Forthcoming articles

International Journal of Learning and Change

International Journal of Learning and Change (IJLC)

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International Journal of Learning and Change (45 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Analysis of Elementary School EFL Teachers’ Writing and Discussion About Critical Incidents   Order a copy of this article
    by Chin-Wen Chien 
    Abstract: This paper aimed to explore elementary school English teachers professional learning and reflective practice through writing and discussing critical incidents under the community of practice. The analysis and discussion of critical incidents were introduced to elementary school English teachers in order to foster their professional learning and reflective practice during their professional dialogue in the northwest city in Taiwan. Rather than discussing only the socio-cultural factors on discussing critical incidents among pre and in-service teachers in the current empirical studies, three research theories were used to analyse the 35 critical incidents, 19 interview, and six observations in terms of the levels of language and levels of thinking, types of critical incidents, and three modes of reflective thinking. This study has the following major findings. First, the majority of the critical incidents were related to students behaviour. Second, these critical incidents were written and discussed using simple layperson description and traditional or personal preference. Next, English teachers reflections were only at the technical level. Four suggestions are provided to foster a deeper level of reflection.
    Keywords: level of language; level of thinking; reflection; reflective thinking; critical incident.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2021.10023917
  • Embracing balance in early childhood education: the case of awakening to languages pedagogy   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohamed Ridha Ben Maad 
    Abstract: In view of the drastic changes prompted by globalisation, the educational institution is more than ever concerned with preparing future generations to grapple with the new exigencies. Among the emerging ideas that may benefit such endeavour is embracing balance as a fundamental concept in early-years curricula where academic achievement and personal fulfilment even out in primacy. Building on an account of the Tunisian preschool experience as a case in point, the present paper offers a rationale for a vision that promotes balance in response to the fuzziness plaguing this educational sector. It therefore opts for the awakening to languages pedagogy as an approachable illustration of such vision among others.
    Keywords: early childhood education; ECE; awakening to languages; ATL; personal fulfilment; balanced curriculum.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2021.10023919
  • Economic Crisis Effects on SME Dynamic Capabilities   Order a copy of this article
    by Álvaro Lopes Dias, Elsio Carlos Manuel, Georg Dutschke, Renato Pereira, Leandro Pereira 
    Abstract: Based on dynamic capabilities theoretical framework, this research sought to understand the implications of the recent economic crisis on the capability of developing new products by Portuguese SMEs. Specifically, we assessed how this capability was affected by variables such as entrepreneurship, innovation capacity, the knowledge accumulation, and partnerships. The hypotheses were tested using two samples, one before the crisis, with 180 and another with 105 respondents, applied during the crisis (2012). Results reveal that during the crisis SMEs were more objective and effective in the use of their resources and capabilities. In particular, was found that during the crisis the entrepreneurship, innovation capacity, accumulation of knowledge and partnerships, have an impact on the capability of developing new products. Before the crisis, only entrepreneurship and knowledge accumulation have affected this capability.
    Keywords: dynamic capabilities; economic crises; SMEs; entrepreneurship; innovation capacity; partnerships; knowledge accumulation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2021.10025017
  • Evaluation of the disciplinary competences of the students of the Bachelors degree in Nursing at Sapienza University of Rome through the TECO: a cross-sectional study   Order a copy of this article
    by Julita Sansoni, Ilaria Farina, Albina Paterniani, Marco Tofani, GIOVANNI GALEOTO 
    Abstract: The objective of the study is to evaluate whether the TECO-D is a useful tool for measuring the skills acquired by students during three years of the nursing bachelors degree course at the Sapienza University of Rome. The sample was recruited between January and April 2018. The distribution of the scores for the TECO-D shows an increasing average (standard deviation) from 177.3
    Keywords: TECO-D; progress test; nursing.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2021.10025018
  • Do Social Support and Self-Efficacy Correlate with Academic Resilient Among Adolescence?   Order a copy of this article
    by Indriyana Rachmawati, Punaji Setyosari, Dany M. Handarini, I.M. Hambali 
    Abstract: Academic resilience plays an important role in helping individuals to overcome academic decline and promoting good prospect in the future. This can be increased by taking into account the factors, including social support and self- efficacy. This study aims to determine the relationship between social support and self-efficacy with academic resilience. Participant involved in this study were 315 students of VII graders of middle school around Malang City, Indonesia. Measurements used were a scale of academic resilience, social support scale, and self-efficacy scale to be applied to the population of the state middle school students in Malang City. Data analysis was using multiple regression research. The results showed that social support had a significant relationship with academic resilience and self-efficacy had a significant relationship with academic resilience with both significant values 0.000 < 0.05. A strong relationship was shown by self-efficacy with academic resilience compared to social support with academic resilience. This means that self-efficacy as the main factor that has a relationship in the formation of youth academic resilience, especially in Indonesia where childrens character is formed through cultural enculturation.
    Keywords: academic resilience; social support; self-efficacy; multiple regression.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2021.10025373
  • Dimensionality of Prosocial Tendencies on Minangkabau Early Adolescents   Order a copy of this article
    by Rezki Hariko, Fattah Hanurawan, Blasius Boli Lasan, M. Ramli 
    Abstract: Prosocial behaviour is a type of positive social behaviour that provides many positive consequences for adolescents. The current research aims to describe the dimensionality of the prosocial tendencies on Minangkabau early adolescents and reveal differences in the prosocial tendencies on Minangkabau early adolescents for males and females. The paper-and-pencil measures of the PTM-R was completed by 671 Minangkabau early adolescents (48% male, 52% female; M age = 14.01 years). The findings revealed that in general the prosocial tendencies on Minangkabau early adolescents is high. Nonetheless, analysis of the types of prosocial tendencies revealed that prosocial tendencies of compliant, emotional, anonymous, and altruism are in the high category, respectively, and the prosocial tendencies of public and dire are in the low category, respectively. There are significant differences between prosocial tendencies of altruism, public, emotional, anonymous, and compliance for male and female, but not in dire prosocial tendencies. The public prosocial tendencies of male early adolescents is the only type that is better than female.
