Forthcoming articles

International Journal of Learning and Change

International Journal of Learning and Change (IJLC)

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International Journal of Learning and Change (28 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • General and Instructional Perceptions of South Korean Messenger: “KakaoTalk”   Order a copy of this article
    by Hasan Tinmaz, Jin Hwa Lee 
    Abstract: This study focuses on the most popular messenger application of South Korea: KakaoTalk. We collected data on university students' (n = 699) perceptions about Kakao, both as a social media tool and as an instructional tool, using a survey based on convenience sampling. The final survey after factor analyses included three sections: 1) 11 questions of the participants' self-evaluation about Kakao; 2) 15 Likert scale questions on students' general perception regarding Kakao as a social media tool; 3) 27 Likert scale questions on students' general perceptions of using Kakao as an instructional tool. Factor analysis yielded four reliable factors affecting the general perception of Kakao as a social media tool: Kakao as an addictive, useful, satisfactory and secure tool. Besides, four reliable factors unfolded for the perceived instructional use of Kakao: providing interaction, providing motivation, providing formal/informal learning and facilitating instruction. Comparative analysis also revealed significant differences among certain variables.
    Keywords: KakaoTalk; Kakao; social media; South Korea; mobile app; messenger; instructional use.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2018.10016685
  • The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence of School Principals in Managing Change and Deputy Principal Change Beliefs   Order a copy of this article
    by Tai Mei Kin, Omar Abdull Kareem 
    Abstract: The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between principal change leadership emotional intelligence (PCLEI) and deputy principal change beliefs (DPCB). A total of 760 questionnaires were completed by deputy principals from Malaysian national day secondary school (NDSS), fully residential secondary school (FRSS) and national religious secondary school (NRSS). The finding revealed that there was a positive correlation between PCLEI and DPCB across NDSS, FRSS and NRSS. This supported a re-conceptualisation of school leadership whereby the rational models of leadership should be complemented by emotional management in today's leadership terrain. The study also found that different organisational culture of NDSS, FRSS and NRSS contributed differently to the above phenomenon. As PCLEI was a contributor to and an outcome of school culture, school principals need to be sensitive to the challenges which emerge from the organisational culture and proactively influence to shape the culture that best benefits the organisation.
    Keywords: emotional intelligence; emotional perceiving and expressing; emotional utilization; emotional understanding; emotional regulation; change beliefs; discrepancy; efficacy; principal support.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2019.10016999
  • Investigating Trends in Learning Programming using YouTube Tutorials   Order a copy of this article
    by Arbana Kadriu, Lejla Abazi, Hyrije Abazi-Alili, Veland Ramadani 
    Abstract: The self-directed learning industry is gathering more and more pace nowadays. One of the most common ways in this learning model is YouTube tutorials, which provide worldwide easy access to knowledge. This paper investigates tutorial trends utilising their publicly available YouTube data. The research is limited to tutorials for 11 programming languages, but can be replicated to any other field of interest. This obtained data is analysed for different categories such as tutorials spreading through years, video statistics, localisation, language facts, and tags distribution for each programming language. Aiming to understand the changing path and trends in a certain programming language over time, we introduce two new metrics for this objective increase ratio and weighted average for each programming language. It is found that the programming language Java is the most popular over the years, followed by PHP and Python. At the end of the popularity list are Perl, Swift and Objective-C. On the other side, the most contemporary programming language is Swift, followed by Python. The most outdated is Perl, followed by Objective C and C++.
    Keywords: Learning through YouTube; learning analytics; future trends in learning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2019.10017809
  • Pereira Problem Solving   Order a copy of this article
    by José Santos, Leandro Pereira 
    Abstract: One of the current challenges in organisations is related to decision-making in adverse, uncertain and complex environments. Problem solving approach is a process of analysis that has been supporting managers. There are several problem solving tools like the fishbone diagram, root cause analysis and five whys that allow an investigation of the problem and its causes. However, due to its limitations, the solutions presented do not always lead to the best results. The proposed model Pereira problem solving ensures a better understanding of the problems and an identification of the best solutions. Through the control group technique (ten companies), the research aimed to compare results between the ad hoc process used by managers to seek problem solutions. After implementing the solutions which resulted from each type of approach (ad hoc vs. Pereira problem solving), the identified key performance indicator was measured to analyse the level of effectiveness of the proposed model.
