Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Learning Technology

International Journal of Learning Technology (IJLT)

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International Journal of Learning Technology (22 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Behavioural reasoning perspectives in e-learning adoption   Order a copy of this article
    by Muhammad Ahsan Sadiq 
    Abstract: Previous studies on e-learning adoption have focused either on resistance or adoption factors in their frameworks; the novelty of our research is the modelling of both in a single framework by using behavioural reasoning theory (Westaby, 2005). Prior to the study, context-specific reasons for and reasons against adoption of e-learning were identified using a semi-structured interview with 24 students. Based on the feedback, a questionnaire was designed, and final data was collected from four public universities in India (N = 377). Findings indicate that reasons against e-learning adoption have a relatively stronger impact on adoption intentions than reasons for adoption. The barrier of tradition was found to have the strongest influence on reasons against e-learning adoption, followed by usage and risk. Further, openness to change (values) was found to explain reasons for and against e-learning usage among students, besides explaining adoption attitudes. The novelty of our study lies in its examination of the influence of resistance and adoption factors in a single framework, which was missing in previous studies, wherein the focus was on either resistance or adoption factors.
    Keywords: Behavioural reasoning theory; reasons cognitions; e-learning; innovations.

  • Student engagement and learning during COVID 19: An empirical analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Nandini Borah, Pranami Sharma 
    Abstract: COVID-19 pandemic brought along with it a widespread disruption of education system around the world. Schools, colleges and universities were shut all over the world. In order to maintain the continuity of education, educators and students alike adopted the online mode of teaching and learning. While mainstream education was mostly face-to-face; a sudden shift to the online mode of teaching and learning required teachers and students to get acquainted with the platform and tools. This study attempts to test a model to understand the impact of online education on students engagement levels in the context of higher education and the COVID-19 pandemic. Results indicate that access to digital resources and teacher effectiveness has positive impact on engagement and student engagement in turn has positive impact on learning outcomes. Stress has negative impact on student learning. The paper also discusses implications of the study and future direction for research.
    Keywords: student engagement; student learning; online learning; COVID-19; structural equation modeling; higher education; higher educational institutions.

  • Factors Related to Tertiary Education Teachers Use of the Microsoft Teams Platform   Order a copy of this article
    by Adil Youssef Sayeh, Hassane Razkane, Mohamed Yeou, Najat Mokhtari 
    Abstract: Previous research disclosed that teachers faced challenges while using different Learning Management Systems during the COVID-19 outbreak. This study investigated teachers perceptions of Microsoft Teams functionalities and the extent to which they are related to teachers time spent on it as well as the various factors associated with their syllabus coverage. Situated within Human-Computer Interaction theory, 157 university teachers at Chouaib Doukkali University, Morocco, were administered a questionnaire that measured their perception of the functionalities offered by Microsoft Teams. Results indicated that teachers perceptions of the functionalities offered by Learning Management Systems also play an intervening variable in the deployment of these tools in teaching. Hence, this paper calls for an extension and readaptation of existing models such as the Technology Acceptance Model and the System Usability Scale to include an evaluation of the functionalities offered by these tools.
    Keywords: Microsoft Teams; Learning Management Systems; usability; emergency remote teaching; functionalities; e-Learning tools; TAM; SUS; university teachers.

  • Prediction and Classification of Churners in Online Learning using Ensemble of Distributed Iterative Classifiers   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: In e-learning domain the weak learners known as churn are the one who underperform and might drop from the course. Identifying and giving more attentions to such churn is an active research problem. Numerous methods have been proposed in the literature, which predicts churn based on their personal attributes and learning curve. One major limitation with the existing method is that they evaluate their system with minimal set of data. To overcome that issue and to improve the accuracy, this research work proposed a distributed iterative classifier that deploys an ensemble learning algorithm to generalize the model for predicting potential churn from personal attributes. Predictions from the base classifier are obtained using a distributed iterative classification algorithm that deploys a map-reduce framework. Iterative classification algorithm predicts signs of attrition in the learners through their online interactions. It can also process a very large network, which was lacking in the existing solution. The proposed system is validated using the features of five students and results are re-ported. Experimental results show that the proposed ensemble classifier predicts churn competently.
    Keywords: Churn Prediction; Distributed Iterative classification; dropout in online learning; Ensemble learning;.

