Forthcoming articles

International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation

International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation (IJMLO)

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International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation (30 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • A taxonomy of mobile learning based on systematic review   Order a copy of this article
    by Sofia Moya Pereira, Mar Camacho Marti 
    Abstract: This study seeks to deepen the understanding of existing mobile learning research, summarize the relevant knowledge, and identify research gaps. This study is based on a systematic review of relevant studies conducted between 2009 and 2018; the final pool of studies comprised 25 studies, representing a total of 1828 original academic publications. A taxonomy was proposed based on 13 taxonomies, which were grouped into five domains: bibliometric statistics; research purposes; demographics and context; methodologies; and outcomes. The findings revealed the following: the number of articles published has increased over the last years, with significant contributions from Asia; most studies feature positive outcomes; the main focus is on learning effectiveness; the majority of the target sample comprises students, and the environment is hybrid, with a tendency to be informal; and mixed research methodologies are the common trend. The results also revealed a lack of current research in the field of strategies and frameworks, a common thread among all these studies.
    Keywords: mobile learning; taxonomy; science education; systematic review.

  • Acceptance and Implication of Smartphones for Informal Language Learning in Foreign Study Tours   Order a copy of this article
    by Tingting Li, Di Zou, Minhong Wang, Haoran Xie, Fu Lee Wang 
    Abstract: Technology development has brought tremendous influence to the field of mobile assisted language learning. To have a better understanding of the digital device application in the educational settings, this paper aims to assess the possible acceptance of smartphones for informal language learning in foreign study tours and investigate the main factors influencing the acceptance. The researcher has modified the United Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model as the technology acceptance framework to guide the study. A total of 94 secondary students and 104 in-service secondary school language teachers in Lanzhou, China has been surveyed. Regression analysis was conducted for the collected data. The results of the statistical analysis showed that students and language teachers shared a similar moderate to high level of acceptance of smartphone adoption for informal language learning in foreign study tours. In addition, the acceptance level was strongly influenced by the facilitating conditions, followed by other elements including social influence, attitude and performance expectancy successively.
    Keywords: United theory of acceptance and use of technology model; mobile learning; mobile assisted language learning; English language education; foreign study tours; APPs; regression analysis; secondary schools; teachers and students; smartphone adoption.

  • The uSAP Model: A Ubiquitous Observation Protocol for Improving Teamwork Skills, Time Management and Accuracy in High Fidelity Simulation among Nursing Students   Order a copy of this article
    by Nantakarn Maneejak, Pratchayapong Yasri 
    Abstract: High Fidelity Simulation (HFS) is a computerised manikin that can mimic physiological responses of patients which has been used in preclinical practices among nursing students. To make learning with HFS meaningful, an effective observation model has to be developed so as to improve motor skill practices. This study therefore develops a ubiquitous observation model, called uSAP which concerns specific tasks of an observed role (S), full attention to a particular psychomotor practice (A) and nursing procedures involved (P), all of which can be done ubiquitously (U). The effectiveness of this observation model is assessed among 98 nursing students who are divided into three groups: those using the uSAP model, those doing observation without a certain guideline, and those without observation. Three different aspects of performance are compared composting of teamwork ability, speed in completing HFS tasks and accuracy in administering nursing tasks related to five vital signs. In addition, the study explores the usefulness of the uSAP model using semi-structured interviews with 10 nursing students who use it. Statistical analysis reveals that those using the uSAP model outperform their counterparts in all three aspects. The interview results illustrate that the uSAP model helps nursing students learn from peers mistakes, structure their ideas orderly, stay more focused and apprehend detailed actions effectively. It is therefore recommended for nursing instructors dealing with HFS to consider using the uSAP model for enhancing the quality of observation which can subsequently help improve nursing students performances.
    Keywords: high fidelity simulation; nursing education; uSAP model; ubiquitous observation; vital signs.

