Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Learning and Change

International Journal of Learning and Change (IJLC)

Forthcoming articles have been peer-reviewed and accepted for publication but are pending final changes, are not yet published and may not appear here in their final order of publication until they are assigned to issues. Therefore, the content conforms to our standards but the presentation (e.g. typesetting and proof-reading) is not necessarily up to the Inderscience standard. Additionally, titles, authors, abstracts and keywords may change before publication. Articles will not be published until the final proofs are validated by their authors.

Forthcoming articles must be purchased for the purposes of research, teaching and private study only. These articles can be cited using the expression "in press". For example: Smith, J. (in press). Article Title. Journal Title.

Articles marked with this shopping trolley icon are available for purchase - click on the icon to send an email request to purchase.

Online First articles are published online here, before they appear in a journal issue. Online First articles are fully citeable, complete with a DOI. They can be cited, read, and downloaded. Online First articles are published as Open Access (OA) articles to make the latest research available as early as possible.

Open AccessArticles marked with this Open Access icon are Online First articles. They are freely available and openly accessible to all without any restriction except the ones stated in their respective CC licenses.

Register for our alerting service, which notifies you by email when new issues are published online.

We also offer which provide timely updates of tables of contents, newly published articles and calls for papers.

International Journal of Learning and Change (27 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Social entrepreneurial intention and its antecedents: a narrative review-based study   Order a copy of this article
    by Alisha Soni, Kanupriya Misra Bakhru 
    Abstract: Social entrepreneurship is a planned behaviour and rapidly gaining its importance in society. This complex process can be understood by studying intention which is the single best predictor of subsequent behaviour. It helps in understanding the reasons behind the actions undertaken and the manner in which potential entrepreneurs decide and act to achieve their social entrepreneurial goals. One of the major reasons of studying intention is its empirically proven psychological models. Such general intention models provide base for the development of intention models of social entrepreneurship. Therefore, it becomes necessary to study this process in an organised manner, as various other variables are also getting introduced. The paper clarifies this evolution process and categorised the main areas of knowledge used to explain different aspects of entrepreneurial intention to start a social venture. The classification of variables is done on the basis of three ecosystems of socio-ecological model introduced by Urie Bronfenbrenner in 1970s namely, individual, social, contextual/situational factors. Hence, this study attracts the attention of academic community, who are at the initial level of research or seeking foundational knowledge about this subject. However, it was difficult to include every variable which predict social entrepreneurial intention in an individual.
    Keywords: social entrepreneurship; entrepreneurial intention; entrepreneurial intention models; social entrepreneurial intention; social entrepreneurial intention models.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2021.10043412
  • The relationship of training and learning, and the diversity of sources of innovation's ideas with the social innovation in non-profit organisations. Evidence from Ecuador   Order a copy of this article
    by Orly Carvache-Franco, Glenda Gutiérrez-Candela, Paola Guim-Bustos 
    Abstract: The objective of this research was to examine the relationship of the variables training and learning, and the diversity of sources of innovation's ideas, with the social innovation of non-profit organisations (NPOs), the study was carried out in Guayas-Ecuador. It is a quantitative, cross-sectional, non-experimental study, Probit regression was used. The findings indicate that the variables: training and learning, and the diversity of sources of ideas for innovation, positively affect social innovation in these organisations. The theoretical implication of the research is that it contributes to the scant empirical evidence of this relationship, especially in developing countries, it also strengthens the idea that the resource based view of the firm can explain social innovation and that the fundamental resource in social innovation is the knowledge, which these organisations acquire and increase through training and internal learning, and the diversity of sources of ideas for innovation that they acquire.
    Keywords: social innovation; governance; development of social projects; knowledge.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2021.10043637
  • International learning experience in different cultures   Order a copy of this article
    by Rui Gonçalves, Bruno Santana, Leandro Pereira, Renato Lopes Da Costa, Álvaro Dias 
    Abstract: This study aims to give an understanding about what are the main reasons that are taken in consideration by foreign students in their decision to stay or leave the country where they have completed their studies. Based on literature review a survey was built and sent to students of different nationalities, which focused on the main dimensions valued by an individual when choosing a place to live. The results showed that the variables 'perception (education)', 'environment', 'health and well-being', 'social influence', 'intention to live abroad', 'social influence' and 'Intent to live abroad' where the ones with greater impact in the decision of a foreign student to stay or leave the country.
