Forthcoming articles

International Journal of Learning and Change

International Journal of Learning and Change (IJLC)

These articles have been peer-reviewed and accepted for publication but are pending final changes, are not yet published and may not appear here in their final order of publication until they are assigned to issues. Therefore, the content conforms to our standards but the presentation (e.g. typesetting and proof-reading) is not necessarily up to the Inderscience standard. Additionally, titles, authors, abstracts and keywords may change before publication. Articles will not be published until the final proofs are validated by their authors.

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International Journal of Learning and Change (44 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • The mediating effect of learning organizational culture between leadership styles and readiness for change: An empirical study in Yemen   Order a copy of this article
    by Ali Al-Tahitah, Mohamed Mihlar Abdul Mihlar, NOUNA SAMMARI, Mohammed Abdulrab 
    Abstract: This study examines the impact of transformational leadership (TFL) and transactional leadership (TSL) on readiness for change (RFC) and learning organisational culture (LOC), as well as the effect of LOC on RFC. It also explores the role of LOC as a mediator in the relationship between leadership style and RFC. A total of 330 administrative staff of three educational ministries in Yemen participated in this study. PLS-(SEM) software was utilised to analyses the data and test the research hypotheses. The findings indicate that TFL and LOC influence RFC. Meanwhile, TSL influences LOC but has no effect on RFC. More interestingly, LOC was found to be a partial mediator in the relationship between TFL and the RFC and a full mediator between TSL and the RFC. The study highlights the importance of transformational leadership and learning organisation culture in leading change initiatives through enhancing the level of readiness for change among the employees.
    Keywords: transformational leadership; transactional leadership; learning organisation; readiness for change; RFC; Yemen.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10030185
  • Education Quality Comparing between Official Measurement Scale and Inter-counterparts’ Perception: A New Horizon for Learning Assessment   Order a copy of this article
    by Gazi Mahabubul Alam, Md. Abdur Rahman Forhad 
    Abstract: Referring to the official measurement scale, global evidences confirm that 'education quality' has continuously been improving. On the other hand, studies examining the role of education discover that education continuously fails to play the desired role. Therefore, claims are made that education quality is denting. Keeping this view in mind, this research is conducted to assess the education quality, making a comparison between the official measurement scale and inter-counterparts perception. Both primary and secondary data are used. According to the official measurement scale, education quality has been improved substantially for every provision-primary to tertiary. Apparently, the entire system functions well where performances and education quality of all provisions are synchronised. On the other hand, inter-counterparts perception indicates that education quality of all provisions deteriorates gradually and they live in an isolation. This research suggested a new horizon for assessment which would ensure substantial learning outcomes; helping the developing world.
    Keywords: education quality; quality education; synchronised education system; supply and demand sides; education quality; 21st century.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10030306
  • Sustainable Achievement of Selective KPIs of Different Players in Education: An Update for Policy Discourse and Role of Tertiary Education   Order a copy of this article
    by Gazi Mahabubul Alam, Md. Abdur Rahman Forhad 
    Abstract: Key performance indicator (KPI) has become a fundamental part of evaluation that focuses on either an individual or a system. Setting KPIs and their revisions is a continuous process that is often determined through either an agreeable or a heated discussion. This paper is the first to investigate the achievement of KPIs of different players in education using Bangladesh as a case study. Because of the nature of policy discourse research, secondary data are used from the designated agencies. Increasing enrolment with the assurance of high-quality education was determined as the prime KPI for primary/secondary provisions. Quantitative KPIs are achieved, which is unsustainable. Both public and private sectors are players in tertiary education; none of them accomplish the prime KPI setup, which consists of research. The need to supply job-ready graduates is ignored. This study suggests that new policy must be formed to attain a sustainable achievement of KPIs.
    Keywords: KPIs in education; key players in education; sustainable achievement; 21st century; education policy.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10030307
  • Content Matters; An alternative view on Organisational Change   Order a copy of this article
    by Sijko J. Wierenga 
    Abstract: This case study shows how the content of a change initiative can be used to predict the extent to which this initiative will activate the learning process of employees and, consequently, cause them to change their working methods. The object of this case study is a school for secondary education in The Netherlands. Its management team wants to improve school results and has formulated the content of the change as an elaboration of the ideology of professionalism. Both the change content and the employees cognitions are analysed by means of a mixed-method approach that is based on notions and techniques of cognitive anthropology. The results show that the envisioned change lacks cognitive relevance, as a result of which a change of working practice is not likely to occur, a conclusion that is claimed to be valid for organisational change processes more generally. This paper concludes that an analysis of the cognitive relevance of the content of a change enhances the quality of the predictions of success or failure of organisational change in concrete cases, and can be used alongside more conventional change approaches that focus on processual factors.
    Keywords: organisational change; educational change; professionalism; NPM; working practices; cognitive anthropology.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10030608
    by Emmanuel Makanjuola Ogunjemilua, Titilayo Olubunmi Olaposi, Oluseye Oladayo Jegede, Matthew O. Ilori 
    Abstract: The study examined the human capacity building (HCB) of micro and small technical enterprises (MSTEs) in Southwestern Nigeria (SN). Questionnaire was administered on 300 respondents in SN. Two hundred and forty-nine (83%) retrieved were analysed for this study. The study indicates that the 31% of relationship between HCB and performance of MSTEs in the study area was significant (F2,71 = 3.712, p < 5%) and thus concludes that to improve the performance of MSTEs in the study area, their human capital has to be improved. Therefore, the study recommends that MSTEs that want to improve on their performance have to focus on capacity building activities through increase in higher educational qualifications attained and increase the frequency of workshop training attended.
