Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Internet Technology and Secured Transactions

International Journal of Internet Technology and Secured Transactions (IJITST)

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International Journal of Internet Technology and Secured Transactions (18 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Explicit traffic shaping scheme in content centric networking   Order a copy of this article
    by Jihoon Lee, Eugene Rhee 
    Abstract: Content centric networking (CCN) is considered as the prominent future internet architecture. CCN packets are routed based on content name itself, not on IP address and has two kinds of packets such as interest and data. CCN has a security model to secure content pieces, not to secure a transmission session. However, CCN has not widely taken the side effect to the occurrence of network congestion. So, this paper proposes the traffic control scheme in CCN environment to reduce high communication overhead, long content retrieval time, and high resource consumption. The proposed traffic shaping scheme for data packets tries to delay the transmission of data packets during network congestion.
    Keywords: content centric networking; CCN; traffic control; traffic shaping.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJITST.2021.10038363
  • Centralised and distributed authentication scheme in internet of things: review and outlook   Order a copy of this article
    by Upendra Verma, Diwakar Bhardwaj 
    Abstract: Internet of things (IoT) is the promising technology in which devices equipped with processors, actuators and sensors communicate with each other to serve a meaningful objective. Security is the essential requirements and authentication plays a vital role in IoT system. This paper is a comprehensive attempt to provide state of art survey of available centralised and distributed authentication scheme till 2020. The comparison has been carried out in terms of various factors network model, type of architecture, application domain and IoT layers. Based on the finding, it can be observed that IoT architecture and how the authentication is performed criterion can play an important role for deciding the authentication scheme. This paper provides summary of wide range of authentication schemes with the help of showing their strengths and limitations. The paper introduced a conceptualisation process of authentication for IoT, which constitutes a footstep for researchers working under different application domain.
    Keywords: conceptualisation process; centralised authentication scheme; distributed authentication scheme; IoT architecture; network model; type of architecture.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJITST.2021.10038453
  • Robust baggage detection and classification based on local tri-directional pattern   Order a copy of this article
    by Shahbano, Muhammad Abdullah, Kashif Inayat 
    Abstract: In recent decades, the automatic video surveillance system has gained significant importance in computer vision community. The crucial objective of surveillance is monitoring and security in public places. In the traditional local binary pattern, the feature description is somehow inaccurate, and the feature size is large enough. Therefore, to overcome these shortcomings, our research proposed a detection algorithm for a human with or without carrying baggage. The local tri-directional pattern descriptor is exhibited to extract features of different human body parts including head, trunk, and limbs. Then with the help of support vector machine (SVM), extracted features are trained and evaluated. Experimental results on INRIA and MSMT17 V1 datasets show that LtriDP outperforms several state-of-the-art feature descriptors and validate its effectiveness.
    Keywords: carrying baggage detection and classification; local tri-directional pattern; support vector machine; SVM; boosting machine; video surveillance.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJITST.2021.10038710
  • An eagles eye view of software defined network function virtualisation   Order a copy of this article
    by Karamjeet Kaur, Veenu Mangat, Krishan Kumar 
    Abstract: The operational and capital cost of diverse proprietary network appliances is increasing day by day. It is causing problems of network ossification for service providers. Service providers are under pressure to offer these network services while keeping operational and capital costs to the minimum. Network function virtualisation (NFV) is an open standard and non-proprietary based model that is witnessing significant development in replacing current vendor-specific and closed source implementations. NFV technology allows service providers to implement the software version of the middlebox on the commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) server, called virtual network function (VNF). Software-defined networking (SDN) is another promising technology used to make the network flexible and programmable. When employed in conjunction with the SDN, NFV offers agile traffic steering, dynamic monitoring of VNFs, and centralised management at the control plane. The main motivation behind this work is to investigate NFV technology in-depth and explore SDN-controlled NFV architecture to make the network agile and flexible with minimum cost. In this paper, we attempt to discuss these technologies from the perspective of combining them to gain the maximum advantage of their amalgamation. We identified and discussed various research challenges that arise in combining SDN and NFV and their proposed solutions.
