International Journal of Management in Education (26 papers in press)
DEVELOPING A CONCEPTUAL MODEL TO MEASURE BUSINESS PERFORMANCE FOR PRIVATE HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS
by Christo Bisschoff, Ridwaan Asvat, Christoff Botha
Abstract: Traditionally business constraints such as a lack of trust from the public, over-regulation and competition with state-funded public institutions, have constrained the growth of private education businesses despite an education-hungry South African market. Successful business performance of private higher education institutions depends on identifying and measuring the key business performance indicators. This study identifies these antecedents and measuring criteria to effectively measure the business performance of private higher education institutions; thereby developing a model for them to manage their businesses to perform better. The literature revealed numerous business performance antecedents which were reduced by structured interviews with executives and group-interaction using the meta-technique analysis to identify antecedents specifically relevant to the business performance of private higher educational institutions. Measuring criteria developed for these factors culminate in a usable model to measure the business performance of private higher education institutions; this should improve management efficiency and competitiveness in the South African education market.
Keywords: PHEI; business performance; questionnaire; business performance model; Private Higher Education Institutions; management; strategy.
Postgraduate Recruitment Strategies of Malaysian Public Higher Education Institutions to Achieve an Innovative Hub
by Siti Norezam Othman, Filzah Md Isa, Muhd Afiq Syazwan Ahmdon, Muhammed Abdullah Sharaf
Abstract: Recruitment strategies are very crucial for the success of attracting students. To understand the present recruitment strategies applied in the Malaysian universities, a case study that involved 19 participants from three different groups, i.e. (9) students, (5) Universities representatives and (5) policymakers, was employed. The findings revealed that, to attract postgraduate students, the universities use (1) non-active recruitment strategies such as university reputation and conventional process, and (2) passive recruitment strategies such as advertisements, financial and operational support and computer lab. The results of research disclosed that postgraduate students are recruited mostly through non-active recruitment strategies. Implicatively, the type of recruitment significantly influences the talented postgraduate students recruitment. Remarkably, local and international postgraduate students considered Malaysian public universities are not ready for an innovation hub because the foundation components such as ecosystems, support systems, intellectual capacity building, and location accessibility to attract talented students, are still insufficient.
Keywords: HEI; recruitment strategies; postgraduate; marketing strategy.
Ranking the Competency Criteria for School Principals Based on the Fuzzy Method in the Education Department of Isfahan Province
by Seyedali Siadat, Naser Assari, Yasamin Abedini, S.Amir Hasan Monadjemi
Abstract: Abstract: Attention to school principals managerial competencies and their development is an inescapable necessity, and failure to address these competencies in selecting principals leads to the loss of enormous financial and human resources as well as the dissatisfaction of the teachers and parents. The present study was conducted to explain and rank the competency criteria for school principals based on Multiple Fuzzy decision-making. This study has a combination exploratory design and is an applied study in terms of objectives and nature. A sample of 25 faculty members was selected for the interviews using network sampling and a random sample of 150 school principals was used for completing the managerial competencies questionnaire. To carry out the confirmatory analysis of variance, a random sample of 368 school principals was selected. The hierarchical structure of the competency criteria, including the main, individual, occupational and organizational criteria, 12 secondary criteria and 74 sub-criteria was then determined. Based on the final weight of the main criteria, occupational, individual and organizational competencies were ranked first to third.
Keywords: Managerial Competencies; Fuzzy Delphi Questionnaire; Analytical Hierarchy Process; School Administrators.
Assessing the effect of university brand personality and attitude towards donation on alumni donor behavioural intention: Malaysian perspective
by Hasnizam Shaari, Phoon Lee Yong, Selvan Perumal, Salniza Md. Salleh, Fakhrul Anwar Zainol
Abstract: This study attempts to examine the relationship between university brand personality on intention to donate among Milennials alumni from one of renowned management-based university in Malaysia. Besides, alumni attitude towards donation is integrated in the model as a mediator to understand alumni willingness to donate to their alma mater. A quantitative survey among 311 Milennials alumni found that university brand personality significantly influenced alumni willingness to donate to their alma mater. Attitude towards donation fully mediate the relationship between university brand personality and Millennials alumni donor behavioural intention. Beside, theoretical implication and recommendation for university management is discussed at the end of this article.
Keywords: Alumni donor behaviour; university brand personality; alumni attitude; millennials alumni; higher education management; branding higher education; brand loyalty; higher education 4.0.
