Forthcoming articles

International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation

International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation (IJMLO)

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International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation (25 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • An Exploration of Inquiry-based Authentic Learning enabled by Mobile Technology for Primary Science   Order a copy of this article
    by Wing Kei Yeung, Daner Sun 
    Abstract: In science class, few opportunities were provided for the students to do inquiry in authentic contexts. The pedagogical integration of mobile technology into science authentic learning needs more explorations. Thus, we conducted a study on inquiry-based science authentic learning enabled by a mobile tool: nQuire-it. In inquiry-based learning environment supported by nQuire-it, students experienced various tasks by personally experiencing science inquiry in authentic learning contexts, which is suitable for learning abstract concepts and developing deep understanding of the science concepts. To examine the effectiveness of the mobile technology supported science authentic learning, in the study, students performance on science inquiry, conceptual understanding and the linkage of knowledge with daily life experiences were analysed and compared between groups. The results suggested the effectiveness of nQuire-it in students science learning and in promoting students motivation and interests in science learning and improving the linkage of knowledge in and out of classroom.
    Keywords: nQuire-it; science inquiry; authentic learning; mobile technologies.

  • A mobile game-based learning system with personalized conceptual level and mastery learning approach to promoting students learning perceptions and achievements   Order a copy of this article
    by Narisra Komalawardhana, Patcharin Panjaburee, Niwat Srisawasdi 
    Abstract: Mobile game, which is one of digital learning tools, has been widely used for encouraging students learning whenever and wherever. However, several previous studies have indicated that without properly incorporating students personalized characteristic and learning assistance mechanism into the digital game-based learning environment might fail to motivate students learning and to help them acquire knowledge. To address this issue, this study proposes an integrated learning diagnosis and mastery learning mechanism to generate appropriate gaming stage according to the conceptual levels of an individual student in a pre-test and monitor learning during the gaming process. A mobile game-based learning system was developed based on this approach, and an experiment on the general science course was conducted in four Thai elementary schools with 282 students to evaluate its effectiveness. The experimental results showed that the students achieved the concepts of force and motion through the proposed approach. The findings of this study also highlight relationships between the proposed game and the conventional game in terms of students achievement clusters, performance, and perceptions.
    Keywords: technology-enhanced learning; elementary education; science education; mobile learning; individual learning.

  • Scaffolding spatial ability with augmented reality and virtual reality   Order a copy of this article
    by Jordan Wong, Kevin Yu, Nasser Giacaman 
    Abstract: Spatial ability is believed to aid comprehension of core STEM concepts. As there are no reliable methods for training spatial ability, this makes it a difficult skill to improve. This paper proposes Scaffolded Interactive Learning as a framework aiming to help students build on their spatial ability skills. It includes developing confidence, as well as scaffolding students to improve spatial ability. The framework is provided to scaffold students in solving questions that may otherwise perplex them. The framework was implemented in the form of two spatial ability trainer apps exploring the latest mobile technologies: augmented reality and virtual reality. A sample of 50 participants studying engineering were included in the evaluation, with the results showing that participants benefited in both skill and confidence from training in only a short period of time. The impact of the apps was analysed using in-app logging along with paper-based spatial tests. Participants with weak incoming spatial ability particularly benefited. These findings show the promising potential of augmented reality and virtual reality in improving spatial ability. Overall, targeted spatial ability tests showed statistically significant improvements while untargeted control tests showed insignificant differences.
    Keywords: Spatial ability; augmented reality; virtual reality; STEM.

  • Effects of A Collaborative STEM-based Orientation Approach on Senior High-School Students' Creativity and Operacy   Order a copy of this article
    by Jintana Wongta, Chanakan Grosseau, Chitphon Yachulawetkunakorn, Chayanuch Watthana, Charoenchai Wongwatkit 
    Abstract: Abstract: In 21st century, innovation capabilities become essential for the engineering students. To achieve that, creativity and operacy are strongly required and to be promoted throughout the study program. During the school orientation, it is a perfect time frame to not only make them familiar with the new learning context but also provide them a series of programs that help promote their creativity and operacy with new friends. Based on this perspective, this study proposes a novel school orientation approach which integrates the benefits of STEM and collaborative learning through a series of training and group learning processes. Meanwhile, mobile devices and applications are used to facilitate this collaboration. To investigate the effects of this approach on creativity and operacy, the experiment has been conducted during the orientation days with all newcomers. The results finally reveal that the proposed orientation approach could promote students' creativity and operacy in different aspects.
    Keywords: mobile learning; BYOD; collaborative STEM; STEM education; creativity; operacy; 21st century education; school orientation; collaborative learning; blended learning; engineering education; science education; technology education; information technology.

