Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Internet Technology and Secured Transactions

International Journal of Internet Technology and Secured Transactions (IJITST)

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International Journal of Internet Technology and Secured Transactions (19 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • A secured transaction based on blockchain architecture in mobile banking platform   Order a copy of this article
    by Joseph Bamidele Awotunde, Chinmay Chakraborty, Sakinat Oluwabukonla Folorunso 
    Abstract: Blockchain technology makes the transfer of money possible and makes transactions electronically easier and safer than the conventional payment system. Its common awareness that blockchain can make financial data security easier. Technology, however, also poses certain difficulties in fulfilling some financial data protection needs. Therefore, this paper recommends a framework founded on blockchain to protect and secure financial data transfer on mobile banking platform. A multi-level authentication was used to secure the mobile banking and a two-factor authentication protocol to generate a time based one-time password (TOTP) for secure funds transfer. The proposed system addresses the requirements of building a secure application for mobile banking because of the increased security and privacy of clients on mobile banking applications. The secured Blockchain mobile banking can be employed to enhance the business transaction on mobile banking platform, make the system more effective, and help respond quickly to any transaction on the platform.
    Keywords: blockchain; mobile banking; security and privacy; financial data; data management.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJITST.2021.10039177
  • Security threats and countermeasures on the internet of things   Order a copy of this article
    by Eugene Rhee 
    Abstract: Internet of things (IoT) refers to intelligent technologies and services that connect all objects based on the Internet to communicate information between people and things, things and systems. However, these IoT-based devices are exposed to many security threats because they communicate information to each other over wired and wireless networks. Recently, international standards organisations such as the IETF have sought to establish the IoT by developing technologies that allow devices with various physical constraints to connect to the internet. However, it will not be easy to meet the new requirements associated with the IoT, where countless devices are connected to the internet and require large amounts of data processing. Therefore, in this paper, we analyse ZigBee, CoAP, MQTT, and XMPP, which are technologies related to IoT, and propose the security requirements that the components that make up the IoT should have.
    Keywords: security; internet; internet of things; IoT; ZigBee; constrained application protocol; CoAP; message queuing telemetry transport; MQTT; extensible messaging and presence protocol; XMPP.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJITST.2021.10039864
  • Advanced countermeasures against IoT hacking by DDoS   Order a copy of this article
    by Eugene Rhee 
    Abstract: After searching for various hacking cases and hacking methods due to the development of the internet of things, this paper examines the characteristics, principles, and composition of DDoS attack, one of the most frequently used hacking methods. After learning about the features of DDoS, this paper explains how to secure using a router. We also look at the functionality and technicality of the router’s security, and then explains traffic monitoring and sees what DDoS attacks can be known in advance depending on the amount of incoming system traffic. Subsequently, DDoS attacks are difficult to find where the cause originated, as well as there are many problems with subsequent treatment of them, so this paper shares how to block and defend DDoS attacks, and presents analysis and countermeasures.
    Keywords: internet of things; IoT; distributed denial of service; DDoS; hacking; network.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJITST.2021.10039865
  • RFID-based cultural performance progress management system   Order a copy of this article
    by Eugene Rhee 
    Abstract: In this paper, a cultural performance progress management system using RFID tags and readers is proposed so that the RFID technology can be grafted onto the field of the cultural performance industry with a view to enhancing the efficiency of audience management and preventing ticket touting. This system became to be studied to use the advantages of RFID, which are the ability to store a lot of data, high recognition speeds, and reusability. In the case of the proposed system, when a tag has been recognised by its reader, the ID number of the RFID tag and that of the database are matched to identify the stored information. Thereafter, the tag is recharged with money and used as a prepayment method.
