International Journal of Industrial and Systems Engineering (98 papers in press)
Stability Analysis of Asynchronous Switched Positive Systems with Unstable Subsystems
by Jingjing Hu, Pingping Gu, Huiwen Liu, Dexiang Liu
Abstract: This paper investigates the stability problems of asynchronous switched positive systems based on mode-dependent average dwell time method in continuous-time context. While using mode-dependent average dwell time to study the stability of switched systems, each subsystem must be stable, otherwise a state feedback controller should be designed for the unstable subsystem. But in practical application, when the subsystem is activated one by one, it usually takes a period of time to identify which one of the state feedback controllers should be activated, which causes the asynchronisation. Next, in consideration of the difficulty of designing an appropriate state feedback controller for some unstable subsystems, this paper is aimed at obtaining the stability condition of asynchronous switched positive systems with both stable and unstable subsystems.
Keywords: asynchronization; mode-dependent average dwell time; stabilization; switched positive systems; unstable subsystem.
Factors Affecting Spine Loading in a Box Lifting Task: A Digital Human Modeling Study
by Osama Al-meanzel, Faisal Aqlan, Abd Al-Rahman S. Al-Shudiefat, Hesham A. Almomani
Abstract: This paper presents a digital human modelling (DHM) study of a box-lifting task considering human physical characteristics (i.e., gender and percentile) and task requirements (i.e., posture and force). Two response variables are considered: compression force on L4/L5 and the tension on right/left Latissimus Dorsi muscle. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to analyse the data. Results showed that lower back compression force is positively correlated with Latissimus Dorsi muscle tension (r = 0.94). Moreover, the 95th percentile male in standing position experienced the highest compression force on the lower back; however, both males and females had similar muscle tension.
Keywords: Lower back disorders; lifting; manual material handling; digital human modeling,.
Prioritization of attributes of green leanness & agility to achieve sustainable strategic advantages in Indian automotive SMEs environment.
by Rupesh Tiwari, Jeetendra Tiwari
Abstract: Fast changing customer taste, increasing global competition, and stiffer environmental norms forced organisations worldwide to device novel manufacturing strategy. The present research focused on novel approach to model green lean and agile manufacturing with the factors of sustainable strategic advantage within Indian automotive SMEs environment by applying structural equation modelling. Weight assignment of various factors are done applying entropy value methodology. After validating the model, various attributes of green lean and agile manufacturing were ranked using variety of MCDM techniques in relation to sustainable strategic advantage. Ranking has been finalised using the novel and most robust MULTIMOORA algorithm. Ranking suggested most important attributes were customer satisfaction, closely followed by problem prevention and identification, responsiveness, and others. Outcome may help in prioritisation of various attributes of green lean and agile manufacturing in order to develop more productive manufacturing system to attain significant sustainable strategic advantage for Indian SMEs in automotive sector.
Keywords: Prioritization; Sustainable strategic advantage; India automotive SMEs; Green; lean & agile manufacturing; Structural equation modelling; Entropy value methodology; MCDM.
Retrospective investigation of flexibility factors in additive manufacturing system
by Abid Haleem, Mohd Javaid, Shahbaz Khan, Mohd Imran Khan
Abstract: Additive manufacturing (AM) systems provide extensive flexibility by enabling improved product design, customisation and part printing. There is a need to understand these flexibilities and identify the respective factors of each of them, and further identify the relative importance of these flexibilities and their associated factors. The extensive literature review has helped in identifying the significant flexibilities and their associated factors. This research categorises the AM flexibility into seven significant types. These flexibilities are found to play a significant role in implementing AM in industries for achieving enhanced performance. Ranking of these flexibilities and their factors is accomplished using analytical hierarchical process (AHP) by taking the help of experts opinion. AM provides flexibility which can be appropriately used to support different types of organisations. The limitation of the paper is that the view of experts may not always be free from bias, and the technology is evolving. Industries use these flexibilities in customisation, product design and development, reverse engineering and innovation of products.
Keywords: 3D Printing; 3D Scanning: Additive Manufacturing (AM); Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP); Flexibility; Product Design; Rapid Prototyping.
Monitoring Strategy for a Multistage Manufacturing Facility Using K-Means Clustering Technique
by Swarnambuj Suman, Anupam Das
Abstract: The article proposes a process monitoring strategy for a multistage manufacturing facility. In past, researchers have attempted to develop monitoring strategies for multistage processes using multi-block principal component analysis (MBPCA) which requires comprehensive process knowledge. But in most of the cases, the complete acquaintance with the process knowledge may not be possible. Hence, in such cases, a suitable clustering algorithm-based classification of process parameters may be performed. The current article proposes a methodology articulated via amalgamation of the K-means clustering algorithm and traditional MBPCA for monitoring of a process. K-means clustering algorithm is capable of clubbing the process parameters into relevant blocks without any prior process knowledge. In order to validate the devised strategy, a case study related to a multistage manufacturing facility engaged in production of rail blooms is considered. The outcome of the devised strategy has been compared with the outcome of regular MBPCA-based monitoring strategy which is used when the process knowledge is available.
Keywords: K-means Clustering Algorithm; Multi Block Principal Component Analysis; Multistage manufacturing facility; Process Monitoring; Fault Detection; Fault Diagnosis; Principal Component Analysis.
