International Journal of Management in Education (24 papers in press)
Charter Schools and the Quality of Education in California: Do They Yield the Best Form of Competition?
by Soyoung Park
Abstract: As the number of charter schools has increased rapidly in the United States, many studies have continued to examine the effects of charter schools on student achievement. However, there is still conflicting evidence on the effectiveness of charter schools relative to student achievement. Regarding these findings, previous studies have focused on the values of test scores to measure student achievement exclusively by unitary measurement. Thus, this study investigates the results of increases in the number of charter schools in the public school system in California and uses the values of the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) to measure equality focused performance. The results indicate that charter schools increase competition between public and charter schools and lead to better performance, while increased competition aggravates the stratification of student performance, which in turn makes good student better.
Keywords: charter school; student achievement; competition; stratification; educational quality.
Leading sustainable schools in the Era of Education 4.0: Identifying school leadership competencies in Malaysian secondary schools
by Tai Mei Kin, Omar Abdull Kareeem, Khalip Musa, Ghouri Arsalan Mujahid, Naveed R. Khan
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to develop an empirical School Leadership Competency Model for the era of Education 4.0 (SLCMEduc4.0) to identify school leadership competencies that facilitate and maximize effectiveness in leading sustainable schools in Malaysia. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was employed to identify the underlying factors whereas Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was applied to test the measurement models using Structural Equation Modelling. A total of 444 and 931 respondents completed the survey with usable data for EFA and CFA respectively. The results suggested that the SLCMEdu4.0 can be explained by eight factors namely; Leading for Learning, Emotional Intelligence, Critical Thinking, Communication and Ethics, Collaboration, Decision Making and Problem Solving, Digital Dexterity and Entrepreneurial with good fit statistics; normed x2=2.628, TLI=.950, CFI=.954 and RMSEA=.042. With a total of 40 items, the model also features good convergent and discriminant validity and construct reliability. The SLCMEduc4.0 is a coherent premier model that provides useful feedback for practitioners in planning, designing and evaluating future professional development programmes for school leaders. The study encourages a fresh look at educational leadership development locally and globally specifically in enhancing the leadership development of Malaysian school leaders towards productive change in the era of Education 4.0.
Keywords: Fourth Industrial Revolution; Education 4.0; leading for learning; emotional intelligence; critical thinking; communication and accountability; collaboration; decision making and problem solving; digital dexterity and entrepreneurial.
Mediating Effect of Student Perceived Value on Student Satisfaction in the Indonesian Private Higher Education Institutions
by Halimatussakdiah ., M. Shabri Abd Majid, Nasir Azis
Abstract: Motivated by a recent global trend of increasingly competitive and commercial-oriented tertiary education institutions, this study adopts potentially adjacent but distinct concepts to the product marketing perspective to measure the satisfaction of students on the service good provided by the university and its determinants. Within an atmosphere that now recognizes university as a major services producer and students as the customers, the study also attempts to explore the mediating effect of student perceived value on the influences of student perceived orientation and higher education image on student satisfaction in the private higher education in Aceh, Indonesia. Of 53,065 students at the 109 private higher education institutions, 300 students from the selected private higher education institutions were chosen as the respondents of the study using the purposive sampling technique. The data were gathered by distributing questionnaires to the students and analyzed using the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The study documented that the student perceived orientation and higher education image have significant effects both on student perceived value and student satisfaction. The student perceived value was also found to mediate the effects of the student's perceived orientation and higher education image on student satisfaction. These findings implied that to further providing greater student satisfaction, the private higher education institutions should enhance the student perceived orientation and higher education image as well as the student perceived value.
Keywords: Student perceived orientation; image; perceived value; satisfaction; public university.
Perception of the Acquisition of Competences for University Professors in a Context of Problem-Based Learning Methodology
by Francisco Jareño, Raquel Álamo, M. Gabriela Lagos, Juan J. Jiménez
Abstract: This research studies the impact of a training course for University professors based on active methodologies, such as Problem-Based Learning (PBL), on their perception of the acquisition of some relevant specific and generic competences. To that end, we prepare a survey about competences and compare the perception for the teaching staff before and after carrying out the PBL activity, by analysing if there are statistically significant differences in mean (ANOVA-F test), median (Kruskal-Wallis test) and variance (Levene test). Our results may confirm that the perception would improve in competences related to the appropriate use of ICTs and problem-solving skills, among others, showing statistically significant differences. Finally, university professors would positively evaluate the practical use of the training course (4.5 out of 5), remarking the need to apply active methodologies such as PBL in the training of teachers.