  • Using Social Media in Mobile MOOC for Teacher Professional Development   Order a copy of this article
    by Esther Tan, Jun Xiao, Xuejiao Li, Mengying Cao, Marcus Specht 
    Abstract: This paper presents a ubiquitous and mobile MOOC platform to foster lifelong learning. Harnessing the technological affordances of WeChat (a mobile social media app), learners accessed micro-learning activities and received personal learning analysis report on their mobile phones. Premised on activity theory, the mobile MOOC design model spans across five dimensions of intelligent distribution: learning objective analysis, learner persona analysis, platform improvement based on learning analytics, m-learn tool selection and m-learn interactive environment where the latter forms the core of individual and collaborative learning. To investigate learning effectiveness, we analyzed the survey data of 117 Shanghai kindergarten, primary and secondary teachers in one mini-lecture. Findings showed that learning satisfaction and learning achievement is highly correlated with the learnability of the learning environment. The integration of a multidimensional activity and multi-scenario model showed great potential to successfully accommodate the complexity and diversity of mobile MOOC learning activities in a ubiquitous-learning environment.
    Keywords: Mobile MOOCs; mobile learning; ubiquitous learning; teacher training; lifelong learning.

  • Mobile-based Dynamic Assessment and the Development of EFL Students' Oral Fluency   Order a copy of this article
    by Abbas Ali Rezaee, Seyyed Mohammad Alavi, Parisa Razzaghifard 
    Abstract: This paper reports on a study investigating the potential effect ofthe impact of Mobile-based Dynamic Assessment (MbDA) on improving English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners' oral fluency. To fulfil the purpose of the study, 120 pre-intermediate learners of English were randomly assigned to one of three groups (two experimental groups and one control group), each consisting of 40 participants. The participants in the experimental groups completed eight communicative tasks via dynamic assessment under two different contexts: MbDA via text-chat context and MbDA via voice-chat context. The speech rate, average length of pauses, the number of repetitions, and the number of reformulation served as dependent variables. The study found that the participants in the experimental groups who received MbDA improved their speaking fluency significantly compared with their peers in the control group.
    Keywords: MALL; dynamic assessment; EFL; oral fluency; mobile phones.

  • Influential Factors of Working Adults Perceptions of Mobile-assisted Vocabulary Learning with Multimedia Annotations   Order a copy of this article
    by Ruofei Zhang, Di Zou 
    Abstract: With the development of technology-enhanced language learning, there have been increasingly more studies on mobile-assisted vocabulary learning with multimedia annotations. However, little research has been conducted to explore working adults use of multimedia annotations in authentic mobile learning environments, investigate their perceptions of diverse types of multimedia annotations, or discuss the factors that may influence their perceptions of multimedia annotations. To fill in these research gaps, the researchers of this project developed a multimedia-annotation-enhanced vocabulary learning app, iWORDS, and invited 24 working adults in Hong Kong to learn vocabulary using this app. After experiencing mobile-assisted vocabulary learning with four types of multimedia annotations (i.e., the textual, the pictorial, the text-plus-GIF, and the text-plus-video annotations), the participants were interviewed about their perceptions and preferences. The results indicated that working adults used textual annotations most frequently but showed strongest preference for text-plus-GIF annotations. Four factors, content quality, attractiveness, efficiency, and cognitive stimuli, played important roles in influencing working adults' preferences and perceptions of multimedia annotations. Based on the research results, we proposed some suggestions for the development, selection and usage of multimedia annotations in mobile-assisted vocabulary learning.
    Keywords: mobile learning; multimedia learning; technology-enhanced learning; word learning; computer-assisted language learning; autonomy; app; image; GIF; language learning.

  • An Exploration of Inquiry-based Authentic Learning enabled by Mobile Technology for Primary Science   Order a copy of this article
    by Wing Kei Yeung, Daner Sun 
    Abstract: In science class, few opportunities were provided for the students to do inquiry in authentic contexts. The pedagogical integration of mobile technology into science authentic learning needs more explorations. Thus, we conducted a study on inquiry-based science authentic learning enabled by a mobile tool: nQuire-it. In inquiry-based learning environment supported by nQuire-it, students experienced various tasks by personally experiencing science inquiry in authentic learning contexts, which is suitable for learning abstract concepts and developing deep understanding of the science concepts. To examine the effectiveness of the mobile technology supported science authentic learning, in the study, students performance on science inquiry, conceptual understanding and the linkage of knowledge with daily life experiences were analysed and compared between groups. The results suggested the effectiveness of nQuire-it in students science learning and in promoting students motivation and interests in science learning and improving the linkage of knowledge in and out of classroom.
    Keywords: nQuire-it; science inquiry; authentic learning; mobile technologies.