    Keywords: university students; retaining talent; socio-economic condition; country attraction.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2022.10044024
  • Teaching French grammar in an informal cooperative study group through Kahoot   Order a copy of this article
    by Igor Didier Sabukunze, Suyoto 
    Abstract: This research intends to improve the French grammar level for Indonesian students. We carried out a quantitative method to implement gamification reinforcement in an informal cooperative learning (ICL) group. The instrument used was a questionnaire. This study uses gamification and ICL for communication tools to improve the French language’s grammar. It is primarily for tenses since Indonesian students from the French department still have problems writing and speaking French. Because of this, they often use their mother language. The purpose of this study is designed as a communication tool to enhance the French language’s grammar, especially for tenses. In this manuscript, we used five students as participants. The combination of an ICL Group and gamification indicated that students’ performance, motivation, and enjoyment of the learning process increased. The application of new technology may help to improving the quality of teaching and learning in the classroom and make it fun.
    Keywords: French; gamification; informal cooperative group; Kahoot!.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2022.10044139
  • Self-determination and mathematics achievement among grade 12 learners in secondary schools   Order a copy of this article
    by Telesia Ahono Atetwe, Peter J.O. Aloka, Robert Mukuna Kananga 
    Abstract: The study examined the relationship between self-determination and mathematics achievement among grade 12 learners in secondary schools in Kenya. The ex post facto research design was used. A sample size of 445 grade 12 learners was obtained. The self-determination scale was used to collect data. The findings indicate a significant influence, though weak, positive correlation (r = 0.142, n = 396, p = 0.005) between self-efficacy of expectation and mathematics achievement; a significant, though weak, positive correlation (r = 0.182, n = 396, p < 0.05) between internal locus of control and mathematics achievement; very weak positive correlation (r = 0.088), but no significant correlation [n = (396) r = 0.088, p = 0.080 (ns)] between the level of learner self-knowledge and mathematics achievement; and finally, a weak, positive correlation [n = (396), r = 0.192, p < 0.05] between learner level of self-instruction and mathematics achievement. The study recommends that teachers should play a role in helping learners develop the self-determination resources by providing autonomy-supportive classrooms.
    Keywords: self-determination; mathematics achievement; grade 12; learners; secondary schools; Kenya.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2022.10044158
  • Inhibiting factors influencing adoption of simulation-based teaching from management teacher's perspective: prioritisation using analytic hierarchy process   Order a copy of this article
    by Preeti Bhaskar, Priyanka Bhaskar, Ananth Anthonisamy, Padmalosani Losani, Amit Joshi 
    Abstract: Simulation-based teaching provides opportunities to simulate the scenarios/situations by integrating different technology into educational practice to make it look like a real situation. The use of a simulation approach has been widely used in health, engineering, nursing, architecture, medicine, aviation, and marine courses, ironically, management education has not been at the forefront of simulation-based learning. This research aims to prioritise the inhibiting barriers faced by teachers to adopting simulation-based teaching in higher education institutions of India. Previous studies have identified inhibiting factor but none of the studies has prioritise those factors therefore this research has used AHP approach to prioritise the inhibiting barriers. This study has identified and prioritises four main inhibiting factors. Institutional-level factors have secured the highest rank, followed by technological-level factors, operational-level factors and personal-level factors.
    Keywords: inhibiting factors; technology adoption; simulation-based teaching; management teacher’s perspective; prioritisation; analytic hierarchy process; AHP.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2022.10044718
  • A guidebook for the integration of financial literacy to mathematics courses   Order a copy of this article
    by Abdullah Ozkale, Carmela Aprea 
    Abstract: Turkey needs to take serious steps for financial literacy, which has become one of the most trending topics in the world for the education system. Considering the strong interaction between financial literacy and mathematics education, the purpose of the study is to respond to the needs within the field of mathematics education in Turkey, without interfering with the curriculum, through a guidebook for grades one to eight. The tasks that are the focal point of the guidebook are presented for the teachers along with knowledge on children’s financial understanding. The tasks were designed according to task design parameters as well as the spiral approach which is used for the curriculums of Turkey as well. Tasks organise learning activities and guide teaching and learning processes, and they also include background on the design of the tasks. It is expected to lead a soft integration for financial literacy education in Turkey.