Keywords: Problem-based learning (PBL); Higher education; Interdisciplinary approach; University professor;.
Facing a shrinking population: Is Government Control an Effective Strategy for Higher Education?
by Juseuk Kim, Lynn Ilon
Abstract: Facing a shrinking population, the Ministry of Education in Korea introduced a higher education evaluation system aimed at shrinking institutional size or closing some institutions while emphasizing quality and regional relevance. The question is, has this evaluation process been successful in achieving its stated and implied goals? This analysis reveals that there may be unintended consequences. Focusing on the evaluation process itself, results show that it tends to bias metropolitan universities. The expenditure of resources required to prepare the evaluation report draws away resources that might otherwise be directed toward quality improvements. A policy analysis exposes the explicit and implicit goals of the government policy for higher education downsizing. A case study cost analysis shows the resource cost of the evaluation process for small and larger higher education institutions.
Keywords: Higher Education Policy; Government Control; Cost Analysis; Performance Based Funding; Korea Higher Education.
Academics Life Satisfaction: The Role of Perceived Stress, Organizational Justice and Self-Efficacy
by Ahmed Obobanyi, Awanis Ku Ishak, Bidayatul Akmal Mustafa Kamil
Abstract: Employees of organizations globally can perform better if they perceive that their life satisfaction is up to expectations. Life satisfaction has become a crucial issue for organizations capability to attract, retain and manage valuable talents. Drawing upon the assumptions of both job demands-resources (JDR) and Adams equity theories, this paper assesses the effect of perceived stress (PS), organizational justice (OJ), and self-efficacy (SE) as a mediating variable on the life satisfaction among academic staff of public universities. In accomplishing this objective, a cross-sectional design with cluster sampling procedure was used. A total of 293 academics of public universities found in the North-Western Nigeria participated in the research survey. A Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) method was used to ascertain the reliability and validity of the measurement model and test the formulated hypotheses. Results from analyses supported the hypothesized direct associations between PS and life satisfaction; between OJ and life satisfaction; and between self-efficacy and life satisfaction of academics respectively. Furthermore, findings from analyses confirmed that self-efficacy intervened the relationship between PS and life satisfaction of academic members; and likewise, mediated the relationship between OJ and life satisfaction of academic staff in public universities. Thus, to enhance an optimally life satisfaction of academic staff of public universities, the authorities of the institutions should give eminent consideration to the promotion of self-efficacy of academic staff. Finally, theoretical and practical contributions as well as future research focus were elucidated.
Keywords: Perceived Stress; Organizational Justice; Self-Efficacy; Life Satisfaction; Academic staff; public universities; Nigeria.
The intention of using Facebook by postgraduate students for knowledge sharing: An empirical study
by Ushamalar Selvarajah, Nor'ashikin Ali
Abstract: This study aims to develop a conceptual model that explains the factors that influence the use of Facebook by postgraduate students in Malaysia for knowledge sharing. This study adopted quantitative approach using survey as the data collection method. The data were collected from 206 postgraduate students from the public and private universities in Malaysia. The data were tested using Partial Least Square (PLS) approach for the measurement and structural composition of the research model. The findings indicate that social interaction ties, perceived enjoyment, and trust have a significant relationship with the behavioural intention of postgraduate students to share knowledge via Facebook while perceived similarities do not affect their behavioural intention to share knowledge via Facebook. The findings extend the scope of the theory and contribute to the body of knowledge for the scope of postgraduate students and existing literature regarding social media adoption, specifically in the Malaysian context. Finally, this study provides suggestions for research and practical implications.
Keywords: Social media; informal learning; formal education; science teaching;.
Relationships between work-related hazards and occupational burnout among academics are active coping strategies important?
by Iwona Werner, Agnieszka Springer
Abstract: Many studies indicate that modern-day universities constitute stressful work environments, due to such factors as the increasing pressure to obtain external funding, the publication pressure or substantial growth in students numbers. The objectives of the study included the analysis of the relationship between work-related risks and occupational burnout as well as answering the question of whether active coping strategies can alleviate the negative effects of such risks. The hypotheses were verified based on the survey conducted among a random sample of employees of various universities in Poland (N=340). For the sake of verification, the Psychosocial Risk Scale (SRP) and the Polish version of OLBI (Oldenburg Burnout Inventory) were used in the survey. The results showed a significant correlation between psychosocial hazards perceived by academics and the components of burnout. The academics who perceive more content-related hazards and at the same time use active coping strategies more often are less likely to suffer from exhaustion.
