Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Learning Technology

International Journal of Learning Technology (IJLT)

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International Journal of Learning Technology (26 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Identification of qualitative indicators of physical education students online courses during the COVID-19 outbreak   Order a copy of this article
    by Mehdi Salimi, Leila Moslehi 
    Abstract: This paper aims to identify the factors affecting the quality of the E-learning of physical education students. The statistical population of the paper consisted of undergraduate students at the University of Isfahan in the field of physical education who passed their theoretical and practical courses virtually in two semesters. The sample size was estimated to be 210 individuals based on the Krejcie and Morgan table. Then, a researcher-made questionnaire was employed to collect the required data. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify the factors affecting the quality of E-learning and confirmatory factor analysis was used to confirm the identified factors. According to the results, the factors affecting the E-learning quality of theoretical and practical courses are "teachers characteristics", "technical characteristics of the educational system", "content", "student characteristics", and evaluation and feedback.
    Keywords: E-learning; Virtual Learning; Distance Learning; Physical Education; COVID-19.

  • The design and development of MetAR framework for designing an Augmented Reality application based on experts consensus   Order a copy of this article
    by Siet Fah Lim, Yusri Kamin 
    Abstract: This study aims to design and develop a framework for designing a metacognitive-supported Augmented Reality application for teaching and learning Basic Pneumatic systems. This multi-method study with the Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM) and Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) approach involved 12 experts in multidisciplinary fields. The data was collected using seven Likert-type scale questionnaires. The design phase of the framework using the FDM found that the expert consensus for all principal components and the elements is greater than 75% with the threshold value, d ? 0.2. In contrast, the development phase of the framework was performed based on experts' voting using the ISM approach. The Concept Star software was used to develop the sequence of the elements based on their priority from every principal component to produce the MetAR design framework.
    Keywords: design research; developmental research; framework; instructional multimedia; Augmented Reality (AR); expert consensus.

  • How e-learning can Accelerate Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) in Higher Education: A Thematic Review of Literature   Order a copy of this article
    by Anshita Chelawat, Seema Sant 
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to explore the role of e-learning in attaining Sustainability goals in education, which is termed as Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). The paper examines how the inclusion of e-learning solutions in the current education system can create sustainable educational institutes concerning campus structure, facilities, teaching pedagogy, evaluation system, etc., and contribute to attaining ESD. It aims to highlight educational institutes' challenges in their journey towards sustainability while implementing e-learning solutions. The paper has employed a thematic and critical review approach by conducting a rigorous review of past literature in the area of sustainability, e-learning, higher education, and potential challenges, and shortlisted 23 papers relevant for the current research. Despite the previous research in the field of sustainability in education, the concept of sustainability in the Indian Education System is still nascent. The paper, thus, presents a holistic review of the literature to adhere to Sustainable Development Goals (SDG)-4, as proposed by UNESCO, in Indian Higher Education System. The paper illustrates that implementing e-learning solutions in higher education through its curriculum, teaching-learning pedagogies, and innovative technological aids can help Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) to contribute toward ESD.
    Keywords: Sustainability; Sustainable development; e-learning; Education for Sustainable development; higher education; online learning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLT.2023.10056484
  • Perspectives of Arab Preservice Teachers in Israel on Online Learning During COVID-19   Order a copy of this article
    by Moanes H. Tibi 
    Abstract: The aim of this study was to identify the perspectives of Arab preservice teachers in Israel on various aspects of online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic and determine what they perceived as the major barriers to online learning. The study sample comprised 161 students who were surveyed about their experiences of online learning a year after the onset of the pandemic. The findings indicated that the students overall learning experience was positive and they were generally satisfied with their online learning during the pandemic. However, they struggled with slow internet, unscheduled electricity outages, and inconvenient learning environments. The findings also showed that the students suffered from stress and a reduced ability to concentrate. Two-way ANOVAs and follow-up Scheffes post-hoc tests revealed statistically significant mean differences between the students perspectives on several aspects of online learning based on their year of study and their study major.
    Keywords: preservice teachers’ perspectives; online learning; COVID-19; Arab preservice teachers.