    Keywords: prosocial behaviour; adolescent; Minangkabau.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2021.10027066
  • CULTURAL ASPECTS OF PEDAGOGICAL ACMEOLOGY   Order a copy of this article
    by Yerkin Ayagan, Botakoz Zhekibayeva, Kymbat Aubakirova, Issatay Utebayev, Sultanmahmut Kipshakov 
    Abstract: The relevance of the study is that the educational acmeology is very important in the process of the professional development of teachers. The purpose of the article is to consider pedagogical acmeology as the science of how to achieve professionalism and competence in the work of the teacher. It was reflected the preliminary results of the research work of acmeology of general and professional education. The results of a study of pedagogical acmeology are presented in two directions: cultural aspects of pedagogical acmeology and integrative communication of pedagogical acmeology. Recourse to unresolved and controversial issues of pedagogical acmeology allows the representatives of different scientific areas to broaden the horizons of scientific fields perhaps the development of ecolinguistic, econoosphere pedagogics and acmeology of management and many others
    Keywords: self-knowledge; self-regulation; self-realisation; competence; functionalism; humanism.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2021.10027067
  • Linking Entrepreneurship Education and Entrepreneurial Intentions: An interactive effect of social and personal factors   Order a copy of this article
    by Muhammad Shehryar Shahid, Saad Raafay Ahsen 
    Abstract: Relatively few studies have sought to investigate the person x context interaction in relation to its impact on the effectiveness of entrepreneurship education (EE) in determining an individuals entrepreneurial intentions (EI). This study endeavours to fill this crucial research gap in an emerging economy context by examining the moderating effect of personal and social factors on the EE-EI link. Using maximum variation sampling to survey 1,046 students in the urban city of Lahore, Pakistan and employing a hierarchical multiple regression analysis, this study examines the influence of explanatory variables on EI sequentially. Our counter-intuitive findings reveal that the rewarding impact of EE with regards to EI is greater for students with higher need for academic achievement (NAA) than for those with a lower NAA, and for non-business majors than for business majors, while EE has negligible effect on the EI of students from a family business background.
    Keywords: entrepreneurial intentions; entrepreneurship education; moderating effect; personal factors; university students; entrepreneurship; Pakistan.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10027577
  • Stimulating Creative Thinking on Autism Students Through Teacher Questions: 24 Functions Of Questions   Order a copy of this article
    by Astri Widyaruli Anggraeni, Suparno, Abd. Syukur Ibrahim, Martutik 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate how autism teacher questions affect classroom discourse. This research presents an analysis of various autism teacher questions and their function in learning to stimulate autism students with creative speech. This study identifies as many as 24 question functions played, namely asking for information, asking questions, knowing students knowledge, opening conversations, relationships, greetings, clarification, praise, offer, request, confirmation, affirmation, apology, reprimand, astonishment, asking permission, asking for attention , suggestions, commands, invitations, prohibitions, ridicule, monological discourse, and threats. Closed questions dominate conversation. As a result, autism students can produce creative speech and are very good at remembering facts, but they need time lag when asked questions that require high thinking. Classes become interactive with good questions and responses from teachers and students with autism.
    Keywords: creative; questions; teacher; students; autism.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10029006
  • Role of 'potential self-efficacy' on e-learning effectiveness: A gender-specific moderated mediation model   Order a copy of this article
    by Gaurav Chopra, Pankaj Madan 
    Abstract: In this study, author proposed the term potential self-efficacy which refers to the perceptions about the self-capabilities to do something effectively and efficiently and visualising oneself behaving successfully in a given situation. This study explores the potential self-efficacy (PSE) of a learner based on four major sources of information by Banduras (1977) theory of self-efficacy. This study inspects the mediating role of PSE to elaborately explain the impact of an e-learning system on e-learning effectiveness. It also examines the moderating effect of gender on the above-mediated relationship. The indirect effect of the e-learning system on e-learning effectiveness through PSE is stronger for male students as compared to female students. The results give insight to MOOC service providers to design e-learning components in a way that can lead to making students feel efficient in pursuing those courses both academically as well as professionally, which should be equally perceivable by both genders.
    Keywords: e-learning system; effectiveness; net benefits; user satisfaction; self-efficacy; moderated-mediation model.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10029502
  • Estimation of Retail Food Prices: Case of Lithuania   Order a copy of this article
    by Mangirdas Morkunas, Artiom Volkov, Viktorija Skvarciany 
    Abstract: The goal of the current study is to highlight the factors that could affect retail food prices and develop an econometrical model for estimating the level of the impact of the identified factors. The research covers the period from 2016 to 2018. Multiple regression modelling is used for model creation. The outcomes mad available evidence that the factors mostly affecting the prices are the monthly average price of food product and yield of the agricultural subsector providing main stock for the food product. The current research contributes to scientific literature by showing that retail food prices could be estimated for the short-term period. The limitation of the research is that the developed econometric models are is adequate for the Lithuanian market and ought to be modified if applied in other markets.
