Forthcoming and Online First Articles
International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation
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International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation (31 papers in press)
Abstract: This article aimed to provide new insights into critical factors to consider when developing a scenario-based mobile application (SBMA) for dual-language learners (DLLs). It is intended to investigate the factorial structure of the SBMA for young students in an elementary school context using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The convenience sampling method was used to recruit 1,040 in-service teachers to complete the internet-based questionnaire. For half of the respondents, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted to identify the factors for SBMA design for young DLLs, and CFA was used to ascertain the model fit. The EFA identified five factors from 32 items, and through CFA, the results indicated that the five factors obtained from the EFA were validated: 1) application attribute; 2) lesson content; 3) immersive environment; 4) learning strategy; 5) instructional use. The findings shed light on how SBMA could be designed for DLLs.
Keywords: dual language learner; DLL; factor analysis; mobile application; primary school student; scenario-based learning; SBL; scenario-based mobile application; SBMA; confirmatory factor analysis; CFA; exploratory factor analysis; EFA.
A Profile of College Students Mobile Learning Readiness: An Integrative Literature Review of Studies from 2007 to 2021
by Xiao Xu, J. Jessica Li
Abstract: An integrative literature review of 29 studies from the past 15 years (2007 to 2021) was conducted to understand and frame college students mobile learning readiness (MLR) comprehensively. A resultant conceptual profile with theoretical and practical implications is proposed that includes 13 factors grouped into three categories: learner traits (past mobile learning experience, self-efficacy, innovativeness, optimism, intention, self-regulated learning), technology expectations (expectations of mobile learning effort, performance and relative advantages), and external influences (facilitating conditions, subjective influence, infrastructure readiness and cost). The results from the analysis originally locate college students personality and psychological prerequisites for engaging in mobile learning; identify three relative advantages of mobile learning flexibility, interactions, and enjoyment; and pinpoint the external determinants for examining college students MLR including costs, public infrastructure resources associated with mobile learning, and student-peers and instructors subjective influences. Recommendations for fostering MLR are discussed as well.
Keywords: conceptual profile; mobile learning readiness; college students; integrative literature review.
Ubiquitous game-based learning with a multimedia debriefing on cyberbullying during the COVID-19 pandemic
by Sasipim Poompimol, Patcharin Panjaburee, Suthiporn Sajjapanroj, Chanayuth Changpetch, Preeyada Tapingkae, Thanyaluck Ingkavara
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic forced schools to move instruction online and learn from home, laying on learning anywhere and anytime upon the students self-pace. This study designed and implemented ubiquitous learning with the digital board game in response to government-issued learn-at-home and work-from-home orders. The present paper also shows how the multimedia debriefing method supports a digital board game for ubiquitous learning in the course of cyberbullying behaviour. A repeated measure experiment with 56 middle school students showed that students conceptions and perceptions of cyberbullying behaviours improved significantly after gaming with multimedia debriefing sessions compared to gaming without multimedia debriefing sessions. Additionally, the students were asked to respond to a self-reported questionnaire and interviewed. The results revealed that they had a positive experience with the multimedia debriefing method and perceived the ubiquitous game-based learning as an effective environment that helped improve their learning regarding cyberbullying conceptions.
Keywords: ubiquitous learning; digital board game; debriefing method; game-based learning; digital citizenships; essential skills.
Design and implementation of a breathing interaction system for autistic Thai children
by Pitsanu Chaichitwanidchakol, Witcha Feungchan
Abstract: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is utilised to treat a variety of abnormal symptoms and assist children with autism improve their development in a variety of areas. The goal of this study is to help children with autism practise breathing at a pace that is near normal in order to deliver more oxygen to the brain. As a result, breathing interactions with two VR games were created specifically for autistic youngsters. First, an ASD breathing game allows a child to interact with real-time respiration rate, the practitioners could assist the child to breathe near the norm. Second, an ASD underwater exercise game allows a youngster to practise breathing skills while underwater and in the water. It involves an interactional breathing pattern. Both games employ virtual reality (VR) technology to aid in teaching proper breathing techniques. The findings of the game test show that autistic childrens usage of breathing interaction patterns is successful.