  • Design-based research on gamified outdoor social enquiry learning with context-aware technology: integration of teacher facilitation for advancing the pedagogical effectiveness   Order a copy of this article
    by Morris Siu-Yung Jong, To Chan, Vincent Tam, Michael Yi-Chao Jiang 
    Abstract: GAMES (Gamified Authentic Mobile Enquiry in Society) is a context-aware mobile application that we developed to support students in conducting gamified social enquiry learning in outdoor environments. This paper focuses on discussing the latter part of a piece of 2-cycle design-based research (DBR) conducted in the context of formal curriculum learning and teaching in Hong Kong, reporting on the work that we carried out in the second research cycle where teacher facilitation was integrated into the pedagogical implementation of GAMES for advancing its effectiveness. The entire DBR involved 9 teachers (from 9 different high schools in 3 different academic categories) and their Grade-10 classes in two consecutive school years (with a total of 555 students). Upon the different academic settings, we (researchers) collaborated with the teachers (practitioners) to derive and enact what and how they could do in order to optimise their students social enquiry experience in the course of gamified, technology-enhanced outdoor learning. This study not only reveals the importance of teacher facilitation in the process of gamified mobile learning, but it also sheds light on how to design and implement the articulated pedagogical, administrative and technical facilitation acts in the context of formal education.
    Keywords: social enquiry learning; gamified learning; outdoor mobile learning; context-aware technology; teacher facilitation; EduVenture.

  • The Role of Augmented Reality Based Unplugged Computer Programming Approach in the Effectiveness of Computational Thinking   Order a copy of this article
    by Arinchaya Threekunprapa, Pratchayapong Yasri 
    Abstract: Recently, pedagogical approaches to promote computational thinking among 21st century learners have increasingly become a topic of interest in educational research. Studies revealed that unplugged computer programming, learning coding without a computer, can enhance students computational thinking and positive attitudes towards computer programming. However, when dealing with complex computer science concepts, they face limitations. This study therefore developed a solution adopting unplugged coding using flowcharts integrated with augmented reality (AR) technology to help scaffold students (called AR semi-unplugged coding). It recruited 120 secondary students for data collection, divided into an experimental group and a control group (unplugged coding). It showed that although both exhibited improved computational thinking and increased self-efficacy after participating in their assigned activity, those in the experimental group outperformed their counterparts statistically. Moreover, the developed solution attracted a greater level of perceived usefulness by users which shows its potential to become an effective approach for promoting computational thinking.
    Keywords: Computational thinking; Computer programming; Augmented reality; Semi-unplugged coding; Unplugged coding.

  • Exploring the Influence of Security/Privacy, Trialability, Output Quality and Anxiety on the Adoption of Mobile Decision Support Systems among Nurses: A Developing Country Context   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammed-Issa Jaradat 
    Abstract: Nursing staff have been observed to be highly mobile in executing their routine work. For that reason, in some critical situations they may need to catch, deliver and/or receive critical information, orders or alerts via mobile/smart devices on their way or at any point of care which may assist them to take instant or on the spot useful decisions/actions or orders to accomplish their tasks quickly and more professionally. This paper studies the factors that affect the intention of nurses whether to adopt or not to adopt mobile decision support systems in Jordan. Besides, it examines the moderating effects of experience and voluntariness among the study factors. The proposed model was analyzed and tested by using a WarpPLS 5.0 software. This study shows that there is a promising and bright future for Nurse Mobile Decision Support Systems (NMDSSs) in Jordan. The empirical findings conclude that in order to increase the adoption rate of NMDSSs in Jordan the system should offer a good value and protect nurses privacy, and it should be useful, free of effort, understandable, safe and triable. The results reveal that nurses adoption of NMDSSs can be anticipated from nurses behavioural intention with approximately 65% in variance. Theoretical contributions and practical implications are outlined. Limitations and suggestions for future studies are discussed.
    Keywords: Security/Privacy; Trialability; Output Quality; Anxiety; Mobile Decision Support Systems; Nurses; Jordan.