    Keywords: retail price; customer behaviour; agricultural economics; multiple regression modelling; foot basket; butter; rye bread; Lithuania.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10029663
  • The mediating effect of learning organizational culture between leadership styles and readiness for change: An empirical study in Yemen   Order a copy of this article
    by Ali Al-Tahitah, Mohamed Mihlar Abdul Mihlar, NOUNA SAMMARI, Mohammed Abdulrab 
    Abstract: This study examines the impact of transformational leadership (TFL) and transactional leadership (TSL) on readiness for change (RFC) and learning organisational culture (LOC), as well as the effect of LOC on RFC. It also explores the role of LOC as a mediator in the relationship between leadership style and RFC. A total of 330 administrative staff of three educational ministries in Yemen participated in this study. PLS-(SEM) software was utilised to analyses the data and test the research hypotheses. The findings indicate that TFL and LOC influence RFC. Meanwhile, TSL influences LOC but has no effect on RFC. More interestingly, LOC was found to be a partial mediator in the relationship between TFL and the RFC and a full mediator between TSL and the RFC. The study highlights the importance of transformational leadership and learning organisation culture in leading change initiatives through enhancing the level of readiness for change among the employees.
    Keywords: transformational leadership; transactional leadership; learning organisation; readiness for change; RFC; Yemen.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10030185
  • Content Matters; An alternative view on Organisational Change   Order a copy of this article
    by Sijko J. Wierenga 
    Abstract: This case study shows how the content of a change initiative can be used to predict the extent to which this initiative will activate the learning process of employees and, consequently, cause them to change their working methods. The object of this case study is a school for secondary education in The Netherlands. Its management team wants to improve school results and has formulated the content of the change as an elaboration of the ideology of professionalism. Both the change content and the employees cognitions are analysed by means of a mixed-method approach that is based on notions and techniques of cognitive anthropology. The results show that the envisioned change lacks cognitive relevance, as a result of which a change of working practice is not likely to occur, a conclusion that is claimed to be valid for organisational change processes more generally. This paper concludes that an analysis of the cognitive relevance of the content of a change enhances the quality of the predictions of success or failure of organisational change in concrete cases, and can be used alongside more conventional change approaches that focus on processual factors.
    Keywords: organisational change; educational change; professionalism; NPM; working practices; cognitive anthropology.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10030608
    by Emmanuel Makanjuola Ogunjemilua, Titilayo Olubunmi Olaposi, Oluseye Oladayo Jegede, Matthew O. Ilori 
    Abstract: The study examined the human capacity building (HCB) of micro and small technical enterprises (MSTEs) in Southwestern Nigeria (SN). Questionnaire was administered on 300 respondents in SN. Two hundred and forty-nine (83%) retrieved were analysed for this study. The study indicates that the 31% of relationship between HCB and performance of MSTEs in the study area was significant (F2,71 = 3.712, p < 5%) and thus concludes that to improve the performance of MSTEs in the study area, their human capital has to be improved. Therefore, the study recommends that MSTEs that want to improve on their performance have to focus on capacity building activities through increase in higher educational qualifications attained and increase the frequency of workshop training attended.
    Keywords: human capacity building; HCB; technical enterprises; performance; Nigeria.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10030623
  • Learning Organization Understanding in HEIs and the Impact of Learning Organization on Knowledge Performance: An Empirical Case Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Esmir Demaj 
    Abstract: In an ever-increasing globalised environment, educational institutions too are expected to learn to adapt to rapid changes through learning organisation culture and processes resulting in higher knowledge performance levels. The main purpose of this study is to analyse the relationship between the learning organisation configuration and knowledge performance in the higher education sector in Albania, a domain where research has been missing extensively. In this perspective, a hypothesis claiming that the learning organisation dimensions have a positive impact on knowledge performance has been tested. The primary data for this empirical study is collected through a questionnaire delivered to full-time academic staff in higher education institutions. In total 103 questionnaires were delivered, and the collected data represented 60% of response rate. To achieve the research objective various statistical analysis including correlation analysis, and linear regression analysis are employed. Findings show that learning organisation dimensions positively affect perceived knowledge performance. Assuming this case study as representative of the higher education sector in Albania it is concluded that the internalisation of the learning organisation understanding by HEIs would significantly improve the knowledge performance and consequently overall organisational performance.
    Keywords: learning organisation; knowledge performance; higher education institution; HEI; university; Albania; organisational performance; change.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10030720
    by Jurgita ?Raudeli?nien?, Vida Davidaviciene, Ieva Meidut? Kavaliauskien?, Viktorija Radeckyt? 
    Abstract: Women make up almost 50% of all workforce in the European Union, but their average hourly rate is 16.3% lower than mens. In 2016, only in 21 companies out of 500 women held executive positions. In entrepreneurship statistics based on the founders gender, women make up only 34.4% of independently working employees and 30% of business founders. More women than men possess higher education, but only a small part of women hold executive positions or make a decision to establish own business. This study seeks complexly to evaluate crucial factors of womens leadership success in e-business in the Baltic states. To achieve the purpose of this study, analysis of scientific literature, expert evaluation and multiple criteria assessment were applied. During the study, it was determined that passion for work, professional knowledge, ability to motivate team, communication, and support have most impact on successful womens leadership.