  • Factors Influencing Online Learning on Social Media   Order a copy of this article
    by Shabana Khurshid, Faseeh Amin, Nayera Masoodi, Mohammad Furqan Khan 
    Abstract: Academic research concerning social media learning has seen an accelerated pace in the last many years. However, some aspects of online learning on such platforms remain unaddressed. This work has investigated the relationship between social media use and its four antecedents, i.e. perceived interactivity, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and perceived enjoyment. Moreover, it has also examined the association of social media use with its outcome variables, i.e. active learning, creativity and collaborative learning, leading to learning performance. This work has been conducted on university learners with a sample size of 511. A causal research design was applied in this work as it allowed the testing of relationships amongst various variables. SEM (Structural Equation Modeling) analysis revealed interesting results as social media use positively correlates with its four antecedents. Perceived enjoyment has the most substantial influence on social media use. Moreover, the results show that social media use enhances active learning, creativity and collaborative learning amongst learners, improving their academic performance. Social media use has the most influence on active learning, and active learning has the most substantial impact on learning performance. These results offer some unique insights into social media learning that all stakeholders can apply to improve learners' learning performance in the education domain.
    Keywords: online learning; social media; social media learning' learning performance; education.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLT.2022.10050976
  • Implications of student satisfaction with flipped classroom design in a Taiwan university   Order a copy of this article
    by Amy Roberts, Gregory Ching 
    Abstract: There is increasing pressure for higher education institutions to develop and expand student learning using evidence-based and needs-based data. Reflecting this stance is the use of the flipped classroom design as a worldwide education trend, defined here as a form of blended learning wherein students complete readings and videos at home and engage in active learning in classroom spaces. This article reports on a longitudinal mixed methods investigation of student satisfaction in a Taiwan university undergraduate course taught with the flipped design. The purpose was twofold, to explore student satisfaction of the flipped classroom design over a seven-year period and craft implications that contribute to contemporary discourse for educators engaged with and committed to the flipped design. Participants included 390 Taiwan undergraduate freshmen students enrolled in an 18-week semester Foundation of Education flipped course using English as the language of instruction. Results suggest positive satisfaction from the use of a flipped design as a pedagogical approach. Participant perceptions of the flipped design were generally encouraging over the span of seven years but with a significant minority having some negative views. This indicates that the flipped design may not be applicable to all learners and may fluctuate in response to current events on local, national, or global levels. Recommendations include using the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge model to ensure balance between all course components. Use of qualitative studies are also recommended to gain a deeper understanding of how students perceive flipped learning, with examples of best practice for pedagogical design.
    Keywords: Flipped classroom design; Taiwan; English as a medium of instruction; Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Model.

  • Extending the Technology Acceptance Model to Understand the Use of E-learning During COVID-19 Pandemic for Enhancing Learning Process: Iraqi Universities Students   Order a copy of this article
    by Suad Azeez, Salih Glood, Mohammad Alhasnawi 
    Abstract: Although the influencing factors on the use of e-learning were examined in the previous studies, the physical characteristics of the educational environment and their impact on the use of e-learning during the Covid-19 pandemic are still to investigate. Therefore, to bridge this gap, this study adapted TAM as a theoretical model and extended it by adding learning content; and lighting and noise as environmental variables. This study aims to investigate the effecting factors of E-learning on Iraqi universities during outbreaks of Covid-19. Moreover, this study used an online survey approach for collecting data and a Structural Equation Modelling technique to analyze the collecting data. The findings revealed that learning content has a positive effect on perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness. Furthermore, the relationships among the core constructs of TAM were supported. The moderating effect of environmental factors on the relationship between perceived usefulness and intention behavior was supported.
    Keywords: Covid-19; e-learning; higher education; technology acceptance model; Iraqi universities.