  • Computational Tools to Teach and Develop Socioemotional Skills: A Systematic Mapping   Order a copy of this article
    by Diogines Goldoni, Helena Reis, Mateus Carrascoso, Patricia A. Jaques 
    Abstract: In an increasingly fast-changing and diverse world, the role of socioemotional skills has become more crucial. These skills are correlated with academic and professional achievement, healthier interactions, and greater wellbeing. Contrary to commonly believed, socioemotional skills are not innate and can be taught and learned. Although there are established and accepted standards and curricula available for Socioemotional Learning (SEL), they mainly focus on teacher-led instruction in a regular classroom setting, which brings the extra cost of the necessary support and teachers training. One alternative is using technological resources to develop these skills. However, an open question is which technologies exist for SEL and what is the evidence of their impacts and benefits. This paper presents a systematic mapping to show how socioemotional skills are being taught using technological resources.We analyzed the results and suggested under-explored areas to develop socioemotional skills with technology and computational artifacts.
    Keywords: Socioemotional skills; 21st century skills; Computer-based intervention; systematic mapping.

    by Gizem Kara, Aysegul Liman Kaban 
    Abstract: This research purposed to investigate the attitudes of elementary level teachers towards blended learning implementation in Turkey. The study was conducted by gathering data from 160 teachers working in elementary schools. To collect data, a mixed methods research design was implemented. Quantitative data were gathered with a survey instrument that measures the perception of teachers on blended learning and the qualitative data was collected by conducting individual interviews which had open-ended questions with ten participants. The results of quantitative data and qualitative findings indicated that teachers generally have a positive attitude towards the implementation of blended learning in elementary education.
    Keywords: Blended Learning; Elementary Education; Teacher Attitudes; COVID-19; Delivery; Online Education; Pedagogy; Digital Pedagogy.

  • Strengths and weaknesses of using educational technology in inclusive settings with limited available resources: reflections on a classroom-based computer-mediated collaborative learning approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Kyriakos Demetriou 
    Abstract: This study explores the strengths and weaknesses of using educational technology in inclusive settings with limited available resources, in Cyprus. A primary school teacher and her students participated in a series of classroom-based computer-mediated collaborative learning sessions. Students worked in groups and solved a number of mathematical problems with the use of a limited number of available computers in the computer lab of their school. The participants reflected upon their experiences in interviews that were conducted before and after these sessions. In addition, a reflective journal was used to reflect on the process. The thematic analysis of participants reflections upon their experiences and the reflective journal unveiled several strengths such as that teacher custom-made learning environments, combined with collaboration in groups, can be a possible solution for technology-rich learning experiences for children in inclusive settings. Also, some benefits of collaboration in groups with the use of the computer occurred, such as working in small groups, increased acceptance, group balance and increased participation. However, some weaknesses of using educational technology in environments with limited available technological resources, arose from the analysis. These were technical issues and challenges of collaboration in groups with the use of the computer.
    Keywords: Technology in the classroom; Inclusive settings; Computer-mediated learning; Collaborative learning.

  • Effectiveness of Distance Learning of Mathematics from the Perspective of Public-School Teachers in the West-Bank during the COVID Pandemic   Order a copy of this article
    by Nabil Assadi, Hisham Bani-Matar 
    Abstract: The study aims to identify the Effectiveness of Distance Learning of Mathematics From the perspective of the Public-School Teachers during the COVID Pandemic. Differences of statistical significances between the answers of the participants were registered. To achieve the desired goals, researchers employed the descriptive approach; a questionnaire was designed to collect the necessary information from the research sample (125) teachers. Results show that effectiveness of distance learning of mathematics from the teachers point of view was average. Regarding the fields, the field of objectives of the activation of mathematics curriculum distance learning came first whereas the liabilities of distance teaching of mathematics occupied the last place. No variations of statistical significance emerged regarding the distance teaching of mathematics in relation to the study variables. The research is expected to contribute usefully to the scientific community as it handles a global incidence and its implications within a developing country with limited resources and capabilities. The gap that the paper attempts to address is one of great significance; as it answers pivotal questions on how technology in education can be a real hope for educational achievement in a marginalized area of the world.
    Keywords: Distance Learning; Mathematics Curriculum; Mathematics Teachers; Education Technology; and Corona Virus Pandemic.

