Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Learning Technology

International Journal of Learning Technology (IJLT)

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International Journal of Learning Technology (18 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Designing learner control in instructional software: A lens of time spent on tasks to determine the mental effort   Order a copy of this article
    by Ünal CAKIROGLU, Dilara Arzugül AKSOY, Aysegül GENCAN, Hasan SEN 
    Abstract: This study aims to determine the relationships between mental effort and the use of learner controls while working with instructional software. Various versions of instructional software including control components were developed to examine this relationship. Twenty-four secondary school students participated in the study and studied with instructional software including different controls in the content pages. All content pages consisted of the content area, image area, and control panel components. Five different page templates including different positions of these components were placed on the pages. Quantitative data were gathered from the cognitive load scale and the time spent on tasks was used for measuring the mental effort spent on the tasks in the software. The results indicated that students who used more controls spent more mental effort. Along with the study findings, the factors affecting the perceptions of cognitive load regarding the time spent on the controls were discussed. Implications were suggested for designers within the cognitive effects of learner control.
    Keywords: learner control; cognitive load; mental effort; instructional software.

  • Can fear of human interaction be one of the factors that affect the acceptance and use of technology?   Order a copy of this article
    by Zaki Shoheib, Nasrina Mauji, Emad Abu-Shanab 
    Abstract: Abstract: The Internet has considerably changed the landscape of communication in the 21st century. People no longer have to leave their homes to engage in meaningful interpersonal communication. More importantly, individuals who have an inherent fear of human interaction seek solace and comfort in communication technologies. This study investigated how individuals fear of human interaction affects technology acceptance. A proposed framework was built based on the extended Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT2). The model postulates that performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, facilitating conditions, hedonic motivation, perceived value, fear of physical interaction (FoPI), and social anxiety (SA) can significantly predict an individuals technology acceptance. Results failed to support the role of social influence and fear of physical interaction. All other variables were significant predictors of behavioral intentions. Data analysis included comparing means of SA and FOPI items to understand our major model extension. More details are reported in the paper.
    Keywords: Technology; fear; human interaction; interpersonal communication; F2F interaction.

  • Behavioural reasoning perspectives in e-learning adoption   Order a copy of this article
    by Muhammad Ahsan Sadiq 
    Abstract: Previous studies on e-learning adoption have focused either on resistance or adoption factors in their frameworks; the novelty of our research is the modelling of both in a single framework by using behavioural reasoning theory (Westaby, 2005). Prior to the study, context-specific reasons for and reasons against adoption of e-learning were identified using a semi-structured interview with 24 students. Based on the feedback, a questionnaire was designed, and final data was collected from four public universities in India (N = 377). Findings indicate that reasons against e-learning adoption have a relatively stronger impact on adoption intentions than reasons for adoption. The barrier of tradition was found to have the strongest influence on reasons against e-learning adoption, followed by usage and risk. Further, openness to change (values) was found to explain reasons for and against e-learning usage among students, besides explaining adoption attitudes. The novelty of our study lies in its examination of the influence of resistance and adoption factors in a single framework, which was missing in previous studies, wherein the focus was on either resistance or adoption factors.
    Keywords: Behavioural reasoning theory; reasons cognitions; e-learning; innovations.

  • An effective evaluation system to grade programming assignments automatically   Order a copy of this article
    by Afzalur Rahaman, Abu Sayed Md. Latiful Hoque 
    Abstract: Since the last few decades programming courses are being taught in nearly every educational sector. Students are now more likely to use an e-learning platform compared to traditional system because of lower internet costs, remote access, and faster communication facilities. For a programming course studied in both manual and e-learning platforms, instructors evaluate huge number of programming assignments which is cumbersome since programming assignment checking requires higher accuracy. To mitigate instructors job with a satisfactory level of confidence we developed a system using TF-IDF, Generalized Graph Isomorphism, and Token Edit Distance. The testing outcome of the system reveals a higher level of congruence with a human expert grader.
    Keywords: Generalized graph isomorphism; Partial grading; Solution feature; Solution matrix; TF-IDF; Token edit distance.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLT.2022.10048175
  • Student engagement and learning during COVID 19: An empirical analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Nandini Borah, Pranami Sharma 
    Abstract: COVID-19 pandemic brought along with it a widespread disruption of education system around the world. Schools, colleges and universities were shut all over the world. In order to maintain the continuity of education, educators and students alike adopted the online mode of teaching and learning. While mainstream education was mostly face-to-face; a sudden shift to the online mode of teaching and learning required teachers and students to get acquainted with the platform and tools. This study attempts to test a model to understand the impact of online education on students engagement levels in the context of higher education and the COVID-19 pandemic. Results indicate that access to digital resources and teacher effectiveness has positive impact on engagement and student engagement in turn has positive impact on learning outcomes. Stress has negative impact on student learning. The paper also discusses implications of the study and future direction for research.
    Keywords: student engagement; student learning; online learning; COVID-19; structural equation modeling; higher education; higher educational institutions.