  • The effects of Augmented Reality-facilitated mobile game-based learning on the diversity of life for promoting learning at the Natural History Museum   Order a copy of this article
    by Nongluk Meekaew, Watcharee Ketpichainarong 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Augmented Reality-facilitated Mobile Game-based learning (MGAR) approach by comparing the learning achievement, learning motivation and cognitive load of the students who learned with this approach with those learning with the conventional Mobile Game-based Learning (MGL), Augmented Reality-based Learning (ARL), and conventional Web-based Learning (WL). All units were consistently designed for the concept of the diversity of life. The participants were 192 grade 9 students who were randomly assigned into four groups: MGAR (N=46), MGL (N=50), ARL (N=43), and WL (N=53). The instruments were the pre-test and post-test for achievements, the learning motivation questionnaire, the cognitive load questionnaire, and a semi-structured interview. The overall results show that MGAR was more effective in enhancing students understanding of the diversity of life and significantly more motivational than the other groups. In addition, the MGAR decreased the cognitive load of the students when compared with the other groups.
    Keywords: Augmented Reality; Mobile Game-based Learning; Museum Learning.

  • Investigating effects and learners perceptions of a student-led, AR-based learning design for developing students English speaking proficiency   Order a copy of this article
    by Keng-Chih Hsu, Gi-Zen Liu 
    Abstract: Recent years have witnessed successful application of AR-based, context-aware ubiquitous learning (CAUL) for students to acquire English as a foreign language (EFL). Nevertheless, only a dearth of research is conducted to examine the effectiveness and learners perceptions of student-led AR-based CAUL for enhancing students English speaking proficiency. The aim of the research is to gain more understanding on the use of the design in the tertiary education for facilitating EFL students oral proficiency. Both quantitative (pre and posttest, and a questionnaire) and qualitative (a semi-structured interview) methodology were employed in the study. The results revealed that students English speaking abilities were significantly developed after the activity; furthermore, the questionnaire also showed students positive learning attitudes, with more motivation and satisfaction. In alignment with the quantitative results, benefits of the activity were also elicited in the interview. Finally, some suggestions for practitioners interested in student-led AR CAUL design were also provided.
    Keywords: English; AR; augmented reality; CAUL; context aware ubiquitous learning; speaking proficiency.

  • A taxonomy of mobile learning based on a systematic review   Order a copy of this article
    by Sofia Moya, Mar Camacho 
    Abstract: This study seeks to deepen the understanding of existing mobile learning research, summarise the relevant knowledge and identify research gaps. This study is based on a systematic review of relevant studies conducted between 2009 and 2018; the pool of studies comprised 25 studies, representing a total of 1828 original publications. A taxonomy was proposed based on 13 taxonomies, which were grouped into five domains: bibliometric statistics, research purposes, demographics and context, methodologies and outcomes. The findings revealed the following: the number of articles published has increased over the last years, with significant contributions from Asia; most studies feature positive outcomes; the main focus is on learning effectiveness; the majority of the target sample comprises students, and the environment is hybrid, with a tendency to be informal; and mixed research methodologies are the common trend. The results also revealed a lack of current research in the field of strategies and frameworks.
    Keywords: mobile technology support learning; teaching strategies; blended learning; m-learning; ubiquitous learning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2020.10030686
     
  • Acceptance and implications of smartphones for informal language learning in foreign study tours   Order a copy of this article
    by Tingting Li, Di Zou, Xiaojing Weng, Minhong Wang, Haoran Xie, Fu Lee Wang 
    Abstract: Technological developments have greatly influenced the field of mobile-assisted language learning. To have a better understanding of the applications of digital devices in educational settings, this paper aims to assess the possible acceptance of smartphones for informal language learning in foreign study tours, and investigate the main factors influencing their acceptance. The United Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model was modified and then used as the technology acceptance framework for this study. A total of 94 secondary students and 104 in-service secondary school language teachers in Lanzhou, China, were surveyed for this purpose. The results of the statistical analysis showed that students and language teachers shared a similar moderate-to-high level of acceptance towards adopting smartphones for informal language learning in foreign study tours. In addition, their acceptance level was strongly influenced by the facilitating conditions, followed by other elements including social influence, attitude and performance expectancy, successively.
    Keywords: united theory of acceptance and use of technology model; mobile learning; mobile-assisted language learning; English language education; foreign study tours; APPs; regression analysis; secondary schools; teachers and students; smartphone adoption.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2020.10030687
     