    Keywords: software defined networking; SDN; network virtualisation; network function virtualisation; NFV; middlebox; virtual network functions; VNFs; hypervisor.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJITST.2021.10038753
  • Trust-based duopoly secure game models for cooperative relay networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Khyati Chopra, Akanksha Sondhi, M. Afshar Alam 
    Abstract: In a cooperative communication relay network, secure data transmission from source to the intended destination via relay nodes is an important issue. The eavesdropper or an adversary could tap the information from the link and hence maintaining secrecy is crucial. For confidential communication, we have taken into account the degree of trust, which would indeed help the source to select the best relay for forwarding data more efficiently and reliably without concerning on the eavesdropping attack. Also, unlike other works till date, we have developed duopoly game secure models to corroborate that the relays profit gets higher with higher degree of trust in cooperative relay network. The utility of relays is evaluated for various duopoly economic game modelling schemes and it is shown that there is decrease in the profit of relays with higher relay to eavesdropper SNR. We have demonstrated that the strategic variable choice as price or output in an oligopoly market theory, can dramatically impact the Nash outcome.
    Keywords: DF relay; trust degree; secrecy rate; Nash equilibrium; duopoly game.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJITST.2021.10038758
  • A forward and backward secure conjunctive keywords dynamic searchable encryption scheme   Order a copy of this article
    by Md. Asrar Ahmed, S. Ramachandram, Khaleel Ur Rahman Khan 
    Abstract: Dynamic searchable symmetric encryption (DSSE) allows a user to carryout search and update operations on the outsourced encrypted data on cloud. The recent research work in DSSE exposed many flaws in existing strategies by introducing leakage abuse attacks. To protect DSSE schemes from leakage, forward and backward privacy notions were introduced. In this paper, we propose a forward and backward secure chained dictionary-based indexing mechanism with support for conjunctive keyword queries. The proposed scheme uses a minimal leakage index design, requiring compact storage at client, easier update operations at server and removes entries of deleted files from index to ensure backward privacy resulting in reduced index size. It ensures that the searches followed by update operation do not violate query privacy. Rigorous security analysis and experimental evaluations show that our scheme achieves sub-linear search time and supports efficient update operations ensuring forward and backward privacy.
    Keywords: forward privacy; backward privacy; dynamic SSE; outsourced data privacy; randomised query; conjunctive keyword search.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJITST.2021.10038867
  • Safety and convenience of internet banking keyboard security technology   Order a copy of this article
    by Eugene Rhee 
    Abstract: The keyboard is a traditional input device that transmits the values entered by the user to the inside of the computer. Attackers find out the keyboard values entered by internet banking users, and some of the values are actually implemented and used. However, although security is ensured as the complexity of keyboard security technologies increases, such technologies cannot be used in real life because user convenience cannot be guaranteed. In this paper, various technologies proposed to reinforce internet banking keyboard security are summarised, and the convenience and safety of the keyboard security technologies are examined.
    Keywords: security; keyboard; internet; banking; password.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJITST.2021.10039276
  • Security threats and countermeasures on the internet of things   Order a copy of this article
    by Eugene Rhee 
    Abstract: Internet of things (IoT) refers to intelligent technologies and services that connect all objects based on the Internet to communicate information between people and things, things and systems. However, these IoT-based devices are exposed to many security threats because they communicate information to each other over wired and wireless networks. Recently, international standards organisations such as the IETF have sought to establish the IoT by developing technologies that allow devices with various physical constraints to connect to the internet. However, it will not be easy to meet the new requirements associated with the IoT, where countless devices are connected to the internet and require large amounts of data processing. Therefore, in this paper, we analyse ZigBee, CoAP, MQTT, and XMPP, which are technologies related to IoT, and propose the security requirements that the components that make up the IoT should have.
    Keywords: security; internet; internet of things; IoT; ZigBee; constrained application protocol; CoAP; message queuing telemetry transport; MQTT; extensible messaging and presence protocol; XMPP.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJITST.2021.10039864
  • Advanced countermeasures against IoT hacking by DDoS   Order a copy of this article
    by Eugene Rhee 
    Abstract: After searching for various hacking cases and hacking methods due to the development of the internet of things, this paper examines the characteristics, principles, and composition of DDoS attack, one of the most frequently used hacking methods. After learning about the features of DDoS, this paper explains how to secure using a router. We also look at the functionality and technicality of the router’s security, and then explains traffic monitoring and sees what DDoS attacks can be known in advance depending on the amount of incoming system traffic. Subsequently, DDoS attacks are difficult to find where the cause originated, as well as there are many problems with subsequent treatment of them, so this paper shares how to block and defend DDoS attacks, and presents analysis and countermeasures.