    Keywords: barcode; cultural performance; management system; radio frequency identification; RFID; ticket.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJITST.2021.10041508
  • Employment contract and wage payment using blockchain and smart contract   Order a copy of this article
    by Eugene Rhee 
    Abstract: Employment contracts recorded on blockchain have another strength in that they make it impossible to falsify or modify the agreements between employers and employees. The fact that the work input through the application remains on the blockchain, and the manager shares it, which is expected to significantly improve the disadvantaged position of part-time workers. As a way to recognise and solve recent problems with employment contracts and wage problems, this paper proposes to store employment contracts in blocks using blockchain technology, enable accurate wage payments using smart contracts, and also store wage information in blocks. In addition, it can be proved by using the contents stored in the block when problems occur later.
    Keywords: blockchain; employment contract; Ethreum; smart contract.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJITST.2021.10041613
  • Identical twin matching based on multiple feature extractors   Order a copy of this article
    by K. Sudhakar, P. Nithyanandam 
    Abstract: Identical twins are having similarities in their face and facial features, due to that the face recognition performance has been decreased. The proposed system performs identical twin identification with different illumination conditions and different poses. Two methodologies such as grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and Gabor are used in the proposed system. The first method is the texture based approach, in which the energy, contrast, correlation and homogeneity parameters are calculated by using GLCM which provides the first level of authentication. The Second method is the distance-based approach, in which distance between the facial components is detected by using Gabor and thus the second level matching is performed. The GLCM and distance features are used to differentiate the twins. The support vector machine (SVM) is used for the classification. ND-Twin 2009 dataset is used in the proposed system for the testing purpose and the proposed work achieves 90% accuracy.
    Keywords: grey level co-occurrence matrix; GLCM; Gabor filter; support vector machine; SVM; identical twin.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJITST.2021.10042408
  • BlockTrust-RPL: distributed blockchain based authentication and trust validation for secure objective function formulation in RPL-IoT   Order a copy of this article
    by Bandarupalli Rakesh, H. Parveen Sultana 
    Abstract: Routing protocol for low power lossy network (RPL) faces many challenges such as high energy consumption and high congestion and so on. Mainly IoT environment suffers by various attacks such as rank, Sybil and DDoS because of insufficient security provisions. The proposed BlockTrust-RPL focuses on detecting security threats without increasing energy consumption and congestion. For that the proposed BlockTrust-RPL consists of three phases: 1) distributed authentication; 2) valid trust-based parent selection; 3) trickle timer optimisation and mobile sink movement. The overall network is connected with blockchain thorough block gateway. Blockchain is constructed with TrustBlock and AuthBlock where, TrustBlock records trust values and Authblock records authentication credentials. The simulation is done by using which evaluate the performance in terms of packet delivery ratio, delay, attack detection accuracy and average energy consumption with respect to number of nodes and number of malicious nodes.
    Keywords: RPL; blockchain; IoT; dual mode optimised deep neural network; dynamic entropy based trickle timer.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJITST.2021.10042911
  • A new model for intrusion detection systems using bat algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Saoud Mohammed Abed Al-Bqur, Mohammad Ali H. Eljinini, Osama K. Qtaish 
    Abstract: There is a need for an efficient intrusion detection system (IDS) working over the network to detect the whole possible attacks. Intrusion detection is so much popular in the last two decades, where intruders attempted to break into or misuse the systems. There are many techniques used in intrusion detection for protecting computers and networks from network-based and host-based attacks. In this work, the proposed approach presents a new model for IDS using bat algorithm that aims to select the best features to find intrusions and utilising big data models. The proposed approach is divided into several phases to extract and find all possible features that effect directly in the detection process. The proposed approach is tested using the KNIME Analytics Platform based on support vector machine (SVM) and naive Bayes classifiers. The experiment results gave high accuracy of 97.52% with reducing error classification into 2.47% using the SVM classifier.