    Keywords: human capacity building; HCB; technical enterprises; performance; Nigeria.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10030623
  • Augmented reality strategy for understanding legal literacy   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohd Faiz Mohd Yaakob, Aliff Nawi, Mat Rahimi Yusoff, Marini Kasim 
    Abstract: Teaching and learning involving postgraduates require a better level of instruction than at undergraduate and diploma levels. In the process of building a better understanding among postgraduate students, lecturers need to research teaching weaknesses to improve teaching quality all the time. Hence, the objective of this study was to enhance the understanding of the educational law course, among postgraduate students, using augmented reality (AR). The study used action research methods, and the findings showed that students understanding did improve after an intervention. The results of this study can assist in academic development in education and recommend improvements to education policy-makers
    Keywords: augmented reality; teaching and learning; action research.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10030942
  • The most important factors for employers in Latvia in the recruitment process   Order a copy of this article
    by Anita Lice, Biruta Sloka 
    Abstract: The purpose of the study is to evaluate the opinion of employers on the factors that are the most important for employers in Latvia in the recruitment process, considering increasingly global and changing labour market. Total of 750 companies participated in this research. A list of 17 skills, competencies and attitudes, important for individual employability in changing labour markets, was rated using a four-point Likert scale. A notable result is that employers value attitudes, emotional and self-management competencies the most when hiring potential employees, which are followed by social competencies, and only then professional competencies and experience. Three complex factors that are important for employers in the recruitment process were identified as a result of factor analysis. Research provides easily acquirable information for various stakeholders in the area of human resource planning and development.
    Keywords: attitudes; competencies; employability; factors; skills; skills demand; recruitment.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10031026
  • Flipped learning pedagogy: modelling the challenges for higher education in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Namita Sravat, Pairote Pathranarakul 
    Abstract: 'Flipped learning' is a pedagogical approach that has the potential to enhance the learning experiences of students and inculcate life-long learning skills for the ever-changing job requirements of this fast evolving world. This study is an effort towards identifying the current state and challenges for flipped learning pedagogy in higher education institutes in India. A mixedmethods approach was adopted to address the research question 'Why are educators not adopting flipped learning pedagogy?' Altogether, 11 broad challenges were identified, which were modelled using the total interpretive structural modelling (TISM) technique. Based on this model, the awareness and willingness of management is the most important factor in implementing flipped learning. Management intervention and the facilitation of needed support can address the other underlying challenges identified in this study. The framework presented can help policy makers in India to support the adoption of flipped learning pedagogy to a greater extent.
    Keywords: flipped learning; pedagogy; higher education; total interpretive structural modelling; TISM; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10031664
  • High school learners perceptions on the teaching of LGBT content in South African schools   Order a copy of this article
    by Henry James Nichols, Anthony Brown 
    Abstract: The South African Schools Act of 1996 inaugurated a new education system that confronts all forms of unfair discrimination and intolerance. South African schools remain heteronormative and heterosexist. We report on learners attitudes and experiences towards the learning of LGBT issues. Using a case study methodology, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 high school learners. Findings reveal that that sexual and gender diversity is not taught in schools due to a lack of knowledge, ignorance and stereotyping of gender and sexuality. We learned that gender and sexual diversity is a silent topic in schools and that silence perpetuate the compulsory heteronormative culture in schools. However, young people are exposed to and confront samesex sexualities from different sources since many of the peers are disclosing their same-sex sexualities at younger ages. This study concludes that learners are positive and willing to learn about sexual diversity. If the learners are ready to be taught than we will have to revisit those who are charged with teaching, the educators. We conclude that the educators seem to be the barriers to the teachers and learning of sexual diversity and more research will have to look at in and pre-service teacher education.
    Keywords: heteronormativity; heterosexism; LGBT; sexual diversity; high school learners; silence.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10032131
  • Critical thinking: student-centred teaching approach and personalised learning, as well as previous education achievements, contribute to critical thinking skills of students   Order a copy of this article
    by Nazmi Xhomara 
    Abstract: The study aimed to investigate the impact of student-centred teaching approach, personalised learning, and previous education achievements on critical thinking skills. The quantitative correlational approach, the structured questionnaire, and the cluster random sample (N = 214) were selected to be used in the study. It is found a strong positive correlation between student-centred teaching and critical thinking skills (r = 0.555), meanwhile, personalised learning, as well as previous education achievements, correlates positively and significantly with critical thinking skills (r = 0.369; r = 0.424). Student-centred teaching and previous education achievements are strong predictors of critical thinking skills.
    Keywords: student-centred teaching; personalised learning; previous education; critical thinking.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10032227
  • Gender Perception of Factors Determining Entrepreneurial Interest among College of Business Students in Dammam Saudi Arabia   Order a copy of this article
    by Yusuf Opeyemi Akinwale, Aljohara Khalid Ababtain, Olawale Rafiu Olaopa 
    Abstract: This study investigates the independent level of entrepreneurial interest between male and female business college university students in Dammam, Saudi Arabia, and the factors influencing their entrepreneurial interests from the gender perspective. The chi-square result revealed there is no statistical difference between male and female students, thus signifying that they are both equally interested in starting their own business. The results of logistic regression indicated that attitude towards behaviour, entrepreneurship education, self-efficacy, government support, university context and risk-taking have greater likelihood to influence entrepreneurial interests of female and male students, since their odd-ratios are greater than 1. More so, attitude towards behaviour, self-efficacy, government support, university context, relational support and risk-taking are statistically significant in influencing females entrepreneurial interests. Meanwhile attitude towards behaviour, entrepreneurship education, self-efficacy and university context are significant in influencing males entrepreneurial interests. Hence, governmental, relational and university supports should be fostered to improve students entrepreneurial interests.