Keywords: work-related hazards; job content; job context; professional burnout; academics; stress; coping strategies; personal resources; job demands; job resources; disengagement; exhaustion; high education.
Measuring Valuable Antecedents of Instructional Leadership in Educational Organization
by Wildansyah Lubis, Syaiful Sagala, Abdul Hasan Saragih, Gaffar Hafiz Sagala
Abstract: In contrary to business organization, several researchers argue that instructional leadership is the most appropriate style for educational organizations. This study aims to investigate: 1) the effect of resource capacity, quality management, and communication on trust; and 2) the influence of trust on instructional leadership. This study was conducted by the survey method to the high school teachers in North Sumatra, Indonesia. With purposive sampling techniques, researchers collected 352 responses which then analyzed using SEM-PLS. From three antecedents, communication found as the most significant antecedent to explain trust between staff. Furthermore, trust has a substantial impact on Instructional Leadership.
Keywords: Leadership; Education; Instructional; Effective School; Organizational Culture.
Perceived leadership style and job satisfaction of teachers in Public and Private Schools
by Sophia Anastasiou, Vasiliki Garametsi
Abstract: During a prolonged period of financial crisis in Greece, public administration has exhibited signs of deteriorating work conditions, erratic funding and low staff morale, creating unfavourable working conditions. The present work investigated the perceived leadership style and job satisfaction of teachers in public and private schools in the capital city of the region of Epirus in NW Greece. Job satisfaction was measured with the use of Warr-Cook-Wall job satisfaction scale. The MLQ 5X-Short was used to assess teachers perceptions of leadership style. Compared to public schools, private school teachers exhibited higher level of job satisfaction. In both public and private schools, a transformational model of leadership prevailed followed by a transactional model of leadership with a significant higher score of transformational leadership prevailing in private schools. The results indicate that compared to public schools, the higher level of job satisfaction of private school teachers stems at least partially from differences in environmental factors such as work conditions and motivation by the school principal.
Keywords: education; job satisfaction; leadership; teachers; schools; Greece.
Interaction between Institutional and Professional Dimensions of Schools Experiencing an Administrative Reform Process
by Kamil YILDIRIM
Abstract: Abstract: This study investigated the interaction between institutional and personal professional dimensions in schools in a centralized education system that experienced a major reform initiative. Assuming the influence of both dimensions on teachers\' behaviours, we tested an integrated causal model. By conducting a predictive-correlational-survey design, the study collected and analysed the data belonged to 346 teachers from primary, lower secondary and upper-secondary schools. The model confirmed the significant prediction of personal professional dimension. The key variable was being cooperative-orientation. The study concluded that succeeding any reform initiative on schools depends on improving teachers personal professional characteristics.
Keywords: Keywords: Interaction; institution; individual; professional; school; reform.
Block Mode Delivery in an Andragogic Environment: Challenges and Strategies
by Shalini Ajayan, Sreejith Balasubramanian
Abstract: Block mode of delivery, a distinct form of accelerated/intensive course offering, has witnessed significant growth in recent years in higher education. However, despite the increase in popularity, academic enquiry into block mode delivery is scarce. Consequently, institutions, especially in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), have limited understanding on the key challenges as well as effective strategies associated with the design and delivery of courses in block mode format. This formed the motivation of this study where a comprehensive understanding on the challenges and strategies for improving block mode teaching is developed based on multiple interviews with academics involved in block mode delivery in the UAE. The study found ten key challenges (four institutional and six academic) impacting block mode delivery and nine strategies (four institutional and five academic) to minimize/eliminate these challenges. A one-to-one mapping framework between strategies and challenges is also provided that can be used by practitioners to prioritize strategies to address specific challenges. The findings are expected to provide academics, policymakers and institutions in the UAE higher education sector, and in general, key insights into the effective design, delivery, and management of courses in block mode. An investigation on block-mode teaching in the UAE higher education has not been previously attempted and constitutes the novelty of this work.
Keywords: Block mode learning; Accelerated learning; Higher education; Adult education; United Arab Emirates.