    Keywords: women’s leadership; leadership success factors; e-business; the Baltic states.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10030785
  • Augmented reality strategy for understanding legal literacy   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohd Faiz Mohd Yaakob, Aliff Nawi, Mat Rahimi Yusoff, Marini Kasim 
    Abstract: Teaching and learning involving postgraduates require a better level of instruction than at undergraduate and diploma levels. In the process of building a better understanding among postgraduate students, lecturers need to research teaching weaknesses to improve teaching quality all the time. Hence, the objective of this study was to enhance the understanding of the educational law course, among postgraduate students, using augmented reality (AR). The study used action research methods, and the findings showed that students understanding did improve after an intervention. The results of this study can assist in academic development in education and recommend improvements to education policy-makers
    Keywords: augmented reality; teaching and learning; action research.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10030942
  • The most important factors for employers in Latvia in the recruitment process   Order a copy of this article
    by Anita Lice, Biruta Sloka 
    Abstract: The purpose of the study is to evaluate the opinion of employers on the factors that are the most important for employers in Latvia in the recruitment process, considering increasingly global and changing labour market. Total of 750 companies participated in this research. A list of 17 skills, competencies and attitudes, important for individual employability in changing labour markets, was rated using a four-point Likert scale. A notable result is that employers value attitudes, emotional and self-management competencies the most when hiring potential employees, which are followed by social competencies, and only then professional competencies and experience. Three complex factors that are important for employers in the recruitment process were identified as a result of factor analysis. Research provides easily acquirable information for various stakeholders in the area of human resource planning and development.
    Keywords: attitudes; competencies; employability; factors; skills; skills demand; recruitment.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10031026
  • Flipped learning pedagogy: modelling the challenges for higher education in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Namita Sravat, Pairote Pathranarakul 
    Abstract: 'Flipped learning' is a pedagogical approach that has the potential to enhance the learning experiences of students and inculcate life-long learning skills for the ever-changing job requirements of this fast evolving world. This study is an effort towards identifying the current state and challenges for flipped learning pedagogy in higher education institutes in India. A mixedmethods approach was adopted to address the research question 'Why are educators not adopting flipped learning pedagogy?' Altogether, 11 broad challenges were identified, which were modelled using the total interpretive structural modelling (TISM) technique. Based on this model, the awareness and willingness of management is the most important factor in implementing flipped learning. Management intervention and the facilitation of needed support can address the other underlying challenges identified in this study. The framework presented can help policy makers in India to support the adoption of flipped learning pedagogy to a greater extent.
    Keywords: flipped learning; pedagogy; higher education; total interpretive structural modelling; TISM; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10031664
  • High school learners perceptions on the teaching of LGBT content in South African schools   Order a copy of this article
    by Henry James Nichols, Anthony Brown 
    Abstract: The South African Schools Act of 1996 inaugurated a new education system that confronts all forms of unfair discrimination and intolerance. South African schools remain heteronormative and heterosexist. We report on learners attitudes and experiences towards the learning of LGBT issues. Using a case study methodology, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 high school learners. Findings reveal that that sexual and gender diversity is not taught in schools due to a lack of knowledge, ignorance and stereotyping of gender and sexuality. We learned that gender and sexual diversity is a silent topic in schools and that silence perpetuate the compulsory heteronormative culture in schools. However, young people are exposed to and confront samesex sexualities from different sources since many of the peers are disclosing their same-sex sexualities at younger ages. This study concludes that learners are positive and willing to learn about sexual diversity. If the learners are ready to be taught than we will have to revisit those who are charged with teaching, the educators. We conclude that the educators seem to be the barriers to the teachers and learning of sexual diversity and more research will have to look at in and pre-service teacher education.
    Keywords: heteronormativity; heterosexism; LGBT; sexual diversity; high school learners; silence.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10032131
  • Critical thinking: student-centred teaching approach and personalised learning, as well as previous education achievements, contribute to critical thinking skills of students   Order a copy of this article
    by Nazmi Xhomara 
    Abstract: The study aimed to investigate the impact of student-centred teaching approach, personalised learning, and previous education achievements on critical thinking skills. The quantitative correlational approach, the structured questionnaire, and the cluster random sample (N = 214) were selected to be used in the study. It is found a strong positive correlation between student-centred teaching and critical thinking skills (r = 0.555), meanwhile, personalised learning, as well as previous education achievements, correlates positively and significantly with critical thinking skills (r = 0.369; r = 0.424). Student-centred teaching and previous education achievements are strong predictors of critical thinking skills.
    Keywords: student-centred teaching; personalised learning; previous education; critical thinking.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10032227
  • Gender Perception of Factors Determining Entrepreneurial Interest among College of Business Students in Dammam Saudi Arabia   Order a copy of this article
    by Yusuf Opeyemi Akinwale, Aljohara Khalid Ababtain, Olawale Rafiu Olaopa 
    Abstract: This study investigates the independent level of entrepreneurial interest between male and female business college university students in Dammam, Saudi Arabia, and the factors influencing their entrepreneurial interests from the gender perspective. The chi-square result revealed there is no statistical difference between male and female students, thus signifying that they are both equally interested in starting their own business. The results of logistic regression indicated that attitude towards behaviour, entrepreneurship education, self-efficacy, government support, university context and risk-taking have greater likelihood to influence entrepreneurial interests of female and male students, since their odd-ratios are greater than 1. More so, attitude towards behaviour, self-efficacy, government support, university context, relational support and risk-taking are statistically significant in influencing females entrepreneurial interests. Meanwhile attitude towards behaviour, entrepreneurship education, self-efficacy and university context are significant in influencing males entrepreneurial interests. Hence, governmental, relational and university supports should be fostered to improve students entrepreneurial interests.
    Keywords: entrepreneurial interest; university students; gender; Saudi Arabia; entrepreneurship; attitude towards behaviour; self-efficacy; university.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10032280
  • We are part of one whole, and every part works for others - how an Indonesian food ingredient supplier remains sustainable   Order a copy of this article
    by Maria Jacinta Arquisola, Elangga Ianatta Wijoyo 
    Abstract: This study digs deeper into the views of how family members who run PT Hakiki Donarta, one of Indonesia's longest-running family businesses in food ingredient manufacturing, are able to maintain its sustainability despite threats to succession. Guided by resource-based view (RBV) of the firm theory, the study undertook laddered interviews of family members who are at the top management of PT Hakiki Donarta. The study reveals that viable success factors for sustainability are grooming early for succession; employees' affective commitment to the firm; social ties enhanced through socialised familiarity activities; and network trust. Prime obstacles for future sustainability are inexperienced young leaders and the lack of desire to innovate.