    Keywords: internet technologies; network systems; intrusion detection; bat algorithm; big data; support vector machine; SVM; naive Bayes; machine learning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJITST.2021.10043614
  • IoT technologies, applications and challenges, blockchain and its role in IoT: a survey   Order a copy of this article
    by S. Muthulakshmi, R. Chitra 
    Abstract: The IoT is the next epoch of communication. It is a very unique platform which is getting well liked for everyone. The major reason for this to happen is the advancement in Technology and its potentiality to get connected to everything. The IoT gives us an opportunity to build effective administrations, applications for manufacturing and more. The existing and forthcoming IoT applications are favourably hopeful to increase the level of comfort, efficiency and automation. To implement such a world in an ever increasing fashion requires high security, privacy, authentication and recovery from attacks. Existing technologies are not enough to achieve that. Blockchain addresses the solutions to the above security issues of IoT. Blockchain technology attracts all industries by its decentralised architecture. The main aim of this paper is how the system becomes powerful while integrating blockchain with an IoT application. This paper explains various architectures of IoT and explains various technologies used as IoT solutions. It also explains about the IoT applications, its challenges. Finally, how the blockchain technology is used to overcome the challenges in IoT applications is discussed.
    Keywords: internet of things; IoT; layered architectures; technologies; IoT applications; challenges; blockchain.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJITST.2022.10045181
  • Experimental based comparative study on open-source network intrusion detection system   Order a copy of this article
    by Akshay Mudgal, Shaveta Bhatia 
    Abstract: Security of assets is foremost and vigorous, be it be hardware, software, or a digital piece of information, an organisation should have to protect its assets. When the security of computer systems is discussed several different branches strikes which need and deserve the advanced level of security. Network security is among the prominent sector and is considered today’s topmost branch of computers which is at utmost risk and danger. It acts as a bridge between the different micro, mini, and advanced sized computer systems connectivity from different parts of the world. One of the most common and unsophisticated ways to secure digital information is intrusion detection systems (IDSs). The IDS plays a significant and pivotal role in securing networks. This work comprises a comparison on well-known, three open-source IDS named Snort, Suricata, Bro/Zeek. Extensive comparison will be performed based on 12 different yet interconnected standards. It will help an individual to better understand which technology is best suited for its network. A matrix has been designed through which five different experiments were executed based on which the juxtaposition will be prepared. This paper summarises an extensive study of several researchers with a practical experiment approach in a well-controlled environment.
    Keywords: network; security; intrusion detection systems; IDSs; intrusion prevention systems; IPS; open source IDS; snort; Suricata; Bro/Zeek.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJITST.2022.10045469
  • Coded cooperative trust derivation for internet of things   Order a copy of this article
    by Gamini Joshi, Vidushi Sharma 
    Abstract: Security in the internet of things (IoT) is a significant challenge that needs utter attention. Traditionally, cryptology was used to secure the IoT network. But the need for fixed infrastructure, huge memory, and high computational power, had compelled it to be unsuitable for resource constraint IoT nodes. Therefore, this paper presents a trust-based network-coded cooperative framework known as coded cooperative trust (CCT). The proposed scheme evaluates the trust value of sensor nodes through direct and indirect specifications. Proximity, frequency-duration, and energy attributes were utilised to evaluate direct trust value, while network code-words were structured to estimate the indirect trust value. The simulation results present that CCT had effectively identified malicious nodes and had shown great performance in terms of throughput, energy consumption, and latency by an average of 49.8%, 55.3%, and 35% respectively, when compared to AF-TNS, RTS, and TAACS-FL models. Moreover, the T-test analysis of CCT has achieved a 99% confidence level.
    Keywords: internet of things; IoT; security; cooperative communication; trust management system; TMS; convolution codes; direct interactions; indirect interactions.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJITST.2022.10047056
  • Big picture: analysis of DDoS attacks map - systems and network, cloud computing, SCADA systems, and IoT   Order a copy of this article
    by Saeed Salah, Bilal M. Amro 
    Abstract: Distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks are among the toughest security issues nowadays. These attacks are launched at any time and can impact any part of a network’s operations or IT resources. Because of the seriousness of these attacks, many countermeasures have been developed by both the private sector and the research community. Despite the availability of many research efforts that suggested DDoS attacks classifications, the multitude, diversity, and variety of both the attacks and their countermeasures have the consequence that no standard taxonomy exists. In this paper, we introduce an updated and structured taxonomy of both DDoS attacks and their countermeasures. The novelty of this work stems from the fact that it covers different dimensions of tackling DDoS attacks in the four main technology areas: systems and network, cloud computing, SCADA, and IoT, with the main aim of providing an all-in-one comprehensive reference for ongoing and future security research.