Large-Scale Model and Solution for Integrated Maintenance Routing and Tail Assignment Problem in Airline Industry
by Rajagopalan Sridharan, Ajyuk Jayaraj, Vinay Panicker
Abstract: The airline planning and scheduling functions are generally performed in sequential manner which makes the schedule yield to disruptions. This paper presents an integrated maintenance routing and tail assignment problem (IMRTAP), a paradigm of embedding the tactical and operational planning. This is a relatively new approach in airline planning where the aircraft routing is re-optimised with the consideration of tail assignment and semi-integration of crew scheduling. This aids in the design of a more robust schedule with up-to-date operational information regarding the aircraft. The problem is formulated as a combination of set partition and multi-commodity network model. The model is solved using a modified restrict-and-relax as an efficient strategy to tackle large-scale instances. Six real-world instances are used to test the model with the problem size as large as 50 lakh variables in the largest instance. In addition to efficient solving, perturbation is introduced to the problem to deal with degeneracy in large problems.
Keywords: Maintenance Routing; Tail Assignment; Airline Scheduling; Integrated Planning; Combinatorial Optimization; Ad-hoc Maintenance; Large-Scale Optimization.
Enhancing Situational Awareness on Fragmented Information in Complex Systems with Workflow Information Network Analysis
by Lasse Metso, Salla Marttonen-Arola, Samu Linnimaa, Sini-Kaisu Kinnunen, Timo Kärri
Abstract: In industrial contexts, information is usually fragmented into a complex network of organisations and systems. To develop their information management, the organisations need to obtain and maintain situational awareness of their workflows, and identify and understand relevant information and how the planned actions affect the system in the near future. This paper introduces workflow information network analysis, a managerial method for analysing and improving situational awareness in complex systems. The method is built on the principles of information management, product lifecycle management and value network analysis. A six-step process for applying the method is presented, and the validity of the method has been demonstrated with a case study in which the information flows of a networked aircraft maintenance organisation are analysed. The case study shows that the method enables the identification of discontinuities and bottlenecks in information flows, as well as produces suggestions for further development.
Keywords: situational awareness; Workflow Information Network Analysis; WINA; information flows; case study; aviation; aircraft maintenance; complex system; fragmented information.
Optimal delivery and replenishment policies for perishable products considering lost sale cost: An efficient hybrid algorithm
by Mahla Babagolzadeh, Mohammadali Pirayesh, Anup Shrestha
Abstract: In today's competitive global market, improving the quality of customer service and waste reduction are two important factors to maximise the profits of a system. These goals can be achieved throughout well-managed logistical operations such as proper inventory management and timely delivery of perishable items to customers. This paper presents an integrated mathematical model that schedules replenishment of a perishable product to determine delivery routes, truck loads and inventory levels, where the vehicle arrival time has a direct impact on the quantity of the product delivered to customers. Given the NP-hard nature of the problem, finding optimum or near optimum solutions in polynomial time is challenging, therefore a hybrid algorithm based on a linear programming model and a simulated annealing algorithm is developed to solve the problem efficiently. The proposed method achieves a solution near-optimal solution in an efficient computational time. Finally, an analysis is carried out to verify the effectiveness of the algorithm.
Keywords: Keywords: Inventory-routing problem; lost sale cost; Meta-heuristic algorithm; Perishable product.
Analysis, Design and Development of Advanced Planning Systems
by Melina Vidoni, Jorge Marcelo Montagna, Aldo Vecchietti
Abstract: Small and medium-sized organisations (SMO) often need to optimise their operations to improve their effectiveness in a competitive world. Advanced planning systems (APS) emerged to provide optimal operations in several areas of an organisation, including production planning and scheduling, logistics, financial, among others. Currently, there is a gap in the literature regarding proposals, from a software engineering perspective, to assist SMOs in the design and development of APS systems. This article proposes an architecture for the APS domain that supports the implementation of specific applications and can be adapted through variation points. The proposal is evaluated with architecture trade-off analysis method (ATAM) involving two different groups of stakeholders. Also, a process is included to show how to use the architecture in the implementation of a specific case. Finally, a case study based on a local industry is developed.
Keywords: Advanced Planning Systems; Software Architecture; Software Analysis and Design.
Study of issues related to constraints in FMS by ISM, fuzzy ISM and TISM
by Vineet Jain, Tilak Raj
Abstract: The purpose of this research is the identification of issues related to constraints in the flexible manufacturing system (FMS). FMS comprises different resources as machine tool, material handling system with computer control, etc. FMS offers high utilisation of resources, less labour costs, less work-in-process inventories, shorter lead times, etc. Machine tools are required to produce different parts. Robots and automated guided vehicles (AGVs) are included in FMS material handling system. This paper shows the study of different constraints in FMS. Modelling of these constraints is performed by interpretive structural modelling (ISM), fuzzy ISM and total ISM (TISM) approaches. The driving and the dependence power of the constraints are analysed by MICMAC and fuzzy MICMAC. To validate the driving power of variables, the relative importance of variables is determined by AHP methodology. Finally, concluded that fixture and robot are the key variables of FMS constraints.
Keywords: FMS; ISM; TISM; AHP; fuzzy ISM; constraint.
Vibration Measurement and Analysis in Carton Clamp Truck Handling
by Jongmin Park, Sangil Choi, Jongsoon Kim, Hyunmo Jung, Jonghun Park
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to construct power spectral density (PSD) profiles to analyse carton clamp truck handling environments. It also aimed to investigate the effects of payload, travelling speed, and tyre type on vibration levels of the main body and attachment of the clamp truck. Three types of PSD profiles of carton clamp truck handling were constructed for three different test courses designed based on a case study in the home appliance industry, ASTM D6055 and ISTA 3B. Experimental results showed that the overall root mean square acceleration of the new test course designed based on the actual handling environment in the home appliance industry is between the data obtained from ASTM D6055 and ISTA 3B test courses. The vibration levels measured at both the main body and attachment of the clamp truck increased with travel speed, they also increased when payload decreased.