    Keywords: mathematics education; financial literacy; financial education; children’s financial understanding; guidebook; integration.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2022.10046844
  • Becoming a learning organisation - learning to change, change for learning: an IT case study   Order a copy of this article
    by Kala S. Retna 
    Abstract: This paper describes a qualitative case study of a fledgling IT organisation's espoused journey to becoming a learning organisation (LO). In particular, it examines how that change journey was informed and impacted by notions and elements embedded in Ortenblad's (2004) model of a LO. It derives insights from the organisation's experience to determine whether and how the model needs to be refined or re-interpreted for organisations pursuing the benefits of becoming a LO. The study concludes that Ortenblad's model has value in guiding such change and affirms the heightened importance of facilitating an appropriate climate for learning (CL), and of meaningfully contextualising learning processes within an organisation's formal and informal learning structure (LS), on that LO journey. The study is unique in identifying the relative influence and importance of Ortenblad's elements, the need for a more nuanced interpretation of those elements, and of evolving rather than developing a new model.
    Keywords: learning organisation; workplace learning; climate for learning; learning structure; organisational learning; IT sector.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2022.10047161
  • The effectiveness of augmented reality technology in enhancing students learning experiences in science course   Order a copy of this article
    by Ashraf Kan'an, Malek Jdaitawi, Abeer Toson, Reham Ghanem 
    Abstract: Augmented reality (AR) has become a potential technology tool to improve the learning experiences among students with special needs. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of learning materials using AR technology activities on the learning experiences of students with special needs. In this study, a quasi-experimental study is preceded with the pre-test-post-test control group design model. 24 students who identified to have special needs were participated in this study and were randomly assigned to either the AR group and control group. The study revealed that the experimental group better learning experiences than students in the control group. The result also indicated that the students in the experimental group scored showed more positive learning experiences using AR technology in the post-test than pre-test. In sum, the results suggest that using AR technology yield most promise in enhancing students learning experiences.
    Keywords: augmented reality; special needs; learning experiences; science.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2022.10047776
  • Entrepreneurial learning among different industries: a case study research of four sectors in the UK   Order a copy of this article
    by Jahangir Wasim, Fernando Almeida, Georgiana-Catalina Cujba 
    Abstract: Entrepreneurial activity has been an element of economic and social enhancement. However, managing a startup is a difficult and risky activity that strongly depends on the entrepreneur’s characteristics and skills. While much attention has been given recently to entrepreneurial learning, less has been studied about the learning dynamics in different industries. This study aims to understand and explore types of learning in different industries and find their similarities and differences. For this purpose, an exploratory comparative case study composed of four cases has been considered. Findings reveal that the main types of entrepreneurial learning are similar in all the industries analysed and are linked to social and experiential learning. The main dissimilarities are related to searching for customer information, employees’ feedback, and solving issues. Lastly, some entrepreneurs reflect on the actions or decisions taken, while others do not reflect as much as they would like to.
    Keywords: entrepreneurial learning; exploratory and exploitative learning; social learning; experiential learning; UK.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2022.10050561
  • The efficiency of the distance learning system and contributions of behavioural practices to motivation and passion for research in metacognition in its prediction   Order a copy of this article
    by Rommel M.A. Al Ali, Shoeb Saleh 
    Abstract: The expansion of the use of distance learning systems has made many countries around the world the need to search for the degree and level of their efficiency. Distance learning systems are based on several factors, the most important of which is the motivation and passion for research in metacognition for learners. This study aims to reach the degree of availability of the motivation and passion for metacognition as predictors of distance learning efficiency by developing two scales for them. A quantitative survey ?approach is used in this study. Psychometric properties of the developed scales were verified. The results showed that there are influences of motivation and passion for research in metacognition on the efficiency of the distance education system. It also confirmed that there is a strong and mutual influence relationship between motivation and passion for metacognition. The results also revealed that there were statistically significant differences between the average responses on both scales in favour of the gifted, third-year students, and students with higher achievement scores. There were no statistically significant differences between the averages of students’ responses on both scales due to their gender, academic branch, and the learning platforms used.