    Keywords: problem solving; key performance indicators; management; decision making.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2019.10019630
  • The Portuguese model of determinants that make up the management consultancy sector   Order a copy of this article
    by Renato Lopes Da Costa, Nelson António, José Brás Dos Santos 
    Abstract: In a historical retrospective, and although the literature entitles the management consultancy industry as an extraordinary industry and a unique phenomenon in the business context, these statements are not accompanied by a number of academic studies that highlight the importance of the effective work of management consultants. To battle the lack of studies in this emerging field, this article aims to build a determinant model that helps to understand this specific sector. The results of empirical analysis in the form of semi-structured interviews and questionnaires given to management consultants and managers of SMEs in Portugal, show that the activity of strategic consultants, mediated by strategic practices, bring in fact to the research of the strategy-as-practice a new direction in strategic thinking. It shows that consultant sector could be viewed as a key factor in the development of knowledge between different sectors in organisations, a knowledge intensive activity, a specialist sector having consultants with the title of specialists and, consultants that could be considered as practical strategists.
    Keywords: management consulting; strategy; strategy-as-practice.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2019.10020721
    by Renato Lopes Da Costa, Solange Ramos, Nelson António 
    Abstract: Strategy assumes a significant role in the managerial field concerning three levels of activity corporate, business and functional. In academic terms, corporate strategy refers to a set of conceptualised strategies with distinct purposes. However, how does one make a decision regarding corporate strategies? Which forces, internal or external, are capable of influencing it? Are these strategies equally perceived? There is a gap of perception between the academic and business settings. Academically, corporate strategies are only explored towards their aim. However, under real conditions, companies are exposed to further features. Thus, the present investigation aims to develop an understanding about how distinct companies perceive strategy at the corporate level. This article relies on data from 30 companies, with a variety of industries. The results include valuable information regarding the main drivers of the decision behind corporate strategies and the dissimilarities associated to the perception of strategy at the corporate level.
    Keywords: strategy; strategic management; corporate strategy; strategic decision.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10020724
  • Agent Based Asynchronous Training In Distributed Software Development   Order a copy of this article
    by Manoj Ray, Philip Samuel 
    Abstract: In the changing software development, training on tools and techniques are necessary for the developers for better quality. Global software development faces great challenge for employee training as project members are scattered geographically. Developers should aware of the custom and culture of co-developers to improve their social and interpersonal competencies such as negotiation, teamwork, conflict resolution, time management, leadership, and communication using common language. The paper discussed a framework for agent based training model that can simulate global software development from different cultures; allows learners to train asynchronously as the agents are always available, and permits to play different roles in the various stages of project development. The framework also provides effective client training on product and effective for the discussion between the client and the developer and thus reduces the effort. The model was evaluated with online geographically separated trainees and trainers and analysed the feedback.
    Keywords: global software development; GSD; communication; agent-based modelling; ABM; online training; distributed software development.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10020725
  • Digital Transformation Strategies: Conversational Commerce   Order a copy of this article
    by Renato Lopes Da Costa, Nelson Santos António, Gonçalo Cordeiro De Sousa 
    Abstract: With the evolution of technology and the consequent proliferation of the use of the internet for online shopping, and allied to the strong globalisation of global commerce, which has online commerce as the highest exponent, it is increasingly difficult for companies to gain a competitive advantage over its competitors, making it fundamental to place consumer satisfaction at the heart of its business. This research intends to analyse how the use of natural language interfaces, together with an intelligent recommendation system, that is to say, the concept developed by Messina (2015), conversational commerce, could be a differentiating factor in the relationship of companies and their consumers, allowing not only to gain a competitive advantage, but to influence company reputation improving the brand image. This research and its results demonstrate that the use of these conversational interfaces, supported by natural language, increases trust and consumer satisfaction, making the purchasing process more fluid, flexible, convenient and fast, thus gaining a market advantage over its competitors.