    by Azidah Abu, Ifedayo Adu 
    Abstract: This research investigated students online learning technology usability considering the impact of a remote learning experience, quality of remote learning experience, infrastructure for remote teaching and learning, methods for remote teaching and learning, environment for remote teaching and learning and wellbeing antecedents in this study. For instance, the remote learning experience among students during movement control order in a Malaysia University recorded 68.91% unfavourable and 31.09% favourable levels in this research. The study opted for both quantitative research of survey type and qualitative methods, which utilised an online questionnaire titled students online learning experiences questionnaire (SOLEQ) of both close and open-ended questions. The SOLEQ Cronbach alpha was calculated to be 0.8, which was valid and reliable for this study. The data were collected from Malaysian university students. Also, the study collected both quantitative and qualitative data that were analysed by using both inferential and descriptive statistics, which entails multiple regression and percentages. Besides, percentages and thematic data analysis was utilised in analysing the qualitative data responses by theming the comments into clusters before coding into the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS). The findings suggest that most students felt the online learning was unfavourable. This study has implication on teaching as a professional discipline and extrapolates its findings to routine training in medical, engineering, and business-oriented discipline to mention few based on its online learning discourses. The study recommends that the university must endeavour to provide adequate and quality resources to support standard students online learning experiences. This research suggests further adoption of this enquiry model for technology usability studies as it has not been optimally explored.
    Keywords: Impact; Learning Technology; Internet infrastructure; University.

  • Massive open online courses: A systematic literature review focusing on the achievements and challenges   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: Innovation is a competitive factor for any organization. It makes it possible to stand out from the competitors. Actually, entities use the digital ages means to carry out their missions. In this respect, higher education institutions are no exception. Indeed, the search for an innovative education system is always relevant.This paper aims at presenting a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) focusing on Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), their achievements and challenges they are facing. Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and MetaAnalysis (PRISMA) model, the results of the synthesis and analysis of 27 papers show there is a variety of content that MOOCs have dealt with. Most of the published studies focus on the design. Only connectivist MOOCs can be considered an educational innovation. Moreover, the designers of MOOCs do not take into account the individual needs of the different participants. Hence, several challenges remain to be overcome. The identified gaps could motivate further research.
    Keywords: E-learning; innovation; MOOCs; achievements; challenges; perspectives; distance learning; online education; educational technology; computer use in education.

  • Acceptance assessment of the software MOTIVATIC WEB by university educators   Order a copy of this article
    by Mileidy Alvarez-Melgarejo, Aura Cecilia Pedraza Avella, Martha Liliana Torres-Barreto 
    Abstract: MOTIVATIC WEB is a software platform in which teachers can co-design activities for their students using three different gamified mechanics. This article presents the results of the technology acceptance evaluation by users. The evaluation considered aspects related to perceived usefulness and ease of use, behavioral intention to use and external variables related to user experience, functionality and web platform visual aesthetics, aspects adapted from the TAM model. A qualitative analysis instrument was applied to 21 higher education professors from five different countries, experts in the areas of economic and administrative sciences, industrial engineering, basic sciences and medical sciences. The results indicate that the perceived usefulness and ease of use of the software are related to the intention to use it. It shows that the software is efficient as an educational support resource, allowing the design of certain mechanics for students as well as communication and collaboration among teachers.
    Keywords: Collaborative work; functionality; Motivatic Web; TAM model; user experience.