Experiencing work-integrated learning and training program: critical success factors for vocational educations management
by Kongkiti Phusavat, Thanapan Kongtong, Jukka Majava, Achmad Nizar Hidayanto, Zbigniew Pastuszak
Abstract: Vocational education has direct impacts on preparing and developing qualified workforce. During the past decade, vocational education has undergone many fundamental changes, especially the so-called work-integrated learning and training program. The study focuses on identifying the critical success factors to overcome the programs weakness. Nominal Group Technique is applied during this investigation with the students who have completed their first year at one vocational college. Altogether five factors are identified; i.e., instructor skills, student evaluation, responsiveness to student needs, communication, and student psychology, which have to be part of improved vocational educations management. These factors are generally consistent with the previous findings as more sharing of information and collaboration among a vocational school, a private firm, and a student is needed. Interestingly, the unexpected consequence from this study is increased motivation and more positive attitude towards the studys program. This can be explained by the open-loop learning concept.
Keywords: Vocational Education Management; Nominal Group Technique; and Work-integrated Learning and Training; and Single-loop Learning.
Understanding Students Perceptions on Factors Involved in Higher Education Curriculum Development: An Analytical Hierarchy Process Approach
by Shikha N. Khera, Himanshu Pawar
Abstract: Curriculum in higher education should be developed with keeping students at its center where all surrounding stakeholders play an instrumental role in its developmental process. Consequently, it gets imperative for the curriculum development team to deduce the perception of their prime stakeholder (students) about the structure, design and utility etc. of their curriculum. Thus, for the study conducted at the B-school of a public sector university offering MBA programme, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used as a decision making tool for ranking the perceived relative importance of factors involved in the curriculum development process. The results provide for deeper insights in apprehending the students perception of factors crucial in developing an effective more student centered and outcome based curriculum.
Keywords: Higher education; Curriculum development; student perception; AHP; Analytical Hierarchy Process; Policy making; multi-criteria decision making; MCDM; Curriculum evaluation; Curriculum design.
Technological Disruptions Reshaping Management Education: A Qualitative Study of Stakeholder Perspectives
by Jaya Gupta, Baishali Mitra, Kapil Garg
Abstract: The technological revolution has disrupted the business ecosystem. This calls for a paradigm shift in the essential skill-set of managers. Management education, therefore needs to transform itself to remain pertinent to the changing context. It is important to identify the management skills required of future managers and systematic reforms needed to imbibe them. In the present phenomenological qualitative study, management students, faculty, recruiters, and practicing managers, the key stakeholders, recommend the most desirable skills of business management graduates, five years into the future and also propose changes in pedagogy, course content and assessment in line with these. The data is gathered using semi-structured interviews with open-ended questions designed to answer the research questions. The results suggest that the pedagogical practices and curricula of Business Schools needs to be redesigned. The conceptual model proposed portrays the contemporary management education system comprising of a set of re-imagined curricula, pedagogy, and evaluation method, which are relevant for the futuristic industry.
Keywords: Fourth Industrial Revolution; Management Education; Managerial Skills; Pedagogy; Qualitative Study.
Scaffolding career skills with entrepreneurial skills for youths' employment in Nigeria: attitude, social influence as moderators
by Isidore Ekpe, Norsiah Mat, Simeon Anifowose, Mary Olufunmilayo Adelaiye, Godwin Omogbai Ofeimun
Abstract: As a major objective, this study sought to examine the relationship between career skills and entrepreneurial skills, and entrepreneurial opportunities among undergraduate youths in Nigerian Universities. The moderating effects of attitude and social influence were also examined. The purpose was to enable the government develop appropriate educational curriculum that would meet the employment needs of the Nigerian youths upon graduation. Proportionate stratified random sampling was used to select sample members from 629 third year undergraduate students from three universities in the north, east and west regions of Nigeria. Using probability sampling, sample members were selected from the list of registered 300 level students in the faculties. They were identified during Entrepreneurial Development Program class which is compulsory for all such students in all Nigerian Universities. Descriptive statistics and hierarchical regression were used to analyze data. One of the results indicated that combining career training with entrepreneurial education could lead to self-employment among Nigerian youths after graduation. Therefore, the government should make entrepreneurship studies a compulsory 8-semester course in all undergraduate degree programs in Nigeria. The study was limited to Universities. Further studies could be extended to include youths in Secondary Schools in Nigeria.
Keywords: Keywords: career skills; entrepreneurial skills; entrepreneurial opportunities; attitude; social influence; Nigerian youths.