Keywords: pervasive learning; virtual reality; VR; bio interaction; breath interaction; virtual feedback; simulation; autism; respiratory; hyperbaric oxygen therapy.
Learning Analytics and Evidence-based K12 Education in Japan: Usage of Data-driven Services and Mobile Learning Across Two Years.
by Hiroaki Ogata, Rwitajit Majumdar, Brendan Flanagan, Hiroyuki Kuromiya
Abstract: Learning and evidence analytics framework (LEAF) is a technology framework for data-driven services in education. LEAF helps to form an educational eco-system with new digital technologies with capabilities such as integrating AI-driven models for learning recommendations and connecting learning logs through blockchain technologies to support lifelong learning. Since 2018, its implementation in Japan has led to more than 1,000 students of Japanese public schools using LEAF on mobile tablets for their daily learning activities both inside and outside school. The data collected at the school level in LEAF further enabled the creation of computational models to support teaching and self-learning. This article presents the data-driven services built on the platform and how it was used in Japanese K-12 Mathematics and English classes. A study evaluates the usage and user perception of data-driven educational practices in the Japanese context and discusses its greater implications and challenges for learning analytics research.
Keywords: evidence-based education; learning analytics; K-12 education; e-book platform; AI-driven services; Japanese school; learning and evidence analytics framework; LEAF; BookRoll; Japan.
Smartphone Apps for Child Sexual Abuse Education: Gaps and Design Considerations
by Sadia Tasnuva Pritha, Rahnuma Tasnim, Ashad Kabir, Sumaiya Amin, Anik Das
Abstract: The objectives of this study are understanding the requirements of a child sexual abuse (CSA) education app, identifying the limitations of existing apps, and providing guidelines for better app design. An electronic search across three major app stores was conducted and the selected apps were rated by a devised app rating scale. Our rating scale evaluates essential features, functionalities, and software quality characteristics that are necessary for CSA education apps, and determined their effectiveness for potential use as CSA education programs for children. User comments from the app stores are collected and analysed to understand their expectations and views. After analysing the feasibility of the reviewed apps, CSA app design considerations are proposed that highlight game-based teaching approaches. The evaluation results show that most of the reviewed apps are not suitable for being used as CSA education programs. Moreover, all the apps need to be improved in terms of their software qualities and CSA-specific features to be considered as potential CSA education programs. This study provides the necessary knowledge to developers and individuals regarding the essential features and software quality characteristics for designing and developing CSA education apps.
Keywords: child sexual abuse; CSA; mobile learning; sexual abuse education; smartphone; mobile apps; design considerations; app rating scale.
Facilitating creativity, collaboration, and computational thinking in group website design: A concept mapping-based mobile flipped learning approach
by Shu-Chen Cheng, Gwo-Jen Hwang, Pei-Ying Chen
Abstract: Group website design is an activity that aims to foster students creative thinking, computational thinking, and collaboration while developing websites in teams. A concept mapping-based mobile flipped learning approach was proposed in this study. A quasi-experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of the proposed model of student learning achievement, creativity, collaboration, and computational thinking in a technological learning context. Twenty-one at-work students in the experimental group applied the concept mapping-based mobile flipped learning, while 18 at-work students in the control group learned through conventional mobile flipped learning. The experimental results showed that the experimental group had better learning achievement, creativity, collaboration, and computational thinking than the control group. In addition, the experimental group also outperformed the control group on website design outcomes. The interviews further revealed that the proposed method positively impacted the students computational thinking skills. Accordingly, a discussion and several suggestions for future research are presented.
Keywords: mobile learning; flipped learning; concept mapping; computational thinking; collaborative learning; website design.
