Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Learning Technology

International Journal of Learning Technology (IJLT)

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International Journal of Learning Technology (15 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Personalized Instructional Feedback in a Mobile-Assisted Language Learning Application Using Fuzzy Reasoning   Order a copy of this article
    by Konstantina Chrysafiadi, Christos Troussas, Marina Virvou 
    Abstract: This paper addresses the interesting issue of mobile-assisted language learning using novel techniques for further improving the adaptivity and personalization to students. The domain model of the system includes English and French language concepts, and its user model holds information about students and their progress. It also embodies a database of categories of errors and misconceptions which have been reported as common in the related literature. The system is also responsible for conducting model-based error diagnosis using machine learning techniques and identifying errors such as knowledge transfer, spelling or verb mistakes, etc. In conjunction with error diagnosis, the system employs fuzzy logic to automatically model these misconceptions and errors and then provide personalized feedback to students based on their personal learning needs. The system has been fully evaluated, using the CIAO! framework and t-test. The evaluation results are positive and encouraging regarding the educational effectiveness.
    Keywords: Mobile-assisted language learning (MALL); error diagnosis; adaptive learning; fuzzy logic; adaptive feedback; multiple foreign language learning; second language acquisition.

  • The challenges of distance assessment in higher education a case study   Order a copy of this article
    by Viktorija Florjancic 
    Abstract: The article presents the challenges of introducing e-assessment at a traditional university where teachers did not extensively use online learning until the first wave of the COVID-19 epidemic. The ad-hoc switch to online learning environments is known as emergency remote teaching because it was not planned. The first research supports other authors findings that even teachers who already skilled ICT users in pedagogical practice faced some problems. Most of the challenges are related to exam proctoring. After a year of emergency remote teaching, the second survey results show a positive impact on education teachers became more confident, developed new teaching methods, and became more skilled ICT users. Teachers exchanging of best practices seems to be an essential lever for the teachers improvement. The cheating issues are still a focus.
    Keywords: distance exams; COVID-19; higher education; Slovenia.

  • A conceptual framework to structure remote learning scenarios: A digital wall as a reflective tool for students to develop mathematics problem-solving competencies   Order a copy of this article
    by Manuel Santos-Trigo, Isaid Reyes-Martinez, Adrián Gómez-Arciga 
    Abstract: The home confinement that was imposed to reduce and control the spread of Covid-19 pandemic led educational systems to implement changes in many school activities. Teachers moved to remote teaching and relied on digital apps to present and discuss learning activities with their students. Likewise, they looked for new routes and means to follow up and assess the students achievement and problem-solving competencies. What is important in structuring an online teaching environment to foster students learning of mathematics? To address this question, we present and discuss essentials of a conceptual framework to structure online learning environments. It includes three intertwined elements: a problem-solving approach for learners to learn mathematics, the students use of digital affordances to represent, explore, and solve problems, and an online students learning support. To this end, the use of a digital wall emerges as a reflective tool for students to organize, structure, and monitor their own learning experiences and problem-solving approaches.
    Keywords: Mathematical problem solving; digital technologies; a digital wall; mathematical reasoning.

  • Learning management system success: The role of student experience explored   Order a copy of this article
    by Gali Naveh, Amit Shelef 
    Abstract: Learning management system (LMS) is a widely used learning environment in academia. As such, LMS success should be of concern for educators and administrators in institutions of higher education. This research study explores whether student LMS experience, in terms of the time elapsed since first use, affects their perception of the LMS. Following the replacement of an old LMS platform with a new one, student perceptions about system quality, and net benefit in terms of contribution to learning and student satisfaction with the system, were explored. The results indicate with respect to the new system that the quality rating and student satisfaction were lower for relatively shorter user experience of one year of use, but did elevate for more extended student experience of two or three years of use. These results suggest that student experience should be taken into consideration by administrators when deploying a new key IS platform.
    Keywords: learning management system (LMS); system experience; DeLone and McLean information system success model; student satisfaction; System quality; Contribution to learning.

  • E-learning ecosystem metaphor: Building sustainable education for the post-Covid-19 era   Order a copy of this article
    by Naglaa Megahed, Ehab Ghoneim 
    Abstract: Many academic institutions have relied exclusively on traditional learning, but the sudden outbreak of Covid-19 shook all educational systems by forcing a shift to emergency remote teaching. The purpose of this study is to understand this transformation and consider the concept of an e-learning ecosystem for building sustainable education to overcome Covid-19 or a similar crisis. Therefore, the conceptual research mainly focuses on developing and proposing a) the systematic model considering e-learning guidelines and possible scenarios; b) the model to inquire, classify, design, and evaluate e-learning ecosystems; c) the matrix to design different e-learning ecosystems; and d) the holistic framework that integrates all the extraordinary measures, protocols, and procedures for the e-learning ecosystem. All these components recognize the changes in academic institutions and will be the foundation for future e-learning ecosystems.
    Keywords: Covid-19; e-learning protocols; emergency education; online.