    Keywords: distributed denial-of-service; DDoS; internet of things; IoT; supervisory control and data acquisition; SCADA; systems; network; cloud computing.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJITST.2022.10047199
  • Blockchain technology for protection of biomedical documents in healthcare society   Order a copy of this article
    by Ramkumar Jayaraman, Atul Srivastava, Manoj Kumar 
    Abstract: Blockchain is around decade-old technology that initially came with Bitcoin to protect digital monetary transactions with consensus and mining incentives. Later on, blockchain technology is adopted by different domains, including banking, healthcare and governance, to mention a few. The Healthcare industry is massive in a world where data security is indispensable. Since biomedical research documents are content-sensitive with evidence-based research, it is essential to see data integrity and non-repudiation besides other security attributes. Blockchain is the technology found suitable for achieving the desired level of security for biomedical documents. This paper investigates the present state-of-the-art on the application of Blockchain to biomedical databases. Our contribution is to analyse and compare existing methods with a tabulated study. Based on specific investigations, we conclude that biomedical databases are protected through blockchain technology, making those data more reliable and helping to provide effective diagnosis and treatment to the patients in the hospital.
    Keywords: blockchain; biomedical databases; security; consensus; smart contracts.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJITST.2022.10047205
  • A hybrid model to detect phishing-websites   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohamed Hafidi, Lamia Mahnane 
    Abstract: Phishing and fraud sites has been widespread on the internet in recent times, in which that it is become a source of great concern and a serious cyber security problem, as internet fraudsters target sensitive data and personal information of users, especially the username and password. Numerous approaches has been proposed and used in order to prevent and reduce these phishing websites and attacks, and protect users and their privacy. In this paper, we proposed an anti-phishing system based on machine learning algorithms and classifiers, combined with white-list and black-list techniques. We used the C4.5 classifier that generate a decision tree that provides highly accurate results in deciding whether a site is a fraudulent website or a genuine website based on its URL. Our predictive model achieved a high accuracy rate of 83%. We have modelled our system in the form of a desktop application so that the user can add the URL of the website need to be checked, and the results appear to the user. The system combination accuracy can exceed 95%, and the execution results prove that.
    Keywords: anti-phishing; machine learning; black-list; white-list; cyber security.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJITST.2022.10047338
  • An enhanced security framework for IoT environment using Jaya optimisation based genetic algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by S. Velliangiri, Iwin Thanakumar Joseph, Shanthini Pandiaraj, P. Leela Jancy, Ch. Madhubabu 
    Abstract: The internet of things (IoT) employs a cloud network, and the data stored in the cloud servers are highly vulnerable to various attacks. As per the current analysis report, around 23% of IoT devices are prone to attack. The data stored in the cloud storage are highly vulnerable to attacks leading to a pullback factor of 15% in economic growth. Considering the above security of the IoT devices, this paper proposes a framework integrating the Jaya algorithm and genetic algorithm to achieve an optimal detection of intrusion in the IoT network. The JA is a parameter less algorithm that does not require any precise control parameters. In contrast, the GA is a meta-heuristic approach to produce reasonable quality solutions for complex functions. The extensive analysis of the proposed algorithm yield better performance in vital parameters like accuracy, recall and F-score.