    Keywords: family business; succession planning; emotional attachment; social ties; stewardship; leader preparation; Indonesia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10021866
  • Politics, fairness, trust and intention to leave in family business   Order a copy of this article
    by Diin Fitri Ande, Ami Fitri Utami, Budi W. Soetjipto 
    Abstract: This study is aimed to examine the influence of office politics, fairness, and trust in leader on employee intention to leave in the higher education family-owned company in Indonesia. This study utilised quantitative method with 116 sample sizes. Previous study shows that the most prominent challenge for the family business is to maintain the fairness within the company. In this matter, there are possibilities that the tense organisation politics might be higher than other organisations. Moreover, trust in leader is also imperative, since family-owned business is highly symbolised by the family member as the leaders. Unfortunately, while these factors appeared to be pivotal, it can influence the turnover intention of the employee. This might be imperative due to its detrimental effect on the successor availability. The study found that the higher the employee perceived the political action in the company, the higher the employee's intention to leave.
    Keywords: organisational politics; fairness; intention to leave; family business; trust.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10031079
  • LMX, POS, and task environment as antecedents of entrepreneurial orientation in family business   Order a copy of this article
    by Arif Nugroho, Josef Budi Hendrawidjaja, Budi Widjaja Soetjipto 
    Abstract: Family business is facing an uphill challenge to survive and grow. Entrepreneurial orientation (EO) is one extensive strategy that may provide the solutions. To be comprehensive, our EO construct model considers important antecedents such as internal organisation aspect represented by perceived organisational support (POS), individual element served by leader-member exchange (LMX) and environmental factor acted by perceived task environment (PTE). Our research focuses on how these concepts would relate to EO by building hypothesis and empirical analysis of their respective relations. This study also proposes motivation as alternative non-financial performance measurement of EO. The research was conducted using quantitative empirical analysis of 150 top management team (TMT) representing 51 business units with family context in emerging nation. This study shows that although they might have different significance, all three concepts are positively related to EO and it is plausible to incorporate motivation as the result of EO research.
    Keywords: entrepreneurial orientation; motivation; perceived organisational support; POS; leader-member exchange; LMX; task environment.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10031080
  • Mediating role of emotional intelligence in the relationship between self-directed learning and critical thinking   Order a copy of this article
    by Serhat Arslan, Şehrinur Kayıhan 
    Abstract: The aim of the study was to examine the mediating effects of the emotional intelligence in the relationship between learners' self-directed learning and critical thinking abilities. In accordance with the aim of the research, critical thinking disposition scale, self-directed learning scale, and emotional learning scale were administrated to a sample of 303 university students and results showed that critical thinking and self-directed learning were positively related to emotional intelligence. Besides, analysis showed that the self-directed learning on critical thinking ability was mediated by emotional intelligence.
    Keywords: critical thinking; self-directed learning; emotional intelligence.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10023687
  • The design of training programs and its contribution to developing the desired skills in employees: the case of three companies operating in Greece   Order a copy of this article
    by Paraskevi Psoni 
    Abstract: The present study examines the design, the implementation and the evaluation of training programs of three companies operating in Greece, in order to understand their influence on the employees' acquisition of the desired skills as well as on the enhanced job performance and effectiveness for the company. The methodology followed is based on qualitative tools and in-depth interviews with the responsible managers or directors of each company. The findings indicate that all three companies utilise effective and innovative methods of adult training, according to the skills they intend to train employees on, but they face difficulties in implementing Kirkpatrick's four stages of training evaluation. The present findings are significant for policy-makers and training managers worldwide, as they provide holistic and valuable insights about the training trends and best practices in Greece, which however also constitute paradigms for companies at an international level. Deficiencies in the process of evaluation of the training programs have also been highlighted, and in this way, can provide policy-makers with valuable insights for improvement.
    Keywords: training programs; training design; training evaluation; experiential training; experiential learning; learning-by-doing; sociogram; psychodrama in training; training implementation; Greece.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10023918
  • Is a bad mentor better than no mentor?   Order a copy of this article
    by Jiwon Jung, Barry Bozeman 
    Abstract: Mentoring is generally touted as beneficial, yet not all mentoring is good, and the literature gives scant attention to the effects of quality of mentoring on career outcomes. Our study aims to close the gap by providing a comparison among three groups - employees with a good mentor, a bad mentor, and no mentor at all. The study finds that for more than 3,000 respondents, those with a mentor, even a bad one, enjoy the benefits of mentorship. However, the idea that having a bad mentor is better than no mentorship is only partly correct - it is contingent on just how bad and bad in what ways. The quality of the mentoring experience influences job satisfaction more while a mere presence of a mentor is important for the salary of the protégés. Furthermore, mentored public sector workers, unlike workers in the private and non-profit sectors, have a lower salary and job satisfaction compared to those who have no mentor. We provide suggestions about what may account for this unexpected and curious finding.
    Keywords: mentoring; bad mentoring; quality of mentoring; work outcomes; mentoring outcomes; mentoring experience; sector difference.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10031078
  • The impact of organisational culture and dynamic capabilities on learning evaluation: an interpretive analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by James Costello, Barbara Plester 
    Abstract: Organisations develop online learning to achieve operational objectives, with the ultimate goal of improving overall business performance. But shared beliefs and values about what learning is important and how this should be measured can be complicated by perceptions of how external changes will impact the efficacy of learning investments. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to empirically demonstrate the influence of an adaptive cultural context on organisations' learning activities. Taking a critical, interpretive approach and borrowing from the dynamic capabilities and competing values frameworks, we present the findings of an exploratory qualitative study of 12 New Zealand organisations. Our analysis shows that organisations that exhibit more adaptive learning contexts, such as experiencing high rates of internal change, are also likely to build more flexible online learning activities that require more unstructured, informal, and externally-focused effectiveness criteria. Future research opportunities to alleviate sampling and methodological limitations are also discussed.