  • How elementary students experience the use of Immersive Technology   Order a copy of this article
    by Francisco Sandoval-Henríquez, Maria Badilla-Quintana 
    Abstract: The integration of immersive technology is one of the main trends in education. The purpose of the research is to know how elementary school students experience the use of immersive technology in consideration of three properties: interactivity, presence, and flow. A pedagogical intervention focused on Natural Science content was elaborated, which incorporated activities based on the use of virtual reality and augmented reality. 231 students from four schools from Concepci
    Keywords: Learning; Natural science; Virtual reality; Augmented reality; Immersive technology; Elementary education; Interactivity; Presence; Flow; Pedagogical intervention.

  • Self-Proctored Mechanism for Online High-Stake Assessments in University Courses   Order a copy of this article
    by Chun Yin Cham, Kwok Wing Chow, Chi-Un Lei 
    Abstract: The aim of the study was to develop a cost-effective form of online proctoring mechanism that can serve as a scalable and secure solution to cater to high-stake assessments in institutions, with a particular focus on attaining high levels of flexibility and user-friendliness. With reference to existing systems, a self-proctored mechanism is proposed to conduct proctoring online assessment with a convenient setup by students. Students were guided to record and submit recordings from their webcam and captured from their computer screen. The recording submission compliance level and statistics were evaluated to gauge the effectiveness of the mechanism. The devised mechanism was deemed reliable across various student groups tested in two lower-division undergraduate courses with total enrollment of 600 students. With the advantages and potential improvements in conducting assessments online identified, the devised mechanism can provide a satisfactory baseline for the future development of large-scale high-stake assessment.
    Keywords: High-stake assessment; Examination; Proctoring; Online assessment; Cost-effectiveness.

  • A Flipped classroom to personalize learning for engineering students   Order a copy of this article
    by Hang Bui, Amrita Kaur, Hung Tran 
    Abstract: Flipped Classrooms (FC), also known as a reversed or inverted classroom, has attracted widespread attention in higher education for active engagement and enhanced learning outcomes. It is proposed in the literature that FC promotes self-directed learning and can create a personalized learning experience for students. The current study employed a pre-post experimental design to test the effectiveness of a soft skills course designed based on the flipped classroom model. A total of 155 (44 female, 111 male) students with a mean age of 20.35 years participated in this study. A paired t-test analysis showed significant differences in students' reports of self-directed learning, personalized learning, learning engagement, and assessment between pre-test and post-test. The findings have implications for promoting the FC model for engineering education students for enhanced engagement, soft skills, and self-regulation.
    Keywords: Teaching and Learning; engineering education; flipped classroom; self-directed learning; personalised learning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLT.2022.10047362
     
  • Designing learner control in instructional software: A lens of time spent on tasks to determine the mental effort   Order a copy of this article
    by Ünal CAKIROGLU, Dilara Arzugül AKSOY, Aysegül GENCAN, Hasan SEN 
    Abstract: This study aims to determine the relationships between mental effort and the use of learner controls while working with instructional software. Various versions of instructional software including control components were developed to examine this relationship. Twenty-four secondary school students participated in the study and studied with instructional software including different controls in the content pages. All content pages consisted of the content area, image area, and control panel components. Five different page templates including different positions of these components were placed on the pages. Quantitative data were gathered from the cognitive load scale and the time spent on tasks was used for measuring the mental effort spent on the tasks in the software. The results indicated that students who used more controls spent more mental effort. Along with the study findings, the factors affecting the perceptions of cognitive load regarding the time spent on the controls were discussed. Implications were suggested for designers within the cognitive effects of learner control.
    Keywords: learner control; cognitive load; mental effort; instructional software.

  • Lessons Learned about the Application of Adaptive Testing in Several First-Year University Courses
    by Angelone AM, Galassi Alessandra, Vittorini Pierpaolo 
    Abstract: Assessment in education is a crucial task. Adopting computerised adaptive testing (CAT) as a replacement for classical testing (FIT) raises questions from teachers and students perspectives. The scientific literature indicates that teachers using CAT instead of FIT should complete assessments faster and obtain more precise evaluations, albeit at the cost of calibrating their questions. Regarding the students, adaptive testing appears to increase their engagement, although the impossibility of revising questions once they are answered is usually seen as a detrimental characteristic. Thus, this paper reports a study concerning the aforementioned points.We initially describe the system for online assessment, which is currently under development in the University of LAquila (Italy). Then, we present and discuss the results. The outcomes seem to align almost entirely with those reported in the literature: no particular usability issues were detected (not even in the calibration process), and CAT is more efficient than FIT. However, FIT is considered easier than CAT, and CAT does not seem to be more engaging than FIT. Furthermore, no statistically significant differences between the CAT and FIT grades were highlighted. All these findings are summarised in the conclusions as a list of suggestions to teachers interested in switching from FIT to CAT.
    Keywords: Assessment; CAT; FIT; CTT; IRT.