  • Audiovisual resources and learning improvement: An experimental analysis   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: The general objective of this research is to analyze the students' learning performance on the use of audiovisual resources in the subject of Didactics of the Business and its Environment, taught in masters degree in Teacher Training of High School, Vocational Training and Language Teaching (specialty in Economics, Business, and Commerce) at the University of Nebrija. This study applied the experimental method from two randomly generated samples of the two groups (virtual classrooms) into which the enrolled students were administratively divided. The results obtained by the experiment point to a significant improvement in the students' learning performance, and their perception about the use of this didactic tool turned out to be very positive.
    Keywords: Audiovisual resources; digital teaching resources; videos in class; audiovisual didactics; multimedia teaching; learning; learning improvement; virtual classrooms; experimental method; experimental analysis.

  • Visual Programming and Computational Thinking Environments for K-9 Education: A Systematic Literature Review   Order a copy of this article
    by Dimitrios Trakosas, Christina Tikva, Efthimios Tambouris 
    Abstract: Teaching programming and Computational Thinking to young students has gained increasing attention in recent years. This great attention is attributed partially to the emergence of easy-to-use visual programming environments. These environments help students focus on the logic and concepts of programming and at the same time enhance their engagement. It has been shown that the characteristics of visual programming environments influence students' engagement with programming. However, there is still no systematic investigation of these characteristics. This study aims to provide insights on the characteristics of visual programming environments for K-9 education based on a systematic literature review of 83 empirical studies on K-9 teaching and learning programming. These characteristics are analysed based on the following four levels: a) functional features b) student experience c) teacher experience and d) disadvantages. Finally, herein we discuss the features that a programming environment for K-9 education could have to improve the experience of students and teachers.
    Keywords: Visual Programming Environments; Computational Thinking Environments; K-9 education.

  • Identification of qualitative indicators of physical education students online courses during the COVID-19 outbreak   Order a copy of this article
    by Mehdi Salimi, Leila Moslehi 
    Abstract: This paper aims to identify the factors affecting the quality of the E-learning of physical education students. The statistical population of the paper consisted of undergraduate students at the University of Isfahan in the field of physical education who passed their theoretical and practical courses virtually in two semesters. The sample size was estimated to be 210 individuals based on the Krejcie and Morgan table. Then, a researcher-made questionnaire was employed to collect the required data. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify the factors affecting the quality of E-learning and confirmatory factor analysis was used to confirm the identified factors. According to the results, the factors affecting the E-learning quality of theoretical and practical courses are "teachers characteristics", "technical characteristics of the educational system", "content", "student characteristics", and evaluation and feedback.
    Keywords: E-learning; Virtual Learning; Distance Learning; Physical Education; COVID-19.

  • The design and development of MetAR framework for designing an Augmented Reality application based on experts consensus   Order a copy of this article
    by Siet Fah Lim, Yusri Kamin 
    Abstract: This study aims to design and develop a framework for designing a metacognitive-supported Augmented Reality application for teaching and learning Basic Pneumatic systems. This multi-method study with the Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM) and Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) approach involved 12 experts in multidisciplinary fields. The data was collected using seven Likert-type scale questionnaires. The design phase of the framework using the FDM found that the expert consensus for all principal components and the elements is greater than 75% with the threshold value, d ? 0.2. In contrast, the development phase of the framework was performed based on experts' voting using the ISM approach. The Concept Star software was used to develop the sequence of the elements based on their priority from every principal component to produce the MetAR design framework.
    Keywords: design research; developmental research; framework; instructional multimedia; Augmented Reality (AR); expert consensus.