    Keywords: motivation; passion for metacognition; distance learning efficiency.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2022.10051004
  • Optimisation of sports training of qualified Baloans at the stage of direct pre-competition training   Order a copy of this article
    by Dinara Nurmukhanbetova, Kyrykbay Muskunov 
    Abstract: The aim of the work is to improve the system of training of highly qualified athletes engaged in Kazakh-Kures. The research was conducted from 2017 to 2019. During this time, our balconies participated in the Asian and World Championships and showed good results. December 15-16, 2019. For example, the Kazakh Kuresi World Championship was held in the city of Aktobe (Kazakhstan). Two hundred athletes from more than 40 countries took part in the competition. We fought in eight weight categories. As a result, our athletes took 5 gold, 1 silver and 2 bronze medals. As a result of our research, a model of five-stage pre-competition training of Baluan wrestlers for the main macrocycle competitions using sports training in non-traditional conditions is justified. It is empirically established that the effect of sports training increases significantly if shock sports training is carried out at altitude during the last two microcycles.
    Keywords: Baluan wrestlers; non-traditional conditions; re-climatisation; sports training; macrocycles; microcycles.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2022.10051830
  • Toward the anthropology of general education: a Thailand experience   Order a copy of this article
    by Siriporn Somboonboorana 
    Abstract: Thailand’s general education policy has been intended to provide students with the necessary basic knowledge for their subsequent major studies, as well as to serve other important functions in daily life practices. The university has several reasons for requiring the general education program as part of degree completion. In this paper, I will discuss pedagogical languages of general education through the lens of anthropology of learning. It can be argued that the importance of anthropology of learning is rooted broadly in class traditions and fieldwork that once demanded students to develop a breadth of diverse knowledge. By reframing the question of anthropological fieldwork, I would like to use my teaching experiences in the general education program over the decades to discuss what and how to interact with students and academicians, resulting in improved teaching techniques and learning processes.
    Keywords: anthropology of general education; problem-based learning; PBL; facilitator.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2022.10052401
  • The relationship between higher order thinking skills and critical thinking of gifted talented students   Order a copy of this article
    by Serhat Arslan, Tuğba Yurtkulu 
    Abstract: The aim of this research is to examine the relationship between higher order thinking skills and critical thinking of gifted talented students, as well as the opinions of teachers who are teaching gifted talented students about the transfer of higher order thinking skills from curriculum to the gifted talented students. Mixed method was used in the research. In the first phase of the research, a study was conducted to measure the relationship between students’ thinking skills and critical thinking. In the second stage, interview questions were prepared and applied to the teachers with reference to the items to be measured for qualitative research. As a result of the correlation made to investigate the relationship between higher thinking skills and critical thinking; positively significant correlations were found between the gifted students’ ability to acquire knowledge, to apply knowledge, and to use knowledge, which are sub-dimensions of higher order thinking skills in general. Interview method was used for qualitative data in the study. As a result of qualitative research, the advantages and disadvantages of reflections of critical thinking skills on educational programs, evaluations of applied critical thinking skills in order to see the projections in the program, and the method techniques used to reach the goals.
    Keywords: higher order thinking skills; critical thinking; gifted talented students.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2023.10053226
  • Developing learning and participation in schools: using the Index for inclusion in Spain lessons learned and common challenges   Order a copy of this article
    by Gerardo Echeita, Cecilia Simón, Marta Sandoval, Yolanda Muñoz 
    Abstract: This paper presents a documentary review in Spain on the uses and experiences of school change with Index for Inclusion materials (Booth and Ainscow, 2000, 2011) during the last 15 years. A brief description of the Spanish educational system is made in order to contextualise this analysis. The initiatives are grouped into three categories. Firstly, it has served as a source of partial inspiration, primarily in research contexts, to generate tools for analysis. Secondly, it has been taken up in teacher education activities. In this context, the index has been especially useful to help to construct and share a common language about inclusive education. The third category encompasses projects that have used the index in the evaluation and improvement processes to guide inclusive development in schools. Some 'lessons learned' are shared and common challenges are discussed, among them the need to give greater emphasis to the conditions which support schools on their journey to become more inclusive.