  • A mobile game-based learning system with personalized conceptual level and mastery learning approach to promoting students learning perceptions and achievements   Order a copy of this article
    by Narisra Komalawardhana, Patcharin Panjaburee, Niwat Srisawasdi 
    Abstract: Mobile game, which is one of digital learning tools, has been widely used for encouraging students learning whenever and wherever. However, several previous studies have indicated that without properly incorporating students personalized characteristic and learning assistance mechanism into the digital game-based learning environment might fail to motivate students learning and to help them acquire knowledge. To address this issue, this study proposes an integrated learning diagnosis and mastery learning mechanism to generate appropriate gaming stage according to the conceptual levels of an individual student in a pre-test and monitor learning during the gaming process. A mobile game-based learning system was developed based on this approach, and an experiment on the general science course was conducted in four Thai elementary schools with 282 students to evaluate its effectiveness. The experimental results showed that the students achieved the concepts of force and motion through the proposed approach. The findings of this study also highlight relationships between the proposed game and the conventional game in terms of students achievement clusters, performance, and perceptions.
    Keywords: technology-enhanced learning; elementary education; science education; mobile learning; individual learning.

  • Scaffolding spatial ability with augmented reality and virtual reality   Order a copy of this article
    by Jordan Wong, Kevin Yu, Nasser Giacaman 
    Abstract: Spatial ability is believed to aid comprehension of core STEM concepts. As there are no reliable methods for training spatial ability, this makes it a difficult skill to improve. This paper proposes Scaffolded Interactive Learning as a framework aiming to help students build on their spatial ability skills. It includes developing confidence, as well as scaffolding students to improve spatial ability. The framework is provided to scaffold students in solving questions that may otherwise perplex them. The framework was implemented in the form of two spatial ability trainer apps exploring the latest mobile technologies: augmented reality and virtual reality. A sample of 50 participants studying engineering were included in the evaluation, with the results showing that participants benefited in both skill and confidence from training in only a short period of time. The impact of the apps was analysed using in-app logging along with paper-based spatial tests. Participants with weak incoming spatial ability particularly benefited. These findings show the promising potential of augmented reality and virtual reality in improving spatial ability. Overall, targeted spatial ability tests showed statistically significant improvements while untargeted control tests showed insignificant differences.
    Keywords: Spatial ability; augmented reality; virtual reality; STEM.

  • Effects of A Collaborative STEM-based Orientation Approach on Senior High-School Students' Creativity and Operacy   Order a copy of this article
    by Jintana Wongta, Chanakan Grosseau, Chitphon Yachulawetkunakorn, Chayanuch Watthana, Charoenchai Wongwatkit 
    Abstract: Abstract: In 21st century, innovation capabilities become essential for the engineering students. To achieve that, creativity and operacy are strongly required and to be promoted throughout the study program. During the school orientation, it is a perfect time frame to not only make them familiar with the new learning context but also provide them a series of programs that help promote their creativity and operacy with new friends. Based on this perspective, this study proposes a novel school orientation approach which integrates the benefits of STEM and collaborative learning through a series of training and group learning processes. Meanwhile, mobile devices and applications are used to facilitate this collaboration. To investigate the effects of this approach on creativity and operacy, the experiment has been conducted during the orientation days with all newcomers. The results finally reveal that the proposed orientation approach could promote students' creativity and operacy in different aspects.
    Keywords: mobile learning; BYOD; collaborative STEM; STEM education; creativity; operacy; 21st century education; school orientation; collaborative learning; blended learning; engineering education; science education; technology education; information technology.

  • Design-based research on gamified outdoor social enquiry learning with context-aware technology: integration of teacher facilitation for advancing the pedagogical effectiveness   Order a copy of this article
    by Morris Siu-Yung Jong, To Chan, Vincent Tam, Michael Yi-Chao Jiang 
    Abstract: GAMES (Gamified Authentic Mobile Enquiry in Society) is a context-aware mobile application that we developed to support students in conducting gamified social enquiry learning in outdoor environments. This paper focuses on discussing the latter part of a piece of 2-cycle design-based research (DBR) conducted in the context of formal curriculum learning and teaching in Hong Kong, reporting on the work that we carried out in the second research cycle where teacher facilitation was integrated into the pedagogical implementation of GAMES for advancing its effectiveness. The entire DBR involved 9 teachers (from 9 different high schools in 3 different academic categories) and their Grade-10 classes in two consecutive school years (with a total of 555 students). Upon the different academic settings, we (researchers) collaborated with the teachers (practitioners) to derive and enact what and how they could do in order to optimise their students social enquiry experience in the course of gamified, technology-enhanced outdoor learning. This study not only reveals the importance of teacher facilitation in the process of gamified mobile learning, but it also sheds light on how to design and implement the articulated pedagogical, administrative and technical facilitation acts in the context of formal education.
    Keywords: social enquiry learning; gamified learning; outdoor mobile learning; context-aware technology; teacher facilitation; EduVenture.