Does social media website really matter in enhancing student\'s retention intention? An application of StimulusOrganismResponse framework
by Rania Mostafa
Abstract: Based on the StimulusOrganismResponse framework, this study aims to examine how the characteristics of social media website influence student retention intention with a focus on the moderating role of self-efficacy. Results indicate that while information quality, privacy/security, and virtual interactivity influence perceived value; self-efficacy moderates the effect of information quality and privacy/security on perceived value. However, the moderating effect of self-efficacy to the virtual interactivity-perceived value link was insignificant. This study bridges research on social media engagement and retention intention and extends the SOR framework to the higher education context.
Keywords: Social media; Perceived value; Satisfaction; Retention intention; Self-efficacy.
The perceptions of Primary Education Head Teachers, Deputy Head Teachers and Teachers on the role of Deputy Head Teachers
by Vasiliki Brinia, Maria Mastora, Paraskevi Psoni
Abstract: The aim of this research is to investigate the perceptions of Head Teachers, Deputy Head Teachers and teachers of primary education in the prefecture of Ioannina, Greece, regarding the role of the Deputy Head Teacher in a primary school unit. The methodology followed was the qualitative approach through semi-structured interviews. The results of the research indicate that Deputy Head Teachers role is a key-role for the operation of the school although they face difficulties, because they are charged with the dual role of the educator and the Deputy Head. All members of the school community have underlined the effectiveness of Deputy Head Teachers work as well as the need to decrease the Deputy Heads teaching hours, in order for them to be able to cope with this dual role. The present study is one of the very few conducted on the specific matter, it adds a holistic and in-depth perspective on the role of Deputy Head Teachers and can be proven valuable for measures taken by policy makers worldwide.
Keywords: Deputy Head Teacher; Deputy Headmaster; Assistant Principal; dual role in school; school management; primary education.
The Perception of Faculty Members to Organizational Virtuousness in the University Setting: The Case for Jordan
by Samer Khasawneh, Mahmoud Al-Jaradat, Salah Hailat, Omar Bataineh
Abstract: The present study aimed at investigating the level of organizational virtuousness among a sample of 161 faculty members employed by one public university in Jordan. The organizational virtuousness scale (OVS) developed by Cameron et al., (2004) was the instrument used in this study, which is composed of five components (optimism, trust, compassion, integrity, and forgiveness). The results of the study indicated, based on exploratory factor analysis, that the OVS is composed of two factors (integrity-based forgiveness and optimism-based drivers) in the Jordanian culture. Moreover, the results of the study indicated that faculty members exhibited high levels of organizational virtuousness for both factors. Further, results indicated that gender, college, rank, and experience had no impact on level of organizational virtuousness. The study provided a number of recommendations for researchers and practitioners.
Keywords: Organizational virtuousness; university setting; and Jordan.
Different levels of loyalty towards the higher education service: evidence from a small university in Spain
by Martina G.Gallarza, Teresa Fayos-Gardó, Francisco Arteaga-Moreno, David Servera-Francés, Elena Floristán-Imizcoz
Abstract: Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) operate in a competitive environment in which the universities must address issues of customer satisfaction and loyalty. This process requires that educational institutions carefully analyse the key factors contributing to student loyalty in all its dimensions and develop strategies accordingly. Customer loyalty is a consistent commitment deeply held by customers to re-purchasing and/or recommending the product or service. This paper aims at understanding the different levels of student loyalty towards HEIs through an empirical study run with 705 graduate students from a small University. According to the students personal and situational characteristics (age and choice of degree course), we expect significant differences in the level of loyalty. We may also draw conclusions about the management of HEIs in terms of positive word of mouth among students.
Keywords: higher education service; consumer behaviour; loyalty; universities.
Investigating the roles of educational usage activities and motivations behind continuance intention for Facebook assisted student engagement
by Anny Mardjo
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to explore educational usage activities and motivations that influence the continuance intention to use Facebook for student engagement. An attitudinal model was developed and empirically tested in this study. Data were collected from 449 undergraduate university students in Thailand. Findings from partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) suggested that (a) communication activity has the most significant influence on utilitarian motivation (b) resource/ materials sharing activity has the most significant influence on hedonic motivation (c) collaboration has the most significant influence on social motivation (d) hedonic motivation has the most significant influence on satisfaction but no influence on continuance intention, and (e) continuance intention is influenced by satisfaction, social motivation and utilitarian motivation. Accordingly, the implications and recommendations for future research are suggested.