    Keywords: dynamic capabilities; organisational learning; e-learning; electronic learning; learning effectiveness; abductive; interpretive.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10031081

Special Issue on: CIBMEE-2019 Contemporary Issues in Management and Business Technologies

  • The green employer external branding   Order a copy of this article
    by Adam Sulich 
    Abstract: This article aims to address the questions about green employer branding if it is related only to sustainable organisations. The research is based on the literature review and case study combined with content analysis of companies websites, job advertisements, and social media. The research was conducted among selected Polish companies, to examine if they implement so-called green employer branding in communication with their external stakeholders and candidates especially. The conducted study concerns the scope, tools, and methods of creating a green employer brand among organisations. The obtained results showed that Polish organisations consciously manage their employer brand, emphasising the ecological aspects of their business activities more often when they do not belong to the green sector. Thus, green employer brands are powerful assets that must be carefully developed and managed.
    Keywords: external employer branding; green management; green jobs; sustainable development.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10028436
  • Comparing profit and non-profit sectors focused on continuing education and its impact evaluation   Order a copy of this article
    by Irena Mikova, Pavel Pudil, Lenka Komarkova 
    Abstract: The paper is focused on continuing professional education at both profit and non-profit organisations, namely on the evaluation of education programs at the fourth-level of Kirkpatricks model. The background of the research consists of a relatively extensive search of relevant literature. The analysed dataset of 217 organisations operating in the Czech Republic was collected through an anonymous questionnaire distributed to the employees of analysed organisations (who graduated in the past from the University of Economics Prague). The data were analysed by multiple logistic regression and Pearsons chi-squared test of independence. The results show a statistically significant relationship between the evaluation of impacts and the existence of special education for managers. The novelty of the study lies in providing information on competencies and their perceived importance depending on the organisation type and employees job position. This information can be used to set up a more effective continuing education.
    Keywords: managerial education; continuing education; further education; fourth level evaluation; evaluating education impacts; perceived competencies; learning; comparison of sectors; profit sector; non-profit sector.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10028493
  • Peculiarities of planning for service modularity   Order a copy of this article
    by Ilona Skačkauskienė, Jurga Vestertė 
    Abstract: Service providers face the challenge of providing customer-centred services at effective costs. One of the possible approaches is to modularise service delivery. However, applying modular design principles to services still requires scientific refinement. The study aims to address the paradox of service customisation and standardisation that service providers face when planning for service delivery modularisation. The results from the study allow to characterise the service delivery process, answer the question what the essence of applying modular design principles to service delivery is, and provides direction for rationalising the planning for service modularity.
    Keywords: service modularity; service delivery process; service customisation; service standardisation; paradox management; service competitiveness.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10028495
  • Digital Transformation Outcomes in Higher Education: Pilot Study in Latvia   Order a copy of this article
    by Natalja Verina, Jelena Titko, Inga Shina 
    Abstract: Considering that the higher education sector has a great potential for digital transformation, it is necessary to investigate driving factors and barriers for transformation processes. The goal of the paper is to evaluate DT outcomes in higher education institutions (HEI), perceived by academic and administrative staff members. The authors conducted a pilot survey among the staff members of Latvian HEIs. Most respondents consider a development of new educational products/improvement of existing products as a result DT in HEI. Besides, DT is perceived as a tool to increase HEI competitiveness globally, to improve work efficiency and internal business processes, and to make education more available. At the same time, less than half of the respondents agree that the result of DT is student retention. The results of the research will be used for further investigation of DT issues, specifically for study on staff resistance to DT implementation.
    Keywords: digital transformation; higher education institutions; HEI; staff perception; survey; Latvia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10029097
  • The impact of employee training and development on tacit knowledge transfer and the mediating role of trust   Order a copy of this article
    by Helena Bulinska-Stangrecka, Anna Bagie?ska 
    Abstract: This paper focuses on employees training and development as a significant factor facilitating knowledge transfer. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of employee training and development on tacit knowledge transfer mediated via interpersonal trust. The target population of this study are employees from the telecommunications sector (n = 175). Mediation analyses were conducted, the multiplied regression method and simple mediation model with bootstrapping were applied to analyse the data according to mediation analysis. Cronbach alpha and McDonalds omega are used to verify data reliability. This paper finds that training and development influences tacit knowledge transfer and interpersonal trust mediates this relationship. The results showed that training and development has a positive and significant relationship with tacit knowledge transfer, mediated via interpersonal trust. These findings supported the importance of competency development and employee training as a facilitating condition for effective tacit knowledge dissemination on the basis of mutual trust.
    Keywords: trust; tacit knowledge; knowledge transfer; knowledge management; training and development.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10029564
  • Fuzzy methods of stakeholder prioritization in the context of stakeholder management   Order a copy of this article
    by Aleksey Mints, Evelina Kamyshnykova 
    Abstract: Stakeholder prioritisation is one of the necessary stages of stakeholder management. Existing methods and models for conducting stakeholder prioritisation have limitations, especially those developed for prioritising specific stakeholders. The purpose of this paper is to propose a new methodological approach based on the fuzzy logic method for assessing the priority level of specific stakeholders in the model of stakeholder management. This approach is developed on the basis of an integral method for assessing the priority level of individual stakeholders through a system of indicators, taking into account the factors of subjectivity. Both methods have been applied for prioritising suppliers of a large Ukrainian metallurgical company. Fuzzy logic method has proven to be an effective technique for designing models of nonlinear dependencies for conducting stakeholder prioritisation. It can be used as a tool for reasonable selection of strategic stakeholders and building programs for interaction with them in the stakeholder management system.