Keywords: Vibration measurement; Power spectral density; Carton clamp truck handling; Driving test course.
Experimental study on vibration control of equipment in industrial building
by Changsheng Wang
Abstract: Control the vibration of the device with a viscous damper. Firstly, the finite element model of the plant structure is established by using the finite element software ANSYS. Then, the scale model of shaking table test is designed and the shaking table test is carried out on the condition that no control and the viscous damper are installed on the equipment. The self-vibration characteristics of the structure were obtained by experiments, compare the results of the test without control and the results of ANSYS calculation, comparison of test uncontrolled results and results of viscous damper control. The results show that the viscous damper has a good control effect on the vibration of the equipment in the steel structure workshop. Research results can provide reference for vibration control of equipment.
Keywords: Steel structure plant; equipment vibration; viscous damper; vibration control; equipment study.
Blast Testing and Numerical Simulation Analysis of Diversion Tunnel Upper Section for Qianping Reservoir
by Wenliang Ma, Qiu-gui YANG, Guangyao Zhang
Abstract: This paper expounds the basic theory of rock mass blasting technology, the rock blasting excavation of Qianping reservoir project was taken as an example, by means of numerical simulation and experimental research, the finite element model for rock blasting excavation in Qianping reservoir is established. The rock blast on the upper section of the diversion tunnel for Qianping reservoir is simulated by using the dynamic analysis module LS-DYNA in the finite element method analysis software ANSYS, through the comparative analysis of blast testing and numerical simulation results. The results show that, the dynamic analysis results are in good agreement with the field test, the correctness and validity of the finite element model are proved, finite element dynamic analysis model is a general calculation model, rock mechanics parameters in the model can be adjusted in the calculation process, it can be used to simulate the blasting excavation process of different rock properties.
Keywords: Diversion tunnel; Blast testing; Numerical simulation; LS-DYNA; Parameters of hole arrangement; Data of explosive filled.
Two-stage efficiency-based approach to biofuel supply chain logistics network design under the risk of disruptions
by Jae-Dong Hong
Abstract: This paper deals with a design problem for the biofuel supply chain logistics network (BSCLN) under the risk of disruptions. Under a circumstance of disruptions, the BSCLN design problem should deal with multiple goals. This paper proposes an innovative procedure for combining a goal programming (GP) approach and the two-stage network data envelopment analysis (NDEA). The GP model will generate various BSCLN configurations that depend on the weights assigned to the goals. Then, the two-stage NDEA is applied to find the overall efficiency of BSCLN and to identify most efficient BSCLN schemes. Through a case study using the real data on the disaster events in South Carolina, the applicability of the proposed procedure is demonstrated. It is observed that the proposed procedure performs well with respect to designing and identifying the efficient and robust BSCLN schemes, which would be able to attract potential investors who are interested in investing in the biofuel industry.
Keywords: Biofuel supply chain logistics network; Goal programming; Network data envelopment analysis; Overall efficiency; Two-stage network.
Reentrant hybrid flow shop scheduling problem with non-anticipatory sequence-dependent setup time
by Lu Chen, Jinfeng Wang, Yi Zhu
Abstract: This paper studies a hybrid flow shop scheduling problem originated from a steam turbine rotor production. Reentrance and non-anticipatory sequence-dependent setup time are considered. The objectives are to minimise makespan and total tardiness. A mixed integer linear programming model is formulated. A bi-objective simulated annealing algorithm is developed to solve problems with real size. A modified version of the Nawaz-Enscore-Ham algorithm is applied to find a good initial solution and a Pareto search mechanism is introduced to find the Pareto set. The proposed bi-objective simulated annealing algorithm is compared with a single-objective algorithm. Experimental results demonstrate the superiority of the bi-objective algorithm. Sensitivity analysis provides valuable managerial insights for real production.
Keywords: hybrid flow shop; steam turbine rotor production; reentrance; nonanticipatory sequence-dependent setup time; bi-objective simulated annealing.
Design and Development of Reactive Material Ordering System using E-Kanban and Taguchis Technique for a warehouse of Tractor Assembly Plant
by Mangesh Joshi, Himanshu Shukla
Abstract: In last one decade, information technology has proliferated in all sectors and it has become essential tool to survive in 21st century for all industries. In this endeavour, the efforts taken by authors to propose a virtual kanban system with the help of e-kanban database to react to the seasonal variations in demand. To react in stochastic conditions in JIT system, is a challenge, and hence a reactive ordering system is developed to operate the e-kanban system. The reactive ordering system consists of a simulation and Taguchi technique module to analyse the various parameters governing kanban system which can be changed to react to the variation in demand, in the database of e-kanban. Virtual e-kanban system can be established just by changing the parameters in database, governing the operation of kanban without physically changing the number of kanban cards on shop floor.
Keywords: Kanban; Simulation and Modeling; Reactive ordering; Taguchis technique; materials management.