Parentteacher online communication: Empirical evidence in the Kuwaiti context
by Ahmad Alanezi
Abstract: The communication system between teachers and parents in Kuwait is conventional in most respects. The system should be updated and developed to bring it in line with the online age. However, before introducing parentteacher online communication (PTOC) on a large scale in Kuwait, It is important to shed light on the current status of the PTOC system and the most prominent obstacles. Therefore, this quantitative descriptive study investigated online communication between parents and teachers and its obstacles from the perspectives of teachers in two main school districts. A stratified random sample of 270 teachers filled out an electronic questionnaire regarding parentteacher online communication and its obstacles. Results showed that both parentteacher online communication use and its obstacles were considered moderate in both school districts. No differences were found in parentteacher online communication practices associated with gender, school district, and educational level. On the other hand, while there were no differences in the obstacles attributed to gender or educational level, significant differences were detected between school districts. This study recommends, among other things, preparing seminars and programs for teachers that illustrate how to use this kind of online system effectively and raise awareness regarding its importance. Additionally, using online applications, such as Classroom, Join Our Class, and ClassDojo can be highly beneficial for both parties.
Keywords: parent–teacher communication; online communication; education; Kuwait.
Indicators of personal mastery in the life narratives of principals of high-performing schools: an organisational perspective
by Siphokazi Kwatubana
Abstract: Internationally, personal mastery has been found to have an influence on organisational performance in the field of business. Although personal mastery has been found to have a positive influence on principals and their ability to demonstrate effective school management, in South African schools it has had less focus and integration. This study investigated indicators of personal mastery in the life narratives of two principals of high-performing high schools. Specifically, this study was guided by the following questions: what indicators of personal mastery did high school principals possess? Were those indicators perceived as responsible for improving organisational performance? Six life narrative interviews were conducted with each participant to elicit data. The topics of each interview session were wide enough to allow the participants to develop a long history, from initial situations including incidences while growing up, going through past events, leading to the events of their current situation which were analysed through the lens of organisational theory. The life narrative interviews, yielded biographical stories of two principals: one in a rural high school, and another in a township high school. The findings of this research conceded five indicators of personal mastery in the life stories of the two principals. Four of these indicators were regarded as being embedded in the personal values of the participants. The analysis implies that personal mastery can have a positive impact on schools as organisations.
Keywords: Personal Mastery; School Principals; Life Narratives; Personal Vision; High Self-belief; Personal Learning; Organisational Theory.
A DEA model to assess the educational system in Brazil
by Ingrid Gois Cardoso, Daniel Pacheco Lacerda, Fabio Sartori Piran
Abstract: This paper aims to measure and analyze the technical efficiency of municipal educational systems in cities in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The study used data envelopment analysis (DEA) and output-oriented VRS (variable returns of scale). The evaluation comprises variables that measure education quality, student flows, teacher training, school infrastructure and municipality expenses. The results evidenced that 50% of the sample is technically efficient, but that is possible to improve how the resources are applied even in this group of cities. Considering the inefficient cities, the model proved that the major part of cities has the potential to improve their results in all outputs: age-grade distortion rate, number of enrolled students, and results in exams of Portuguese and Math in the Prova Brasil. This study also demonstrated that efficiency in educational management cannot be associated only with expenditure and that, in some cases, there is the opportunity for reducing costs. Finally, the paper also presented the benchmarking for each inefficient city based in the number of enrolled students, which allow each city to identify the best practices between cities with similarities.
Keywords: Data envelopment analysis; DEA; efficiency; school; educational system; elementary education.
Factors that influence e-learning adoption by international students in Canada
by Amy Wong, Sarvananthan Jeganathan
Abstract: In recent years, the global higher education sector is increasingly adopting technology enhanced learning as part of the drive towards innovation in teaching and learning. In order to design and implement a successful e-learning environment, educational providers need to understand students' perceptions of e-learning. This pilot study examines the factors that affect students' intentions to adopt e-learning, namely individual user differences, perceived ease of use, perceived flexibility of use and student satisfaction. Data were collected from 151 international students studying in a Canadian public college via an online questionnaire. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the best predictor of student satisfaction was perceived ease of use, while the best predictor of intention to adopt was perceived flexibility of use. An examination of individual user differences such as gender, age, education, frequency of use and previous e-learning experience revealed that only frequency of use emerged as a predictor of intention to adopt e-learning. The findings provide important insights for colleges and higher educational institutions that are interested in the design and delivery of e-learning courses that would lead to student satisfaction and higher e-learning adoption rates. Further discussion and implications are provided.