  • The Role of Augmented Reality Based Unplugged Computer Programming Approach in the Effectiveness of Computational Thinking   Order a copy of this article
    by Arinchaya Threekunprapa, Pratchayapong Yasri 
    Abstract: Recently, pedagogical approaches to promote computational thinking among 21st century learners have increasingly become a topic of interest in educational research. Studies revealed that unplugged computer programming, learning coding without a computer, can enhance students computational thinking and positive attitudes towards computer programming. However, when dealing with complex computer science concepts, they face limitations. This study therefore developed a solution adopting unplugged coding using flowcharts integrated with augmented reality (AR) technology to help scaffold students (called AR semi-unplugged coding). It recruited 120 secondary students for data collection, divided into an experimental group and a control group (unplugged coding). It showed that although both exhibited improved computational thinking and increased self-efficacy after participating in their assigned activity, those in the experimental group outperformed their counterparts statistically. Moreover, the developed solution attracted a greater level of perceived usefulness by users which shows its potential to become an effective approach for promoting computational thinking.
    Keywords: Computational thinking; Computer programming; Augmented reality; Semi-unplugged coding; Unplugged coding.

  • Exploring the Influence of Security/Privacy, Trialability, Output Quality and Anxiety on the Adoption of Mobile Decision Support Systems among Nurses: A Developing Country Context   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammed-Issa Jaradat 
    Abstract: Nursing staff have been observed to be highly mobile in executing their routine work. For that reason, in some critical situations they may need to catch, deliver and/or receive critical information, orders or alerts via mobile/smart devices on their way or at any point of care which may assist them to take instant or on the spot useful decisions/actions or orders to accomplish their tasks quickly and more professionally. This paper studies the factors that affect the intention of nurses whether to adopt or not to adopt mobile decision support systems in Jordan. Besides, it examines the moderating effects of experience and voluntariness among the study factors. The proposed model was analyzed and tested by using a WarpPLS 5.0 software. This study shows that there is a promising and bright future for Nurse Mobile Decision Support Systems (NMDSSs) in Jordan. The empirical findings conclude that in order to increase the adoption rate of NMDSSs in Jordan the system should offer a good value and protect nurses privacy, and it should be useful, free of effort, understandable, safe and triable. The results reveal that nurses adoption of NMDSSs can be anticipated from nurses behavioural intention with approximately 65% in variance. Theoretical contributions and practical implications are outlined. Limitations and suggestions for future studies are discussed.
    Keywords: Security/Privacy; Trialability; Output Quality; Anxiety; Mobile Decision Support Systems; Nurses; Jordan.

  • The effects of Augmented Reality-facilitated mobile game-based learning on the diversity of life for promoting learning at the Natural History Museum   Order a copy of this article
    by Nongluk Meekaew, Watcharee Ketpichainarong 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Augmented Reality-facilitated Mobile Game-based learning (MGAR) approach by comparing the learning achievement, learning motivation and cognitive load of the students who learned with this approach with those learning with the conventional Mobile Game-based Learning (MGL), Augmented Reality-based Learning (ARL), and conventional Web-based Learning (WL). All units were consistently designed for the concept of the diversity of life. The participants were 192 grade 9 students who were randomly assigned into four groups: MGAR (N=46), MGL (N=50), ARL (N=43), and WL (N=53). The instruments were the pre-test and post-test for achievements, the learning motivation questionnaire, the cognitive load questionnaire, and a semi-structured interview. The overall results show that MGAR was more effective in enhancing students understanding of the diversity of life and significantly more motivational than the other groups. In addition, the MGAR decreased the cognitive load of the students when compared with the other groups.
    Keywords: Augmented Reality; Mobile Game-based Learning; Museum Learning.