Keywords: social media; social; utilitarian; hedonic; Facebook; e-learning; collaboration.
Exploring Change in Higher Education: A Case of Doctoral Education Reforms
by Slaven Mihaljević
Abstract: This paper explores the process of modernisation of doctoral education and the change management approaches used in that process. The author argues that distinctive features of higher education institutions need change management approaches that are different from those used in more hierarchical organisations. A multiple case study was conducted on four public universities that went through the process of modernization of doctoral education in four countries (Slovenia, Austria, Portugal, and Montenegro). Sixteen top-level change agents were interviewed using an adapted BurkeLitwin causal model of organisational performance and change as a conceptual framework. The author presented a general framework for the conceptualisation of change management in doctoral education that considers the distributed organisation of higher education institutions and its effects on change management approaches. The research showed that the external environment, organizational culture and structure had a profound influence on the scope, goals, duration and the key features of change management methods used during the modernization process.
Keywords: Burke–Litwin model; change agents; change management; doctoral education; higher education change.
Drivers of experience of students and parents in basic education: a perspective based on relationship quality
by Diogo Benke, Claudimar Veiga, Renato Marchetti
Abstract: The purpose of this article is to understand the drivers of parents/students experience from a perspective of relationship quality in order to develop student attraction and retention strategies for school. A qualitative (n=24) and quantitative study was conducted with primary and secondary data (n=677) collected by means of a structured questionnaire using sampling from a group of respondents made up of parents and students from 16 high schools located in several states of Brazil. To analyze the data statistical techniques were used, with emphasis on Structural Equation Modeling. The article makes three main contributions to the field. A practical contribution of this study lies in the generation of information to aid the understanding of strategic indicators on the quality of relationships with consumers and the experience of using education services so that they can be applied in student attraction and retention strategies.
Keywords: Relationship Quality; Educational Management; Structural Equation Modeling; Service Quality; Loyalty; Students; Brazil.
A review of total quality management applications in schools
by Eleni Sfakianaki
Abstract: Total Quality Management (TQM) practices are well established in higher education. However, their application in primary and secondary schools is less well established. This study aimed to critically review and discuss different applications of TQM in primary and secondary schools by presenting critical perspectives from the literature. The study analyzed and critically reviewed specific applications and the impact of their implementation. Thus, theoretical constructs and propositions were based on empirical evidence. The majority of schools used certain principles of TQM but did not follow a holistic approach. The adoption of TQM in schools improved learning outcomes, empowered personnel, and promoted a culture of continuous improvement. The obstacles encountered were mainly related to mentality or culture. However, the preliminary results are encouraging. This study contributes to increasing the understanding of TQM concepts in the education sector, and raises useful points for education stakeholders (including policymakers) aiming to improve education quality.
Keywords: Total quality management; TQM; Schools; Case Studies.
Governance of academic laboratories (AL) and the capabilisation of higher education students (HES)
by Bruno F. Abrantes
Abstract: Several education theorists advocate a capabilisation model based upon two pillars: professional emancipation and activation for citizenship comprised of a balanced delivery of technical and research competences (TRC), and cross-disciplinary competences (CDC). Hence, this research makes a theoretical review of education governance literature and tests the capabilisation at Higher Education Institutions (HEI) in Denmark confined to a subset of educational support infrastructures academic laboratories (ALs) to grasp their contribution to HES capabilisation, which constitutes a fairly unexplored research gap.
The empirical paradigm consist of an iteration along a purposive sample of fifteen HEIs. Results uncover a mismatch between national policies, universities/colleges
Keywords: Academic lab (AL); anthropocentrism; applied research lab (ARL); BHESC taxonomy; capabilisation-delivery (CD); capabilisation requirement (CR); capability-fitness; cross-disciplinary competence (CDC); experimentally-based lab (EBL); higher education institution (HEI); higher education student (HES); technocentrism; technical and research competence (TRC); theory-based lab (TBL); transversal competences lab (TCL).