Assessing Nurses Overall Satisfaction of Patient Safety Culture from A Regional Teaching Hospital in Taiwan
by Hsin-Hung Wu, Chih-Yun Cheng, Yii-Ching Lee, Chih-Hsuan Huang
Abstract: This study intends to identify critical dimension(s) of the Chinese version of the safety attitudes questionnaire (SAQ) affecting the patient safety culture from nurses' viewpoints by the internal survey data. Linear regression with forward selection approach is used where eight dimensions of the Chinese version of the SAQ are the independent variables and the overall satisfaction of the patient safety culture is the dependent variable. The results show that working conditions and job satisfaction are the two critical dimensions having significant impacts on the overall satisfaction in 2015, while working conditions, safety climate, and perceptions of management are the critical dimensions in 2016. Hospital management needs to pay much attention to improve working conditions first in order to relentlessly enhancing the patient safety culture from nurses' viewpoints in this case hospital.
Keywords: patient safety culture; safety attitudes questionnaire; Chinese version of safety attitudes questionnaire; overall satisfaction; nurse.
Fixed and Flexible Shape Facility Layout Problems using Biogeography-Based Optimization Algorithm
by Dinesh Singh, Supriya Ingole
Abstract: For any manufacturing and production industry to be efficient in terms of revenue, the layout of the industry must be arranged to minimise the total material handling and transporting cost of that industry. All the facilities, machines, storage, etc. are allocated in the layout in an optimum manner. While designing a layout, the planner has to allocate equal or unequal shape facilities on the available layout space to minimise the distance between the facilities which are having maximum material flow. The problem concerned with assigning facilities to the floor is mentioned as facility layout problem (FLP). This paper focuses on unequal area FLPs with fixed shape and flexible shape facilities. Biogeography-based optimisation (BBO) algorithm is one of the metaheuristic methods emerged in recent times to cope with various optimisation problems. Therefore, BBO is considered to solve unequal are FLPs. The results obtained using BBO algorithm are compared and found better than previous known results.
Keywords: Unequal area facility layout; fixed-shape facilities; flexible-shape facilities; biogeography-based optimization.
Achieving Lean through Value Stream Mapping with Constraint Programming and Simulation Technique for Complex Production Systems
by Shyamal Samant
Abstract: Lean manufacturing helps companies achieve improved productivity, quality, reduced lead time and cost reduction. This leads to the competitiveness of manufacturing systems. To achieve lean many tools are available. Value stream mapping (VSM) occupies an important place among the available tools. However, VSM as a tool suffers from many shortcomings. It can only give a static snapshot of the situation. It cannot be easily applied to achieve lean in complex production stream, e.g., manufacture of complete product, assembly operations involving multi-product, multi-level bill of materials (BOM) scenarios. This paper proposes an innovative framework to achieve lean. The proposed approach integrates CPLEX optimisation, Arena simulation and lean box score method for achieving lean in complex production streams. A case of pump manufacturer is discussed to demonstrate the proposed framework.
Keywords: Value stream mapping; lean manufacturing; constraint programming; simulation; lean management; project scheduling.
Modelling and comparison of three echelon production- inventory supply chain models for a deteriorating product with and without backlogging
by Radha Ramanan
Abstract: We consider a production inventory problem of a deteriorating product that begins to deteriorate immediately on production. Two models of three echelon supply chain are developed whose rate of demand, production and deterioration are assumed to be constant. The second model allows backlogging of the demand, while the first model does not allow backlogging. In both models, the producer's cycle starts with zero stock and the production continues till the stock level reaches an optimal value. There will be demand and deterioration and consequently stock level falls to zero during the non-production phase. The demand subsequently received is backordered in the second model and a fraction of it is met by restarting the production process. Optimal lot sizes of distributor and retailer is identified within each of the producer's cycle. A numerical example is illustrated. Comparison between the models shows that backordering reduces the total supply chain cost.
Keywords: Deteriorating product; Inventory Management; Multi echelon supply chain; Backlogging; Integrated supply chain.
Power Optimization of wind energy conversion system using T-S Fuzzy approach
by Sahbi Abderrahim
Abstract: This paper presents a maximum power point tracking control for a wind energy conversion system (WECS) using a squirrel cage induction generator (SCIG) which supplies a DC load through AC/DC converter. The goal of the developed fuzzy control law is to track the reference signals corresponding to the maximum power generation that leads to an optimal operation of the induction generator. First, the dynamics behaviour of the WECS is represented by a Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model. Then, a H? observer-based fuzzy controller is proposed to achieve a maximum power point tracking even when we consider a varying wind speed profile. The controller and observer gains are calculated by solving linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Finally, simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Keywords: Wind energy conversion system; fuzzy observer; AC/DC converter; Takagi-Sugeno model; linear matrix inequality (LMI).
Development of an Optimization Model for Unequal-Area Facility Layout Problems
by Tanveer Hossain Bhuiyan, Sarah Harun, Abdullahil Azeem
Abstract: Optimisation of unequal-area facility layout problems (UA-FLPs) aims to find the optimal arrangement of a given number of non-overlapping departments having unequal area requirements within the facility premises. This paper studies a multi-objective UA-FLP that considers minimising the material transportation cost, maximising the closeness rating score and minimising makespan of the overall facility in developing the layout. We develop a mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) facility layout model and optimise using a reformulation-based spatial branch-and-bound algorithm. Constraints are developed to ensure non-overlapping of the departments, bounding the departments within the facility, nonlinear expression of required area, and aspect ratio. We reformulate the non-smooth functions of the original model by the smooth ones. The solution of our model provides optimal arrangements as well optimal dimensions of the departments within the facility. Additionally, our model provides a set of Pareto-optimal layouts that enable decision makers in selecting a layout depending on different real-world scenarios.