  • Online learning: Predicting student engagement and continued intention   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohsin Khan, Mahendar Goli 
    Abstract: Online learning has become a blessing in disguise to continue education without being hit by COVID-19 during the time of social distancing and mask-environment. Also, it has been a critical challenge to engage students in virtual platforms. The current research focused to study the factors affecting the student engagement and intention to continue online learning. 372 responses were obtained using a structured questionnaire on a five-point Likert scale from graduate and post-graduate students across India. Structural equation modeling with AMOS was employed to analyze the data. The results indicated that student collaborative learning and engagement in online learning exhibit a positive effect on intention to continue online learning. This is one of the very few studies conducted on student engagement in online learning during a Pandemic. The research suggests that the beneficiaries need to adopt interactive-based teaching methods for better student engagement and learning outcome.
    Keywords: Online Learning; collaborative learning; engagement; e-learning; students Interaction.

  • Disruptive Innovation of Edtech Companies in Emerging Economy during Covid-19   Order a copy of this article
    by Manish Kumar Dwivedi, Naveen Virmani 
    Abstract: COVID-19 had transformed the manner in which people lived, worked, and interacted on a large scale. As of March 2020, the lockdown was implemented in India. As a result of the imposition of lockdown, all schools and colleges were closed. The closure of the schools compels the people to follow the norms of social distancing. Globally, over 1.2 billion children stopped going to school in a physical mode. This critical situation creates an opportunity for various elearning platforms where children can attend classes remotely in a digital mode. This study has been conducted to examine the growth of the Edtech companies involved in providing education to children during the Lockdown and evaluate the transition that took place from offline to online education mode during COVID-19. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) approach was applied for systematic and structured analysis. Furthermore, the study analyzed the impact of digital education on students. The results revealed that the various Edtech companies such as BYJUs and UNACADEMY etc. flourished during the pandemic. However, students engagement and participation were found to be a serious concern in conducting studies in a digital mode. Furthermore, the teachers in many places were not found comfortable using online education apps. Digital literacy training programs can be organized to counter this issue.
    Keywords: EdTech; E-learning; Disruptive Innovation; Covid-19; Lockdown.

  • TGRIS, Professional Training with a Virtual Reality Interview Simulator, Configured and Piloted by Peers   Order a copy of this article
    by Iza Marfisi-Schottman 
    Abstract: Many Pedagogical Counselors (PCs) are destabilized by the resistance, in various forms, that novice teachers display during their counseling sessions. It is in this context that we propose TGRIS, a peer-training method, with a Virtual Reality interview simulator, designed to help PCs become aware of their own emotions, and deal with them, when confronted to a resistant novice teacher. The novice teacher is simulated by an Embodied Conversational Agents (ECA) that is piloted by other, more experienced PCs. They can trigger the sentences, gestures and the emotional state of the virtual novice teacher. This tool has the particularity of using sentences that were collected from real-life problematic interviews. The PCs themselves transcribed and analyzed their own counseling sessions in order to synthesize them. Three experimentations, lead with 12, 17 and 3 PCs, show the potential of the TGRIS technology-enhanced training sessions.
    Keywords: Professional training; emotions; simulator; conversational animated agent.

  • Technological Self-Efficacy of Preservice Teachers: The Role of Gender, Origin Area and Major Program   Order a copy of this article
    by Muhammad Ikhlas, Elmer D. Dela Rosa 
    Abstract: The massive development of technology requires teachers to be able to utilize technology in the learning process. Self-efficacy has been considered as one of the important factors in explaining teachers confidence in using technology. This study investigated the technological self-efficacy of preservice teachers and its relationship to gender, origin area, and major program. Quantitative research was conducted in Jambi University, Indonesia involving 122 preservice teachers. Descriptive statistics show that preservice teachers are quite confident in utilizing technology for the learning process. Mann-Whitneys U test shows that gender is related to preservice teachers technological self-efficacy, where males have high self-efficacy than females. On the other hand, origin area and major program are not associated with technological self-efficacy. Discussions and implications are further discussed.
    Keywords: self-efficacy in using computer technology; technological self-efficacy; gender on teachers’ technological self-efficacy; preservice teachers.