    Keywords: e-commerce; chatbots; conversational commerce; natural language dialogue.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2021.10021021
  • "We are part of one whole, and every part works for others": How an Indonesian food ingredient supplier remains sustainable   Order a copy of this article
    by Maria Jacinta Arquisola, Elangga Ianatta Wijoyo 
    Abstract: This study digs deeper into the views of how family members who run PT Hakiki Donarta, one of Indonesias longest-running family businesses in food ingredient manufacturing, are able to maintain its sustainability despite threats to succession. Guided by resource-based view (RBV) of the firm theory, the study undertook laddered interviews of family members who are at the top management of PT Hakiki Donarta. The study reveals that viable success factors for sustainability are grooming early for succession; employees affective commitment to the firm; social ties enhanced through socialised familiarity activities; and network trust. Prime obstacles for future sustainability are inexperienced young leaders and the lack of desire to innovate.
    Keywords: family business; succession planning; emotional attachment; social ties; stewardship; leader preparation; Indonesia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10021866
  • Mediating Role of Emotional Intelligence in the Relationship between Self-directed learning and Critical Thinking   Order a copy of this article
    by Serhat Arslan, Sehrinur Kay?han 
    Abstract: The aim of the study was to examine the mediating effects of the emotional intelligence in the relationship between learners self-directed learning and critical thinking abilities. In accordance with the aim of the research, critical thinking disposition scale, self-directed learning scale, and emotional learning scale were administrated to a sample of 303 university students and results showed that critical thinking and self-directed learning were positively related to emotional intelligence. Besides, analysis showed that the self-directed learning on critical thinking ability was mediated by emotional intelligence.
    Keywords: critical thinking; self-directed learning; emotional intelligence.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10023687
  • Analysis Personality Model Using The Big Five Theory to Enhancing Academic Motivation of Garut University Student   Order a copy of this article
    by Tinneke Hermina, Intan Tenisia Prawita Sari 
    Abstract: The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between the personality model and students academic motivation at the University of Garut. The personality model in this research refers to big five personality model. The personality model consists of five dimensions that are extraversion, openness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and agreeableness. While the academic motivation in question is encouragement, cause, or reason of a student doing the learning. This research uses questionnaires divided into two parts, namely, the personality measuring instrument consists of 35 points statement, and the academic motivation instrument consists of ten items statement. The number of respondent was 40 students. The results of this study indicate that the personality model and motivation have a relationship. Among the five personality models found that conscientiousness is a personality model that is significantly related to students academic motivation.
    Keywords: personality; academic motivation; big five model; extraversion; openness; conscientiousness; neuroticism; agreeableness; Garut University students.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2021.10023916
  • Analysis of Elementary School EFL Teachers’ Writing and Discussion About Critical Incidents   Order a copy of this article
    by Chin-Wen Chien 
    Abstract: This paper aimed to explore elementary school English teachers professional learning and reflective practice through writing and discussing critical incidents under the community of practice. The analysis and discussion of critical incidents were introduced to elementary school English teachers in order to foster their professional learning and reflective practice during their professional dialogue in the northwest city in Taiwan. Rather than discussing only the socio-cultural factors on discussing critical incidents among pre and in-service teachers in the current empirical studies, three research theories were used to analyse the 35 critical incidents, 19 interview, and six observations in terms of the levels of language and levels of thinking, types of critical incidents, and three modes of reflective thinking. This study has the following major findings. First, the majority of the critical incidents were related to students behaviour. Second, these critical incidents were written and discussed using simple layperson description and traditional or personal preference. Next, English teachers reflections were only at the technical level. Four suggestions are provided to foster a deeper level of reflection.