Keywords: Unequal-area facility layout; Mixed-integer nonlinear programming; Smooth functions; Spatial branch-and-bound; Exact algorithm.
An EPQ Model for an Imperfect Production System with Rework, Scrap, and Backorder
by Pablo Biswas, Scott R. Schultz
Abstract: This paper deals with an imperfect two-stage manufacturing process that orders raw materials from a supplier and produces finished goods with defective items that can be reworked. The generation of scrap during the initial production stage, during inspection, and during the rework stage is also considered. To fulfil customer demand a permissible backorder is also considered. First, an inventory model is developed for this two-stage production process with instantaneous raw material order, in-cycle rework, and scrap. Then, a total cost function is developed to simultaneously find the optimal economic production quantity, optimal backorder quantity, and optimal order quantity. The cost function of the proposed inventory model is verified and validated using numerical examples and sensitivity analysis.
Keywords: Imperfect production; defective items; rework; scrap; and backorder.
Optimizing unrelated parallel machine scheduling in job shops with maximum allowable tardiness limit
by Parsa Kianpour, Deepak Gupta, Krishna Kumar Krishnan, Bhaskaran Gopalakrishnan
Abstract: Motivated by the practical scheduling problem of job shops, this study evaluates unrelated parallel machine scheduling models. The researchers proposed a new mixed integer linear programming model considering effects of maximum limit on the allowable tardiness. An efficient solution technique was developed in MATLAB to minimise computational time. The model was validated using real-life data from local aircraft industry. It was shown that the proposed model leads to lower cost compared to the current models (i.e., without any limit on tardiness) in the literature. In addition, reduction in computational time enables corporate scheduling staff to use the model efficiently.
Keywords: Job Shop; Scheduling; Unrelated Parallel Machines; Tardiness; Earliness; Inventory Cost; Penalty Cost.
Selection of Resilient Supply Portfolio under Disruption Risks in Supply Chain
by Mohsen Shafiei Nikabadi, Hanieh Shambayati, Nasim Ataie
Abstract: Nowadays, dependence of supply chain members while has provided many benefits for organisations, increases uncertainty and risk in the planning and organising activities. The risk of disrupting or failing to communicate with the supplier due to various disasters has occurred in recent years. In this regard, this study introduces a model of mixed integer programming (MIP), to provide resiliency under the terms of a portfolios risk by minimising the disturbance conditional value at risk is optimised. Model, with two meta-heuristic algorithm and using real data is solved and compared. The results showed that the two algorithms do not differ significantly in the value of the objective function. Also the resolution time for the Harmony search algorithm was 8.87 seconds and the Imperialist competition algorithm was 8.28 seconds. According to the results, in general, the performance of the imperialist competition algorithm, although slightly less, is better than a harmony search algorithm.
Keywords: conditional value at risk; disruption risk; Harmony search Algorithm; Imperialist Competitive Algorithm; supply chain; supply portfolio; supplier selection; Resilience.
Optimal Design and Experiment of Multi-row Rolling-style Planting-hole Punch for Rapeseed Plant Seedlings
by Mingliang Wu, Wei Xiang, Jiangnan Lyu, Lan Ma, Jiajie Liu, Wei Zhou
Abstract: In order to realise high-efficiency hole-forming and pursue optimal forming hole parameters which satisfied agricultural requirements for awl-shaped punch transplanter, optimal designed indigenously-developed pure rolling planting hole-forming machine's hole forming mechanism parts. The CAD software was used to graphing method to study the effect of forming planting hole by structural parameters, the numerical simulation method by MATLAB 7.0 software and CATIA software were used to verify the rationality of the hole-forming key parameters optimisation design. Subsequently, prototype trial-production was carried out, followed by field testing. The results showed that forming planting hole opening lengthwise shrank form original 88.8 mm to 72.6 mm, lateral width was 41.2 mm, the effective depth reduced form 58.9 mm to 48.5 mm, qualified radio of forming planting hole reached to 95.1%, which 1.93% higher than the original prototype, which was significant for the provision of technical support for the design of new transplanter.
Keywords: rapeseed transplanting; planting hole; key components; hole forming mechanism; parameter optimization.
Optimum Design and Analysis of U-shape Thin-wall Aqueduct Based on Genetic Algorithm
by Wenliang Ma, Rui Yang
Abstract: In order to save project investment and reduce project quantity, the optimal design of aqueduct is the main problem in the project therefore, carrying out the optimal design and simulation analysis of U-shaped thin-walled aqueduct has important engineering application value. The paper takes Sha River aqueduct as the research object and adopts the direct search and point checking method of mixed discrete variable optimisation design it adopts the structural optimisation design method based on genetic algorithm and gives the optimal design scheme of U-shaped aqueduct. The optimisation design method has the advantages of fast convergence speed, high convergence efficiency and strong global search ability. The results show that, U-shape aqueduct structure is smooth, it has good mechanical properties, the structural stress is small and can meet the strength requirement; The maximum vertical displacement of the aqueduct occurs in the middle of the span, the vertical displacement value is small, which can meet the requirement of stiffness.
Keywords: Aqueduct; Optimization design; Discrete variable; Finite element method; Stress analysis; Vertical displacement.