    Keywords: internet of things; IoT; cloud storage; data access; Jaya algorithm; JA; genetic algorithm; GA; security; privacy.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJITST.2022.10047960
  • Machine learning techniques for automated policy violation reporting   Order a copy of this article
    by Albara Awajan, Moutaz Alazab, Salah Alhyari, Issa Qiqieh, Mohammad Wedyan 
    Abstract: Daily, citizens regularly face incidents or violations and even digital security incidents such as email intrusion, system infiltration or damage caused by malicious software. These violations are usually left unreported because of the difficulties that the citizens face to get the incident reported. Another issue is that many complaints should be handled by different departments in different sectors, but due to a lack of cooperation between departments in different sectors, complaints are frequently misplaced. To solve this problem, we propose an automated client-server citizen reporting system framework based on machine learning techniques. The paper focuses on the design and implementation of an automated image feature-based classification framework that jointly uses feature extraction and deep learning to classify the images and forward them to the relevant department. In Addition, the framework permits users to report about any cyber-crime incidents such as bank account intrusion (Alazab et al., 2011a, 2020b, Alazab, 2020), credit card fraud (Alazab et al., 2011b, 2012a, 2012c), Phishing and Pharming. The results show that complaints handling accuracy is up to 95.4%.
    Keywords: cyber security; crime violation; mobile security; reporting system; digital forensics; deep learning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJITST.2022.10048153
  • A comprehensive blockchain technology survey: architecture, applications and challenges   Order a copy of this article
    by Gajala Praveen, Piyush Kumar Singh, Prabhat Ranjan 
    Abstract: Blockchain technology has evolved to solve the complexity and privacy issues associated with online digital content distribution in the last decade. Several studies have centred on different implementations of blockchain technology, and there is no comprehensive survey of the technology from both a technical and an application viewpoint. To close this gap, we conducted a detailed blockchain technology survey. This paper gives an in-depth look at blockchain technology. It discusses the blockchain fundamentals, a taxonomy, characteristics, architecture of blockchain, and accessible consensus mechanisms used in the various blockchain systems. This paper also gives blockchain applications in multiple domains, including finance, medical, banking, etc. In addition, this paper presents an overview of the various problems that currently exist in blockchain technology and future research directions.
    Keywords: Bitcoin; consensus algorithms; smart contract; blockchain architecture; blockchain applications; blockchain challenges.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJITST.2022.10048331
  • K-mean and mean-shift algorithms in machine learning model for efficient malware categorisation   Order a copy of this article
    by Keshava Srinivas, Rahul Trivedi, Dharmik Patel, Kakelli Anil Kumar 
    Abstract: Malware can cause havoc not only in the personal devices of individuals but also in multinational organisations on their data handling capabilities. So, it is paramount to classify whether a file is malware or not, and classifying based on its behaviour is highly essential for efficient malware analysis. This paper proposes a new technique with the help of based on machine learning (ML) to classify and categorise malware (PE32 files). We have extracted various features from the PE32 file from its subsections and applied the dimension reductionality techniques like principal component analysis (PCA) and non-negative matrix factorisation (NMF) to reduce the number of features that have highly preferable to use by the machine learning model. Our proposed technique has been implemented using K-mean and mean-shift algorithms for better accuracy in malware detection and classification concerning the behaviour.
    Keywords: static analysis; clustering; K-means; mean-shift; principal component analysis; PCA; non-matrix factorisation; elbow method; silhouette measure.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJITST.2022.10048602
  • Authentication model and trust management for secured internet of things enabled smart grid using blockchain framework   Order a copy of this article
    by S. Muthulakshmi, R. Chitra, A.M. Anusha Bamini, E. Golden Julie 
    Abstract: Flexible power trading is an important capability brought by smart grid to traditional electric distribution networks. Flexible power trading necessitates trust among smart grid entities, security and integrity for the transaction among entities for reliable power trading. In this work, a novel blockchain framework over internet of things enabled smart grid is proposed to facilitate secure and reliable power trading. Towards this aim, a cooperative trust based reputation score model is proposed to provide reputation score to the entities. The communications between entities involved in power trading are authenticated using a three party mutual authentication model. The transactions between the entities are integrity verified and secured in a blockchain framework. Use of blockchain provides an immutable storage for transactions and ensures consensus across all the entities involved in power trading, so that no entity can deny the participation in trading.
    Keywords: authentication; blockchain; IoT; smart grid.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJITST.2022.10048604