A systematic review of mobile-based synchronous and asynchronous language teaching and learning
by Zilin Wang, D.I. ZOU, Lucas Kohnke, Gary Cheng, Lixun Wang
Abstract: Research on the use of mobile applications in language teaching and learning has been extensive, especially since the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic. In this review of articles, we systematically examine 112 empirical studies investigating the effectiveness of mobile-based synchronous and asynchronous language teaching and learning published from 2000 to 2022. We examined the languages, language skills that were learnt, the educational level of the learners, the mobile learning applications, and the learning activity durations. We also identified the effectiveness, challenges, and pedagogical implications of implementing mobile applications in online language teaching and learning. Based on the results, we propose a pedagogical model incorporating three online learning factors - participants, learning activities, and mobile applications - to identify the prerequisites for successful online language learning. We also suggest practical ideas for language teachers who are eager to integrate mobile applications into their online classes aimed at specific language skills. Finally, we identify potential trends in the research and suggest future research directions.
Keywords: systematic review; mobile-based language education; synchronous language education; asynchronous language education; mobile applications; online education; language skills; pedagogical implications.
How does mobile learning support second language learning ? Evidence from CSL learners turn construction in online communication
by Haijing Zhang, CONG WANG, Fangwei Huang, Daner Sun
Abstract: Under global public health emergencies such as COVID-19 and monkeypox, online learning for the second language (L2) has become prevalent, especially mobile learning, which provides a new training form spanning time and space for L2 learners in listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Taking the turn construction of learners who learn Chinese as a second language (CSL) as a point cut, this study investigated L2 learners' communication strategies in a mobile learning context through conversation analysis, a qualitative method. The result showed that the CSL learner adopted self-turn construction, co-construction, and turn-taking in online communication. In turn-taking, the CSL learner raised the pitch at the beginning of a new turn to a position higher than the pitch at the end of the previous turn. This study revealed the structure and approach of CSL learners' turn construction in 'talk-in-interaction', enriching the theoretical research of turn construction under the transactional distance theory of L2 learning supported by mobile technologies.
Keywords: mobile learning; L2 learning; Chinese as a second language; CSL learner; turn construction; online communication.
Borderless Lab 365: A Real-time Web-based Remote Laboratory Platform for Hong Kong High School Students in Response to Pandemic
by Ka Lai Wong, Wang Fai Cheng, Ming Tak Sze, Siu Hong Choy, Kwok Lung Jim, Yuen Hong Tsang, Chi Wah Leung, Chee Leung Mak
Abstract: Due to COVID-19 pandemic, distance learning is inevitable, and technology is greatly incorporated in education. However, it is challenging for science educators as there are more physical and instrumental constraints in laboratory learning than usual. A real-time web-based remote laboratory platform provides more experimental opportunities for high school students anywhere/anytime. Current project is to develop an online laboratory platform, Borderless-Lab-365 (BL365). Through the server, the experiment setups residing in the University receive commands from users and make responses. The new designed platform is more engaging with live streaming and interactive interface adjusting parameters instantly. It stands out from virtual lab using computer simulations, randomness and errors arisen in real experiments can be investigated and experimental skills are needed. The platform was successfully implemented. One hundred and one participants aged 13 to 19 from five secondary schools completed a user survey after performing experiment on BL365. Students were encouraged to learn new things and gained better understanding.
Keywords: remote laboratory; STEM education; student-centred learning.
Technologies in content and language integrated learning: types, purposes, and outcomes
by Xieling Chen, D.I. ZOU, Haoran Xie
Abstract: Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) has evolved into a catalyst for conceptualizing and re-conceptualizing how languages are adopted as both learning medium and object. Scholars are attempting to integrate technologies into traditional CLIL scenarios. This study systematically reviewed studies on technology-enhanced CLIL (T-CLIL) and the learning outcomes reported. A total of 23 eligible studies published from 2013 to 2021 were analyzed. We systematically reviewed T-CLIL literature from the perspectives of technology types, purposes of technology use, and outcomes due to technology use. Different technologies (e.g., multimedia, web 2.0, and learning management systems) were applied to deliver instructional content, facilitate interactions, promote practices, enhance problem-based learning, etc. Findings also revealed that T-CLIL improved students subject knowledge and language skills and promoted their learning motivation, engagement, problem-solving, and critical thinking abilities. The findings of this review demonstrated how state-of-the-art technologies could be utilized in CLIL classrooms to promote learners comprehension of non-linguistic concepts in a second language and their second-language use for real-world professional problem-solving.