Special Issue on: Business and Social Issues in Mobile Environment

  • Effect of information quality and system quality in information system success model as an antecedent of mobile learning in education institutions: case study in Jordan   Order a copy of this article
    by Bilal Ali Yaseen Al-nassar 
    Abstract: Educators and students in the higher institutions have reaped the benefits of wired technology in the past several years in the form of mobile learning. The main objective of the research is to develop and propose a service quality model for m-learning in university environment. The study proposed a service quality model based on the Information System (IS) success model for universities m-learning in a developing country, Jordan. This study was carried out through three stages; first, a questionnaire was used to obtain the perception of m-learning services among 360 students studying in different colleges of the Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST), and second information quality was measured through usefulness and adequacy, system quality (ease of use, accessibility and interactivity), and their causal relationship with learner's perceived service quality. Finally, the third stage involved the development of m-learning system prototype (MLSP) by using Rapid Application Development (RAD) technique.
    Keywords: information quality; system quality; IS success model; usefulness and adequacy; ease of use; accessibility and interactivity.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2020.10029204
  • Consumer perception towards corporate social responsibility practices: a study of the Malaysian banking sector   Order a copy of this article
    by Amy C-M. Yeo, Steve Carter 
    Abstract: Organisations can gain enormous benefits when they are perceived as being socially responsible to their stakeholders. One of the important stakeholder groups that appear to be particularly susceptible to the banks' Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) initiatives is their consumers. Thus, this research aims to investigate how banks' customers perceived CSR practices in the banking industry in Malaysia. Administering through a Google-form survey instrument, supplemented with a created link via Facebook and WhatsApp, a total of 240 responses were collected, resulting in a response rate of 80%. Data collected were analysed using statistical tools such as descriptive statistics, correlations and multiple regressions mainly on the predictive power of the constructs in this study. The notable results indicated 'consumer awareness' tended to be positively correlated to CSR practice and it was also one of the most important constructs contributing to the prediction of CSR with the exception of 'knowledge of consumers' and 'purchasing decision'. This suggests that bank managers need to take seriously 'consumer awareness' into the next level of analysis, in which social media has an essential role to play in disseminating important information relating to CSR practices and implementation, including the use of mobile learning as an educative tool.
    Keywords: CSR practices; consumer awareness; purchase decision; consumer knowledge; social media; Malaysian banking industry.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2020.10029205
  • Mobile advergame: analysis of flow, attitudes and competitor trait as the moderating variable   Order a copy of this article
    by Sri Hartini 
    Abstract: The focus of this study will be on mobile advergame as the communication media of online marketing. Mobile advergame is a video game which in some ways it contains an advertisement for a product, a service or a company. This study examines the relationships of consumer flow, attitude towards mobile advergame, attitude towards brand and consumer characteristics, especially competitor trait as the moderating variable. This study used quantitative approach with hypothetical analysis. To collect the data, this study used purposive sampling method. Six mobile advergames, especially adventure genre were used in this study. A total of 162 game players as participants were involved in the survey. The participants were obtained when they were playing the mobiles advergame. The result shows that consumer flow influences the attitude towards mobile advergame and competitor trait moderates the relationships. Attitude towards mobile advergame influences attitude towards brand. Consumer flow does not influence attitude towards brand and competitor trait does not moderate relationship flow on attitudes towards brand.
    Keywords: flow; attitude; competitor trait; mobile advergame.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2020.10029207
  • The inclination to public disclosure of financial forecasts by companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange in times of mobile life   Order a copy of this article
    by Tomasz Sosnowski, Anna Wawryszuk-Misztal 