  • Improving a Hand-Therapeutic Application for Fine-Motor Skill Development through Usability Evaluation   Order a copy of this article
    by Smitha John, Renumol V.G. 
    Abstract: With the recent advances in learning technologies, researchers are exploring the benefits of touch-based applications to reinforce handwriting skills in children with writing difficulties. One of the reasons for writing difficulties is the lack of fine motor skills. Hence, an Android application was developed for children with writing difficulties to enhance their hand dexterity. It has six activities for improving hand-eye coordination, spatial organization, and pencil/pen grip in children. The design of all these activities is based on the oscillation theory of handwriting. This paper explains the usability evaluation of this Android App and how improvements have been made in the application based on the user feedback. Ten participants have evaluated the initial prototypes in five iterations and the final product was built by considering their feedback. The study shows that the user evaluation approach is effective in identifying the usability issues and in improving the user interfaces and also the functionalities of the software application. From our experience, we suggest that including user researchers and ET researchers along with children in the usability evaluation process is beneficial, especially when the educational software users are children below 15 years of age.
    Keywords: Handwriting; fine-motor skill; usability evaluation; learning technology; multi-touch devices; tablet computer; hand dexterity.

  • Factors Related to Tertiary Education Teachers Use of the Microsoft Teams Platform   Order a copy of this article
    by Adil Youssef Sayeh, Hassane Razkane, Mohamed Yeou, Najat Mokhtari 
    Abstract: Previous research disclosed that teachers faced challenges while using different Learning Management Systems during the COVID-19 outbreak. This study investigated teachers perceptions of Microsoft Teams functionalities and the extent to which they are related to teachers time spent on it as well as the various factors associated with their syllabus coverage. Situated within Human-Computer Interaction theory, 157 university teachers at Chouaib Doukkali University, Morocco, were administered a questionnaire that measured their perception of the functionalities offered by Microsoft Teams. Results indicated that teachers perceptions of the functionalities offered by Learning Management Systems also play an intervening variable in the deployment of these tools in teaching. Hence, this paper calls for an extension and readaptation of existing models such as the Technology Acceptance Model and the System Usability Scale to include an evaluation of the functionalities offered by these tools.
    Keywords: Microsoft Teams; Learning Management Systems; usability; emergency remote teaching; functionalities; e-Learning tools; TAM; SUS; university teachers.

  • Prediction and Classification of Churners in Online Learning using Ensemble of Distributed Iterative Classifiers   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: In e-learning domain the weak learners known as churn are the one who underperform and might drop from the course. Identifying and giving more attentions to such churn is an active research problem. Numerous methods have been proposed in the literature, which predicts churn based on their personal attributes and learning curve. One major limitation with the existing method is that they evaluate their system with minimal set of data. To overcome that issue and to improve the accuracy, this research work proposed a distributed iterative classifier that deploys an ensemble learning algorithm to generalize the model for predicting potential churn from personal attributes. Predictions from the base classifier are obtained using a distributed iterative classification algorithm that deploys a map-reduce framework. Iterative classification algorithm predicts signs of attrition in the learners through their online interactions. It can also process a very large network, which was lacking in the existing solution. The proposed system is validated using the features of five students and results are re-ported. Experimental results show that the proposed ensemble classifier predicts churn competently.
    Keywords: Churn Prediction; Distributed Iterative classification; dropout in online learning; Ensemble learning;.

  • Factors Influencing Online Learning on Social Media   Order a copy of this article
    by Shabana Khurshid, Faseeh Amin, Nayera Masoodi, Mohammad Furqan Khan 
    Abstract: Academic research concerning social media learning has seen an accelerated pace in the last many years. However, some aspects of online learning on such platforms remain unaddressed. This work has investigated the relationship between social media use and its four antecedents, i.e. perceived interactivity, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and perceived enjoyment. Moreover, it has also examined the association of social media use with its outcome variables, i.e. active learning, creativity and collaborative learning, leading to learning performance. This work has been conducted on university learners with a sample size of 511. A causal research design was applied in this work as it allowed the testing of relationships amongst various variables. SEM (Structural Equation Modeling) analysis revealed interesting results as social media use positively correlates with its four antecedents. Perceived enjoyment has the most substantial influence on social media use. Moreover, the results show that social media use enhances active learning, creativity and collaborative learning amongst learners, improving their academic performance. Social media use has the most influence on active learning, and active learning has the most substantial impact on learning performance. These results offer some unique insights into social media learning that all stakeholders can apply to improve learners' learning performance in the education domain.
    Keywords: online learning; social media; social media learning' learning performance; education.