  • The uSAP model: a ubiquitous observation protocol for improving teamwork skills, time management and accuracy in high fidelity simulation among nursing students   Order a copy of this article
    by Nantakarn Maneejak, Pratchayapong Yasri 
    Abstract: High Fidelity Simulation (HFS) is a computerised manikin used by preclinical nursing students. This study develops a ubiquitous observation model, called uSAP, which concerns specific tasks of an observed role (S), full attention to a particular practice (A) and nursing procedures (P), all of which can be done ubiquitously (U). The effectiveness of this model is assessed among 98 nursing students who are divided into three groups: those using the uSAP model, those doing observation without a guideline and those without observation. Three aspects of performance are compared: teamwork ability, speed in completing HFS tasks and accuracy in administering nursing tasks related to five vital signs. Statistical analysis reveals that those using the uSAP model outperform their counterparts in all aspects. The interview results illustrate that the uSAP model helps nursing students learn from peers' mistakes, structure their ideas orderly, stay more focused and apprehend detailed actions effectively.
    Keywords: high fidelity simulation; nursing education; uSAP model; ubiquitous observation; vital signs.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2020.10030689
     
  • Using social media in mobile MOOC for teacher professional development   Order a copy of this article
    by Jun Xiao, Esther Tan, Xuejiao Li, Mengying Cao, Marcus Specht 
    Abstract: This paper presents a ubiquitous and mobile MOOC platform to foster lifelong learning. Harnessing the technological affordances of WeChat (a mobile social media app), learners accessed micro-learning activities and received personal learning analysis report on their mobile phones. Premised on activity theory, the mobile MOOC design model spans across five dimensions of intelligent distribution: learning objective analysis, learner persona analysis, platform improvement based on learning analytics, m-learn tool selection and m-learn interactive environment where the latter forms the core of individual and collaborative learning. To investigate learning effectiveness, we analysed the survey data of 117 Shanghai kindergarten, primary and secondary teachers in one mini-lecture. Findings showed that learning satisfaction and learning achievement are highly correlated with the learnability of the learning environment. The integration of a multidimensional activity and multi-scenario model showed great potential to successfully accommodate the complexity and diversity of mobile MOOC learning activities in a ubiquitous-learning environment.
    Keywords: mobile MOOCs; mobile learning; ubiquitous learning; teacher training; lifelong learning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2020.10030690
     
  • Mobile-based dynamic assessment and the development of EFL students' oral fluency   Order a copy of this article
    by Abbas Ali Rezaee, Seyyed Mohammad Alavi, Parisa Razzaghifard 
    Abstract: This paper reports on a study investigating the potential effect of the impact of Mobile-based Dynamic Assessment (MbDA) on improving English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners' oral fluency. To fulfil the purpose of the study, 120 pre-intermediate learners of English were randomly assigned to one of three groups (two experimental groups and one control group), each consisting of 40 participants. The participants in the experimental groups completed eight communicative tasks via dynamic assessment under two different contexts: MbDA via text-chat context and MbDA via voice-chat context. The speech rate, average length of pauses, the number of repetitions and the number of reformulation served as dependent variables. The study found that the participants in the experimental groups who received MbDA improved their speaking fluency significantly compared with their peers in the control group.
    Keywords: MALL; dynamic assessment; sociocultural theory; zone of proximal development; mediation; EFL; oral fluency; mobile phones; WhatsApp; text-chat; voice-chat.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2020.10030691
     