Keywords: content and language integrated learning (CLIL); technology-enhanced CLIL; technology type; purpose; learning outcomes.
An Ethnic Context-focused Mobile Adaptive Learning Approach to Promoting Sexual Health Literacy in Non-Formal Education
by Suphaphan Chansiri, Charoenchai Wongwatkit
Abstract: The number of ethnic teenagers with unplanned pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases has been increasing. A few can access non-formal education and learn sexual health literacy under limited learning conditions. This study aims to address these issues by proposing a mobile adaptive learning approach focusing on ethnic context. In contrast, a personalised adaptive agent with an integrated anonymous mechanism and inquiry-based interactive lessons have been designed. To investigate the effects of the proposed approach, a mobile web-based learning system on non-formal educations sexual health literacy has been developed. Quasi-experimental research has been conducted with ethnic learners in Thailand. The findings reveal that the proposed learning approach can help improve their learning performances on sexual health literacy and gain positive learning perceptions. The significance of this study plays a vital role in understanding how to enhance sexual health literacy effectively and demonstrating better interactive lessons for the context-focused group.
Keywords: mobile learning; adaptive learning system; sexual health literacy; SHL; ethnic learners; learning performance; learning perception; non-formal education.
Research tendencies and designs of mobile technology-supported reading education: A systematic review of journal publication from 2005 to 2020
by Chen-Chen LIU, Fu-Ning Guo, Hai-Jie Wang, You-Mei Wang
Abstract: Digital reading has been the research trend recently. This study reviewed studies published in the area of mobile technology-supported reading education (MTSRE) in the Scopus database from 2005 to 2020. The analysis was conducted from four aspects, namely the article information, the study design and execution, how mobile technology was used, and the statistical methods and research issues. The results indicated that: 1) MTSRE has aroused the research interest of researchers; 2) most studies on MTSRE explore its effects, elementary school students are the most common participants, the experimental design method was mostly adopted, and studies conducted with in-class activities were the most common; 3) the MTSRE research investigated how to introduce different instructional strategies in MTSRE, and it was found that inquiry-based learning was most frequently used; 4) for statistical methods, descriptive statistics, were the most frequently applied, and the research topics were mainly focused on the cognition domain.
Keywords: reading education; mobile technology; technology-based review model; systematic review.
Effects of An Immersive Virtual Environment-based Gaming Approach on Students Occupational Health Performance, Immersion and Motivation
by Pongpon Seprum, Charoenchai Wongwatkit
Abstract: To investigate the effects of immersive virtual environment-based gaming approach and conventional mobile learning environments on learning performance, learning immersion, and learning motivation, this study developed the immersive virtual environment-based gaming approach for Occupational Health education in Emergency Response knowledge about fire and chemical emergency handling. The study results indicated that students in the immersive virtual environment-based gaming approach had higher learning achievements, immersion, and motivation levels than the conventional mobile learning approach. Furthermore, the high and low-achieving groups within the immersive game-based learning approach motivation are not different, which means that the students with high and low-achieving students still have high learning motivation toward the proposed immersive virtual environment-based gaming approach regardless of their learning capabilities.
Keywords: immersive learning system; virtual reality; game-based learning; occupational health; learning immersion.
An automated self-regulation advising mechanism in mobile learning environment to promote students' learning achievement, self-regulated awareness and approaches to science learning
by You-Hong Su, Shu-Yun Chien
Abstract: Mobile learning is a learner-centred mode, where students receive learning content from various sources without being limited by location or time. Self-regulated learning is crucial in mobile learning, as students have to take charge of their own learning by choosing what, when, where and how to learn. However, it can be challenging for students to regulate their learning effectively without guidance or support. Therefore, an automated self-regulation advising mechanism is proposed and implemented in a mobile learning environment to provide personalised advice and support to students in their learning process. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. The participants were 46 eighth graders from two classes of a junior high school in Taiwan. The experimental results show that the proposed approach promoted the students learning achievements, time management dimension of self-regulated awareness, and surface motivation of approaches to science learning.