  • Implications of student satisfaction with flipped classroom design in a Taiwan university   Order a copy of this article
    by Amy Roberts, Gregory Ching 
    Abstract: There is increasing pressure for higher education institutions to develop and expand student learning using evidence-based and needs-based data. Reflecting this stance is the use of the flipped classroom design as a worldwide education trend, defined here as a form of blended learning wherein students complete readings and videos at home and engage in active learning in classroom spaces. This article reports on a longitudinal mixed methods investigation of student satisfaction in a Taiwan university undergraduate course taught with the flipped design. The purpose was twofold, to explore student satisfaction of the flipped classroom design over a seven-year period and craft implications that contribute to contemporary discourse for educators engaged with and committed to the flipped design. Participants included 390 Taiwan undergraduate freshmen students enrolled in an 18-week semester Foundation of Education flipped course using English as the language of instruction. Results suggest positive satisfaction from the use of a flipped design as a pedagogical approach. Participant perceptions of the flipped design were generally encouraging over the span of seven years but with a significant minority having some negative views. This indicates that the flipped design may not be applicable to all learners and may fluctuate in response to current events on local, national, or global levels. Recommendations include using the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge model to ensure balance between all course components. Use of qualitative studies are also recommended to gain a deeper understanding of how students perceive flipped learning, with examples of best practice for pedagogical design.
    Keywords: Flipped classroom design; Taiwan; English as a medium of instruction; Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Model.

  • Extending the Technology Acceptance Model to Understand the Use of E-learning During COVID-19 Pandemic for Enhancing Learning Process: Iraqi Universities Students   Order a copy of this article
    by Suad Azeez, Salih Glood, Mohammad Alhasnawi 
    Abstract: Although the influencing factors on the use of e-learning were examined in the previous studies, the physical characteristics of the educational environment and their impact on the use of e-learning during the Covid-19 pandemic are still to investigate. Therefore, to bridge this gap, this study adapted TAM as a theoretical model and extended it by adding learning content; and lighting and noise as environmental variables. This study aims to investigate the effecting factors of E-learning on Iraqi universities during outbreaks of Covid-19. Moreover, this study used an online survey approach for collecting data and a Structural Equation Modelling technique to analyze the collecting data. The findings revealed that learning content has a positive effect on perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness. Furthermore, the relationships among the core constructs of TAM were supported. The moderating effect of environmental factors on the relationship between perceived usefulness and intention behavior was supported.
    Keywords: Covid-19; e-learning; higher education; technology acceptance model; Iraqi universities.

  • Audiovisual resources and learning improvement: An experimental analysis   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: The general objective of this research is to analyze the students' learning performance on the use of audiovisual resources in the subject of Didactics of the Business and its Environment, taught in masters degree in Teacher Training of High School, Vocational Training and Language Teaching (specialty in Economics, Business, and Commerce) at the University of Nebrija. This study applied the experimental method from two randomly generated samples of the two groups (virtual classrooms) into which the enrolled students were administratively divided. The results obtained by the experiment point to a significant improvement in the students' learning performance, and their perception about the use of this didactic tool turned out to be very positive.
    Keywords: Audiovisual resources; digital teaching resources; videos in class; audiovisual didactics; multimedia teaching; learning; learning improvement; virtual classrooms; experimental method; experimental analysis.

  • Visual Programming and Computational Thinking Environments for K-9 Education: A Systematic Literature Review   Order a copy of this article
    by Dimitrios Trakosas, Christina Tikva, Efthimios Tambouris 
    Abstract: Teaching programming and Computational Thinking to young students has gained increasing attention in recent years. This great attention is attributed partially to the emergence of easy-to-use visual programming environments. These environments help students focus on the logic and concepts of programming and at the same time enhance their engagement. It has been shown that the characteristics of visual programming environments influence students' engagement with programming. However, there is still no systematic investigation of these characteristics. This study aims to provide insights on the characteristics of visual programming environments for K-9 education based on a systematic literature review of 83 empirical studies on K-9 teaching and learning programming. These characteristics are analysed based on the following four levels: a) functional features b) student experience c) teacher experience and d) disadvantages. Finally, herein we discuss the features that a programming environment for K-9 education could have to improve the experience of students and teachers.
    Keywords: Visual Programming Environments; Computational Thinking Environments; K-9 education.