    Keywords: level of language; level of thinking; reflection; reflective thinking; critical incident.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2021.10023917
  • The design of training programs and its contribution to developing the desired skills in employees: The case of three companies operating in Greece   Order a copy of this article
    by Paraskevi Psoni 
    Abstract: The present study examines the design, the implementation and the evaluation of training programs of three companies operating in Greece, in order to understand their influence on the employees acquisition of the desired skills as well as on the enhanced job performance and effectiveness for the company. The methodology followed is based on qualitative tools and in-depth interviews with the responsible managers or directors of each company. The findings indicate that all three companies utilise effective and innovative methods of adult training, according to the skills they intend to train employees on, but they face difficulties in implementing Kirkpatricks four stages of training evaluation. The present findings are significant for policy-makers and training managers worldwide, as they provide holistic and valuable insights about the training trends and best practices in Greece, which however also constitute paradigms for companies at an international level. Deficiencies in the process of evaluation of the training programs have also been highlighted, and in this way, can provide policy-makers with valuable insights for improvement.
    Keywords: training programs; training design; training evaluation; experiential training; experiential learning; learning-by-doing; sociogram; psychodrama in training; training implementation; Greece.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10023918
  • Embracing balance in early childhood education: the case of awakening to languages pedagogy   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohamed Ridha Ben Maad 
    Abstract: In view of the drastic changes prompted by globalisation, the educational institution is more than ever concerned with preparing future generations to grapple with the new exigencies. Among the emerging ideas that may benefit such endeavour is embracing balance as a fundamental concept in early-years curricula where academic achievement and personal fulfilment even out in primacy. Building on an account of the Tunisian preschool experience as a case in point, the present paper offers a rationale for a vision that promotes balance in response to the fuzziness plaguing this educational sector. It therefore opts for the awakening to languages pedagogy as an approachable illustration of such vision among others.
    Keywords: early childhood education; ECE; awakening to languages; ATL; personal fulfilment; balanced curriculum.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2021.10023919
  • Positive Values and Educational Stress in Adolescents   Order a copy of this article
    by Nihan Arslan 
    Abstract: The aim of research is to investigate the relationship with positive values and educational stress. The study was carried on 242 secondary school students. Positive values and educational stress scale were utilised in the research. As a result of the correlation analysis, it was found that negative correlation between positive values and educational stress. According to the analysis results; positive values were negatively predicted by educational stress. Subscales of the positive values; personal conviction and concern for others correlated negatively with educational stress. Positive values predict educational stress or not, show good fit.
    Keywords: positive values; educational stress; path analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10024297
  • Economic Crisis Effects on SME Dynamic Capabilities   Order a copy of this article
    by Álvaro Lopes Dias, Elsio Carlos Manuel, Georg Dutschke, Renato Pereira, Leandro Pereira 
    Abstract: Based on dynamic capabilities theoretical framework, this research sought to understand the implications of the recent economic crisis on the capability of developing new products by Portuguese SMEs. Specifically, we assessed how this capability was affected by variables such as entrepreneurship, innovation capacity, the knowledge accumulation, and partnerships. The hypotheses were tested using two samples, one before the crisis, with 180 and another with 105 respondents, applied during the crisis (2012). Results reveal that during the crisis SMEs were more objective and effective in the use of their resources and capabilities. In particular, was found that during the crisis the entrepreneurship, innovation capacity, accumulation of knowledge and partnerships, have an impact on the capability of developing new products. Before the crisis, only entrepreneurship and knowledge accumulation have affected this capability.