Exploring the Barriers to e-Learning Adoption in Higher Education: A Roadmap for Successful Implementation
by Karim Moustaghfir
Abstract: E-learning is considered as essential to Moroccan universities, especially open access institutions, to help them face massification, or the increasing student demand, and quality challenges. Despite the attempts and initiatives undertaken by the ministry and some universities to promote and implement e-learning projects, various barriers still hinder its effective adoption and adequate use. This paper investigates the barriers to e-learning adoption in higher education, using the case of three schools of science and literature from Hassan II University of Casablanca, the largest open access university in Morocco. The purpose is to test a comprehensive framework of e-learning barriers, including 44 factors, to identify the most challenging hinders for the success of an e-learning project. The study followed a triangulation approach using a survey involving 355 participants, including 159 professors and 196 students, 12 interviews, and archival data based on internal and external documents. Data has been collected from students, professors, schools and presidency representatives, and e-learning experts. A perceptual analysis was conducted including a quantitative approach based on mean scores to identify the most significant barriers to e-learning adoption, and a qualitative method to explain why and how the examined factors were considered as being important. The study identified the most significant barriers falling mainly under six categories: the resource of support, technological, ethical, institutional, managerial, and pedagogical factors. Specific research implications and recommendations were also formulated to offer a roadmap for effective implementation of e-learning, facilitating hence its use and adoption.
Keywords: Higher education; E-learning adoption; barriers; supporting factors; success framework.
Career Development Practices and Gender Equity in Higher Education
by Meryem Benslimane, Karim Moustaghfir
Abstract: Diversity management is a process that creates a positive work environment for employees through valuing them regardless of their similarities and differences (Patrick & Kumar, 2012). A number of scholars provide examples of organizations that emphasize the gender equity issue, which suggests a fair separation of labor, rights, obligations, and responsibilities between men and women (McDonald, 2000) through creating a fair organizational culture in respect of gender (Coleman, 2012). The purpose of this research is to explore the current status of gender equity among administrative staff and faculty members in a higher education institution. The study also aims to develop a set of potential career development interventions that would promote gender equity in higher education. For this purpose, this paper builds on Scheins Human Resources Planning and Development basic model (Schein, 1978) and relies on both qualitative and quantitative methods. Interviews were conducted with six employees holding executive positions, and a questionnaire was distributed to 186 administrative staff and faculty members in a Moroccan higher education institution to examine their perception regarding the application of gender equity in career development practices. The major findings indicate that university executives acknowledge the great importance of promoting gender equity within the university. Still, more efforts need to be made and managerial actions are to be taken to promote gender equity among staff and faculty. This paper provides potential guidelines for future empirical research to identify further venues for the promotion of gender equity among employees in higher education institutions.
Keywords: Diversity management; career development; culture; gender equity; higher education.
Leadership for learning and the characteristics of instructional practice in primary school in Slovenia
by LAURA ROŽMAN KRIVEC, ANDREJ KOREN, MILENA IVANUŠ GRMEK, BRANKA ČAGRAN
Abstract: The article explores the connection between leadership for learning and the characteristics of instructional practice in primary schools. The introduction presents an overview of research on the characteristics of contemporary instructional practice and leadership for learning. Through a combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches, the study employed the methods of teacher survey, headteacher interviews and classroom observation. Its sample included ten primary schools in Slovenia. The results of the study have revealed a high prevalence of leadership for learning in school management practice. The majority of teachers also take notice of their headteachers leadership for learning and agree about its importance. Furthermore, the study has shown a high prevalence of the characteristics of contemporary instruction in teaching practice. In our case, however, the high degree of teacher agreement on the importance of leadership for learning and the teachers' confirmation of their headteachers leadership for learning do not significantly correlate with the existing practice of updating instruction. The causes for this are discussed in the final conclusions.
Keywords: leadership for learning; contemporary instruction; teachers; headteachers; pupils; primary school.
Authentic Leadership Practices in the University Setting: The Theory of Tomorrow
by Mahmoud Al-Jaradat, Samer Khasawneh, Jamal Abu-Alruz, Omar Bataineh
Abstract: The study is an assessment of the level of authentic leadership among a random sample of 124 faculty members from one state university in Jordan. The instrument of the study is the Authentic Leadership Inventory (ALI), a valid measure with four components. The results of the study showed that authentic leadership is highly practiced in the university setting based on the perceptions of faculty members. Two components (self-awareness and relational transparency) exhibited high levels of practice while internalized moral perspective and balanced processing exhibited moderate level of practice. Further, results indicated that gender and experience had no impact on the level of authentic leadership, faculty members from science colleges had higher levels of relational transparency, and professors had higher levels of internal moral standards than did associate professors. The study provided a number of recommendations for theory and practice.