  • How e-learning can Accelerate Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) in Higher Education: A Thematic Review of Literature   Order a copy of this article
    by Anshita Chelawat, Seema Sant 
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to explore the role of e-learning in attaining Sustainability goals in education, which is termed as Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). The paper examines how the inclusion of e-learning solutions in the current education system can create sustainable educational institutes concerning campus structure, facilities, teaching pedagogy, evaluation system, etc., and contribute to attaining ESD. It aims to highlight educational institutes' challenges in their journey towards sustainability while implementing e-learning solutions. The paper has employed a thematic and critical review approach by conducting a rigorous review of past literature in the area of sustainability, e-learning, higher education, and potential challenges, and shortlisted 23 papers relevant for the current research. Despite the previous research in the field of sustainability in education, the concept of sustainability in the Indian Education System is still nascent. The paper, thus, presents a holistic review of the literature to adhere to Sustainable Development Goals (SDG)-4, as proposed by UNESCO, in Indian Higher Education System. The paper illustrates that implementing e-learning solutions in higher education through its curriculum, teaching-learning pedagogies, and innovative technological aids can help Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) to contribute toward ESD.
    Keywords: Sustainability; Sustainable development; e-learning; Education for Sustainable development; higher education; online learning.

  • Perspectives of Arab Preservice Teachers in Israel on Online Learning During COVID-19   Order a copy of this article
    by Moanes H. Tibi 
    Abstract: The aim of this study was to identify the perspectives of Arab preservice teachers in Israel on various aspects of online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic and determine what they perceived as the major barriers to online learning. The study sample comprised 161 students who were surveyed about their experiences of online learning a year after the onset of the pandemic. The findings indicated that the students overall learning experience was positive and they were generally satisfied with their online learning during the pandemic. However, they struggled with slow internet, unscheduled electricity outages, and inconvenient learning environments. The findings also showed that the students suffered from stress and a reduced ability to concentrate. Two-way ANOVAs and follow-up Scheffes post-hoc tests revealed statistically significant mean differences between the students perspectives on several aspects of online learning based on their year of study and their study major.
    Keywords: preservice teachers’ perspectives; online learning; COVID-19; Arab preservice teachers.

  • Computational Tools to Teach and Develop Socioemotional Skills: A Systematic Mapping   Order a copy of this article
    by Diogines Goldoni, Helena Reis, Mateus Carrascoso, Patricia A. Jaques 
    Abstract: In an increasingly fast-changing and diverse world, the role of socioemotional skills has become more crucial. These skills are correlated with academic and professional achievement, healthier interactions, and greater wellbeing. Contrary to commonly believed, socioemotional skills are not innate and can be taught and learned. Although there are established and accepted standards and curricula available for Socioemotional Learning (SEL), they mainly focus on teacher-led instruction in a regular classroom setting, which brings the extra cost of the necessary support and teachers training. One alternative is using technological resources to develop these skills. However, an open question is which technologies exist for SEL and what is the evidence of their impacts and benefits. This paper presents a systematic mapping to show how socioemotional skills are being taught using technological resources.We analyzed the results and suggested under-explored areas to develop socioemotional skills with technology and computational artifacts.
    Keywords: Socioemotional skills; 21st century skills; Computer-based intervention; systematic mapping.

    by Gizem Kara, Aysegul Liman Kaban 
    Abstract: This research purposed to investigate the attitudes of elementary level teachers towards blended learning implementation in Turkey. The study was conducted by gathering data from 160 teachers working in elementary schools. To collect data, a mixed methods research design was implemented. Quantitative data were gathered with a survey instrument that measures the perception of teachers on blended learning and the qualitative data was collected by conducting individual interviews which had open-ended questions with ten participants. The results of quantitative data and qualitative findings indicated that teachers generally have a positive attitude towards the implementation of blended learning in elementary education.
    Keywords: Blended Learning; Elementary Education; Teacher Attitudes; COVID-19; Delivery; Online Education; Pedagogy; Digital Pedagogy.