  • Identification of qualitative indicators of physical education students online courses during the COVID-19 outbreak   Order a copy of this article
    by Mehdi Salimi, Leila Moslehi 
    Abstract: This paper aims to identify the factors affecting the quality of the E-learning of physical education students. The statistical population of the paper consisted of undergraduate students at the University of Isfahan in the field of physical education who passed their theoretical and practical courses virtually in two semesters. The sample size was estimated to be 210 individuals based on the Krejcie and Morgan table. Then, a researcher-made questionnaire was employed to collect the required data. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify the factors affecting the quality of E-learning and confirmatory factor analysis was used to confirm the identified factors. According to the results, the factors affecting the E-learning quality of theoretical and practical courses are "teachers characteristics", "technical characteristics of the educational system", "content", "student characteristics", and evaluation and feedback.
    Keywords: E-learning; Virtual Learning; Distance Learning; Physical Education; COVID-19.

  • The design and development of MetAR framework for designing an Augmented Reality application based on experts consensus   Order a copy of this article
    by Siet Fah Lim, Yusri Kamin 
    Abstract: This study aims to design and develop a framework for designing a metacognitive-supported Augmented Reality application for teaching and learning Basic Pneumatic systems. This multi-method study with the Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM) and Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) approach involved 12 experts in multidisciplinary fields. The data was collected using seven Likert-type scale questionnaires. The design phase of the framework using the FDM found that the expert consensus for all principal components and the elements is greater than 75% with the threshold value, d ? 0.2. In contrast, the development phase of the framework was performed based on experts' voting using the ISM approach. The Concept Star software was used to develop the sequence of the elements based on their priority from every principal component to produce the MetAR design framework.
    Keywords: design research; developmental research; framework; instructional multimedia; Augmented Reality (AR); expert consensus.

  • How e-learning can Accelerate Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) in Higher Education: A Thematic Review of Literature   Order a copy of this article
    by Anshita Chelawat, Seema Sant 
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to explore the role of e-learning in attaining Sustainability goals in education, which is termed as Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). The paper examines how the inclusion of e-learning solutions in the current education system can create sustainable educational institutes concerning campus structure, facilities, teaching pedagogy, evaluation system, etc., and contribute to attaining ESD. It aims to highlight educational institutes' challenges in their journey towards sustainability while implementing e-learning solutions. The paper has employed a thematic and critical review approach by conducting a rigorous review of past literature in the area of sustainability, e-learning, higher education, and potential challenges, and shortlisted 23 papers relevant for the current research. Despite the previous research in the field of sustainability in education, the concept of sustainability in the Indian Education System is still nascent. The paper, thus, presents a holistic review of the literature to adhere to Sustainable Development Goals (SDG)-4, as proposed by UNESCO, in Indian Higher Education System. The paper illustrates that implementing e-learning solutions in higher education through its curriculum, teaching-learning pedagogies, and innovative technological aids can help Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) to contribute toward ESD.
    Keywords: Sustainability; Sustainable development; e-learning; Education for Sustainable development; higher education; online learning.

  • Perspectives of Arab Preservice Teachers in Israel on Online Learning During COVID-19   Order a copy of this article
    by Moanes H. Tibi 
    Abstract: The aim of this study was to identify the perspectives of Arab preservice teachers in Israel on various aspects of online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic and determine what they perceived as the major barriers to online learning. The study sample comprised 161 students who were surveyed about their experiences of online learning a year after the onset of the pandemic. The findings indicated that the students overall learning experience was positive and they were generally satisfied with their online learning during the pandemic. However, they struggled with slow internet, unscheduled electricity outages, and inconvenient learning environments. The findings also showed that the students suffered from stress and a reduced ability to concentrate. Two-way ANOVAs and follow-up Scheffes post-hoc tests revealed statistically significant mean differences between the students perspectives on several aspects of online learning based on their year of study and their study major.
    Keywords: preservice teachers’ perspectives; online learning; COVID-19; Arab preservice teachers.

  • Computational Tools to Teach and Develop Socioemotional Skills: A Systematic Mapping   Order a copy of this article
    by Diogines Goldoni, Helena Reis, Mateus Carrascoso, Patricia A. Jaques 
    Abstract: In an increasingly fast-changing and diverse world, the role of socioemotional skills has become more crucial. These skills are correlated with academic and professional achievement, healthier interactions, and greater wellbeing. Contrary to commonly believed, socioemotional skills are not innate and can be taught and learned. Although there are established and accepted standards and curricula available for Socioemotional Learning (SEL), they mainly focus on teacher-led instruction in a regular classroom setting, which brings the extra cost of the necessary support and teachers training. One alternative is using technological resources to develop these skills. However, an open question is which technologies exist for SEL and what is the evidence of their impacts and benefits. This paper presents a systematic mapping to show how socioemotional skills are being taught using technological resources.We analyzed the results and suggested under-explored areas to develop socioemotional skills with technology and computational artifacts.
    Keywords: Socioemotional skills; 21st century skills; Computer-based intervention; systematic mapping.