    Keywords: inclusive education; index for inclusion; Spain; challenges; school change.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2021.10041611
  • Scope of the augmented reality applications in education sector: bibliographic review   Order a copy of this article
    by Arti Yadav, Kriti Priya Gupta 
    Abstract: Augmented reality has become an important educational technology in teaching-learning. Technology embedded learning provides an enhanced perception of the existing material. Therefore, this study presents a systematic literature review of the scope of AR in educational settings by reviewing 72 research articles published in reputed journals between the year 2010 to 2020. The study aims to highlight the present scenario of AR technology in the education sector in terms of its benefits, applications across the major education disciplines, geographical scope, tools and technologies, and capabilities of AR in the learning space. The findings reflect positive outcomes like improved academic performance, student motivation, engagement, effectiveness, positive attitude towards technology-driven learning. The analysis shows that the applications of AR in various disciplines vary according to technological involvement and need in the discipline. Though the technology is at its young and growing stage, it can immensely benefit the teaching-learning space.
    Keywords: augmented reality; educational technology; teaching-learning; literature review; formal education.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2022.10048853
  • Management of personnel professional development as a condition of digital transformation of the organisation   Order a copy of this article
    by Evgeniya K. Karpunina, Elena A. Okunkova, Alexey S. Molchan, Elena O. Belova, Oksana A. Kuznetsova 
    Abstract: The purpose of the study is to form a methodological approach to managing the professional development of employees in order to achieve the maximum effect of the digital transformation of the organisation. The authors analysed the environment for implementing the processes of digitalisation of organisations in Russia, identified existing limitations and lagging behind developed countries. The article systematises the risks of digital transformation of the organisation. The priority of levelling personnel risks arising from the discrepancy between the level of development of the organisation's personnel and the new digital requirements, as well as due to the low adaptive capacity of the staff, is justified. A methodological approach to the creation of a management system for the professional development of the organisation's personnel is proposed. A model of its implementation is developed based on the formation of a profile of employee competencies, identification and assessment of the personnel risk of digital transformation, and realisation of a differentiated set of measures.
    Keywords: digital transformation of the organisation; professional development management; competencies; digital development; personnel risks.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2021.10041815
  • Influence of e-learning to support learning process in higher education   Order a copy of this article
    by K.V. Sriram, Prateek Singh, Giridhar B. Kamath, Asish Oommen Mathew 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to identify the critical factors of e-learning and examine the influence of these factors on learning success among undergraduate engineering students in India. Exploratory research is carried out to determine the critical success factors of e-learning. The data from 307 respondents was collected using an online survey with the snowball technique. The causal relationship between the factors of e-learning and the success of e-learning was tested using structural equation modelling (SEM). The exploratory study identifies control, quality of education, platform design, online peer support, perceived usefulness, diversity of assessment, pricing, effort expectancy, and awareness as the critical success factors. The result indicates control, perceived usefulness, platform design, pricing, and quality of education support e-learning success. The theoretical model presented in this paper is the first of its kind and would enable researchers to understand e-learning from a holistic perspective. The factors developed would act as a guideline for future researchers who would like to analyse e-learning in different contextual settings. This study serves as a potential aid to higher education institutions that encourage e-learning in their curriculums.
    Keywords: e-learning; critical success factors; higher education institutes; factors supporting e-learning success.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2021.10042007
  • The picture behind an intensive English language curriculum reform in Turkey: concerns of English teachers   Order a copy of this article
    by Zehra Yedigöz Kara, Nilay T. Bümen 
    Abstract: Studies around the world point out the need to understand the nature of the reforms and dynamics during a curricular change. By providing a rich insight into a cohort of English teachers' concerns towards the new intensive English language curriculum (IELC) for early adolescences, this study aims to depict the picture behind the IELC in Turkey, where many curricular reforms take place. Adopting the explanatory sequential mixed-methods design, the data were collected through the stages of concern questionnaire (SoCQ) and semi-structured in-depth interviews. The SoCQ analysis revealed that the teachers displayed a non-user profile by having intense self-concerns while displaying low consequence concerns. The interviews showed strong evidence for the teachers' struggles with their self-concerns and the solutions they employed during a curricular change. These results indicate teachers believe that they are unable to adopt the innovation as planned. Hence, it is suggested urgent support and guidance are required so that the teachers resolve their early concerns and advance to the more mature ones.