    Keywords: entrepreneurial interest; university students; gender; Saudi Arabia; entrepreneurship; attitude towards behaviour; self-efficacy; university.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10032280
  • Understanding consumers adoption of mobile banking in Nigeria: an empirical investigation   Order a copy of this article
    by Adam Konto Kyari, Faisal Abdullah Al Hudithi 
    Abstract: This study investigates the factors influencing consumers adoption of mobile banking in Nigeria using the innovation of diffusion theory. Data was collected via a five-point Likert questionnaire and analysed using factor analysis and multiple regression model. Revealed here is the fact that relative advantage, observability and complexity have positive effects on mobile banking adoption, while compatibility, trialability and perceived risk have a negative impact. On the basis of these findings, the study concludes that Nigerian bank customers have a reasonable amount of computer knowledge but are not willing to take any risks. Equally, as a greater percentage of respondents lack three years or more mobile banking experience, the study concludes that mobile banking is not well accepted in Nigeria. While these conclusions are valid for this study, further research is recommended for longitudinal analyses to cover consumers longer time making decisions on accepting mobile banking services.
    Keywords: consumers; mobile banking; adoption; satisfaction; diffusion; Nigeria.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10032776
  • Problem-based learning model with a scientific approach to improve higher order thinking skills   Order a copy of this article
    by S.W. Utomo, S. Joyoatmojo, S. Yutmini, N. Suryani 
    Abstract: This research aims to obtain a learning model that can improve higher order thinking skills in financial reporting of accounting. The model was developed using four stages of research and development (R&D): 1) preliminary research; 2) development; 3) testing for limited scale; 4) testing for wide-scale. The population of this research is the Accounting Vocational School in Madiun. For limited scale test, it was concluded that there were significant differences in HOTS and learning achievement scores before and after implementation of the model (sig. < 0.05), but Ngain for HOTS and learning achievement 0.110 (low) and 0.08 (stable). For test wide-scale class, It was concluded that there were significant differences in HOTS and learning achievement in experiment class (sig. < 0.05), with Ngain for HOTS and learning achievement 0.183 (low) and 0.30 (medium) for SMKN 2 Jiwan and 0.11 (low) and 0.105 (low) for SMK 5 Madiun.
    Keywords: problem-based learning; PBL; scientific approach; higher order thinking skills; HOTS.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10033404
  • Environment kinesis and organisational adaptability: effects of EUs General Data Protection Regulation on the Danish software industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Bruno F. Abrantes, Anuradha Venkataraman 
    Abstract: Strategy theory recognises outer general environmental mutations in the legal landscape as compelling dynamic forces of business competition. Thus, the latest EU directive on data protection constitutes an uncharted event for testing organisational adaptability. This research aims to understand the impact of GDPR and the endeavours towards the strategic fitness of firm. Thus, a theoretical critical review addresses both the field of business-level strategy and the GDPR phenomenon. An exploratory case research focuses upon the target population of SMEs with a purposive sample and embedded units seek the saturation point of data within the case, and the attainment of analytical generalisation. A mono-method of vis-a-vis enquiry articulates with content analysis. The latter encompasses an aprioristic design and an unbiasing protocol. An environment change seems to generate a double looping effect in the business ecosystem. Effects are dyadic, comprising a zero-sum logic (strategy adaptation), and a positive-sum (business and environmental evolvement).
    Keywords: data protection; General Data Protection Regulation; GDPR; organisational adaptability; strategic agility; strategic drift; strategic fitness.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10033872
  • Does concept mapping improve students' emotional intelligence?   Order a copy of this article
    by Huthaifah I. Khrais, Ali M. Saleh 
    Abstract: In response to healthcare reform, nursing education needs to expand beyond linear thinking and towards conceptual thinking as patients needs become more complex. Concept mapping is an interactive visual tool that may encourage many cognitive and emotive processing tasks. The aim of this study was to explore the effectiveness of concept mapping in improving Jordanian nursing students emotional intelligence. A two-group, pre-test-post-test quasiexperimental research design was used in this study. One hundred fifteen nursing students from a university participated in this study. Emotional intelligence was improved significantly in nursing students who exposed to the concept mapping (n = 58) than nursing students in the control group (n = 57). Schutte emotional intelligence scale indicated to [F (1, 109) = 47.66, P < .001, partial 2 = .53]. Findings support the importance of students centred pedagogies in improving students emotional intelligence as they feel more confident with the learning process.
    Keywords: emotional intelligence; concept mapping; pedagogy; nursing; Jordan.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10034292
  • Organisational learning in gender mainstreaming: openings and barriers for implementation and change   Order a copy of this article
    by Elias Andersson, Kristina Johansson 
    Abstract: The relation between the concepts and practices of gender mainstreaming and organisational learning, and its prerequisite for change, is not well understood in either research or practice. Drawing on a participatory design process of a model for assessing the potential of gender equality interventions to change gendered organisations, this study explores the relation between gender mainstreaming and the concepts and practices of organisational learning and learning organisations to improve the capacity of organisations to undertake developmental and organisational change. The findings stress the effect of the organisational context and logics on the level of distinctness in the goals and processes of gender equality work and organisational learning. By highlighting the interrelation between organisational logics in relation to the processes of organisational change, learning and integration, the results thereby revealed how a more formal and technocratic approach creates both potential openings for and barriers to organisational change and learning.