Keywords: Authentic leadership; leadership development; university setting; and Jordan.
Self-Regulated Learning in Higher Education: The Need to Thrive
by Jamal Abu-Alruz, Samer Khasawneh, Abdelghafour Al-Zawahreh, Omar Bataineh
Abstract: The main purpose of this study was to determine the level of self-regulated learning among employees working in the information technology centers in two public universities in Jordan. The study surveyed 133 employees, by completing the self-regulated learning at work questionnaire (SRLWQ), which was developed by Fontana, Milligan, Littlejohn, and Margaryan (2015). Results of the study indicated strong levels of self-regulated learning for all phases of forethought, performance, and self-reflection. Results also showed no significant differences in self-regulated learning based on gender. However, significant differences were found for experience, where employees with more years of experiences exhibited higher levels of self-regulated learning than those with few years of experience. The study provided recommendations related to the subject of study.
Keywords: Self-regulated learning; university system; Information technology; and Jordan.
The Relationship between the Amount and the Stability of Educational Expenditures on Educational Performance: Evidence from the U.S. States
by Soyoung Park, Sungchan Kim
Abstract: Educational expenditures account for the largest proportion of state expenditures and are primarily justified through the academic performance of the student. Even though previous studies have examined the effects of expenditure levels on academic achievement, there is little empirical research regarding the effects of specific educational expenditure conditions or patterns on educational outcomes (i.e., stability of educational expenditures). Thus, this study investigates the relationship between conditions of educational expenditures and student academic achievement. In this research, we find that levels of expenditures per pupil are positively related to student achievement, in support of previous extant literature, while the volatility of expenditures is not related to student achievement. Moreover, the higher level of expenditures with more volatility in educational expenditures results in lower academic achievement. This indicates that resource stability in educational services is more beneficial to academic achievement offered through an ongoing educational program.
Keywords: education expenditures; adacemic achievement; resource volatility.
The Vocational Skills Gap in Accounting Education Curricula: Empirical Evidence from the UK
by Ibrahem Alshbili, Ahmed Elamer
Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the relative importance of a set of vocational skills and the extent to which accounting educators in the UK incorporate these skills into their accounting education curricula so that students can run a successful accounting career upon their graduation. Using a questionnaire method, the data was collected from two major stakeholders; namely accounting educators and final-year accounting students. The findings indicate that there is a degree of overall agreement between the two groups opinions that vocational skills required by accounting employers encompass not only technical and cognitive skills but also transferable skills such as communication, self-reflection, teamwork and organisational skills. The results of this paper should be of interest to accounting educators, curriculum designers and faculty who are responsible for reviewing and updating accounting curricula.
Keywords: Vocational skills; accounting education curricula; accounting educators; accounting students; UK.
Do business schools in India know the real business world? Exploring some perspectives on academia-industry collaboration
by Ritika Mahajan
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to explore academia-industry collaboration with reference to business schools in India. It attempts to explain the nature and extent of collaboration, challenges and issues in this regard, and strategies for improving the collaboration. Motivation for the study was found in the literature and the global and national debates at various forums on the training and preparedness of management graduates for industry jobs, relevance of management research for business, and the declining popularity of management courses; particularly in the Indian context. Interviews were conducted to gather qualitative data from 15 academicians and an equal number of industry experts selected using purposive sampling. Through these interviews, an enormous need to improve industry-academia interface emerged. The respondents discussed concerns, ideas and recommendations on various aspects of the collaboration which could be useful for business school administrators, faculty members as well as business managers in building synergies through teaching, research, consultancy and training.
Keywords: industry-academia collaboration; industry-academia interface; management education; MBA; business schools; Indian perspective.
Higher education challenges for public universities in Mauritius
by Randhir Roopchund
Abstract: The research paper seeks to unravel some of the higher education challenges and opportunities with the wave of globalisation and internationalisation in the Mauritian context. The country ambitions to be an education hub such as Malaysia and consequently, it is important to assess opportunities and challenges for policy decisions. A qualitative approach has been used for the purpose for this research with the use of focus group study with key stakeholders in the higher education sector. The study also makes use of the Quality Audit Reports conducted by the Tertiary Education Commission to synthesise the key challenges. Reference is also made to global education reports and to successful educational hubs for purposes of comparison. The research findings emphasise the importance of effective human resource strategies, need to improve teaching and research quality and also the need to bolster the existing quality assurance system. There is also increasing emphasis on the use of technology in the higher education learning environment such as the learning management system. The research emphasises the impact of globalisation on higher education which drives the need for a market-oriented and student centred approach to global education. The main limitation is that the results may not be generalised and that it is specific to the Public universities in Mauritius.