    Keywords: dynamic capabilities; economic crises; SMEs; entrepreneurship; innovation capacity; partnerships; knowledge accumulation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2021.10025017
  • Evaluation of the disciplinary competences of the students of the Bachelors degree in Nursing at Sapienza University of Rome through the TECO: a cross-sectional study   Order a copy of this article
    by Julita Sansoni, Ilaria Farina, Albina Paterniani, Marco Tofani, GIOVANNI GALEOTO 
    Abstract: The objective of the study is to evaluate whether the TECO-D is a useful tool for measuring the skills acquired by students during three years of the nursing bachelors degree course at the Sapienza University of Rome. The sample was recruited between January and April 2018. The distribution of the scores for the TECO-D shows an increasing average (standard deviation) from 177.3
    Keywords: TECO-D; progress test; nursing.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2021.10025018
  • Do Social Support and Self-Efficacy Correlate with Academic Resilient Among Adolescence?   Order a copy of this article
    by Indriyana Rachmawati, Punaji Setyosari, Dany M. Handarini, I.M. Hambali 
    Abstract: Academic resilience plays an important role in helping individuals to overcome academic decline and promoting good prospect in the future. This can be increased by taking into account the factors, including social support and self- efficacy. This study aims to determine the relationship between social support and self-efficacy with academic resilience. Participant involved in this study were 315 students of VII graders of middle school around Malang City, Indonesia. Measurements used were a scale of academic resilience, social support scale, and self-efficacy scale to be applied to the population of the state middle school students in Malang City. Data analysis was using multiple regression research. The results showed that social support had a significant relationship with academic resilience and self-efficacy had a significant relationship with academic resilience with both significant values 0.000 < 0.05. A strong relationship was shown by self-efficacy with academic resilience compared to social support with academic resilience. This means that self-efficacy as the main factor that has a relationship in the formation of youth academic resilience, especially in Indonesia where childrens character is formed through cultural enculturation.
    Keywords: academic resilience; social support; self-efficacy; multiple regression.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2021.10025373
  • Impact of European Union Structural Funds Support Allocated to Different Economic Sectors on Foreign Direct Investment: Evidence from Lithuania   Order a copy of this article
    by Indre Lapinskaite, Viktorija Skvarciany, Elzbieta Rouba, Jelena Borisova 
    Abstract: In pursuance of economic growth, developing countries are seeking to attract foreign direct investment. The European Union structural fund supports the economic growth of the less developed countries in order to reduce the gap between the member states, while foreign direct investment is referred to as one of the European Unions funding objectives. The topic is relevant, because after the current European Unions 20142020 funding period, the financing conditions for the future will change and this raises a lot of unanswered questions regarding the funding period, funding flows and conditions. The aim of the work is to evaluate the impact of European Unions structural funds on foreign direct investment in selected sectors of Lithuania and to analyse the change of foreign direct investment by changing the flow of funding of the European Union structural funds. The hypothesis any change of EU structural funds support in different economic sectors of a country has an impact on the countrys FDI flows is confirmed by the study. The methods used for hypotheses testing are correlation analysis and logistic regression analysis. The limitation of the study is that tot all the economic sectors were taken into account and the agricultural sector is not analysed.
    Keywords: European Union structural funds; Lithuanian sectors; foreign direct investment; FDI; regional policy.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10025374
  • Analysis of academic stakeholders satisfaction on green campus implementation in Telkom University with importance performance analysis approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Cut Irna Setiawati, Agam Maulana 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to identify the level of satisfaction of the academic community towards the implementation of green campus that took place in higher education institution, especially universities that have been awarded as green campus, by focusing in four elements of green campus, environmental management system, green building and green transportation, community participation and social responsibility, and teaching as well as research regarding sustainability. A survey questionnaire was used to collect data on sample of 100 respondents consist of all civitas academics in higher education institution, This paper uses importance performance analysis (IPA) approach technique in analysing data to find the gap between performance and expectation in term of green campus implementation. The average score of all aspects of the statement at the perception level is 3.25 while the average score of expectation level is 4.22 with a difference or gap of 0.77. It shows that the perception level in the application of green campus in Telkom University has not fulfilled the academic communitys expectation level. This indicates that the gap is evidenced by the difference between perception and expectation that generates negative value of total value as a whole which causes the Gap to apply green campus in Telkom University.