    Keywords: concern-based adoption model; English language curricula; stages of concerns; SoCs; stages of concern questionnaire; SoCQ; teachers' concerns; Turkey.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2021.10041772
  • Integration of ICT in higher education during COVID-19 pandemic: a case study   Order a copy of this article
    by Abdullah M. Al-Ansi, Indah Fatmawati 
    Abstract: Information and communication technology (ICT) became an alternative approach to tackle the challenges rising of COVID-19 pandemic. Online learning depends on availability of internet, suitable infrastructure, learning management systems (LMSs) and the effective educational policies. This research aims to investigate e-learning factors in integration of ICT in higher education in Thamar University, Yemen. Sample of 264 participants including faculty members, administrative staff and students of Thamar University was selected to answer the questionnaires. Quantitative approach was conducted to analyse collected data by using SPSS. Results of this research revealed that ICT elements including internet, infrastructure and LMS have positive ad significant role in integration of ICT in higher education in Thamar University while the educational institutions' policies play negative and insignificant role. The results also revealed the lack of universities and government's support to facilitate e-learning during COVID-19 and suggested for more fund and training for stockholders in education.
    Keywords: internet; learning management system; LMS; e-learning; electronic learning; information and communication technology; ICT; ICT policies; higher education; developing countries.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2021.10041196

Special Issue on: BM-2022 Contemporary Issues in Business and Management

  • Use of copyrighted works in business   Order a copy of this article
    by Ingrida Veiksa 
    Abstract: The growth and competitiveness of any business, especially micro and SMEs, will increasingly depend on the ability to apply new knowledge, organisation and working methods, as well as the capacity to engage in the commercialisation of research and development to develop new products, services, or processes. In the information society, the development of new products, services, and processes requires the use of innovations resulting from the intellectual activity of creative people. For creators and successors in title of intellectual property rights (various projects, trademarks, inventions, computer programs, etc.) to be able to successfully develop and market their products, they need a functioning IPR protection system. The research found that it is essential for the company to acquire the rights to the works created during the employment contract, and it would be necessary to reasonably limit the author's right to withdraw the work created during the employment relationship.
    Keywords: copyright law; piracy; author; work; employment relationship; withdrawal rights.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2023.10054874
  • Digital media and organisational environment as main influence factors for e-leadership   Order a copy of this article
    by Frauke Kempner 
    Abstract: E-leadership as one of the new leadership paradigms is located in a wide field of different leadership theories and titles like remote leadership, virtual leadership, digital or distance leadership mean. However, all new leadership styles are mainly influenced by their environment above all by the organisational infrastructure of their companies as well as the individual competencies actual leaders have or need to have in dealing with new media. The following paper shows statistically proven, that the main competencies of e-leadership are e-trust, e-communication and e-technologies and that they are mainly influenced by the organisational infrastructure. The final result of the study contains the finding that information symmetry plays a crucial role in the whole e-leader-follower cooperation, which could be further explored in future research.
    Keywords: e-leadership; electronic leadership; e-leader competencies; e-followership; media influence; organisational environment.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2023.10055136
  • Communication, leadership and team motivation as drivers of success in project management - development of a conceptual framework   Order a copy of this article
    by Teresa Barros, Nelson Duarte, Marisa Machado 
    Abstract: It is undeniable the importance and the impact of communication in every domain that deals with human resources. Yet, as far as the authors’ knowledge concerns the research has been mostly developed in the human resources field. In the project management field, the research developed is still scarce. Yet, some authors emphasise the role of the project managers’ communication with teams, and the importance of the project management teams’ on the success of projects. Therefore, this paper aims to analyse the influence of the communication styles and leadership of the project managers’ on the motivation of the teams and the success of projects. Literature was reviewed and exploratory research was developed using a qualitative methodology (content analysis of eight semi-structured interviews). A conceptual framework was developed. The results suggest that communication style and leadership are related and impact the teams’ motivation and the projects’ success.