    Keywords: logic; tool; design; capacity; integration; organisation; power.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2021.10034732
  • How to increase hotel employee organisational job embeddedness: management commitment to safety perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Munir Shehu Mashi, Ahmad Aljumah, Isyaku Salisu 
    Abstract: There are many problems with staff turnover in the hospitality industry. Drawing from social exchange and conservation of resources theories, this study extends and tests a theoretical model of organisational job embeddedness using a confirmatory analysis. The data was collected from 202 frontline hotel employees working in Abuja through a structured questionnaire and analysed using SmartPLS 3.2.6. The findings show that distributive justice, procedural justice and perceived job security predict organisational job embeddedness. Further, management commitment to safety moderated the links between the predictors constructs and organisational job embeddedness. The relationship between procedural justice and perceived job security on organisational job embeddedness is stronger for hotels with a high level of management commitment to safety, but not for hotels with a low level of management commitment to safety. However, unexpectedly, the relationship between distributive justice and organisational job embeddedness is stronger for hotels with a low level of management commitment to safety, but not for hotels with high levels of management commitment to safety. Implications and future research directions are provided.
    Keywords: organisational job embeddedness; distributive justice; procedural justice; perceived job security; hotel employees.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2021.10034762
  • Challenges and opportunities for the development of schools as learning organisations in the Greek context   Order a copy of this article
    by Manolis Koutouzis, Asimina Papazoglou 
    Abstract: Greece is going through a transitional period. The severe socio-economic crisis has left its mark on the country while the pandemic crisis is undoubtedly going to delay the recovery. This conceptual paper aims to explore the school as a learning organisation (SLO) in the Greek context, analyse challenges and opportunities for transforming Greek schools into SLOs and outline the roadmap for such a crucial transformation. Specifically, it includes a theoretical discussion on the applicability of the SLO concept in the Greek context, combining an in-depth analysis of the extant literature and four key aspects that should be considered for developing SLOs in Greece. Developing SLOs can lead to school effectiveness and improve Greeces well-being. Integrating the learning philosophy into their daily practice, schools in Greece will enhance teachers professional development, work effectiveness and well-being, as well as students well-being and academic performance. However, specific steps need to be taken, in both school and system level, to support this development.
    Keywords: Greek context; school as learning organisation; SLO; socio-economic crisis; pandemic crisis; roadmap; change.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2021.10035257
  • Qualitative study on critical traits of teacher for effective teaching in higher education institutions   Order a copy of this article
    by Amit Joshi, Preeti Bhaskar 
    Abstract: It is not only the intelligence quotient (IQ) that make a good teacher, but there are other traits required by teachers for effective teaching. This present study aims to identify the critical traits of teachers for effective in higher education institutions (HEIs) and also intend to outline the framework for effective teaching. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) of qualitative research methodology has been used in this research. In this research, teachers from higher education institutions have been selected as the respondent to understand the critical traits required for effective teaching. This research found that teachers passion, self-efficacy, creativity, humour, paralanguage, and immediacy are critical traits for effective teaching. The teaching framework highlights that each critical trait has an impact in the classroom management and students performance.
    Keywords: critical teachers traits; effective teaching; higher education institutions; HEIs; interpretative phenomenological analysis; IPA.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2021.10035530
  • Lecturers perspective on student-centred pedagogy in the professional accounting education   Order a copy of this article
    by Nor Farizal Mohammed, Azizah Abdullah, Afizah Hashim 
    Abstract: Despite the importance of professional accounting education to the accounting profession, the issue of learning and delivering the approach of professional accounting education is under-researched. This paper examined whether student-centred pedagogy, is ideal for the professional accounting education from the perspective of professional accounting lecturers, in an emerging country where the learning and political environment differs from the western countries. Drawing upon 14 semi-structured interviews, the paper offers evidence on the views on student-centred pedagogy in professional accounting education, the challenges in implementing it, the current landscape of professional accounting education and the way forward. The main challenge in professional accounting education is the urge to pass the examination where the assessment is entirely from the final examination. The findings of this paper offer important implications for regulators, policymakers and education educators in devising the accounting education system in emerging countries like Malaysia and the Asia-Pacific region, where the learning environment is passive.
    Keywords: teacher-centred; student-centred; pedagogy; Malaysia; professional accounting education.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2021.10035731
  • Analysis of elementary school EFL teachers' writing and discussion about critical incidents   Order a copy of this article
    by Chin-Wen Chien 
    Abstract: This paper aimed to explore elementary school English teachers' professional learning and reflective practice through writing and discussing critical incidents under the community of practice. The analysis and discussion of critical incidents were introduced to elementary school English teachers in order to foster their professional learning and reflective practice during their professional dialogue in the northwest city in Taiwan. Rather than discussing only the socio-cultural factors on discussing critical incidents among pre and in-service teachers in the current empirical studies, three research theories were used to analyse the 35 critical incidents, 19 interview, and six observations in terms of the levels of language and levels of thinking, types of critical incidents, and three modes of reflective thinking. This study has the following major findings. First, the majority of the critical incidents were related to students' behaviour. Second, these critical incidents were written and discussed using simple layperson description and traditional or personal preference. Next, English teachers' reflections were only at the technical level. Four suggestions are provided to foster a deeper level of reflection.
    Keywords: level of language; level of thinking; reflection; reflective thinking; critical incident.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2021.10023917
  • Learning organisation understanding in HEIs and the impact of learning organisation on knowledge performance: an empirical case study   Order a copy of this article
    by Esmir Demaj 
    Abstract: In an ever-increasing globalised environment, educational institutions too are expected to learn to adapt to rapid changes through learning organisation culture and processes resulting in higher knowledge performance levels. The main purpose of this study is to analyse the relationship between the learning organisation configuration and knowledge performance in the higher education sector in Albania, a domain where research has been missing extensively. In this perspective, a hypothesis claiming that the learning organisation dimensions have a positive impact on knowledge performance has been tested. The primary data for this empirical study is collected through a questionnaire delivered to full-time academic staff in higher education institutions. In total 103 questionnaires were delivered, and the collected data represented 60% of response rate. To achieve the research objective various statistical analysis including correlation analysis, and linear regression analysis are employed. Findings show that learning organisation dimensions positively affect perceived knowledge performance. Assuming this case study as representative of the higher education sector in Albania it is concluded that the internalisation of the learning organisation understanding by HEIs would significantly improve the knowledge performance and consequently overall organisational performance.