    Keywords: green campus; important performance analysis; IPA; satisfaction.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2022.10025867
  • Dimensionality of Prosocial Tendencies on Minangkabau Early Adolescents   Order a copy of this article
    by Rezki Hariko, Fattah Hanurawan, Blasius Boli Lasan, M. Ramli 
    Abstract: Prosocial behaviour is a type of positive social behaviour that provides many positive consequences for adolescents. The current research aims to describe the dimensionality of the prosocial tendencies on Minangkabau early adolescents and reveal differences in the prosocial tendencies on Minangkabau early adolescents for males and females. The paper-and-pencil measures of the PTM-R was completed by 671 Minangkabau early adolescents (48% male, 52% female; M age = 14.01 years). The findings revealed that in general the prosocial tendencies on Minangkabau early adolescents is high. Nonetheless, analysis of the types of prosocial tendencies revealed that prosocial tendencies of compliant, emotional, anonymous, and altruism are in the high category, respectively, and the prosocial tendencies of public and dire are in the low category, respectively. There are significant differences between prosocial tendencies of altruism, public, emotional, anonymous, and compliance for male and female, but not in dire prosocial tendencies. The public prosocial tendencies of male early adolescents is the only type that is better than female.
    Keywords: prosocial behaviour; adolescent; Minangkabau.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2021.10027066
  • CULTURAL ASPECTS OF PEDAGOGICAL ACMEOLOGY   Order a copy of this article
    by Yerkin Ayagan, Botakoz Zhekibayeva, Kymbat Aubakirova, Issatay Utebayev, Sultanmahmut Kipshakov 
    Abstract: The relevance of the study is that the educational acmeology is very important in the process of the professional development of teachers. The purpose of the article is to consider pedagogical acmeology as the science of how to achieve professionalism and competence in the work of the teacher. It was reflected the preliminary results of the research work of acmeology of general and professional education. The results of a study of pedagogical acmeology are presented in two directions: cultural aspects of pedagogical acmeology and integrative communication of pedagogical acmeology. Recourse to unresolved and controversial issues of pedagogical acmeology allows the representatives of different scientific areas to broaden the horizons of scientific fields perhaps the development of ecolinguistic, econoosphere pedagogics and acmeology of management and many others
    Keywords: self-knowledge; self-regulation; self-realisation; competence; functionalism; humanism.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2021.10027067
  • Understanding The Physics Concept Between Guided Inquiry or Open Inquiry   Order a copy of this article
    by Sholikan Sholikan, I. Nyoman Sudana Degeng, Punaji Setyosari, Supriyono Koes Handayanto 
    Abstract: The ability to solve problems is one of the skills required by learners in facing the challenges of the 21st century. Conceptual understanding is an integral part of problem-solving skills. Inquiry is a recommended learning strategy to gain an understanding of concepts in science learning. This research is an experiment, which compares learning strategy of guided inquiry or open inquiry to understanding the concept of physics. As a modular variable, self-regulated learning (SRL) is used. The research design uses factorial 3
    Keywords: open inquiry; guided inquiry; conventional learning; self-regulated learning; SRL; understanding of physics concept.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10027576
  • Linking Entrepreneurship Education and Entrepreneurial Intentions: An interactive effect of social and personal factors   Order a copy of this article
    by Muhammad Shehryar Shahid, Saad Raafay Ahsen 
    Abstract: Relatively few studies have sought to investigate the person x context interaction in relation to its impact on the effectiveness of entrepreneurship education (EE) in determining an individuals entrepreneurial intentions (EI). This study endeavours to fill this crucial research gap in an emerging economy context by examining the moderating effect of personal and social factors on the EE-EI link. Using maximum variation sampling to survey 1,046 students in the urban city of Lahore, Pakistan and employing a hierarchical multiple regression analysis, this study examines the influence of explanatory variables on EI sequentially. Our counter-intuitive findings reveal that the rewarding impact of EE with regards to EI is greater for students with higher need for academic achievement (NAA) than for those with a lower NAA, and for non-business majors than for business majors, while EE has negligible effect on the EI of students from a family business background.