Keywords: automated advice; mobile learning; self-regulated learning; SRL; science learning.
Direct and indirect effects of smartphone use on academic performance of undergraduate students in Tanzania
by Julius Raphael Athuman Mhina, Deogratius Mathew Lashayo
Abstract: The global proliferation of smartphone usage in higher learning institutions is high. Students are still struggling to find the best way to use their smartphones, especially in relation to their academic endeavours. That is to say, the contribution of smartphones to the student's academic performance is still debatable. Little research has embarked on quantitative measurement and specifically on the causal relationship existing between general smartphone use and academic performance whether direct or indirect using formal performance models and/or theory. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine the direct and indirect impact of general smartphone-use on the academic performance of undergraduate students in Tanzania. This study used a snowball sampling technique for the distribution of questionnaires to a total of 412 respondents. The combinations of descriptive, confirmatory factor analysis, and path analysis using structural equation modelling (SEM) were employed. The results show that smartphone use by students in higher learning institutions has an indirect impact on their academic performance.
Keywords: smartphone use; task-technology fit; IS success model; SEM; student academic performance; HLIs.
A multi-dimensional self-regulated learning model in the mobile era: implementation and evaluation in a long-term and large-scale promotion program in Taiwan
by Gwo-Jen Hwang, Hui-Chun Chu, Chiu-Lin Lai, Shu-Yun Chien, Pei-Ying Chen
Abstract: In this study, a multi-dimensional self-regulated learning (MSRL) model is proposed. The model has been applied to a long-term and large-scale promotion program in Taiwan for helping school teachers guide students to be self-regulated learners from the stages of metacognition and cognition. To evaluate the relation of the MSRL, a survey study was conducted by analysing the feedback from 1,293 high school students using partial least squares structural equation modelling. The result showed that the students' self-regulation had a solid relationship with their 5C (collaboration, communication, creativity, complex problem solving, and critical thinking) capabilities, especially a strong relationship with communication and collaboration. Furthermore, communication and collaboration are also associated with their complex problem-solving, critical thinking, and creativity. The results revealed that the MSRL model not only increased students' learning engagement but also enhanced their higher order thinking.
Keywords: self-regulation; self-regulated learning; metacognition; knowledge acquisition; knowledge application; mobile learning.
Self-paced reading as a computer-based methodology for L2 assessment: a scoping review
by Liubov Darzhinova, Di Zou
Abstract: This scoping review illuminates the self-paced reading task as a computer-based methodology for second language (L2) reading assessment. To find support for this methodology, the authors explored the research foci, language contexts, and types of self-paced reading studies over five years (2016-2021), as well as the self-paced reading task's instruments and some significant study findings for L2 research. The review also showcases the most influential self-paced reading studies in the L2 context based on the author's affiliation, research venue, and citation data. As a result, this scoping review examines possibilities and hindrances in integrating computer-based self-paced reading tasks into L2 assessment.
Keywords: computer-assisted language assessment; L2 assessment; reading assessment; self-paced reading task; language learning; learning analytics; performance prediction; scoping review; task-based learning.
A mobile game for learning programming: students' reactions in view of their attitudes, experiences and expectations
by Jakub Swacha, Karolina Muszyńska, Magdalena Kowalska, Agnieszka Miluniec, Rytis Maskeliūnas, Robertas Damaševičius, Audrius Kulikajevas, Tomas Blažauskas
Keywords: game-based learning; programming education; m-learning.