    Keywords: learning organisation; knowledge performance; higher education institution; HEI; university; Albania; organisational performance; change.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10030720
  • Stimulating creative thinking on autism students through teacher questions: 24 functions of questions   Order a copy of this article
    by Astri Widyaruli Anggraeni, Suparno, Abdul Syukur Ibrahim, Martutik 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate how autism teacher questions affect classroom discourse. This research presents an analysis of various autism teacher questions and their function in learning to stimulate autism students with creative speech. This study identifies as many as 24 question functions played, namely asking for information, asking questions, knowing students' knowledge, opening conversations, relationships, greetings, clarification, praise, offer, request, confirmation, affirmation, apology, reprimand, astonishment, asking permission, asking for attention, suggestions, commands, invitations, prohibitions, ridicule, monological discourse, and threats. Closed questions dominate conversation. As a result, autism students can produce creative speech and are very good at remembering facts, but they need time lag when asked questions that require high thinking. Classes become interactive with good questions and responses from teachers and students with autism.
    Keywords: creative; questions; teacher; students; autism.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10029006
  • Women's leadership success factors in the Baltic states   Order a copy of this article
    by Jurgita Raudeliūnienė, Vida Davidavičienė, Ieva Meidutė-Kavaliauskienė, Viktorija Radeckytė 
    Abstract: Women make up almost 50% of all workforce in the European Union, but their average hourly rate is 16.3% lower than men's. In 2016, only in 21 companies out of 500 women held executive positions. In entrepreneurship statistics based on the founder's gender, women make up only 34.4% of independently working employees and 30% of business founders. More women than men possess higher education, but only a small part of women hold executive positions or make a decision to establish own business. This study seeks complexly to evaluate crucial factors of women's leadership success in e-business in the Baltic states. To achieve the purpose of this study, analysis of scientific literature, expert evaluation and multiple criteria assessment were applied. During the study, it was determined that passion for work, professional knowledge, ability to motivate team, communication, and support have most impact on successful women's leadership.
    Keywords: women's leadership; leadership success factors; e-business; the Baltic states.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10030785
  • Role of 'potential self-efficacy' on e-learning effectiveness: a gender-specific moderated mediation model   Order a copy of this article
    by Gaurav Chopra, Pankaj Madan 
    Abstract: In this study, author proposed the term 'potential self-efficacy' which refers to the perceptions about the self-capabilities to do something effectively and efficiently and visualising oneself behaving successfully in a given situation. This study explores the potential self-efficacy (PSE) of a learner based on four major sources of information by Bandura's (1977) theory of self-efficacy. This study inspects the mediating role of PSE to elaborately explain the impact of an e-learning system on e-learning effectiveness. It also examines the moderating effect of gender on the above-mediated relationship. The indirect effect of the e-learning system on e-learning effectiveness through PSE is stronger for male students as compared to female students. The results give insight to MOOC service providers to design e-learning components in a way that can lead to making students feel efficient in pursuing those courses both academically as well as professionally, which should be equally perceivable by both genders.
    Keywords: e-learning system; effectiveness; net benefits; user satisfaction; self-efficacy; moderated-mediation model.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10029502
  • Estimation of retail food prices: case of Lithuania   Order a copy of this article
    by Mangirdas Morkunas, Artiom Volkov, Viktorija Skvarciany 
    Abstract: The goal of the current study is to highlight the factors that could affect retail food prices and develop an econometrical model for estimating the level of the impact of the identified factors. The research covers the period from 2016 to 2018. Multiple regression modelling is used for model creation. The outcomes mad available evidence that the factors mostly affecting the prices are the monthly average price of food product and yield of the agricultural subsector providing main stock for the food product. The current research contributes to scientific literature by showing that retail food prices could be estimated for the short-term period. The limitation of the research is that the developed econometric models are is adequate for the Lithuanian market and ought to be modified if applied in other markets.
    Keywords: retail price; customer behaviour; agricultural economics; multiple regression modelling; foot basket; butter; rye bread; Lithuania.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10029663

Special Issue on: CIBMEE-2019 Contemporary Issues in Management and Business Technologies

  • The green employer external branding   Order a copy of this article
    by Adam Sulich 
    Abstract: This article aims to address the questions about green employer branding if it is related only to sustainable organisations. The research is based on the literature review and case study combined with content analysis of companies websites, job advertisements, and social media. The research was conducted among selected Polish companies, to examine if they implement so-called green employer branding in communication with their external stakeholders and candidates especially. The conducted study concerns the scope, tools, and methods of creating a green employer brand among organisations. The obtained results showed that Polish organisations consciously manage their employer brand, emphasising the ecological aspects of their business activities more often when they do not belong to the green sector. Thus, green employer brands are powerful assets that must be carefully developed and managed.