    Keywords: fuzzy logic; hierarchical fuzzy system; prioritisation; stakeholder; knowledge base; integral assessment.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10030086
  • Assessment of the factors of sustainable competitiveness growth in the companies in Latvia and Lithuania   Order a copy of this article
    by Irena Danilevi?ien?, Natalja Lace 
    Abstract: In the context of globalisation and rapid technological changes, competitiveness is closely related to productivity and sustainable competitiveness growth is possible only by the growth in productivity. It follows, that the objective of this article is to assess the growth of sustainable competitiveness in different industries in Latvia and Lithuania. The following tasks have been implemented: to analyse the theoretical aspects of sustainability, productivity and competitiveness; to reveal and assess the relationships between competitiveness and productivity. The following methods of analysis are used: an analysis and summarise of the scientific literature, the theoretical and practical statements matching methods, analysis of the statistical data, total factor productivity and return on equity. Here are also methods, time and space limitations. The results show, that here is a link between the results of the competitiveness using various productivity assessment methods, but special attention should be given to technologies, innovation use and capital formation.
    Keywords: capital; competitiveness; labour; regression; return on equity; ROE; total factor productivity; TFP; Latvia; Lithuania.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10030721
  • Measuring the impact of diverse factors on reverse e-logistics performance in Lebanon   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohamad Al Majzoub, Vida Davidaviciene 
    Abstract: Reverse e-logistics is a crucial procedure for organisation performing B2C e-commerce since it yields several benefits. However, firms often neglect it due to lack of knowledge on which factors they should concentrate to improve it. Thus, the purpose of this study is to identify the factors that influence the performance of reverse e-logistics and to determine their impact on it, and to know the impact of reverse e-logistics on profit, resources efficiency, and customer satisfaction. The methods used in this study are: literature review, synthesis, survey methods, and structural equation modelling. The study is done in Lebanon with a sample of 212 companies in the electronic industry who does B2C e-commerce and is faced with reverse e-logistics challenges. The results show that, the seven factors identified in this article have a positive and a significant correlation with reverse e-logistics, which in turn results in more profits, resources efficiency, and customer satisfaction.
    Keywords: reverse logistics; e-logistics; e-commerce; reverse e-logistics; supply chain; performance measurement; Lebanon.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10032393

Special Issue on: ISCLO 2018 Managing Knowledge and Technology in Learning Organisations Challenges for Competitive Advantage

  • Paradoxes of Customer Satisfaction in Telecommunication Industry in Goa, India.   Order a copy of this article
    by SUBHASH PILLAI, Diksha Naik Gaonkar, Jick Castanha, Ling-Chen Chang, Ruey Feng Chen 
    Abstract: Telecommunication industry in Goa is a classic example of customer dissatisfaction with respect to the services offered by the mobile service providers having little substantive evidence to support. This study measures the satisfaction level among the customers of North and South Goa about the quality of services offered by the mobile service providers. Study was carried out using structured questionnaire among 193 telecom customers. Result revealed that only income among all other demographic variables is significant with respect to North and South Goan customers. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) identified seven motivational factors which influence the buying behaviour. Finally, importance-performance analysis (IPA) showed that overall dissatisfaction is high among customers which need to be rectified. Entrepreneurs from India may resort to re-learning the entrepreneurial characteristics being practiced by Indonesian entrepreneurs, namely the intention of having overall development by providing what is promised to the customers at an affordable price.
    Keywords: customer satisfaction; telecommunication; importance performance analysis; Goa; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2021.10023023

Special Issue on: ISCLO 2018 Managing Knowledge and Technology in Learning Organisations Challenges for Competitive Advantage

  • The Role of Knowledge Management Practices on Innovation Performance in Public Telecommunication Company   Order a copy of this article
    by Bachruddin Saleh Luturlean, Arif Partono Prasetio, Romat Saragih, Dwima Nur Shabrina, M. Farryansyah Akbar 
    Abstract: The aim of this research is to identify the role of knowledge management practice in enhancing the innovation capability of the organisation. The study conducted in a national public telecommunication company using 100 participants in Jakarta. Multiple regressions was used to analyse whether the knowledge acquisition, knowledge sharing, and knowledge application can contribute to the organisations innovativeness. The result showed that partially, only knowledge sharing and application had significant and positive relation to innovation capability. While simultaneously, knowledge management practices in the company could impact the innovation capability. The insights from the study were that knowledge management practices should be systematically implemented in the organisation. The sharing and the application of important knowledge throughout the organisation would help increase the innovative thinking of the employee hence indirectly affect the innovation capability off the organisation.
    Keywords: knowledge management; acquisition; sharing; application; innovation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10028588
  • Analysis Personality Model Using The Big Five Theory to Enhancing Academic Motivation of Garut University Student   Order a copy of this article
    by Tinneke Hermina, Intan Tenisia Prawita Sari 
    Abstract: The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between the personality model and students academic motivation at the University of Garut. The personality model in this research refers to big five personality model. The personality model consists of five dimensions that are extraversion, openness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and agreeableness. While the academic motivation in question is encouragement, cause, or reason of a student doing the learning. This research uses questionnaires divided into two parts, namely, the personality measuring instrument consists of 35 points statement, and the academic motivation instrument consists of ten items statement. The number of respondent was 40 students. The results of this study indicate that the personality model and motivation have a relationship. Among the five personality models found that conscientiousness is a personality model that is significantly related to students academic motivation.