  • Influential factors of working adults' perceptions of mobile-assisted vocabulary learning with multimedia annotations   Order a copy of this article
    by Ruofei Zhang, Di Zou 
    Abstract: With the development of technology-enhanced language learning, there have been increasingly more studies on mobile-assisted vocabulary learning with multimedia annotations. However, little research has been conducted to explore working adults' use of multimedia annotations in authentic mobile learning environments, investigate their perceptions of diverse types of multimedia annotations, or discuss the factors that may influence their perceptions of multimedia annotations. To fill in these research gaps, the researchers of this project developed a multimedia-annotation-enhanced vocabulary learning app, iWORDS, and invited 24 working adults in Hong Kong to learn vocabulary using this app. After experiencing mobile-assisted vocabulary learning with four types of multimedia annotations (i.e., the textual, the pictorial, the text-plus-GIF and the text-plus-video annotations), the participants were interviewed about their perceptions and preferences. The results indicated that working adults used textual annotations most frequently but showed strongest preference for text-plus-GIF annotations. Four factors, content quality, attractiveness, efficiency and cognitive stimuli, played important roles in influencing working adults' preferences and perceptions of multimedia annotations. Based on the research results, we proposed some suggestions for the development, selection and usage of multimedia annotations in mobile-assisted vocabulary learning.
    Keywords: mobile-assisted learning; multimedia learning; technology-enhanced learning; vocabulary learning; computer-assisted language learning; autonomy; app; image; GIF; multimedia annotations.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2020.10030693
     

Special Issue on: Research Trends and Future Developments of Artificial Intelligence in Education in the Mobile Era

  • Enhancing Skill Prediction through Generalizing Bayesian Knowledge Tracing   Order a copy of this article
    by Tak-Lam Wong, Di Zou, Gary Cheng, Jeff Kai Tai Tang, Yi Cai, Fu Lee Wang 
    Abstract: Learning Analytics (LA) have been widely investigated and applied to understand and optimize the learning process and environment. Among a number of LA tools, Bayesian Knowledge Tracing (BKT) was developed aiming at predicting the probability that a skill has been successfully acquired by a learner. While current development has proved BKT to be sufficiently accurate in prediction and useful, the state-of-the-art BKT methods suffer from a number of shortcomings such as the incapability to predict multiple skills learnt by a student. In this paper, we extend the ordinary BKT model to predict unlimited number of skills learned by a learner based on a non-parametric Dirichlet Process (DP). Another characteristic of our approach is that it can easily incorporate prior knowledge to our model resulting a more accurate prediction. The extended model is more generic and able to handle border applications. We have developed two efficient approximate inference methods based on Gibbs sampling and variational methods.
    Keywords: Bayesian Knowledge Tracing; BKT; learning analytics.

  • Mobile-based Learning of Drug Prescription for Medical Education using Artificial Intelligence Techniques   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiaohui Tao, Wee Pheng Goh, Ji Zhang, Jianming Yong, Elizabeth Zhixin Goh, Xueling Oh 
    Abstract: Medical knowledge is constantly changing with advances in medical sciences and techniques. As such, it is becoming increasingly difficult to keep up to date with current medical information, especially for medical students. Integration of technology into medical education is deemed an efficient way to address the challenge by providing a means of consolidating learning. In particular, the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) can enable users to have a new experience that helps facilitate their learning and catch-up with the constant advance of knowledge and technology. This in turn can minimise errors and aid better clinical decisions, hence resulting in better patient care. This paper discusses the relevance of mobile learning in medical education and introduces an innovative mobile application design to practice drug prescription in medical education. A prototype system demonstrates the design of the framework and the potential usability of the mobile application for medical students. This is a pioneer exploration of applying AI and mobile technology to help foster the new generation of medical practitioners.
    Keywords: mobile-based learning; drug prescription; drug interaction; medical education.

  • Automatic Topic Detection on Chinese Essays: A Technology Enhanced Approach for Facilitating Formative Use of Summative Assessment   Order a copy of this article
    by Leonard K.M. Poon, Wing Shui Ng, Gary Cheng 
    Abstract: Essay writing is an important form of assessment. It is typically used as summative assessment and may not have some of the major benefits of formative assessment. Although there are considerations of formative use of summative assessment, such use remains limited in practice. It is because of the difficulty in presenting the results and the large amount of effort required. In this paper, we propose to use an automatic topic detection method, named hierarchical latent tree analysis, for analyzing students' essays. The method can identify topics in the essays and organize those topics in a hierarchy with multiple levels of granularity. It can possibly facilitate formative use of summative assessment by addressing the main reasons prohibiting such use. We present the empirical results of the method using the 54 Chinese essays written by students in an undergraduate course. We further discuss and demonstrate how the method can facilitate formative use of the essays.
    Keywords: Topic detection; Hierarchical latent tree analysis; Formative use of summative assessment; Technology enhanced assessment; Chinese essays.