    Abstract: Voluntary disclosures play an important role in mitigating the information asymmetry on the financial markets and the mobile perspective can be a challenge for modern corporate reporting. Public disclosures are usually announced in a web and they can be accessed online by users. Using a sample of 267 non-financial companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange between 2016 and 2018, we examine the link between some attributes of the company's tendency to future predictive reporting of earnings projections and its corporate governance system. Employing the logistic and multivariate regression analysis, we document that institutional investors are able to enhance the company to adopt better the practice of the voluntary disclosure of earnings forecasts, at the same time keeping under control the flow of more general forward-looking information to other stock investors. Moreover, the management and supervisory board size, as well as the presence of female members in the boardroom are also associated with the company's policy of future predictive reporting.
    Keywords: financial predictions; corporate governance; voluntary disclosures; management and supervisory board composition; ownership structure.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2020.10029238
  • The impact of telework on creativity of professional employees in Sri Lanka: componential and social cognitive theoretical views   Order a copy of this article
    by N.P.G.S.I. Naotunna, H.P.R. Priyankara 
    Abstract: The modern technologies promisingly influence the social lives, and create the way of working more comfortable than ever before. Consequently, telework is becoming increasingly popular among professional workers. Although research has focused on different outcomes of telework, its impact on individual creativity is rarely studied. Therefore, this research attempts to examine the impact of telework on creativity. Data were collected from a sample of professional employees working in the software industry in Sri Lanka. The results of the path analysis revealed that the extent of telework positively and significantly impacts the creativity of professional employees. Also, autonomy mediates the effect of extent of telework on creativity of professional employees. Overall, this study would be an eye-opener for both practitioners and researchers to implement and investigate telework as an alternative job design enriched with mobile learning that allows the professional employees to be more creative in contemporary organisations.
    Keywords: autonomy; creativity; creative self-efficacy; professional employees; telework.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2020.10029243
  • A comprehensive framework for designing and evaluating vocabulary learning apps from multiple perspectives   Order a copy of this article
    by Yuge Tu, Di Zou, Ruofei Zhang 
    Abstract: The integration of emerging mobile technology into the education domain has become increasingly ubiquitous. This research reviewed the advantages and challenges of mobile learning, discussed the key factors that promote effective vocabulary learning and conducted a survey to investigate and identify the ten most popular word learning apps. Based on the results, we analysed the key features of the popular apps and summarised the elements that play crucial roles in leading to successful learning. Based on such analyses, we also developed a comprehensive framework for designing and evaluating vocabulary learning apps, covering dimensions, such as content quality, multimodal presentation, engagement, personalisation, repetition and usability. A popular app,, was also assessed utilising the proposed framework. Users, evaluators, designers and developers of word-learning apps are expected to benefit from this research by being provided with a comprehensive understanding of app-facilitated vocabulary learning and essential features of effective word learning apps.
    Keywords: word learning apps; mobile learning; vocabulary learning; technology-enhanced language learning; multimedia learning; engagement; personalisation; repetition; usability; second language vocabulary acquisition.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2020.10029217
  • Implementation of flipped classroom with personalised ubiquitous learning support system to promote the university student performance of information literacy   Order a copy of this article
    by Chuthathip Srisuwan, Patcharin Panjaburee 
    Abstract: In recent years, unfiltered information has become increasingly available to individuals. It is important to cultivate students' information literacy, including evaluating, synthesising and using information appropriately and ethically. To reduce the limitations of course duration, this study applied the flipped-classroom pedagogy to create the in- and out-of-class learning environment in an information literacy course. Taking prior knowledge into account, a personalised ubiquitous learning support system was developed to support this pedagogy in this course. An experiment was conducted on an information literacy course at a university in Thailand to investigate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. The experimental results highlight that, in comparison with the flipped classroom with conventional ubiquitous learning support system, the proposed approach significantly improved students' information literacy performance, self-efficacy, career motivation and grade motivation.
    Keywords: ubiquitous learning; learning diagnosis; information literacy; teaching and learning strategies.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2020.10029231