  • Can fear of human interaction be one of the factors that affect the acceptance and use of technology?   Order a copy of this article
    by Zaki Shoheib, Nasrina Mauji, Emad Abu-Shanab 
    Abstract: Abstract: The Internet has considerably changed the landscape of communication in the 21st century. People no longer have to leave their homes to engage in meaningful interpersonal communication. More importantly, individuals who have an inherent fear of human interaction seek solace and comfort in communication technologies. This study investigated how individuals fear of human interaction affects technology acceptance. A proposed framework was built based on the extended Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT2). The model postulates that performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, facilitating conditions, hedonic motivation, perceived value, fear of physical interaction (FoPI), and social anxiety (SA) can significantly predict an individuals technology acceptance. Results failed to support the role of social influence and fear of physical interaction. All other variables were significant predictors of behavioral intentions. Data analysis included comparing means of SA and FOPI items to understand our major model extension. More details are reported in the paper.
    Keywords: Technology; fear; human interaction; interpersonal communication; F2F interaction.

  • Behavioural reasoning perspectives in e-learning adoption   Order a copy of this article
    by Muhammad Ahsan Sadiq 
    Abstract: Previous studies on e-learning adoption have focused either on resistance or adoption factors in their frameworks; the novelty of our research is the modelling of both in a single framework by using behavioural reasoning theory (Westaby, 2005). Prior to the study, context-specific reasons for and reasons against adoption of e-learning were identified using a semi-structured interview with 24 students. Based on the feedback, a questionnaire was designed, and final data was collected from four public universities in India (N = 377). Findings indicate that reasons against e-learning adoption have a relatively stronger impact on adoption intentions than reasons for adoption. The barrier of tradition was found to have the strongest influence on reasons against e-learning adoption, followed by usage and risk. Further, openness to change (values) was found to explain reasons for and against e-learning usage among students, besides explaining adoption attitudes. The novelty of our study lies in its examination of the influence of resistance and adoption factors in a single framework, which was missing in previous studies, wherein the focus was on either resistance or adoption factors.
    Keywords: Behavioural reasoning theory; reasons cognitions; e-learning; innovations.

  • An effective evaluation system to grade programming assignments automatically   Order a copy of this article
    by Afzalur Rahaman, Abu Sayed Md. Latiful Hoque 
    Abstract: Since the last few decades programming courses are being taught in nearly every educational sector. Students are now more likely to use an e-learning platform compared to traditional system because of lower internet costs, remote access, and faster communication facilities. For a programming course studied in both manual and e-learning platforms, instructors evaluate huge number of programming assignments which is cumbersome since programming assignment checking requires higher accuracy. To mitigate instructors job with a satisfactory level of confidence we developed a system using TF-IDF, Generalized Graph Isomorphism, and Token Edit Distance. The testing outcome of the system reveals a higher level of congruence with a human expert grader.
    Keywords: Generalized graph isomorphism; Partial grading; Solution feature; Solution matrix; TF-IDF; Token edit distance.

  • Student engagement and learning during COVID 19: An empirical analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Nandini Borah, Pranami Sharma 
    Abstract: COVID-19 pandemic brought along with it a widespread disruption of education system around the world. Schools, colleges and universities were shut all over the world. In order to maintain the continuity of education, educators and students alike adopted the online mode of teaching and learning. While mainstream education was mostly face-to-face; a sudden shift to the online mode of teaching and learning required teachers and students to get acquainted with the platform and tools. This study attempts to test a model to understand the impact of online education on students engagement levels in the context of higher education and the COVID-19 pandemic. Results indicate that access to digital resources and teacher effectiveness has positive impact on engagement and student engagement in turn has positive impact on learning outcomes. Stress has negative impact on student learning. The paper also discusses implications of the study and future direction for research.
    Keywords: student engagement; student learning; online learning; COVID-19; structural equation modeling; higher education; higher educational institutions.

  • Improving a Hand-Therapeutic Application for Fine-Motor Skill Development through Usability Evaluation   Order a copy of this article
    by Smitha John, Renumol V.G. 
    Abstract: With the recent advances in learning technologies, researchers are exploring the benefits of touch-based applications to reinforce handwriting skills in children with writing difficulties. One of the reasons for writing difficulties is the lack of fine motor skills. Hence, an Android application was developed for children with writing difficulties to enhance their hand dexterity. It has six activities for improving hand-eye coordination, spatial organization, and pencil/pen grip in children. The design of all these activities is based on the oscillation theory of handwriting. This paper explains the usability evaluation of this Android App and how improvements have been made in the application based on the user feedback. Ten participants have evaluated the initial prototypes in five iterations and the final product was built by considering their feedback. The study shows that the user evaluation approach is effective in identifying the usability issues and in improving the user interfaces and also the functionalities of the software application. From our experience, we suggest that including user researchers and ET researchers along with children in the usability evaluation process is beneficial, especially when the educational software users are children below 15 years of age.
    Keywords: Handwriting; fine-motor skill; usability evaluation; learning technology; multi-touch devices; tablet computer; hand dexterity.