Investigating the impact of a mobile learner-generated-content tool on pupils' after-school English vocabulary behavioural learning patterns, learning performance and motivation: a case study
by Yanjie Song, Hiroaki Ogata, Yin Yang, Kousuke Mouri
Abstract: This paper reports on a case study of investigating the effect of a mobile learner-generated content (m-LGC) tool on pupils' after-class English as a second language (ESL) vocabulary behavioural learning patterns, learning performance and motivation. Participants were 34 students in grade 4 from two classes in a primary school in Hong Kong. Data collection included students' learning logs on the m-LGC tool, pre-and post-vocabulary tests and pre-and post-questionnaires. Both qualitative and quantitative data analysis methods were adopted. An active group (AG) and a passive group (PG) were categorised based on visualisation and the number of student created learning logs. The results show that: 1) student behavioural learning patterns varied across AG and PG; 2) students in the AG made significant improvement in their learning performance, but those in the PG did not; 3) student learning motivation in the AG was improved, but that in the PG dropped significantly.
Keywords: vocabulary learning; mobile learner-generated-content tool; m-LGC; behavioural learning patterns; visualisation tool; motivation.
Roles and research issues of robots in education: a review of the 2011-2021 publications
by Gwo-Jen Hwang, Shih-Ting Chu
Abstract: In recent years, with the development of digital technology and artificial intelligence, robotics has gradually aroused the attention of researchers and has become one of the most important emerging technologies. At present, the application of robots in all walks of life has achieved outstanding results, and robot-assisted teaching has increasingly become a popular teaching and research issue. This study analysed the trends and outcomes of applying robots in educational settings around the world, and illustrated their application domains/activities and participants. In addition, the present study explained the roles of robots in education according to the following aspects: 1) teachers; 2) teaching assistants; 3) students/peers; 4) distance learning tools/agents; 5) learning materials/platforms. Finally, this study provides suggestions for future development in practice by analysing the advantages and challenges of applying robots in educational settings.
Keywords: robot; robot-assisted teaching; artificial intelligence; systematic review; educational robot.
Special Issue on: Enhancing Flexibility in Learning with Mobile and Ubiquitous Technologies
by Panicha Nitisakunwut, Gwo-Jen Hwang
Abstract: This meta-analysis and systematic review study of digital game-based language learning (DGBL) research describes the impact of DGBL implementation on English language learning outcomes. Criteria were set for the inclusion of appropriate research articles on digital game-based English language learning published between 2000 and 2019. Two main sources of data: Academic Search Complete (EBSCOhost) and the Web of Science were employed to search for relevant articles from peer-reviewed journals, and the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (version 3) software was used to conduct a meta-analysis. The findings identify the overall effectiveness of digital games including research designs of digital game-based learning and digital game designs, and describe the impact of DGBL on language learning outcomes. This study also provides suggestions and implications for educational practitioners and researchers who intend to conduct digital game-based learning in the mobile era.
Keywords: digital game-based learning; educational games; language learning; meta-analysis; systematic review.
Looking through the Fog of Remote Zoom Teaching: A Case Study of At-risk Student Prediction
by Andrew Kwok-Fai Lui, Sin-Chun Ng
Abstract: Identification of students who are at-risk of failing or dropping out from a course is a key part of instructional remediation for student retention. The data-driven machine learning approach has proven to be effective in utilising student information to make the prediction. The Zoom video conferencing platform, which has become widely adopted to replace in-person teaching and learning in the COVID-19 pandemic, poses a challenge to building effective at-risk student prediction model. Extracting information about students is made difficult by increased capacity to control self-disclosure and the manipulation of online communication. The case study described in the paper aims to find out the feasibility of at-risk student prediction in Zoom teaching and the capacity of engineering informative features based on the polling function. A number of prediction scenarios were defined and the performance of the corresponding models and the effectiveness of various machine learning algorithm were evaluated. It was found that formative assessment features were useful for prediction scenarios earlier in the course, and summative assessment features gave accurate predictions towards the end. The findings have filled the knowledge gap of at-risk student prediction in Zoom teaching.
Keywords: Zoom platform; online learning; at-risk student prediction; COVID-19; machine learning.