    Keywords: external employer branding; green management; green jobs; sustainable development.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10028436
  • Comparing profit and non-profit sectors focused on continuing education and its impact evaluation   Order a copy of this article
    by Irena Mikova, Pavel Pudil, Lenka Komarkova 
    Abstract: The paper is focused on continuing professional education at both profit and non-profit organisations, namely on the evaluation of education programs at the fourth-level of Kirkpatricks model. The background of the research consists of a relatively extensive search of relevant literature. The analysed dataset of 217 organisations operating in the Czech Republic was collected through an anonymous questionnaire distributed to the employees of analysed organisations (who graduated in the past from the University of Economics Prague). The data were analysed by multiple logistic regression and Pearsons chi-squared test of independence. The results show a statistically significant relationship between the evaluation of impacts and the existence of special education for managers. The novelty of the study lies in providing information on competencies and their perceived importance depending on the organisation type and employees job position. This information can be used to set up a more effective continuing education.
    Keywords: managerial education; continuing education; further education; fourth level evaluation; evaluating education impacts; perceived competencies; learning; comparison of sectors; profit sector; non-profit sector.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10028493
  • Peculiarities of planning for service modularity   Order a copy of this article
    by Ilona Skačkauskienė, Jurga Vestertė 
    Abstract: Service providers face the challenge of providing customer-centred services at effective costs. One of the possible approaches is to modularise service delivery. However, applying modular design principles to services still requires scientific refinement. The study aims to address the paradox of service customisation and standardisation that service providers face when planning for service delivery modularisation. The results from the study allow to characterise the service delivery process, answer the question what the essence of applying modular design principles to service delivery is, and provides direction for rationalising the planning for service modularity.
    Keywords: service modularity; service delivery process; service customisation; service standardisation; paradox management; service competitiveness.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10028495
  • Digital Transformation Outcomes in Higher Education: Pilot Study in Latvia   Order a copy of this article
    by Natalja Verina, Jelena Titko, Inga Shina 
    Abstract: Considering that the higher education sector has a great potential for digital transformation, it is necessary to investigate driving factors and barriers for transformation processes. The goal of the paper is to evaluate DT outcomes in higher education institutions (HEI), perceived by academic and administrative staff members. The authors conducted a pilot survey among the staff members of Latvian HEIs. Most respondents consider a development of new educational products/improvement of existing products as a result DT in HEI. Besides, DT is perceived as a tool to increase HEI competitiveness globally, to improve work efficiency and internal business processes, and to make education more available. At the same time, less than half of the respondents agree that the result of DT is student retention. The results of the research will be used for further investigation of DT issues, specifically for study on staff resistance to DT implementation.
    Keywords: digital transformation; higher education institutions; HEI; staff perception; survey; Latvia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10029097
  • The impact of employee training and development on tacit knowledge transfer and the mediating role of trust   Order a copy of this article
    by Helena Bulinska-Stangrecka, Anna Bagie?ska 
    Abstract: This paper focuses on employees training and development as a significant factor facilitating knowledge transfer. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of employee training and development on tacit knowledge transfer mediated via interpersonal trust. The target population of this study are employees from the telecommunications sector (n = 175). Mediation analyses were conducted, the multiplied regression method and simple mediation model with bootstrapping were applied to analyse the data according to mediation analysis. Cronbach alpha and McDonalds omega are used to verify data reliability. This paper finds that training and development influences tacit knowledge transfer and interpersonal trust mediates this relationship. The results showed that training and development has a positive and significant relationship with tacit knowledge transfer, mediated via interpersonal trust. These findings supported the importance of competency development and employee training as a facilitating condition for effective tacit knowledge dissemination on the basis of mutual trust.
    Keywords: trust; tacit knowledge; knowledge transfer; knowledge management; training and development.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10029564
  • Fuzzy methods of stakeholder prioritization in the context of stakeholder management   Order a copy of this article
    by Aleksey Mints, Evelina Kamyshnykova 
    Abstract: Stakeholder prioritisation is one of the necessary stages of stakeholder management. Existing methods and models for conducting stakeholder prioritisation have limitations, especially those developed for prioritising specific stakeholders. The purpose of this paper is to propose a new methodological approach based on the fuzzy logic method for assessing the priority level of specific stakeholders in the model of stakeholder management. This approach is developed on the basis of an integral method for assessing the priority level of individual stakeholders through a system of indicators, taking into account the factors of subjectivity. Both methods have been applied for prioritising suppliers of a large Ukrainian metallurgical company. Fuzzy logic method has proven to be an effective technique for designing models of nonlinear dependencies for conducting stakeholder prioritisation. It can be used as a tool for reasonable selection of strategic stakeholders and building programs for interaction with them in the stakeholder management system.
    Keywords: fuzzy logic; hierarchical fuzzy system; prioritisation; stakeholder; knowledge base; integral assessment.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10030086
  • Assessment of the factors of sustainable competitiveness growth in the companies in Latvia and Lithuania   Order a copy of this article
    by Irena Danilevi?ien?, Natalja Lace 
    Abstract: In the context of globalisation and rapid technological changes, competitiveness is closely related to productivity and sustainable competitiveness growth is possible only by the growth in productivity. It follows, that the objective of this article is to assess the growth of sustainable competitiveness in different industries in Latvia and Lithuania. The following tasks have been implemented: to analyse the theoretical aspects of sustainability, productivity and competitiveness; to reveal and assess the relationships between competitiveness and productivity. The following methods of analysis are used: an analysis and summarise of the scientific literature, the theoretical and practical statements matching methods, analysis of the statistical data, total factor productivity and return on equity. Here are also methods, time and space limitations. The results show, that here is a link between the results of the competitiveness using various productivity assessment methods, but special attention should be given to technologies, innovation use and capital formation.