    Keywords: personality; academic motivation; big five model; extraversion; openness; conscientiousness; neuroticism; agreeableness; Garut University students.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2021.10023916
  • Analysis of academic stakeholders satisfaction on green campus implementation in Telkom University with importance performance analysis approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Cut Irna Setiawati, Agam Maulana 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to identify the level of satisfaction of the academic community towards the implementation of green campus that took place in higher education institution, especially universities that have been awarded as green campus, by focusing in four elements of green campus, environmental management system, green building and green transportation, community participation and social responsibility, and teaching as well as research regarding sustainability. A survey questionnaire was used to collect data on sample of 100 respondents consist of all civitas academics in higher education institution, This paper uses importance performance analysis (IPA) approach technique in analysing data to find the gap between performance and expectation in term of green campus implementation. The average score of all aspects of the statement at the perception level is 3.25 while the average score of expectation level is 4.22 with a difference or gap of 0.77. It shows that the perception level in the application of green campus in Telkom University has not fulfilled the academic communitys expectation level. This indicates that the gap is evidenced by the difference between perception and expectation that generates negative value of total value as a whole which causes the Gap to apply green campus in Telkom University.
    Keywords: green campus; important performance analysis; IPA; satisfaction.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2022.10025867
  • Implementation of Great Leadership Style to leverage Employee’s Performance in PT. Telkom Akses Indonesia   Order a copy of this article
    by Elnanda Ardiyant Saputra, Ratri Wahyuningtyas 
    Abstract: This study intends to examine whether great leadership has an effect on employee performance in PT Telkom Akses Bandung. The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of manage yourself leadership style on employee performance, the influence of manage your network on employee performance, and the influence of manage your team on employee performance which is applied in the company. This research used a quantitative descriptive method. Data collection was conducted using questionnaires distributed to 384 employees. To test the hypothesis, this research using structural equation model (SEM) with Amos 20. Researchers found that respondents had assessed that the company had a leader who supported the employee's performance, which can be seen from the assessment of great leadership factors that tended to influence the three major leadership dimensions of managing yourself, managing your network and managing your team.
    Keywords: employee performance; great leadership; manage yourself; manage your network; manage your team; Indonesia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10030722
  • How might the Socio-moral Climate Buffer Job Insecurity Stressor? A Multilevel Study in Spain and Austria   Order a copy of this article
    by Beatriz Sora, Thomas Höge, Amparo Caballer, Ruben Nieto 
    Abstract: A major current work stressor is job insecurity, which presents a well-established negative impact on wellbeing. In this vein, the aims of this study were: 1) to provide additional evidence on this relationship; and 2) to examine the socio-moral climate as a potential situational buffer to ameliorate its detrimental effect. A multilevel approach was adopted to examine the sociomoral climate at higher levels (i.e., organisational level). The sample was composed of 1,435 employees from Spain and Austria. Random coefficient model results corroborated the negative relationship between job insecurity and employee affective wellbeing, the positive relationship between job insecurity and emotional exhaustion, and the buffer role of the socio-moral climate. On the basis of our findings, we suggest that an atmosphere of respect, empathy, communication, cooperation and trust in organisations could mitigate the detrimental association between the work stressor of job insecurity and employee wellbeing and emotional exhaustion.
    Keywords: job insecurity; socio-moral climate; wellbeing; emotional exhaustion.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10030723

Special Issue on: Development and Change Bridging the Gaps in Emerging Countries

  • Education Quality Comparing between Official Measurement Scale and Inter-counterparts’ Perception: A New Horizon for Learning Assessment   Order a copy of this article
    by Gazi Mahabubul Alam, Md. Abdur Rahman Forhad 
    Abstract: Referring to the official measurement scale, global evidences confirm that 'education quality' has continuously been improving. On the other hand, studies examining the role of education discover that education continuously fails to play the desired role. Therefore, claims are made that education quality is denting. Keeping this view in mind, this research is conducted to assess the education quality, making a comparison between the official measurement scale and inter-counterparts perception. Both primary and secondary data are used. According to the official measurement scale, education quality has been improved substantially for every provision-primary to tertiary. Apparently, the entire system functions well where performances and education quality of all provisions are synchronised. On the other hand, inter-counterparts perception indicates that education quality of all provisions deteriorates gradually and they live in an isolation. This research suggested a new horizon for assessment which would ensure substantial learning outcomes; helping the developing world.
    Keywords: education quality; quality education; synchronised education system; supply and demand sides; education quality; 21st century.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10030306
  • Sustainable Achievement of Selective KPIs of Different Players in Education: An Update for Policy Discourse and Role of Tertiary Education   Order a copy of this article
    by Gazi Mahabubul Alam, Md. Abdur Rahman Forhad 
    Abstract: Key performance indicator (KPI) has become a fundamental part of evaluation that focuses on either an individual or a system. Setting KPIs and their revisions is a continuous process that is often determined through either an agreeable or a heated discussion. This paper is the first to investigate the achievement of KPIs of different players in education using Bangladesh as a case study. Because of the nature of policy discourse research, secondary data are used from the designated agencies. Increasing enrolment with the assurance of high-quality education was determined as the prime KPI for primary/secondary provisions. Quantitative KPIs are achieved, which is unsustainable. Both public and private sectors are players in tertiary education; none of them accomplish the prime KPI setup, which consists of research. The need to supply job-ready graduates is ignored. This study suggests that new policy must be formed to attain a sustainable achievement of KPIs.
    Keywords: KPIs in education; key players in education; sustainable achievement; 21st century; education policy.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJLC.2020.10030307