Keywords: higher education; challenges; public universities; quality audit and opportunities; TEC; Mauritius; Africa; internationalisation; globalisation.
Management of evaluation and assessment processes in lower secondary schools in Slovenia
by Kristina Plavec, Maja Kerneža, Boris Aberšek, Andrej Flogie
Abstract: In today's society, acquiring knowledge is not enough. Learners and students have to be provided with problem-solving competences and become trained for an independent, lifelong process of learning and constructive self-criticism, and accepting responsibility. This is especially important in teaching interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary fields, such as STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics). Evaluation and assessment is an indispensable element also of the students self-evaluation process. The two basic research questions in this study were: What are the goals of testing and assessment? Do teachers manage to regularly monitor the students progress? The presented research focuses mainly on the strategies and methods for testing, evaluation and assessment in the interdisciplinary field of Science, Technology and Engineering (STE). The main research results showed that too little time is spent on formative assessment of individual students, and that students are thus unable to regularly monitor their learning progress.
Keywords: testing; evaluation; assessment; education; students; lower secondary schools; Slovenia.
Comprehensive performance measurement system and work performance: the moderating role of organisational culture
by Aws Younus Hasani, Khairul Naziya Kasim, Norida Basnan
Abstract: Prior studies have reported relationships between both performance measurement system (PMS) and organisational culture (OC) with work performance (WP), but with separate investigations at individual levels. Drawing upon Ouchi's Z and goal-setting theories, this study examined the interlinks between these three variables in a single unified model. The findings, following a Partial Least Square (PLS) analysis on a survey of 166 lecturers working in Iraqi public universities, demonstrate that PMS and OC individually have a significant and positive linkage with WP. However, the moderating effect of OC on PMS-WP relationship is significantly negative. This research offers extra empirical evidence to the literature on PMS and OC by extending existing conceptualisation in this area.
Keywords: performance measurement system; organisational culture; work performance.
Canonical correlation between principal leadership and school capacity
by Syaiful Sagala, Wildansyah Lubis, Gaffar Hafiz Sagala
Abstract: This study aims to (a) examine the canonical correlation of principal leadership construct set and school capacity constructs set; (b) identify the most dominant composites of principal leadership; and (c) determine the most dominant composites of school capacity. The research was conducted by a survey method using questionnaire, which was distributed to three districts in North Sumatera. With random sampling technique, we received 352 responses from the teachers. We analysed the data using canonical correlation to identify which composites have the main contribution to construct a set of variable. The result shows a significant relationship between principal leadership and school capacity construct set. Furthermore, the result of this study indicates the leader should have a strong character to share his vision regarding school development. Moreover, trust, communication, and teacher professional development are key predictors in determining school capacity. Therefore, collaboration is a crucial culture of school successes, while the emotional engagement between teacher and organisation has no significant value in constructing school capacity. School capacity only can increase if the conducted school program is coherent for student and staff, focused, and sustainable.
Keywords: principal leadership; school capacity; canonical analysis; collaboration; coherent.
Emotional intelligence of school principals in managing change: Malaysian perspective
by Omar Abdull Kareem, Tai Mei Kin
Abstract: The increasing demands for accountability and school reform continuously challenge the roles of school leaders. Today, school leadership is no longer task driven per se, but emotionally compelling as emotions and change are interlinked at the micro-level of organisational behaviours. The purposes of the study were to examine the levels of Principal Change Leadership Emotional Intelligence (PCLEI) in Malaysian secondary schools and the demographic determinants of PCLEI. Analysis of the survey was performed based on the data of 743 school principals, 2021 senior assistants and 2707 teachers. The findings revealed that, (a) school principals were rated as Excellent in PCLEI; (b) in terms of dimensions, school principals were reported Excellent in Emotional Regulation and Emotional Utilisation, and Good in Emotional Perceiving and Expressing and Emotional Understanding; and (c) PCLEI was reliably related to gender, race, age and seniority but not academic qualification.
Keywords: emotional intelligence; emotional perceiving and expressing; emotional regulation; emotional understanding; emotional utilisation; principal change leadership.