  • Context-Aware Recommender System for Adaptive Ubiquitous Learning   Order a copy of this article
    by Olutayo Boyinbode, Tunde Fatoke 
    Abstract: The use of context-aware recommender systems for adaptive ubiquitous learning has become a promising and interesting research direction in recent years, both as a result of the vast use of ubiquitous devices in our day-to-day lives and because of students increasing desire to learn with ease anytime and anywhere without restriction. This paper implements an RFID-based context-aware technology and recommender system for adaptive ubiquitous learning that will help learners to achieve personalised learning goals and greater learning efficiency. Our context-aware recommender suggests courseware to students based on their location, surrounding noise level and time of day. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology was used to acquire context awareness, and fuzzy logic was employed to develop courseware recommendations. The front end of the system was developed using Android Studio. Experimental results were obtained from selected students from different disciplines who evaluated the system.
    Keywords: Context-aware; Recommender System; Ubiquitous learning; Radio Frequency Identification (RFID); Courseware; Noise level; Location; Time; Learning Management System (LMS).

  • Advancements and hot research topics of artificial intelligence in mobile learning: A review of journal publications from 1995 to 2019   Order a copy of this article
    by Gwo-Jen Hwang, YUN-FANG TU, Chi-Jen Lin 
    Abstract: Based on the Technology-based Learning model, the present study reviewed the artificial intelligence-supported mobile learning (AImL) studies by searching for journal articles published from 1995 to 2019 in the Scopus database. Various dimensions, such as countries/areas, authors, subject areas and subject categories, hot topics and adopted technologies, were considered in this review study. Regarding the hot topics of AImL studies, the main focuses were situated learning in 1995-2007, mobile learning, intelligent tutoring systems and ubiquitous learning in 2008-2013, and mobile learning, artificial intelligence, machine learning and intelligent tutoring systems in 2014-2019. Moreover, in recent years, the number of applications regarding machine learning, artificial neural networks, cloud computing, data mining and opinion mining as well as other AI algorithms has been increasing. Accordingly, suggestions for future AImL studies are provided for the reference of researchers, teachers and educational policymakers.
    Keywords: artificial intelligence; mobile learning; literature review; research trends.

Special Issue on: ICOIE 2019 Transforming Education with Mobile Technology Innovations

  • A Literature Review of Augmented Reality, Virtual Reality, and Mixed Reality in Language Learning   Order a copy of this article
    by Kam Cheong Li, Billy Tak-Ming Wong 
    Abstract: Technological advances in augmented reality (AR), virtual reality (VR) and mixed reality (MR) have been increasingly used for supporting language learning. They provide learners with an enhanced or simulated environment for exposure to a target language. This paper reviews the studies on AR/VR/MR-based language learning and surveys their major patterns and trends, covering a total of 111 studies published between 2004 and 2018 collected from the Web-of-Science and Scopus. The results show an increasing number of related studies conducted in various countries/regions at a wide range of educational levels, particularly since the early 2010s. English is the most popular target language to learn, but more languages have been covered in the studies in recent years. Speaking is the most frequent area for training, but its proportion has been decreasing over the years; and vocabulary learning has become more prevalent. The mainstream technology has evolved from VR environments in early studies into AR applications in recent ones; and the devices for accessing learning contents have become more portable from computers to tablets, smartphones, and headsets. The research issue of most concern is learning outcome and its proportion keeps growing. Further work is needed to address the limitations and issues still to be solved, in terms of technical, teachers and students perspectives. It is recognised that the use of technology alone will not suffice for improving learners language proficiency, but the design of curricular and learning contents also plays an important role.
    Keywords: augmented reality; virtual reality; mixed reality; language learning; ubiquitous learning; computer-assisted language learning; CALL.