  • Strengths and weaknesses of using educational technology in inclusive settings with limited available resources: reflections on a classroom-based computer-mediated collaborative learning approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Kyriakos Demetriou 
    Abstract: This study explores the strengths and weaknesses of using educational technology in inclusive settings with limited available resources, in Cyprus. A primary school teacher and her students participated in a series of classroom-based computer-mediated collaborative learning sessions. Students worked in groups and solved a number of mathematical problems with the use of a limited number of available computers in the computer lab of their school. The participants reflected upon their experiences in interviews that were conducted before and after these sessions. In addition, a reflective journal was used to reflect on the process. The thematic analysis of participants reflections upon their experiences and the reflective journal unveiled several strengths such as that teacher custom-made learning environments, combined with collaboration in groups, can be a possible solution for technology-rich learning experiences for children in inclusive settings. Also, some benefits of collaboration in groups with the use of the computer occurred, such as working in small groups, increased acceptance, group balance and increased participation. However, some weaknesses of using educational technology in environments with limited available technological resources, arose from the analysis. These were technical issues and challenges of collaboration in groups with the use of the computer.
    Keywords: Technology in the classroom; Inclusive settings; Computer-mediated learning; Collaborative learning.

  • Effectiveness of Distance Learning of Mathematics from the Perspective of Public-School Teachers in the West-Bank during the COVID Pandemic   Order a copy of this article
    by Nabil Assadi, Hisham Bani-Matar 
    Abstract: The study aims to identify the Effectiveness of Distance Learning of Mathematics From the perspective of the Public-School Teachers during the COVID Pandemic. Differences of statistical significances between the answers of the participants were registered. To achieve the desired goals, researchers employed the descriptive approach; a questionnaire was designed to collect the necessary information from the research sample (125) teachers. Results show that effectiveness of distance learning of mathematics from the teachers point of view was average. Regarding the fields, the field of objectives of the activation of mathematics curriculum distance learning came first whereas the liabilities of distance teaching of mathematics occupied the last place. No variations of statistical significance emerged regarding the distance teaching of mathematics in relation to the study variables. The research is expected to contribute usefully to the scientific community as it handles a global incidence and its implications within a developing country with limited resources and capabilities. The gap that the paper attempts to address is one of great significance; as it answers pivotal questions on how technology in education can be a real hope for educational achievement in a marginalized area of the world.
    Keywords: Distance Learning; Mathematics Curriculum; Mathematics Teachers; Education Technology; and Corona Virus Pandemic.

    by Azidah Abu, Ifedayo Adu 
    Abstract: This research investigated students online learning technology usability considering the impact of a remote learning experience, quality of remote learning experience, infrastructure for remote teaching and learning, methods for remote teaching and learning, environment for remote teaching and learning and wellbeing antecedents in this study. For instance, the remote learning experience among students during movement control order in a Malaysia University recorded 68.91% unfavourable and 31.09% favourable levels in this research. The study opted for both quantitative research of survey type and qualitative methods, which utilised an online questionnaire titled students online learning experiences questionnaire (SOLEQ) of both close and open-ended questions. The SOLEQ Cronbach alpha was calculated to be 0.8, which was valid and reliable for this study. The data were collected from Malaysian university students. Also, the study collected both quantitative and qualitative data that were analysed by using both inferential and descriptive statistics, which entails multiple regression and percentages. Besides, percentages and thematic data analysis was utilised in analysing the qualitative data responses by theming the comments into clusters before coding into the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS). The findings suggest that most students felt the online learning was unfavourable. This study has implication on teaching as a professional discipline and extrapolates its findings to routine training in medical, engineering, and business-oriented discipline to mention few based on its online learning discourses. The study recommends that the university must endeavour to provide adequate and quality resources to support standard students online learning experiences. This research suggests further adoption of this enquiry model for technology usability studies as it has not been optimally explored.
    Keywords: Impact; Learning Technology; Internet infrastructure; University.