ERP-based Lean systems and their impact on performance: The system dynamics approach for a maturity model
by Thi Ho, Arun Kumar, Nirajan Shiwakoti
Abstract: There are continuing debates on the effects of enterprise resource planning (ERP) and its combination with lean on manufacturing performance. It is suggested to integrate lean production principles into ERP systems; however, research exploring this area in the literature is limited, especially quantitative studies. This study fills the knowledge gap by quantitatively investigating the correlation between ERP-based lean systems and performance outcomes, using a system dynamics approach. We model a manufacturing system, focusing on the effects of ERP and lean inputs on customers' order fulfilment. Different scenarios of ERP systems supporting lean practices are illustrated through a capability maturity model. Actual performance data is collected to validate the developed model. The results show that ERP is a hindrance on lean at the low maturity level. The influence on ERP only occurs with the mediator role of lean. ERP-based lean systems bring substantial benefits to organisations. Therefore, lean practices are a foundation upon which the full benefit of ERP can be received.
Keywords: System dynamics; Lean; ERP; ERP-based Lean system; maturity model; performance.
Load shifting of a supplier based demand response of multi-class subscribers in smart grid
by Junxiang Li, Bo Liu, Quan Sun, Kamran Sarmadi, Yan Gao, Yazheng Dang, Jingxin Dong
Abstract: This paper presents a load shifting mechanism to address the problem of the overloaded electricity consumption requirement of different classes of electricity users, namely, the residential, commercial and industrial users, provided by a supplier in a smart grid. A real-time pricing model based the utility of each user-group and the supply cost is given and an alternating direction method of multipliers is used to solve the model for obtaining the optimal real-time electricity price and consumption of each user-group. A demand response (DR) algorithm-based different user-groups gives a priority load shifting rule to allocate the surplus optimal or reserved electricity consumption requirements of some user-groups to other suppliers to keep the requirements within the capacity of the supplier. Numerical experiment is conducted to analyse the performance of the DR algorithm, which shows that the consumption requirement load shifting mechanism is reasonable and feasible.
Keywords: demand response; multi-class subscribers; alternating direction method of multipliers; load shifting; smart grid.
Sustainable Energy Strategies (SES) for Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) in India: a review
by Jangam Ramesh, Mohan Ram M, Varadarajan Y. S
Abstract: Enhancing energy efficiency and conservation will play a significant aspect in the accomplishment of energy requirements in developing economies. To be competitive and sustainable, micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs) have to utilise energy input sources optimally and effectively to enhance overall productivity. Sustainable energy strategies (SES) focus on the economical use of energy sources and examine the parameters that influence energy utilisation in enterprises. This review aims to fill energy gaps and update the literature review in industries through SES, highlight the current research concerning the future scope of sustainability in MSMEs. In this review paper, we explored the sustainable energy strategies (SES), it included the initiation of various practices and policies that decline energy demand through energy efficiency measures, the role of technological capabilities, examine the factors influencing and barriers to energy efficiency that are believed to enhance productivity and sustainability in MSMEs. The motivation for the review paper focused on considering the better strategies that are needed to improved forecasting techniques and assist in the development of sustainability in MSMEs.
Keywords: MSMEs; Energy efficiency; Energy intensity; Sustainability; Productivity:Technological capability.
Bi-objective Reliable Multi-Product Location-Inventory Problem Design with Perishable Products and Freshness-dependent Demands
by Parviz Fattahi, Mohsen Aghajani, Vahid Hajipour
Abstract: This paper tackles a bi-objective location-inventory problem (LIP) in a three-echelon multi-product supply chain with perishable products. Demands from customers are stochastic and freshness-dependent. Moreover, reliability issues are considered in terms of three different levels of failures for the distribution centres, namely disastrous, serious and partial. We also assess how well the customers' demands are met with products that are fresh enough and regard this as a reliability indicator from the viewpoint of customers. The problem is formulated as a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model and six multi-objective decision-making (MODM) methods namely individual optimisation method, goal programming method, LP metrics/global criteria method, utility function method, goal attainment method, and maxi-min method are applied to solve test problems of different sizes. Finally, to select the best method, we used the filtering/displaced ideal solution (DIS) method where the goal programming method turned out to outperform other methods. Goal programming was then applied for sensitivity analysis of the problem.
Keywords: Location-inventory; reliability; freshness dependent demand; perishable products.
A Social Performance Metrics Framework for Sustainable Manufacturing
by Rafael Henao, William Sarache, Ivan Gomez
Abstract: This paper tackles a bi-objective location-inventory problem (LIP) in a three-echelon multi-product supply chain with perishable products. Demands from customers are stochastic and freshness-dependent. Moreover, reliability issues are considered in terms of three different levels of failures for the distribution centres, namely disastrous, serious and partial. We also assess how well the customers' demands are met with products that are fresh enough and regard this as a reliability indicator from the viewpoint of customers. The problem is formulated as a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model and six multi-objective decision-making (MODM) methods namely individual optimisation method, goal programming method, LP metrics/global criteria method, utility function method, goal attainment method, and maxi-min method are applied to solve test problems of different sizes. Finally, to select the best method, we used the filtering/displaced ideal solution (DIS) method where the goal programming method turned out to outperform other methods. Goal programming was then applied for sensitivity analysis of the problem.
Keywords: social metrics; social performance; sustainability; manufacturing.
Representing a Dynamic Model of Employees Education in the Path of Industrial Clusters Development
by Masoumeh Danesh Shakib
Abstract: Nowadays, in most countries, small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) play the role from the various aspects like economic, social, manufacturing and offering service. Therefore, the development of this sector has been considered in most developed and developing countries. On the other hand, the access to the local labour market can facilitate the development of this sector. This paper concentrates on the education of workforce in order to facilitate the development of industrial clusters and as a result the development of the country. The results show that if the intended policies apply, the cluster grow faster.