    Keywords: capital; competitiveness; labour; regression; return on equity; ROE; total factor productivity; TFP; Latvia; Lithuania.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10030721
  • Measuring the impact of diverse factors on reverse e-logistics performance in Lebanon   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohamad Al Majzoub, Vida Davidaviciene 
    Abstract: Reverse e-logistics is a crucial procedure for organisation performing B2C e-commerce since it yields several benefits. However, firms often neglect it due to lack of knowledge on which factors they should concentrate to improve it. Thus, the purpose of this study is to identify the factors that influence the performance of reverse e-logistics and to determine their impact on it, and to know the impact of reverse e-logistics on profit, resources efficiency, and customer satisfaction. The methods used in this study are: literature review, synthesis, survey methods, and structural equation modelling. The study is done in Lebanon with a sample of 212 companies in the electronic industry who does B2C e-commerce and is faced with reverse e-logistics challenges. The results show that, the seven factors identified in this article have a positive and a significant correlation with reverse e-logistics, which in turn results in more profits, resources efficiency, and customer satisfaction.
    Keywords: reverse logistics; e-logistics; e-commerce; reverse e-logistics; supply chain; performance measurement; Lebanon.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10032393
  • Company innovation potential and how to measure it   Order a copy of this article
    by Miroslav Špaček 
    Abstract: : The purpose of the paper was to illustrate and substantiate specific approach to innovation potential measurement by means of the complex indicator. The approach to the construction of the index was supported by qualitative research that included questionnaire survey, contextual interviews and case studies. The sample consisted of more than 50 Czech companies the size of which varied from middle to big ones. This research was complemented by semi-structured interviews conducted with innovation managers and specialist. The research resulted in the construction of the complex index (index) that is suitable for the measurement of company innovation indicator. The model was validated by testing the index on the example of 15 companies. The research was aimed at the elaboration of complex innovation index that would include all relevant factors and enable measuring company innovation potential. The main practical implication was software-based application that facilitates the calculation of innovation potential index was developed. The paper consolidates factors that are essential for company innovation potential measurement into one complex indicator that is easy to interpret. No similar approach has been addressed yet. The paper brings clarity to the issue of measuring innovation potential in companies. It also offers solution to this problem.
    Keywords: innovation measurement; complex innovation indicator; innovation performance; innovation potential.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2021.10034824

Special Issue on: ISCLO 2018 Managing Knowledge and Technology in Learning Organisations Challenges for Competitive Advantage

  • Paradoxes of Customer Satisfaction in Telecommunication Industry in Goa, India.   Order a copy of this article
    by SUBHASH PILLAI, Diksha Naik Gaonkar, Jick Castanha, Ling-Chen Chang, Ruey Feng Chen 
    Abstract: Telecommunication industry in Goa is a classic example of customer dissatisfaction with respect to the services offered by the mobile service providers having little substantive evidence to support. This study measures the satisfaction level among the customers of North and South Goa about the quality of services offered by the mobile service providers. Study was carried out using structured questionnaire among 193 telecom customers. Result revealed that only income among all other demographic variables is significant with respect to North and South Goan customers. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) identified seven motivational factors which influence the buying behaviour. Finally, importance-performance analysis (IPA) showed that overall dissatisfaction is high among customers which need to be rectified. Entrepreneurs from India may resort to re-learning the entrepreneurial characteristics being practiced by Indonesian entrepreneurs, namely the intention of having overall development by providing what is promised to the customers at an affordable price.
    Keywords: customer satisfaction; telecommunication; importance performance analysis; Goa; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2021.10023023

Special Issue on: ISCLO 2018 Managing Knowledge and Technology in Learning Organisations Challenges for Competitive Advantage

  • Analysis Personality Model Using The Big Five Theory to Enhancing Academic Motivation of Garut University Student   Order a copy of this article
    by Tinneke Hermina, Intan Tenisia Prawita Sari 
    Abstract: The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between the personality model and students academic motivation at the University of Garut. The personality model in this research refers to big five personality model. The personality model consists of five dimensions that are extraversion, openness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and agreeableness. While the academic motivation in question is encouragement, cause, or reason of a student doing the learning. This research uses questionnaires divided into two parts, namely, the personality measuring instrument consists of 35 points statement, and the academic motivation instrument consists of ten items statement. The number of respondent was 40 students. The results of this study indicate that the personality model and motivation have a relationship. Among the five personality models found that conscientiousness is a personality model that is significantly related to students academic motivation.
    Keywords: personality; academic motivation; big five model; extraversion; openness; conscientiousness; neuroticism; agreeableness; Garut University students.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2021.10023916
  • Analysis of academic stakeholders satisfaction on green campus implementation in Telkom University with importance performance analysis approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Cut Irna Setiawati, Agam Maulana 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to identify the level of satisfaction of the academic community towards the implementation of green campus that took place in higher education institution, especially universities that have been awarded as green campus, by focusing in four elements of green campus, environmental management system, green building and green transportation, community participation and social responsibility, and teaching as well as research regarding sustainability. A survey questionnaire was used to collect data on sample of 100 respondents consist of all civitas academics in higher education institution, This paper uses importance performance analysis (IPA) approach technique in analysing data to find the gap between performance and expectation in term of green campus implementation. The average score of all aspects of the statement at the perception level is 3.25 while the average score of expectation level is 4.22 with a difference or gap of 0.77. It shows that the perception level in the application of green campus in Telkom University has not fulfilled the academic communitys expectation level. This indicates that the gap is evidenced by the difference between perception and expectation that generates negative value of total value as a whole which causes the Gap to apply green campus in Telkom University.