  • Modelling e-learning quality, self-efficacy and students behaviour   Order a copy of this article
    by Tejas R. Shah, Poonam Chhaniwal 
    Abstract: This study empirically tested a model examining the effect of four e-learning quality dimensions, i.e. information quality, system quality, service quality, and instructor quality as well as students self-efficacy on e-learning behaviour satisfaction and continued intentions that further affect students academic performance. The research model is examined for e-learning systems at higher education institutions (HEIs). Data were collected from four cities of Gujarat, India, i.e. Ahmedabad, Vadodara, Surat and Rajkot. The sample size consists of 832 students and information was collected using a self-administered online survey. Data is analysed through structured equation modeling in SPSS AMOS (v.23). The findings offer direction for HEIs to enhance students satisfaction, continued intentions thereby strengthening their academic performance, using e-learning system. This research contributes to the literature by empirically examining a research model, revealing students e-learning behaviour and academic performance at HEIs.
    Keywords: e-learning; quality; satisfaction; continued intentions; academic performance; higher education.

  • An Analysis of Technological Resources to Encourage Self-Regulated Learning Behavior in Virtual Learning Environments in the Last Decade   Order a copy of this article
    by Geycy Lima, Juliete Costa, Fabiano Dorça, Rafael Araújo 
    Abstract: Virtual Learning Environments have become increasingly intelligent and supplied with individualized resources for a more engaging and effective learning process. In particular, technologies that not only provide support but also encourage self-regulated learning are desirable, as this competence has numerous benefits. Thus, this work presents a Systematic Literature Review to outline an overview of such technologies, considering works published between 2011 and 2020. This paper presents a process for selecting studies based on Cohens weighted Kappa statistic, intending to decrease the inter-rater bias. Results have shown that information visualization techniques, interactive learning resources, content recommendations, and strategies for feedback have been used in all phases of the self-regulatory process, mainly in higher education. Therefore, this paper intends to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art and give directions on different technologies used to support self-regulatory features in virtual learning environments.
    Keywords: Self-Regulated Learning; Virtual Learning Environments; Systematic Literature Review.

  • Advances in Personalised Recommendation of Learning Objects based on the Set Covering Problem Using Ontology   Order a copy of this article
    by Clarivando Belizário Júnior, Fabiano Dorça, Luciana Assis, Alessandro Andrade 
    Abstract: Loop-based intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs) support the learning process using a step-by-step problem-solving approach. A limitation of ITSs is that few contents are compatible with this approach. On the other hand, recommendation systems can recommend different types of content but ignore the fine-grained concepts typical of the step-by-step approach. This work contributes to the solution of this state-of-the-art challenge by proposing an approach for the recommendation of learning objects from different areas of knowledge, considering the refined concepts of ITSs. To deal with this challenge, we formulate the Learning Object Recommendation Problem as the Set Covering Problem that belongs to the NP-Hard class problems. An exact algorithm and a greedy heuristic were properly adapted, resulting in a promising approach to solve these problems, as shown by the results. This resulted in more personalised content for students using collaborative filtering and an ontology that models their knowledge, learning styles and search parameters.
    Keywords: learning objects recommendation; personalised recommendation; collaborative filtering; ontology; set covering; learning styles; intelligent tutoring systems; ITS.

  • A framework for co-designing effective LADs supporting sensemaking and decision making   Order a copy of this article
    by Jean-Marie Gilliot, Madjid Sadallah 
    Abstract: Learning Analytics Dashboards (LAD) deserve increasing attention, yet their adoption remains limited. Designing effective LAD is a difficult process, and LADs often fail in turning insights into action. We argue that providing explicit decision-making features in a participatory design process may help to develop LADs supporting action. We first examine how the decision-making process is reflected on LADs. Second, we review the literature to identify major design space dimensions and examine how to include decision-making features. Secondly, we propose the DEFLAD design framework to synthesise this review which provides explicit decision-making features in three dimensions: Goal expression as a situation awareness level, Visualisation and related Interactions, as support of decision-making process. Third, we consider how this framework is involved through every stage of a Human-Centred Design (HCD) process to express and manage such features. The main contribution of this paper is to provide a framework integrating the decision-making features in a participatory design process of LADs. Furthermore, we demonstrate the implementation of our proposals through the development of a card-based toolkit to assist in the ideation phase of participatory design, and present feedback from participants of a workshop utilizing this tool as a proof of concept.
    Keywords: Learning analytics; Learning Analytics Dashboard; Design Space; Sensemaking; Decision Making; Participatory Design; Human-Centred Learning Analytics.

