to the pandemic
by Ka Lai Wong, Wang Fai Cheng, Ming Tak Sze, Siu Hong Choy, Kwok Lung Jim, Yuen Hong Tsang, Chi Wah Leung, Chee Leung Mak
Abstract: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, distance learning is inevitable, and technology is greatly incorporated in education. However, it is challenging for science educators as there are more physical and instrumental constraints in laboratory learning than usual. A real-time web-based remote laboratory platform provides more experimental opportunities for high school students anywhere/anytime. The current project is to develop an online laboratory platform, Borderless-Lab-365 (BL365). Through the server, the experiment setups residing in the university receive commands from users and make responses. The new designed platform is more engaging with live streaming and interactive interface adjusting parameters instantly. It stands out from virtual lab using computer simulations, randomness and errors arisen in real experiments can be investigated and experimental skills are needed. The platform was successfully implemented. One hundred and one participants aged 13-19 from five secondary schools completed a user survey after performing experiments on BL365. Students were encouraged to learn new things and gained better understanding.
Keywords: remote laboratory; STEM education; student-centred learning.
Research tendencies and designs of mobile technology-supported reading education: a systematic review of journal publication from 2005 to 2020
by Chen-Chen Liu, Fu-Ning Guo, Hai-Jie Wang, Youmei Wang
Abstract: Digital reading has been a research trend recently. This study reviewed studies published in the area of mobile technology-supported reading education (MTSRE) in the Scopus database from 2005 to 2020. The analysis was conducted from four aspects, namely the article information, the study design and execution, how mobile technology was used, and the statistical methods and research issues. The results indicated that: 1) MTSRE has aroused the research interest of researchers; 2) most studies on MTSRE explore its effects, elementary school students are the most common participants, the experimental design method was mostly adopted, and studies conducted with in-class activities were the most common; 3) the MTSRE research investigated how to introduce different instructional strategies in MTSRE, and it was found that inquiry-based learning was most frequently used; 4) for statistical methods, descriptive statistics, were the most frequently applied, and the research topics were mainly focused on the cognition domain.
Keywords: reading education; mobile technology; technology-based review model; systematic review.
How does mobile learning support second language learning? Evidence from CSL learners' turn construction in online communication
by Haijing Zhang, Cong Wang, Fangwei Huang, Daner Sun
Abstract: Under global public health emergencies such as COVID-19 and monkeypox, online learning for the second language (L2) has become prevalent, especially mobile learning, which provides a new training form spanning time and space for L2 learners in listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Taking the turn construction of learners who learn Chinese as a second language (CSL) as a point cut, this study investigated L2 learners' communication strategies in a mobile learning context through conversation analysis, a qualitative method. The result showed that the CSL learner adopted self-turn construction, co-construction, and turn-taking in online communication. In turn-taking, the CSL learner raised the pitch at the beginning of a new turn to a position higher than the pitch at the end of the previous turn. This study revealed the structure and approach of CSL learners' turn construction in 'talk-in-interaction', enriching the theoretical research of turn construction under the transactional distance theory of L2 learning supported by mobile technologies.
Keywords: mobile learning; L2 learning; Chinese as a second language; CSL learner; turn construction; online communication.
Special Issue on: Personalising Learning in Mobile and Ubiquitous Environments
by Junjie Cao, Zhonghua Jiang, Wenchun Zhao
Abstract: This study aimed to explore the effect of OMO instructional design and implementation. It focused on whether the ubiquitous teaching model is helpful to students' learning participation and initiative in open education, and their recognition was also surveyed. Taking the "Software Engineering" course for example, lecturers had redesigned the course contents and teaching methods. The hardware environment support of smart classroom and the functions of auxiliary software were used to realize the teaching interaction and data statistics. Students could choose their preferred learning approach in each class, face-to-face or live online. Some experiments were used to verify the effect of teaching implementation, such as learning situation analysis and surveys before class, analysis and evaluations of the teaching process during class, questionnaires and interviews after class. The results showed the OMO-based teaching concept had positives effect on improving students' learning interest and initiative as well as subjective emotions in open education.
Keywords: OMO; ubiquitous teaching process redesign; teaching implementation analysis.
A Comparison of a Computerized Adaptive Test for Mathematics Instruction with the Classical Test
by Jiyou Jia, Yuyue Zhang, Huixiao Le
Abstract: Computerised adaptive test (CAT) may enable the individualised and adaptive homework and assessment which seem difficult to be practiced in traditional school settings. The authors developed a web-based mathematics intelligent assessment and tutoring system (MIATS) assessing the learners math content mastery status by a CAT. This research uses a simulation experiment to simulate the performance of 53 middle school students who used all questions included in the MIATS with their authentic answers in the CAT. The data analysis shows that the trait values measured by a CAT have significantly strong and positive coefficients with the correctness rates measured by a classical test with the same questions from the CAT. The data visualisation of questions used in the CAT and the question sequences demonstrate that all the examinees complete the CAT with differentiated questions and various pathways. This research innovatively provides convincing evidence for the effectiveness and equality of the CAT.
Keywords: computerised adaptive test; CAT; personalised assessment; mathematics assessment; mathematics intelligent assessment and tutoring system; MIATS; assessment result; personalised homework.
Transformation of Workplace Learning After the Pandemic in Indonesia: Middle-aged Employees' Experiences
by Gita Aulia Nurani, Ya-Hui Lee
Abstract: This study aimed to explore middle-aged transformation related to implementing workplace learning during the pandemic. This study utilised semi-structured in-depth interviews by the qualitative phenomenological methodology. The participants are middle-aged employees from national or multinational companies who used offline learning before the pandemic and then transformed to online learning. Results mention that middle-aged face some difficulties when they use online learning tools: they need more time to adapt to the technology features, keep a mindset as an independent learner, feel exhausted easily, have less engagement with facilitators, and struggle to find an effective learning method. The findings identified five stages of workplace learning techniques that combine online and offline strategies to overcome these situations: the initial phase, establishing a framework, using online quizzes for learning evaluation, conducting offline learning for practical skills, and using coaching or mentoring to mature personal values.
Keywords: adult; middle-age; transformation; workplace learning; Indonesia.
Investigating students perceptions of the use of a multifunctional mobile-based virtual reality application for English/Chinese interpreting learning
by Venus Chan
Abstract: This study aimed to develop a mobile-based virtual reality (VR) application for English/Chinese bi-directional interpreting education 'Virtual Interpreting Practice' (VIP) and to study Chinese students perceptions in terms of their overall satisfaction, learning experience and outcomes (including interpreting competence as well as cognitive and affective development). The results of quantitative and qualitative analyses of the pre-and post-study questionnaires revealed that VIP was a useful tool for enhancing students interpreting and bilingual competence, improving their learning motivation and strengthening their independent skills. Moreover, it was found that learning experiences were positively correlated to learning outcomes. In particular, while the VR feature enabled immersive learning which enhanced learning effectiveness, engagement and language proficiency, the use of mobile devices facilitated learning autonomy and flexibility. The findings suggested that with more opportunities for situated learning in the virtual immersive learning environments, learners could acquire better interpreting techniques and metacognitive skills.
Keywords: English/Chinese Interpreting learning; Immersive learning; Language proficiency; Learning experience; Leaning outcomes; Mobile-assisted language learning; Students perceptions; Virtual reality.