    Keywords: entrepreneurial intentions; entrepreneurship education; moderating effect; personal factors; university students; entrepreneurship; Pakistan.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10027577
  • Prevention of Sexual Harassment through the Information Services Using the Contextual Teaching and Learning Approach in the Senior High School   Order a copy of this article
    by Firman, Syahniar 
    Abstract: This article discusses the prevention of sexual harassment through information services using the contextual teaching and learning approach. The research was conducted using quantitative method with experimental approach. This study population of high school students, whose samples were taken using cluster random sampling. Data were collected using a sexual harassment questionnaire as well as data analysis with Wilcoxon signed ranks test and a t test. After the research found that information service using contextual teaching and learning approach is effective in preventing teenage sexual abuse in high school. Teenagers from high school do sexual harassment as much as 27.37%. The most sexual abuse conducted by adolescents is verbal sexual abuse as much as 66.66%, visual as much as 62.69% and physical as much as 44.83%.
    Keywords: sexual harassment; information services; contextual teaching and learning; CTL.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10027686
    Abstract: This study sought to gain insight into the characteristic features defining innovative schools and teachers in Spain. Its design was descriptive-interpretative/ex-post-facto targeting primary schools in a large province in north-eastern mainland Spain (Leon). Data were collected including a quantitative approach based on data from a questionnaire completed by 86 teachers selected through stratified random sampling. Our findings point to a large percentage of teachers carrying out educational innovations, especially in state schools. Through logistic regression, it emerged that teachers older than 50 years were more likely to be innovative compared to their younger colleagues. The main difference between innovators and non-innovators was that the latter had been working for less than a year at the school. Despite our representative sample of teachers, other studies have attributed innovations to younger teachers. Most innovations were implemented in state schools though state-funded private schools also instigated innovations though in a more structured manner. Our results suggest that for effective long-lasting innovations, schools need to have a fairly stable core of teaching staff.
    Keywords: educational innovation; school improvement; teacher effectiveness; primary school; innovative schools; Spain.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10027687
  • Towards a Micro-Foundation of Organizational Change: Conceptual Requirements for a Micro-Macro Framework of Change   Order a copy of this article
    by Matthias Georg Will, Julia Muller 
    Abstract: The emerging field of micro-foundations calls for frameworks that explicitly consider interdependencies between the organisational micro and macro levels. Research in change management is also developing such frameworks but few approaches highlight the mutual interdependencies between the organisational macro and micro levels. Analysing these interdependencies suggests that the implementation of changes on the micro level often have both good and bad unintended effects on the firms output. We present ideas for scholars to develop more profound micro-macro models for a better understanding of the micro-macro interdependencies during organisational change.
    Keywords: micro-foundations; aggregation; intended and non-intended effects; organisational change; change management; conceptual framework.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10027814

Special Issue on: ISCLO 2018 Managing Knowledge and Technology in Learning Organisations Challenges for Competitive Advantage

  • Paradoxes of Customer Satisfaction in Telecommunication Industry in Goa, India.   Order a copy of this article
    by SUBHASH PILLAI, Diksha Naik Gaonkar, Jick Castanha, Ling-Chen Chang, Ruey Feng Chen 
    Abstract: Telecommunication industry in Goa is a classic example of customer dissatisfaction with respect to the services offered by the mobile service providers having little substantive evidence to support. This study measures the satisfaction level among the customers of North and South Goa about the quality of services offered by the mobile service providers. Study was carried out using structured questionnaire among 193 telecom customers. Result revealed that only income among all other demographic variables is significant with respect to North and South Goan customers. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) identified seven motivational factors which influence the buying behaviour. Finally, importance-performance analysis (IPA) showed that overall dissatisfaction is high among customers which need to be rectified. Entrepreneurs from India may resort to re-learning the entrepreneurial characteristics being practiced by Indonesian entrepreneurs, namely the intention of having overall development by providing what is promised to the customers at an affordable price.
    Keywords: customer satisfaction; telecommunication; importance performance analysis; Goa; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2021.10023023