    Keywords: communication; leadership; motivation; project management; project success.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2023.10055510
  • Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on an aviation company: change management approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Ilona Skačkauskienė, Virginija Leonavičiūtė, Agnė Sakalauskė 
    Abstract: Aviation is one of the most severely affected global industries by the COVID-19 pandemic, including passenger traffic, airport workforce, and operational processes: the total number of seats offered by airlines in 2020 decreased by about 50%, the number of passengers fell by about 60%, and this resulted in an estimated 371 billion USD loss in 2020 and 324 billion USD loss in 2021. Aviation industry organisations, including Lithuanian Airports, had to urgently adapt their operations and use the new opportunities to overcome the COVID-19 crisis and maintain a competitive advantage. In order to find out what measures have been taken to stabilise the situation, the empirical evaluation was conducted using methods of case study, statistical data analysis, content analysis and semi-structured interviews. The research results suggest that many obstacles to successful change and adaptation in the aviation sector can be overcome by the ability to respond quickly to changes in the external environment: several recovery scenarios, based on business best practices and examples, prepared in advance, enabled Lithuanian Airports to restore business operations.
    Keywords: airports; aviation industry; case study; crisis management; organisational changes; pandemic.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2023.10055701
  • Ambidexterity in resilience: a multilevel approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Tim Colberg 
    Abstract: Businesses face growing instability due to disruptive innovative technologies and economic crises arising from stressed supply chains or rising price uncertainty. An ambidextrous approach to resilience helps companies to prepare for and manage this uncertainty to become steadfast against crises. However, resilience can be achieved on multiple levels within a company: individual, group or organisational. This conceptual research aims to examine multilevel resilience by separating strategic and operational resilience and discuss the simultaneous approachability on the organisational level of resilience through a qualitative analysis of leading publications. Achieving organisational resilience is possible by seeing resilience not as a standalone construct but by sensing and seizing opportunities and threats to transform the business model into a resilient state. This transformation is done by pursuing an ambidextrous organisation to exploit operational and explore strategic resilience. In conclusion, this research introduces a framework for organisational-level resilience to handle uncertainty by building organisational resilience.
    Keywords: resilience; uncertainty; organisational ambidexterity; organisational resilience; individual resilience; multilevel approach; strategic resilience; operational resilience; business transformation; framework; qualitative analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2023.10055832
  • Sustainable commercial agency agreements in civil law and common law   Order a copy of this article
    by Vaidas Jurkevičius, Yuliia Pokhodun, Raimonda Bublienė 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to analyse the legal regulation of cross-border commercial agency agreements in two main legal systems: civil law and common law. It should be noted that the legal regulation of international commercial agency agreements is fragmented; therefore, the general principles of agency law could be applied in order to propose sustainable solutions in international commercial agency relationships. In this paper authors consider the effectiveness of these general rules in commercial agency agreements and conclude that the lack of common international regulation for leads to the application of conflicting national rules that are not sufficient in aligning the sustainable interests of all parties of such complex legal relations.
    Keywords: agent; commercial agency; commercial agency agreements; ross-border commercial agency; civil law; common law.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2023.10056104
  • Towards sustainable fiduciary duties in private law   Order a copy of this article
    by Vaidas Jurkevičius, Dominyka Šeputaitė, Raimonda Bublienė 
    Abstract: In private law, fiduciary duties are in general linked to fiduciary relationships, i.e., when a fiduciary relationship exists, the parties are deemed to have corresponding fiduciary duties. However, this study shows that fiduciary relationships and fiduciary duties should not always be equated. This article seeks, first of all, to shed light on the interplay between fiduciary duties and fiduciary relationships, as well as to clarify which particular duties can be considered fiduciary. The authors then seek to reveal the specific cases in which fiduciary duties arise and explain their content to ensure the sustainability in these relationships governed by private law. Thereby, a conclusion is made that certain subjects of fiduciary relationships, such as, for example, the manager of the company, the bank and the trustee, have fiduciary duties, but this is not the case for, as an example, the insurer and the doctor.
    Keywords: fiduciary duties; sustainability; private law; beneficiary; fiduciary.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2023.10056516