  • Massive open online courses: A systematic literature review focusing on the achievements and challenges   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: Innovation is a competitive factor for any organization. It makes it possible to stand out from the competitors. Actually, entities use the digital ages means to carry out their missions. In this respect, higher education institutions are no exception. Indeed, the search for an innovative education system is always relevant.This paper aims at presenting a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) focusing on Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), their achievements and challenges they are facing. Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and MetaAnalysis (PRISMA) model, the results of the synthesis and analysis of 27 papers show there is a variety of content that MOOCs have dealt with. Most of the published studies focus on the design. Only connectivist MOOCs can be considered an educational innovation. Moreover, the designers of MOOCs do not take into account the individual needs of the different participants. Hence, several challenges remain to be overcome. The identified gaps could motivate further research.
    Keywords: E-learning; innovation; MOOCs; achievements; challenges; perspectives; distance learning; online education; educational technology; computer use in education.

  • Acceptance assessment of the software MOTIVATIC WEB by university educators   Order a copy of this article
    by Mileidy Alvarez-Melgarejo, Aura Cecilia Pedraza Avella, Martha Liliana Torres-Barreto 
    Abstract: MOTIVATIC WEB is a software platform in which teachers can co-design activities for their students using three different gamified mechanics. This article presents the results of the technology acceptance evaluation by users. The evaluation considered aspects related to perceived usefulness and ease of use, behavioral intention to use and external variables related to user experience, functionality and web platform visual aesthetics, aspects adapted from the TAM model. A qualitative analysis instrument was applied to 21 higher education professors from five different countries, experts in the areas of economic and administrative sciences, industrial engineering, basic sciences and medical sciences. The results indicate that the perceived usefulness and ease of use of the software are related to the intention to use it. It shows that the software is efficient as an educational support resource, allowing the design of certain mechanics for students as well as communication and collaboration among teachers.
    Keywords: Collaborative work; functionality; Motivatic Web; TAM model; user experience.

  • Online learning: Predicting student engagement and continued intention   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohsin Khan, Mahendar Goli 
    Abstract: Online learning has become a blessing in disguise to continue education without being hit by COVID-19 during the time of social distancing and mask-environment. Also, it has been a critical challenge to engage students in virtual platforms. The current research focused to study the factors affecting the student engagement and intention to continue online learning. 372 responses were obtained using a structured questionnaire on a five-point Likert scale from graduate and post-graduate students across India. Structural equation modeling with AMOS was employed to analyze the data. The results indicated that student collaborative learning and engagement in online learning exhibit a positive effect on intention to continue online learning. This is one of the very few studies conducted on student engagement in online learning during a Pandemic. The research suggests that the beneficiaries need to adopt interactive-based teaching methods for better student engagement and learning outcome.
    Keywords: Online Learning; collaborative learning; engagement; e-learning; students Interaction.

  • Disruptive Innovation of Edtech Companies in Emerging Economy during Covid-19   Order a copy of this article
    by Manish Kumar Dwivedi, Naveen Virmani 
    Abstract: COVID-19 had transformed the manner in which people lived, worked, and interacted on a large scale. As of March 2020, the lockdown was implemented in India. As a result of the imposition of lockdown, all schools and colleges were closed. The closure of the schools compels the people to follow the norms of social distancing. Globally, over 1.2 billion children stopped going to school in a physical mode. This critical situation creates an opportunity for various elearning platforms where children can attend classes remotely in a digital mode. This study has been conducted to examine the growth of the Edtech companies involved in providing education to children during the Lockdown and evaluate the transition that took place from offline to online education mode during COVID-19. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) approach was applied for systematic and structured analysis. Furthermore, the study analyzed the impact of digital education on students. The results revealed that the various Edtech companies such as BYJUs and UNACADEMY etc. flourished during the pandemic. However, students engagement and participation were found to be a serious concern in conducting studies in a digital mode. Furthermore, the teachers in many places were not found comfortable using online education apps. Digital literacy training programs can be organized to counter this issue.
    Keywords: EdTech; E-learning; Disruptive Innovation; Covid-19; Lockdown.