  • The Role of Organizational Performance in Moderating Human Resource Management and Outstanding Outcomes in Open Distance Learning Context   Order a copy of this article
    by Maximus Gorky Sembiring, Gayuh Rahayu, Rizki Hersada Sembiring 
    Abstract: Plausible factors interrelated in human resource management (HRM), organizational performance (OP), and outstanding outcomes (OO) in open distance learning (ODL) context laden tightly with educational technology were explored. It was aimed at exposing the moderating role of OP between HRM and OO (services, products, and systems). Qualitatively, HRM included selection and recruitment, work definition, training program, performance measurement, compensation scheme, career planning, quality assurance, and employee participation. OP was influenced by HRM and leading to OO. Quantitatively, HRM, OP, and OO were independent, moderating, and dependent variables respectively. Responses from 158 faculty were completed. Eight of 11 hypotheses assessed were validated by the analysis utilizing structural equation modeling (SEM). Career planning was the most significant influence while selection and recruitment, work definition, and quality assurance were not validated. Besides, OP led to OO. Importance-performance analysis (IPA) and customer-satisfaction index (CSI) discovered 18 attributes as the pillars of HRM and OP.
    Keywords: ODL; HRM; OP; IPA-CSI; SEM.

  • Exploring Learning Behaviour Under an Integrated Mobile and Web-based Learning Environment   Order a copy of this article
    by S.S. Lam, Samuel P. M. Choi, C.Y. Ng 
    Abstract: Mobile learning plays a paramount role in supporting e-learning and distance learning through enabling learners to carry out learning activities independent of time or space constraints. In designing and developing an integrated mobile and web-based learning environment to fulfill the ever-changing needs of learners, a good understanding of how they utilize such platforms in their learning is essential. This study investigated students learning behaviour across the mobile and web-based platforms by examining how learning activities were mixed and matched on the platforms. Exploratory analysis and clustering technique were applied to gain holistic understanding of usage pattern and learning sequence from click stream data. Findings show that students used the mobile platform to supplement the web-based learning and self-regulated their learning across the mobile and web-based platforms leading to considerable differences in the learning behaviour on the platforms for different performing students. Strategies to improve self-efficacy of students in learning across mobile and web platforms are discussed.
    Keywords: learning behaviour; mobile learning; web-based learning; multi-platform learning.

  • Shepherds for Modern Times: Designing a Blended Learning Course for Communication Theology   Order a copy of this article
    by Irudayaselvam Stanislaus, Virma Rea Lee 
    Abstract: Communication is the basic principle and an essential dimension of Christian theology. These recent advancements in information and communication technology compel theologians and seminarians to be creative users of this new technology. In addition, theological institutes recognize the importance of integrating teaching communication-related theology courses with that of information and communication technology. Hence, this paper aims to analyze the potential of teaching the new subject, communication theology, using blended learning modality. An online questionnaire was sent to theology students from Chile, India, Indonesia, and the Philippines to identify and to analyze the respondents learning needs. Findings reveal that the student-respondents have social media accounts and are willing to participate in a blended learning course on communication theology. Majority of them believe that blended learning will contribute to the efficient delivery of instruction. Recommendations are made on how theological institutes can proceed and established a blended learning course for communication theology.
    Keywords: communication theology; theology students; learning needs; blended learning; learning management system; face-to-face learning.

Special Issue on: ICOIE 2019 Transforming Education with Mobile Technology Innovations

  • Learning curriculum vocabulary through mobile learning:Impact on vocabulary gains and automaticity   Order a copy of this article
    by Zhenzhen Chen, Jiyou Jia, Wenhui Li 
    Abstract: In recent years there has been a great deal of attention on mobile-assisted language learning. However, studies integrated with the curriculum are still lacking. This study adopts a quasi-experimental design to investigate the effect of mobile learning on curriculum vocabulary. 59 students participated in a mobile-assisted vocabulary learning project which lasted for a semester, and 60 students in another intact class used the traditional learning approach. Data were collected from the vocabulary pretest and post-test, as well as response times in the pre and post-test. Students grades from the final exam were also collected for analysis. Results show mobile-assisted vocabulary learning can improve the students vocabulary gains, automaticity and overall academic performance.
    Keywords: mobile learning;mobile-assisted language learning;vocabulary;automaticity.