Keywords: Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs); Industrial Cluster; System Dynamics (SD); Training; Labour.
Analysis of customers impatience on bulk service queueing system with unreliable server, setup time and two types of multiple vacation
by Nirmala Marimuthu, Ayyappan G
Abstract: In this investigation, we analyse the customer's impatience on unreliable bulk queueing system with two types of vacation. Depending upon the length of queue, the server is permitted to take two types of vacation called type I vacation and type II vacation. The server is possibly affected by breakdowns and takes considerable time for setup before the repair begins to start. After repair completion, the server will start its remaining service to the batch of customers whose service was interrupted. It could be assumed that the arriving units may be balked from the system when the server is on vacation (type I or type II). By incorporating the supplementary variables technique, the probability generating function of the queue size at an arbitrary and departure time epoch for the designed queueing system are derived. Finally, the stability condition, some performance measures, particular cases are obtained with appropriate numerical illustrations and graphical presentation.
Keywords: General bulk service; Unreliable server; Two types of Multiple vacation; Setup time and Repair.
A simulation model of container terminals. The port of Valencia case study
by Iñigo L. Ansorena
Abstract: The arrival and service process of vessels at container terminals is always a main concern for port managers. We present a simulation model, which aims to shed light on this problem. On one hand, the model inputs describe the number of berths, as well as the ship arrivals and the services through its respective distributions. On the other hand, the outputs of the simulation model include: waiting times, queue lengths, berth utilisation and efficiency ratio. An empirical case study is used to explore the effectiveness of the proposed approach. The case study is based on real data collected at two container terminals. Both are located at the Port of Valencia (Spain), one is the Noatum public terminal, and the other is the MSC dedicated terminal. The simulation model is effective in replicating realistic scenarios and gives crucial information to improve port operations.
Keywords: queuing systems; arrivals; simulation; utilization; waiting time; efficiency; port operations; service management; performance analysis.
Torque ripple mitigation in FCS-MPDTC of PMSM Drive using an Adaptive Fuzzy Logic Modulator
by Islam Benhamida, A. Ameur, Katia Kouzi
Abstract: This paper presents the use of the fuzzy logic duty cycle concept in the finite-control-set model predictive direct torque control (FCS-MPDTC) strategy to mitigate the torque ripples of a surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drive. In fact, MPDTC is a simple and powerful tool to overcome the main drawbacks associated with the commonly used control strategies like direct torque control (DTC) and field-oriented control (FOC). However, the conventional-MPDTC selects only one voltage vector (VV) per sampling period and this procedure leads to increase relatively the torque ripple. In order to further improve the torque control performance, an adaptive fuzzy logic-based duty cycle modulation is utilised and two VV's instead of single VV are applied during the whole control cycle. The performances of the proposed control scheme are simulated and compared to those obtained with conventional-MPDTC. The simulation results show that the proposed AFLM-MPDTC can effectively mitigate the torque ripples, even under severe operating conditions.
Keywords: (Permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM); Model predictive direct torque control (MPDTC); Finite control set (FCS); Torque ripple; Duty cycle; Adaptive Fuzzy Logic Modulator (AFLM)).
A service level agreement baselining methodology for non-normal characteristics using the Pearson distribution
by Boby John, Subhani S. M
Abstract: Many organisations use outsourcing to achieve cost advantage and focus on core processes. The quality of the services provided by the outsourced partner plays a significant role in the firm's overall performance. The service level agreement (SLA) baselining is the process of finalising the performance level expected from the outsourced partner. Generally, performance characteristics like cycle time, turnaround time, handling time, productivity, etc. are baselined. Many of the aforementioned metrics may not be normally distributed. In this paper, the authors discuss the cases of baselining non-normal performance characteristics. The methodology is to fit a general system of distributions namely the Pearson family of distribution and identify the SLA value using the best fit Pearson type of distribution. The methodology is demonstrated through two case studies and results are found to be very encouraging. The methodology can be used for baselining of non-normal performance characteristics of various service industries.
Keywords: Service level agreement baselining; process capability analysis; non-normal characteristics; Pearson family of distributions; R package.
Research on Estimation of Equipment Maintenance Duration Based on AHP-FIE Risk Analysis
by Zhengkun Dai, Lu Yao, Jiandong QIN
Abstract: Equipment maintenance duration is an important indicator of equipment maintenance management, and is a key factor to measure the success or failure of a maintenance project. In view of the current situation of inaccurate estimation of equipment maintenance period and frequent changes in schedule, this paper considers the characteristics of many uncertain factors, and studies the estimation of equipment maintenance project duration from the perspective of risk analysis, identifying risk factors and identifying risk factors. Based on the evaluation criteria, the comprehensive evaluation method based on AHP-FIE explores the relationship between risk and construction period, and analyzes through actual cases. The analysis results make reasonable adjustments to the construction period, providing theoretical and practical reference for equipment maintenance duration optimization management.
Keywords: equipment maintenance; duration estimation; AHP-FIE; risk analysis.
Variable Substitution Integral Method and Its Application for Solving Displacement Curves of Framed Structures
by Yuguo Zheng, Yu Wang, Xiangshou Xiao
Abstract: Considering the great importance of structural displacement curves and the shortcomings of the classical material mechanics approach and the conventional structural mechanics one in this aspect, a general analytical method, the variable substitution integral method whose mechanics concept is very clear, was proposed for solving structural displacement curves of framed structures based on virtual work principle and unit load method. The basic principle of the new method was constructed and compared with the classical material mechanics one. The comparison results show that the application of the proposed approach in examples proves that it fully compensates for the shortcomings of the classical material mechanics method and the conventional structural mechanics one. This new method, which is very simple and practical, can be widely applied to analytically solve displacement curves of various static determinate and indeterminate structures, straight or curved framed structures under kinds of internal forces caused by loads.