Special Issue on: Research Trends and Future Developments of Artificial Intelligence in Education in the Mobile Era

  • Enhancing Skill Prediction through Generalizing Bayesian Knowledge Tracing   Order a copy of this article
    by Tak-Lam Wong, Di Zou, Gary Cheng, Jeff Kai Tai Tang, Yi Cai, Fu Lee Wang 
    Abstract: Learning Analytics (LA) have been widely investigated and applied to understand and optimize the learning process and environment. Among a number of LA tools, Bayesian Knowledge Tracing (BKT) was developed aiming at predicting the probability that a skill has been successfully acquired by a learner. While current development has proved BKT to be sufficiently accurate in prediction and useful, the state-of-the-art BKT methods suffer from a number of shortcomings such as the incapability to predict multiple skills learnt by a student. In this paper, we extend the ordinary BKT model to predict unlimited number of skills learned by a learner based on a non-parametric Dirichlet Process (DP). Another characteristic of our approach is that it can easily incorporate prior knowledge to our model resulting a more accurate prediction. The extended model is more generic and able to handle border applications. We have developed two efficient approximate inference methods based on Gibbs sampling and variational methods.
    Keywords: Bayesian Knowledge Tracing; BKT; learning analytics.

  • Mobile-based Learning of Drug Prescription for Medical Education using Artificial Intelligence Techniques   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiaohui Tao, Wee Pheng Goh, Ji Zhang, Jianming Yong, Elizabeth Zhixin Goh, Xueling Oh 
    Abstract: Medical knowledge is constantly changing with advances in medical sciences and techniques. As such, it is becoming increasingly difficult to keep up to date with current medical information, especially for medical students. Integration of technology into medical education is deemed an efficient way to address the challenge by providing a means of consolidating learning. In particular, the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) can enable users to have a new experience that helps facilitate their learning and catch-up with the constant advance of knowledge and technology. This in turn can minimise errors and aid better clinical decisions, hence resulting in better patient care. This paper discusses the relevance of mobile learning in medical education and introduces an innovative mobile application design to practice drug prescription in medical education. A prototype system demonstrates the design of the framework and the potential usability of the mobile application for medical students. This is a pioneer exploration of applying AI and mobile technology to help foster the new generation of medical practitioners.
    Keywords: mobile-based learning; drug prescription; drug interaction; medical education.

  • Context-Aware Recommender System for Adaptive Ubiquitous Learning   Order a copy of this article
    by Olutayo Boyinbode, Tunde Fatoke 
    Abstract: The use of context-aware recommender systems for adaptive ubiquitous learning has become a promising and interesting research direction in recent years, both as a result of the vast use of ubiquitous devices in our day-to-day lives and because of students increasing desire to learn with ease anytime and anywhere without restriction. This paper implements an RFID-based context-aware technology and recommender system for adaptive ubiquitous learning that will help learners to achieve personalised learning goals and greater learning efficiency. Our context-aware recommender suggests courseware to students based on their location, surrounding noise level and time of day. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology was used to acquire context awareness, and fuzzy logic was employed to develop courseware recommendations. The front end of the system was developed using Android Studio. Experimental results were obtained from selected students from different disciplines who evaluated the system.
    Keywords: Context-aware; Recommender System; Ubiquitous learning; Radio Frequency Identification (RFID); Courseware; Noise level; Location; Time; Learning Management System (LMS).

  • Automatic Topic Detection on Chinese Essays: A Technology Enhanced Approach for Facilitating Formative Use of Summative Assessment   Order a copy of this article
    by Leonard K.M. Poon, Wing Shui Ng, Gary Cheng 
    Abstract: Essay writing is an important form of assessment. It is typically used as summative assessment and may not have some of the major benefits of formative assessment. Although there are considerations of formative use of summative assessment, such use remains limited in practice. It is because of the difficulty in presenting the results and the large amount of effort required. In this paper, we propose to use an automatic topic detection method, named hierarchical latent tree analysis, for analyzing students' essays. The method can identify topics in the essays and organize those topics in a hierarchy with multiple levels of granularity. It can possibly facilitate formative use of summative assessment by addressing the main reasons prohibiting such use. We present the empirical results of the method using the 54 Chinese essays written by students in an undergraduate course. We further discuss and demonstrate how the method can facilitate formative use of the essays.
    Keywords: Topic detection; Hierarchical latent tree analysis; Formative use of summative assessment; Technology enhanced assessment; Chinese essays.

Special Issue on: ICOIE 2019 Transforming Education with Mobile Technology Innovations

  • A Literature Review of Augmented Reality, Virtual Reality, and Mixed Reality in Language Learning   Order a copy of this article
    by Kam Cheong Li, Billy Tak-Ming Wong 
    Abstract: Technological advances in augmented reality (AR), virtual reality (VR) and mixed reality (MR) have been increasingly used for supporting language learning. They provide learners with an enhanced or simulated environment for exposure to a target language. This paper reviews the studies on AR/VR/MR-based language learning and surveys their major patterns and trends, covering a total of 111 studies published between 2004 and 2018 collected from the Web-of-Science and Scopus. The results show an increasing number of related studies conducted in various countries/regions at a wide range of educational levels, particularly since the early 2010s. English is the most popular target language to learn, but more languages have been covered in the studies in recent years. Speaking is the most frequent area for training, but its proportion has been decreasing over the years; and vocabulary learning has become more prevalent. The mainstream technology has evolved from VR environments in early studies into AR applications in recent ones; and the devices for accessing learning contents have become more portable from computers to tablets, smartphones, and headsets. The research issue of most concern is learning outcome and its proportion keeps growing. Further work is needed to address the limitations and issues still to be solved, in terms of technical, teachers and students perspectives. It is recognised that the use of technology alone will not suffice for improving learners language proficiency, but the design of curricular and learning contents also plays an important role.
    Keywords: augmented reality; virtual reality; mixed reality; language learning; ubiquitous learning; computer-assisted language learning; CALL.