  • Demographic Differences in China's Higher Education Students' Interactions and Experiences with Online Learning During the COVID-19 Pandemic   Order a copy of this article
    by Jiayun Yan, Ting Wang 
    Abstract: This study investigates the relationship between higher education students demographic backgrounds and their interactions and experiences with online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were collected using a quantitative cross-sectional online survey of students from across the nation of China. The survey was distributed from October 10, 2021, to October 12, 2021, with 313 respondents. The results indicate that most participants had lower satisfaction with online learning, which could be due to the face-to-face learning pedagogy was mainly adopted in China before the pandemic. Over 90% of participants used more than one Learning Management System (LMS) in 2020 and 2021, which might be due to the lack of relevant unified management by Chinese universities. Based on the Sociocultural learning theory, measures like including extra learning assistance, such as instructional designers, to improve the adaptability of instructors and learners when unexpected changes occur in the social environment and learners were slow or fail to adapt as necessary.
    Keywords: online learning; higher education students; sociocultural learning theory; China; COVID-19 pandemic.

    by Meriem Laifa, Samir Akhrouf, Djamila Mohdeb, Mouhoub Belazzoug 
    Abstract: The conversation on the effectiveness of blended learning experience in Algerian higher education has not received the necessary attention compared to developed countries. Moreover, there is a scarcity of research that discusses the impact and benefits of the pandemic-induced changes in Algerian higher education. The primary goal of this paper is to initiate a deeper conversation about blended learning in Algerian Higher Education using an exploratory research method based on empirical evidence and quantitative data. It examines teachers’ and students’ satisfaction with blended teaching and learning at Algerian universities since the start of Covid-19. There was a total of 782 students and 82 teachers involved with valid questionnaire responses, from two different Algerian public universities. The data were examined using descriptive and inferential statistical analysis, such as independent t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and one-way ANOVA. The results indicate low satisfaction with blended learning on both sides: students and teachers. Furthermore, the data do not suggest differences in satisfaction between teachers and students, either in terms of the program taught or the university to which they belong. However, there were significant differences among students based on their age and their level of study. The paper also discusses the values, benefits, and restrictions of the mandatory blended learning approach applied by the Algerian ministry since March 2020. Implications and recommendations for both practitioners and researchers are additionally addressed in this study to make informed pedagogical choices in the future.
    Keywords: Blended Learning; Blended Teaching; Information and Communication Technologies; Higher Education; Emergency Learning; Distance Education; COVID-19; University; Education