    Keywords: green campus; important performance analysis; IPA; satisfaction.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2022.10025867
  • The Role of Knowledge Management Practices on Innovation Performance in Public Telecommunication Company   Order a copy of this article
    by Bachruddin Saleh Luturlean, Arif Partono Prasetio, Romat Saragih, Dwima Nur Shabrina, M. Farryansyah Akbar 
    Abstract: The aim of this research is to identify the role of knowledge management practice in enhancing the innovation capability of the organisation. The study conducted in a national public telecommunication company using 100 participants in Jakarta. Multiple regressions was used to analyse whether the knowledge acquisition, knowledge sharing, and knowledge application can contribute to the organisations innovativeness. The result showed that partially, only knowledge sharing and application had significant and positive relation to innovation capability. While simultaneously, knowledge management practices in the company could impact the innovation capability. The insights from the study were that knowledge management practices should be systematically implemented in the organisation. The sharing and the application of important knowledge throughout the organisation would help increase the innovative thinking of the employee hence indirectly affect the innovation capability off the organisation.
    Keywords: knowledge management; acquisition; sharing; application; innovation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10028588
  • Implementation of Great Leadership Style to leverage Employee’s Performance in PT. Telkom Akses Indonesia   Order a copy of this article
    by Elnanda Ardiyant Saputra, Ratri Wahyuningtyas 
    Abstract: This study intends to examine whether great leadership has an effect on employee performance in PT Telkom Akses Bandung. The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of manage yourself leadership style on employee performance, the influence of manage your network on employee performance, and the influence of manage your team on employee performance which is applied in the company. This research used a quantitative descriptive method. Data collection was conducted using questionnaires distributed to 384 employees. To test the hypothesis, this research using structural equation model (SEM) with Amos 20. Researchers found that respondents had assessed that the company had a leader who supported the employee's performance, which can be seen from the assessment of great leadership factors that tended to influence the three major leadership dimensions of managing yourself, managing your network and managing your team.
    Keywords: employee performance; great leadership; manage yourself; manage your network; manage your team; Indonesia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10030722
  • How might the Socio-moral Climate Buffer Job Insecurity Stressor? A Multilevel Study in Spain and Austria   Order a copy of this article
    by Beatriz Sora, Thomas Höge, Amparo Caballer, Ruben Nieto 
    Abstract: A major current work stressor is job insecurity, which presents a well-established negative impact on wellbeing. In this vein, the aims of this study were: 1) to provide additional evidence on this relationship; and 2) to examine the socio-moral climate as a potential situational buffer to ameliorate its detrimental effect. A multilevel approach was adopted to examine the sociomoral climate at higher levels (i.e., organisational level). The sample was composed of 1,435 employees from Spain and Austria. Random coefficient model results corroborated the negative relationship between job insecurity and employee affective wellbeing, the positive relationship between job insecurity and emotional exhaustion, and the buffer role of the socio-moral climate. On the basis of our findings, we suggest that an atmosphere of respect, empathy, communication, cooperation and trust in organisations could mitigate the detrimental association between the work stressor of job insecurity and employee wellbeing and emotional exhaustion.
    Keywords: job insecurity; socio-moral climate; wellbeing; emotional exhaustion.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10030723

Special Issue on: Sustainable Development of e-Environment

  • The relationship between the self-learning skills and attitude of Shoubak University College students towards using the e-learning system (Moodle)   Order a copy of this article
    by Omar M. Mahasneh 
    Abstract: The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between the self-learning skills that students acquire and their attitude towards using the e-learning system (Moodle). However, studies which examine the relationship between self-learning skills and students attitudes towards using the e-learning system have thus far been rare. This study adopted a descriptive correlation design and data were largely descriptive by nature. Two sets of questionnaires, namely, self-learning skills (SLS) and attitude towards using the e-learning system (ATUES) were used for data collection constructed by the researcher. The research reported in this study was carried out on 182 students at Shoubak University College. The results confirmed a strong relationship between the self-learning skills acquired by the students and their attitude towards using the e-learning system (Moodle). The level of self-learning skills acquisition by students was moderate, and it was concluded that students should have awareness regarding self-learning skills for the betterment of their future and the society as well. The results also showed that the students attitudes towards using the e-learning system are positive; as such, self-learning skills acquisition by students should be improved, so that they are able to use the e-learning system (Moodle) effectively.
    Keywords: self-learning skills; SLS; Shoubak University College; e-learning system; Moodle.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2021.10035535
  • New e-business model: undergraduate study program search system   Order a copy of this article
    by Aleksei Iurasov 
    Abstract: Students who have graduated from high schools across the EU member states can choose from a wide variety of study programs and universities at which to pursue their degree studies. Each combination of a university and study program is unique, which further complicates student choice. Lack of information transparency regarding the unique characteristics of each combination of a university and study program exacerbates the already inefficient allocation of resources in education and the delayed employment of graduates. Bridging the gap between secondary and higher education by creating a new e-business model undergraduate study program search system may help solve the problem.
    Keywords: e-business; electronic business; data analytics; innovation; USPSS; education.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2021.10035252
  • Developing a collaborative framework for wine bottling facilities   Order a copy of this article
    by Marianca Koegelenberg, Joubert Van Eeden, Loius Louw, Daniel Palm 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper sought to develop a collaborative framework that provides wine bottling facilities, wine cellars and their direct supply chain partner guidelines to facilitate a collaborative partnership aiming to aid responsive decision making and improve reliability. The framework was developed using a triangulation approach, consisting of an in-depth literature review, 14 semi-structured interviews with industry experts and a theoretical case study. The developed framework was presented to wine bottling facilities and their supply chain stakeholders. Indication are that the proposed wine industry collaborative framework should enhance supply chain collaboration and will contribute towards the guidance and facilitation in developing collaboration platforms to align supply chain operations, while improving bottling responsiveness and meeting demand requirements.
    Keywords: design requirements; framework; wine supply chain; collaboration; planning; forecasting; replenishment.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2021.10035435