    Keywords: internet of things; IoT; distributed denial of service; DDoS; hacking; network.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJITST.2021.10039865
  • RFID-based cultural performance progress management system   Order a copy of this article
    by Eugene Rhee 
    Abstract: In this paper, a cultural performance progress management system using RFID tags and readers is proposed so that the RFID technology can be grafted onto the field of the cultural performance industry with a view to enhancing the efficiency of audience management and preventing ticket touting. This system became to be studied to use the advantages of RFID, which are the ability to store a lot of data, high recognition speeds, and reusability. In the case of the proposed system, when a tag has been recognised by its reader, the ID number of the RFID tag and that of the database are matched to identify the stored information. Thereafter, the tag is recharged with money and used as a prepayment method.
    Keywords: barcode; cultural performance; management system; radio frequency identification; RFID; ticket.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJITST.2021.10041508
  • Employment contract and wage payment using blockchain and smart contract   Order a copy of this article
    by Eugene Rhee 
    Abstract: Employment contracts recorded on blockchain have another strength in that they make it impossible to falsify or modify the agreements between employers and employees. The fact that the work input through the application remains on the blockchain, and the manager shares it, which is expected to significantly improve the disadvantaged position of part-time workers. As a way to recognise and solve recent problems with employment contracts and wage problems, this paper proposes to store employment contracts in blocks using blockchain technology, enable accurate wage payments using smart contracts, and also store wage information in blocks. In addition, it can be proved by using the contents stored in the block when problems occur later.
    Keywords: blockchain; employment contract; Ethreum; smart contract.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJITST.2021.10041613
  • Using technology acceptance model for acceptance of FinTech in Bangladesh   Order a copy of this article
    by Nazmul Hasan Chowdhury, Nida Hussain 
    Abstract: The main objective of the study is to understand the user’s attitude and intentions for the adoption of FinTech services and products in Bangladesh. Under the light of technology acceptance model and theory of planned behaviour, hypotheses were developed. The research model employed perceived accessibility, perceived secure system, and perceived cost efficiency to observe the user acceptance behaviour towards FinTech. The structured equation model was implemented by using Smart PLS to examine the relationships. A total of 435 FinTech users from Bangladesh participated in data collection. The study concludes that the attitude of the local users is highly positive towards the FinTech adoption. Additionally, a perceived secured system and perceived cost efficiency hold a strong influence on the user. Although, perceived awareness as a moderator strengthens the relationship. It is recommended that the government and FinTech operators should spend more time on knowledge and awareness spread among low income and uneducated customers in Bangladesh for increase in the adoption of FinTech.
    Keywords: financial technology; FinTech; technology acceptance model; TAM; customer acceptance; technology development; digital Bangladesh.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJITST.2021.10042636
  • Fiber analysis to prevent cloning of credit cards   Order a copy of this article
    by Saurabh Singh, Karam Veer Arya 
    Abstract: According to the report released by Federal Trade Commission of US government on 4th February 2021, number of credit card frauds has been increased by 107% from first quarter of 2019 to fourth quarter of 2020. A common method of counterfeiting is card cloning, that is achieved by copying card ID and other information from the magnetic stripe of a genuine card using a skimming device and writing it on a duplicate card. This paper presents a unique method to prevent card cloning, which does not store card ID on a magnetic stripe or chip of the card, Instead, the ID is generated from the card itself using the location coordinates and orientation of the randomly spread fibres. Sensitive information is also stored in the card using the location and size of these fibres.
    Keywords: card cloning; financial frauds; card skimming: physical property-based cards; financial security; online transaction security.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJITST.2021.10042775
  • BlockTrust-RPL: distributed blockchain based authentication and trust validation for secure objective function formulation in RPL-IoT   Order a copy of this article
    by Bandarupalli Rakesh, H. Parveen Sultana 
    Abstract: Routing protocol for low power lossy network (RPL) faces many challenges such as high energy consumption and high congestion and so on. Mainly IoT environment suffers by various attacks such as rank, Sybil and DDoS because of insufficient security provisions. The proposed BlockTrust-RPL focuses on detecting security threats without increasing energy consumption and congestion. For that the proposed BlockTrust-RPL consists of three phases: 1) distributed authentication; 2) valid trust-based parent selection; 3) trickle timer optimisation and mobile sink movement. The overall network is connected with blockchain thorough block gateway. Blockchain is constructed with TrustBlock and AuthBlock where, TrustBlock records trust values and Authblock records authentication credentials. The simulation is done by using which evaluate the performance in terms of packet delivery ratio, delay, attack detection accuracy and average energy consumption with respect to number of nodes and number of malicious nodes.