The Limited Usage and Effect of Smart Phones and an Online Tutoring System for Regular and Large-scale University English Teaching
by Jiyou Jia, Yuzhen Li, Huixiao Le
Abstract: This research integrates the online learning supported by students smart phones and a tutoring system CSIEC into a university course of English as foreign language through one semester with 548 students and eight lecturers from 13 classes. The treatment students used the system to learn vocabulary during the specified periods through voluntary participation and natural grouping, while the control students used alternative methods. The online learning activities analysis shows significant difference between the online learning behaviour of the treatment and control group, and demonstrates that the treatment group improved the vocabulary grade with a large effect size and decreased the time spent on completing the quiz. The treatment group improved better than the control group in overall learning, especially in vocabulary mastery and writing examined in regular university tests. The anonymous online survey results reveal that the students were satisfied with the English learning. The reasons leading to the findings are discussed. The implication for MALL research and future work are suggested.
Keywords: smart phone; tutoring system; college English; vocabulary automaticity; effectiveness.
Learners and system readiness for digital learning in the Ethiopian health sector: the path to blended learning
by Yifru Berhan, Muluken Dessalegn, Aranka Hetyey, Bekalu Assamnew, Sentayehu Tsegaye, Misrak Makonnen, Sintayehu Abebe
Abstract: The increasing global digital interconnectedness, the emerging user-friendly and cost-effective digital learning platforms are easing the barriers for reaching unlimited audience, and the lessons learned from coronavirus disease (COVID-19) restrictions have opened room for digital learning. In this study, quantitative and qualitative methods were employed by including 393 lower and mid-level health workers from different regions and 27 key informants from governmental and non-governmental organisations to get an insight into the learners and system readiness for digital learning. The most preferred delivery mode was blended learning. The cost-effectiveness of the method, high access to mobile devices, government and partners commitment along with trainees preference are persuasive conditions to implement and transform digital learning for health workers in Ethiopia and increase the health workforce as an important intervention for achieving universal health coverage and health-specific sustainable development goals at large.
Keywords: blended learning; digital learning; Ethiopia; face-to-face learning; lower and mid-level health workers; quantitative and qualitative study.
Effects of the iPad use on K-12 students' STEM achievement: a meta-analysis
by Yu Xiao, Yeping Li, Jamaal Young, Ke Wang
Abstract: Considerable research has been conducted globally to explore the effects of handheld devices on students' academic achievement, but no consistent conclusions from individual studies have been reached. Specifically, iPads accounted for 94% of the educational handheld device market and US school districts have recently allocated significant funding for iPads amid COVID-19, it is important to learn about the effectiveness of using iPads in school education. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis of related literature to examine the potential impact of iPad-assisted instructional approaches in K-12 STEM classrooms compared with traditional instruction. After analysing 17 selected studies, we found a significant overall effect (d̄RE = 0.37, p = 0.008) that suggests a better effect of iPad-assisted instruction than traditional instruction. Additionally, moderator analysis revealed that the two factors of subjects and assessment tools played a statistically significant moderator role in the effect of iPads on students' STEM achievement.
Keywords: handheld devices; iPad; meta-analysis; mobile technology; STEM education.
When Smartphones Meet Mindful Learning: The Cluster Profiles of Passion Toward Smartphone Use, Creativity Mindset, and Creativity Self-Efficacy
by Yu-Chu Yeh, Yueh-Yin Peng
Abstract: Based on the advantages of smartphones and the importance of mindful learning, we developed a smartphone-based mindfulness intervention for creativity learning that can be easily implemented in daily life, by which we examined the relationship between personality traits and self-efficacy of creativity. The concerned personal traits included four types of passion towards smartphones and four types of creativity mindsets. Eighty-four college students participated in a ten-day intervention that requested participants to take photos of their surroundings using smartphones with an emphasis on self-determination and knowledge sharing. The results of cluster analysis revealed three distinctive patterns of clusters about creativity self-efficacy, mindsets, and passion, suggesting that creativity self-efficacy can be predicted by creativity growth mindsets and harmonious passion toward smartphones. The profiles of specific traits we identified in this study shed light on how different types of mindsets and passion toward smartphones may influence self-efficacy.
Keywords: mindful learning; passion; mindset; self-efficacy; smartphones.