  • The Role of Organizational Performance in Moderating Human Resource Management and Outstanding Outcomes in Open Distance Learning Context   Order a copy of this article
    by Maximus Gorky Sembiring, Gayuh Rahayu, Rizki Hersada Sembiring 
    Abstract: Plausible factors interrelated in human resource management (HRM), organizational performance (OP), and outstanding outcomes (OO) in open distance learning (ODL) context laden tightly with educational technology were explored. It was aimed at exposing the moderating role of OP between HRM and OO (services, products, and systems). Qualitatively, HRM included selection and recruitment, work definition, training program, performance measurement, compensation scheme, career planning, quality assurance, and employee participation. OP was influenced by HRM and leading to OO. Quantitatively, HRM, OP, and OO were independent, moderating, and dependent variables respectively. Responses from 158 faculty were completed. Eight of 11 hypotheses assessed were validated by the analysis utilizing structural equation modeling (SEM). Career planning was the most significant influence while selection and recruitment, work definition, and quality assurance were not validated. Besides, OP led to OO. Importance-performance analysis (IPA) and customer-satisfaction index (CSI) discovered 18 attributes as the pillars of HRM and OP.
    Keywords: ODL; HRM; OP; IPA-CSI; SEM.

  • Exploring Learning Behaviour Under an Integrated Mobile and Web-based Learning Environment   Order a copy of this article
    by S.S. Lam, Samuel P. M. Choi, C.Y. Ng 
    Abstract: Mobile learning plays a paramount role in supporting e-learning and distance learning through enabling learners to carry out learning activities independent of time or space constraints. In designing and developing an integrated mobile and web-based learning environment to fulfill the ever-changing needs of learners, a good understanding of how they utilize such platforms in their learning is essential. This study investigated students learning behaviour across the mobile and web-based platforms by examining how learning activities were mixed and matched on the platforms. Exploratory analysis and clustering technique were applied to gain holistic understanding of usage pattern and learning sequence from click stream data. Findings show that students used the mobile platform to supplement the web-based learning and self-regulated their learning across the mobile and web-based platforms leading to considerable differences in the learning behaviour on the platforms for different performing students. Strategies to improve self-efficacy of students in learning across mobile and web platforms are discussed.
    Keywords: learning behaviour; mobile learning; web-based learning; multi-platform learning.

  • Shepherds for Modern Times: Designing a Blended Learning Course for Communication Theology   Order a copy of this article
    by Irudayaselvam Stanislaus, Virma Rea Lee 
    Abstract: Communication is the basic principle and an essential dimension of Christian theology. These recent advancements in information and communication technology compel theologians and seminarians to be creative users of this new technology. In addition, theological institutes recognize the importance of integrating teaching communication-related theology courses with that of information and communication technology. Hence, this paper aims to analyze the potential of teaching the new subject, communication theology, using blended learning modality. An online questionnaire was sent to theology students from Chile, India, Indonesia, and the Philippines to identify and to analyze the respondents learning needs. Findings reveal that the student-respondents have social media accounts and are willing to participate in a blended learning course on communication theology. Majority of them believe that blended learning will contribute to the efficient delivery of instruction. Recommendations are made on how theological institutes can proceed and established a blended learning course for communication theology.
    Keywords: communication theology; theology students; learning needs; blended learning; learning management system; face-to-face learning.

Special Issue on: ICOIE 2019 Transforming Education with Mobile Technology Innovations

  • Learning curriculum vocabulary through mobile learning:Impact on vocabulary gains and automaticity   Order a copy of this article
    by Zhenzhen Chen, Jiyou Jia, Wenhui Li 
    Abstract: In recent years there has been a great deal of attention on mobile-assisted language learning. However, studies integrated with the curriculum are still lacking. This study adopts a quasi-experimental design to investigate the effect of mobile learning on curriculum vocabulary. 59 students participated in a mobile-assisted vocabulary learning project which lasted for a semester, and 60 students in another intact class used the traditional learning approach. Data were collected from the vocabulary pretest and post-test, as well as response times in the pre and post-test. Students grades from the final exam were also collected for analysis. Results show mobile-assisted vocabulary learning can improve the students vocabulary gains, automaticity and overall academic performance.
    Keywords: mobile learning;mobile-assisted language learning;vocabulary;automaticity.