  • Factors influencing online learning on social media   Order a copy of this article
    by Shabana Khurshid, Faseeh Amin, Nayera Masoodi, Mohammad Furqan Khan 
    Abstract: This work has investigated the relationship between SM use and its four antecedents, i.e., perceived interactivity, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and perceived enjoyment. Moreover, it has also examined the association of SM use with its outcome variables, i.e., active learning, creativity and collaborative learning, leading to learning performance. This work has been conducted on university learners with a sample size of 511. A causal research design was applied in this work as it allowed the testing of relationships amongst various variables. Structural equation modelling (SEM) analysis revealed interesting results as SM use positively correlates with its four antecedents. Perceived enjoyment has the most substantial influence on SM use. Moreover, the results show that SM use enhances active learning, creativity and collaborative learning amongst learners, improving their academic performance. SM use has the most influence on active learning, and active learning has the most substantial impact on learning performance.
    Keywords: online learning; social media; social media usage; social media learning; learning performance; virtual learning; antecedents of social media usage; education; structural equation modelling; SEM.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLT.2022.10050976
  • Implications of student satisfaction with flipped classroom design in a Taiwan university   Order a copy of this article
    by Amy Roberts, Gregory S. Ching 
    Abstract: The flipped classroom has gained widespread popularity as a form of blended learning. In this form, students engage in active learning in the classroom while completing their readings at home. The article presents the results of a longitudinal mixed-methods study on student satisfaction in a flipped classroom undergraduate course at a Taiwanese university. The purpose of this study was to examine student satisfaction over the course of seven years, and to explore implications that contribute to contemporary discourse for educators engaged with and committed to the flipped classroom model. A total of 390 freshmen took part in an 18-week flipped Foundation of Education course conducted in English. Student perceptions were generally positive, though a significant minority had some negative views. Accordingly, the design may not be appropriate for all learners. It is recommended that all components of the course be balanced using the TPACK model.
    Keywords: flipped classroom design; Taiwan; EMI; TPACK.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLT.2023.10056587
  • Extending the technology acceptance model to understand the use of e-learning during COVID-19 pandemic for enhancing learning process: Iraqi universities' students   Order a copy of this article
    by Suad Shatti Azeez, Salih Hajem Glood, Mohammad Kasib Layous Alhasnawi 
    Abstract: Although the influencing factors on the use of e-learning (EL) were examined in previous studies, the physical characteristics of the educational environment and their impact on the use of EL during the COVID-19 pandemic are still to be investigated. Therefore, to bridge this gap, this study adapted TAM as a theoretical model and extended it by adding learning content; and lighting and noise as environmental variables. This study aims to investigate the effecting factors of EL on Iraqi universities during outbreaks of COVID-19. Moreover, the study used an online questionnaire of 455 students of the southern region universities in Iraq and Smart-PLS technique for data analysis. The findings revealed the relationships amongst the core constructs of TAM supported; learning content has a positive effect on perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness; moderating effect of environmental factors on the relationship between perceived usefulness and intention behaviour was supported. The implication is that the decision-makers of EL should focus on factors that play an influential role in promoting students' use of EL.
    Keywords: COVID-19; e-learning; electronic learning; higher education; technology acceptance model; TAM; Iraqi universities; Smart-PLS technique; educational environment; use of e-learning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLT.2023.10056589
  • Audio-visual resources and learning improvement: an experimental analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Marta Magadán-Díaz, Jesús I. Rivas-García 
    Abstract: The general objective of this research is to analyse the students' learning performance on the use of audio-visual resources in the subject of didactics of the business and its environment, taught in master's degree in Teacher Training of High School, Vocational Training and Language Teaching (specialty in Economics, Business, and Commerce) at the University of Nebrija. This study applied the experimental method from two randomly generated samples of the two groups (virtual classrooms) into which the enrolled students were administratively divided. The results obtained by the experiment point to a significant improvement in the students' learning performance, and their perception about the use of this didactic tool turned out to be very positive.
    Keywords: audio-visual resources; digital teaching resources; videos in class; audio-visual didactics; multimedia teaching; learning; learning improvement; virtual classrooms; experimental method; experimental analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLT.2023.10056590
  • Visual programming and computational thinking environments for K-9 education: a systematic literature review   Order a copy of this article
    by Dimitrios Trakosas, Christina Tikva, Efthimios Tambouris 
    Abstract: Teaching programming and computational thinking to young students has gained increasing attention in recent years. This great attention is attributed partially to the emergence of easy-to-use visual programming environments. These environments help students focus on the logic and concepts of programming and at the same time enhance their engagement. It has been shown that the characteristics of visual programming environments influence students' engagement with programming. However, there is still no systematic investigation of these characteristics. This study aims to provide insights on the characteristics of visual programming environments for K-9 education based on a systematic literature review of 83 empirical studies on K-9 teaching and learning programming. These characteristics are analysed based on the following four levels: a) functional features; b) student experience; c) teacher experience; d) disadvantages. Finally, herein we discuss the features that a programming environment for K-9 education could have to improve the experience of students and teachers.
    Keywords: visual programming environments; computational thinking environments; K-9 education.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLT.2023.10056591