Special Issue on: Personalising Learning in Mobile and Ubiquitous Environments
by Junjie Cao, Zhonghua Jiang, Wenchun Zhao
Abstract: This study aimed to explore the effect of OMO instructional design and implementation. It focused on whether the ubiquitous teaching model is helpful to students' learning participation and initiative in open education, and their recognition was also surveyed. Taking the "Software Engineering" course for example, lecturers had redesigned the course contents and teaching methods. The hardware environment support of smart classroom and the functions of auxiliary software were used to realize the teaching interaction and data statistics. Students could choose their preferred learning approach in each class, face-to-face or live online. Some experiments were used to verify the effect of teaching implementation, such as learning situation analysis and surveys before class, analysis and evaluations of the teaching process during class, questionnaires and interviews after class. The results showed the OMO-based teaching concept had positives effect on improving students' learning interest and initiative as well as subjective emotions in open education.
Keywords: OMO; ubiquitous teaching process redesign; teaching implementation analysis.
A Comparison of a Computerized Adaptive Test for Mathematics Instruction with the Classical Test
by Jiyou Jia, Yuyue Zhang, Huixiao Le
Abstract: Computerised adaptive test (CAT) may enable the individualised and adaptive homework and assessment which seem difficult to be practiced in traditional school settings. The authors developed a web-based mathematics intelligent assessment and tutoring system (MIATS) assessing the learners math content mastery status by a CAT. This research uses a simulation experiment to simulate the performance of 53 middle school students who used all questions included in the MIATS with their authentic answers in the CAT. The data analysis shows that the trait values measured by a CAT have significantly strong and positive coefficients with the correctness rates measured by a classical test with the same questions from the CAT. The data visualisation of questions used in the CAT and the question sequences demonstrate that all the examinees complete the CAT with differentiated questions and various pathways. This research innovatively provides convincing evidence for the effectiveness and equality of the CAT.
Keywords: computerised adaptive test; CAT; personalised assessment; mathematics assessment; mathematics intelligent assessment and tutoring system; MIATS; assessment result; personalised homework.
Transformation of Workplace Learning After the Pandemic in Indonesia: Middle-aged Employees' Experiences
by Gita Aulia Nurani, Ya-Hui Lee
Abstract: This study aimed to explore middle-aged transformation related to implementing workplace learning during the pandemic. This study utilised semi-structured in-depth interviews by the qualitative phenomenological methodology. The participants are middle-aged employees from national or multinational companies who used offline learning before the pandemic and then transformed to online learning. Results mention that middle-aged face some difficulties when they use online learning tools: they need more time to adapt to the technology features, keep a mindset as an independent learner, feel exhausted easily, have less engagement with facilitators, and struggle to find an effective learning method. The findings identified five stages of workplace learning techniques that combine online and offline strategies to overcome these situations: the initial phase, establishing a framework, using online quizzes for learning evaluation, conducting offline learning for practical skills, and using coaching or mentoring to mature personal values.
Keywords: adult; middle-age; transformation; workplace learning; Indonesia.
Investigating students perceptions of the use of a multifunctional mobile-based virtual reality application for English/Chinese interpreting learning
by Venus Chan
Abstract: This study aimed to develop a mobile-based virtual reality (VR) application for English/Chinese bi-directional interpreting education 'Virtual Interpreting Practice' (VIP) and to study Chinese students perceptions in terms of their overall satisfaction, learning experience and outcomes (including interpreting competence as well as cognitive and affective development). The results of quantitative and qualitative analyses of the pre-and post-study questionnaires revealed that VIP was a useful tool for enhancing students interpreting and bilingual competence, improving their learning motivation and strengthening their independent skills. Moreover, it was found that learning experiences were positively correlated to learning outcomes. In particular, while the VR feature enabled immersive learning which enhanced learning effectiveness, engagement and language proficiency, the use of mobile devices facilitated learning autonomy and flexibility. The findings suggested that with more opportunities for situated learning in the virtual immersive learning environments, learners could acquire better interpreting techniques and metacognitive skills.
Keywords: English/Chinese Interpreting learning; Immersive learning; Language proficiency; Learning experience; Leaning outcomes; Mobile-assisted language learning; Students perceptions; Virtual reality.