Keywords: e-learning; higher education; international students; Canada.
Cynicism, autonomy and job satisfaction: evidence from teaching profession
by Navaneethakrishnan Kengatharan
Abstract: Integrating the theories of conservation of resources, reasoned action and affective events, the present study examines the relationship between teacher cynicism, teacher autonomy and teacher job satisfaction. Data were garnered with a self-reported questionnaire from 703 teachers working in state schools, Sri Lanka. The data were analysed with AMOS and SmartPLS. The results disclose a positive relationship between cognitive cynicism and affective cynicism, and the study further confirms a mediating relationship between cognitive cynicism and teacher job satisfaction through affective cynicism. The study made another notable finding that the behavioural cynicism mediates the relationship between cognitive cynicism and teacher job satisfaction. In addition, the results reveal a moderating effect of teacher autonomy of the relationship between affective cynicism and teacher job satisfaction. Remarkably, the present study contributes to the frontiers of extant literature and proffers many useful practical implications.
Keywords: cognitive cynicism; affective cynicism; behavioural cynicism; teacher autonomy; teacher job satisfaction; conservation of resources theory; partial least squares based structural equation modelling; theory of reasoned action; affective events theory; self-determination theory.
University teachers' goal orientation and self-efficacy: associations with knowledge and use of teaching methods
by Emil Lucian Crișan, Cristian Dragoș
Abstract: Traditionally, teaching practices of university teachers have been investigated in the context of academic disciplines and teaching approaches. Alternatively, our research analyses teachers' motivational beliefs and self-confidence in their teaching practices measured by using ten teaching methods. This study investigates the role of goal orientation and self-efficacy as predictors of knowledge and use of teaching methods of 447 university teachers. The findings demonstrate that mastery goal orientation has a positive effect on both student and teacher-centred methods. Additionally, performance goal orientation is a negative predictor of role-playing knowledge and use, being positively associated with lecturing and demonstration. Self-efficacy has a positive effect on the use and knowledge of almost all ten teaching methods. These results can be employed to improve efforts in increasing teaching quality by developing varied mechanisms which can positively impact teachers' motivational beliefs and self-confidence.
Keywords: self-efficacy; goal orientation; teaching methods; teaching practices; university teachers; teaching quality.
School leadership practices of Portuguese principals: matching perceptions of principals and teachers
by Ilídia Cabral, Maria Da Conceição Andrade Silva, Rosário Serrão Cunha, José Matias Alves
Abstract: This paper presents a study on teachers' and principals' perceptions of school leadership practices in Portuguese schools. Using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, perceptions about transformational, transactional and laissez-faire leadership practices and its consequences on leadership outcomes (followers' extra-effort, leaders' effectiveness and followers' satisfaction with leader) were collected from representative samples of Portuguese teachers (N = 21,082) and principals (N = 122). Results point to differences in the perceptions on leadership practices between principals and teachers: teachers tended to rate principals lower than the latter rate themselves in all transformational and transactional dimensions of leadership; most teachers did not perceive a dominant leadership style in their principals, whereas most principals see themselves as predominantly transformational. Also, for teachers, leadership practices have a higher impact on leadership outcomes than for principals. These results and their practical implications are discussed in the last sections of the paper.
Keywords: leadership practices; leadership outcomes; followers' and leaders' perceptions; school leadership; transformational leadership; transactional leadership; multifactor leadership questionnaire.
Implementation of virtual reality in technical education: an innovative view
by Ahm Shamsuzzoha, Mahmood Al-Kindi, Timo Kankaanpaa
Abstract: Advancement of Virtual Reality (VR) is creating many opportunities to efficiently managing educational system in the present days. The application of VR in educational sector can contribute towards to cope up with today's digitalised educational management system. To keep such objective in mind, this research study investigated the possibility to apply VR in education, especially in technical education and analysed its potential outcomes. The inherent benefits of VR in technical education are elaborated within the scope of this research study with the aim to meet the expectation of today's up-to-date student generation. A case study on the application of VR is conducted to demonstrate how the innovative technology can be employed to produce creative training and learning engineering curriculum. Overall outcomes from this case example are presented along with the various works done by the researchers and practitioners on virtual reality are reviewed and highlighted as well.
Keywords: virtual reality; 3D visualisation; management of education; technical education; innovation; case study.