    Keywords: RPL; blockchain; IoT; dual mode optimised deep neural network; dynamic entropy based trickle timer.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJITST.2021.10042911
  • Blockchain-based seamless end-to-end shipping with android application   Order a copy of this article
    by M.S. Narassima, Shriram K. Vasudevan, K. Vimalkumar, S.P. Anbuudayasankar 
    Abstract: World trade has been influenced by the emergence of new technologies around the globe. Businesses are forced to adopt new technologies regardless of their expertise and capabilities, to outperform their counterparts. This leads to challenges, risks, and errors in various stages of shipping. It is possible to overcome these challenges by securing the shipments head-to-head. To implement this, the present study proposes a blockchain-based seamless end-to-end shipping approach that makes shipping more secured, transparent, reliable, etc. Hyperledger composer based on REST server has been adopted in the study to capture the shipping data of the participants, assets, and transactions. In addition, separate android applications have been developed for managers and customers for effective order placement, management, and tracking. Validation of the order placement is presented in the study to confirm the reliability of the system. The results indicate that the shipment errors can be precisely determined through the proposed method.
    Keywords: shipping; blockchain; hyperledger; RESTFUL server; Android application.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJITST.2021.10043083
  • A new model for intrusion detection systems using bat algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Saoud Mohammed Abed Al-Bqur, Mohammad Ali H. Eljinini, Osama K. Qtaish 
    Abstract: There is a need for an efficient intrusion detection system (IDS) working over the network to detect the whole possible attacks. Intrusion detection is so much popular in the last two decades, where intruders attempted to break into or misuse the systems. There are many techniques used in intrusion detection for protecting computers and networks from network-based and host-based attacks. In this work, the proposed approach presents a new model for IDS using bat algorithm that aims to select the best features to find intrusions and utilising big data models. The proposed approach is divided into several phases to extract and find all possible features that effect directly in the detection process. The proposed approach is tested using the KNIME Analytics Platform based on support vector machine (SVM) and naive Bayes classifiers. The experiment results gave high accuracy of 97.52% with reducing error classification into 2.47% using the SVM classifier.
    Keywords: internet technologies; network systems; intrusion detection; bat algorithm; big data; support vector machine; SVM; naive Bayes; machine learning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJITST.2021.10043614

Special Issue on: Analysis of Blockchain Breaches

  • A secured transaction based on blockchain architecture in mobile banking platform   Order a copy of this article
    by Joseph Bamidele Awotunde, Chinmay Chakraborty, Sakinat Oluwabukonla Folorunso 
    Abstract: Blockchain technology makes the transfer of money possible and makes transactions electronically easier and safer than the conventional payment system. Its common awareness that blockchain can make financial data security easier. Technology, however, also poses certain difficulties in fulfilling some financial data protection needs. Therefore, this paper recommends a framework founded on blockchain to protect and secure financial data transfer on mobile banking platform. A multi-level authentication was used to secure the mobile banking and a two-factor authentication protocol to generate a time based one-time password (TOTP) for secure funds transfer. The proposed system addresses the requirements of building a secure application for mobile banking because of the increased security and privacy of clients on mobile banking applications. The secured Blockchain mobile banking can be employed to enhance the business transaction on mobile banking platform, make the system more effective, and help respond quickly to any transaction on the platform.
    Keywords: blockchain; mobile banking; security and privacy; financial data; data management.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJITST.2021.10039177
  • Identical twin matching based on multiple feature extractors   Order a copy of this article
    by K. Sudhakar, P. Nithyanandam 
    Abstract: Identical twins are having similarities in their face and facial features, due to that the face recognition performance has been decreased. The proposed system performs identical twin identification with different illumination conditions and different poses. Two methodologies such as grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and Gabor are used in the proposed system. The first method is the texture based approach, in which the energy, contrast, correlation and homogeneity parameters are calculated by using GLCM which provides the first level of authentication. The Second method is the distance-based approach, in which distance between the facial components is detected by using Gabor and thus the second level matching is performed. The GLCM and distance features are used to differentiate the twins. The support vector machine (SVM) is used for the classification. ND-Twin 2009 dataset is used in the proposed system for the testing purpose and the proposed work achieves 90% accuracy.
    Keywords: grey level co-occurrence matrix; GLCM; Gabor filter; support vector machine; SVM; identical twin.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJITST.2021.10042408