Keywords: structural mechanics; framed structure; displacement calculation; virtual work principle; unit load method; variable substitution integral method.
Design of Travel Route Recommendation System Based on Fast Spark Artificial Intelligence Architecture
by Xiaolu Wei
Abstract: In order to overcome the problems of low accuracy of current system tourism route prediction and poor accuracy of route recommendation, this paper proposes a tourism route recommendation system design based on fast Spark artificial intelligence architecture. For the hardware part, the system module structure is constructed as a way to obtain data. For the software part, firstly, the problem definition of tourism route recommendation is given, secondly, the Markov model is constructed, and finally, the tourism route is excavated. By sorting the transfer probability of tourist attractions, the tourism route can be obtained, and the design of the software part of the system is completed. Through the design of hardware and software of the system, the tourism route recommendation is finally realized. The experimental results show that the proposed system not only has a high accuracy in predicting tourism routes, but also can accurately recommend tourism routes to users.
Keywords: Fast Spark; Artificial Intelligence Architecture; Travel Route Recommendation; System Design.
Parking Correction Of Strapdown Inertial Navigation System
by Yan Zhang, Jianzhong Wang
Abstract: Laser gyroscope strapdown inertial navigation system can provide accurate navigation for carrier without depending on external information. Due to the enlargement of long-term cumulative navigation error, it needs to be revised at regular intervals, so its mobility is limited. In regard to the practical application of vehicle navigation, an adaptive zero velocity correction method is proposed. Fifteen basic error parameters are constructed by using the constraint condition of zero velocity. According to the error characteristics of the system itself, the state measurement matrix and equation of the system are designed. Based on the observability theory of general condition number, the observability of each state of the system is analysed and the parameters of Kalman filter are determined, which effectively improves the IMU navigation accuracy of inertial navigation components. Experiments show that this method can overcome the problem of frequent parking and effectively improve the navigation accuracy and mobility of the system.
Keywords: Strapdown Inertial Navigation System; Zero Speed Correction; Attitude Angle; Error Equation; Kalman Filtering.
Can Internal Marketing Activities Save Small and Medium Industrial Enterprises in a Tough Economy? Back to the Basics Approach
by Ghaith M. Al-Abdallah
Abstract: Recently, and due to the economic pressure in Jordan, several small and medium enterprises have filed for bankruptcy, or downsized their business leading to the layout of hundreds of employees, which will deepen the economic problems in Jordan and increase the circle of effect. Small and medium enterprises can follow other courses of actions to address such issue. This paper aims to understand the possible impact of internal marketing practices and activities during economic problems on the employees' productivity in small and medium industrial enterprises. In order to achieve this aim, a descriptive analytical methodology was used, quantitative approach through survey strategy was applied and electronically administrated questionnaires were utilised to collect the primary data from a representative stratified random sample of 490 small and medium industrial enterprises out of 2,291 registered local small and medium industrial enterprises. 345 filtered and screened questionnaires were analysed using SPSS, the main results of simple and multiple regression analyses indicate that internal marketing mix has a strong positive direct effect on employees' productivity, where internal promotion has the most effect followed by workplace, internal product and internal price respectively. Discussion, conclusion, and recommendations are provided based on the results of the study.
Keywords: Internal Marketing; Employees Productivity; Small and Medium Enterprises; Industrial Sector; Tough Economy; Developing Countries; Jordan.
Research on Hybrid Energy Hierarchical Coordination Control Method for Grid-connected Micro-Grid
by Huichuan Liu, Guowen Li, Jingyi Wang
Abstract: In order to effectively solve the problem that it is difficult to coordinate the operation state of grid-connected micro-grid, a hierarchical coordinated control method of hybrid energy in grid-connected micro-grid is proposed. The mathematical model of the relationship between system power and cost function and the hierarchical model of micro-grid are established. Provide optimisation objectives by constructing objective functions; the information exchange and energy control between the systems are used to realise the grid connection. Simulation results show that the frequency of the proposed method is always around 50HZ, which is the closest to the planned value. The difference between the power value and the planned value is less than 1 kW, which is more in line with the actual needs than other methods. It is proved that this method can effectively control energy and ensure the smooth operation of micro-grid.
Keywords: Grid-Connected Micro-Grid; Hybrid Energy; Hierarchical Control; Coordinated Control.
Modeling and Analysis on Bearing Capacity of Asphalt Pavement in dense traffic flow area of urban of Urban
by Zhongwei Liu
Abstract: Aiming at the problems of low fitting degree and high complexity between the research results and the actual situation, the bearing capacity model of asphalt pavement in dense traffic flow area based on combination forecasting is put forward. Cellular automata is used to calculate the relative position and speed change of vehicles in the popularisation process. According to Orkut model, the relative position and speed change of each vehicle on the road is calculated and analysed. Through calculation and analysis, the vehicle load concentration value is obtained. The experimental results show that the SSE, MAE, MSE and complexity coefficient of the bearing capacity model for asphalt pavement in heavy flow area based on combined prediction are lower than 0.05, lower than 0.15, lower than 0.16 and lower than 0.2, which are the minimum values in the comparison method, indicating that the model has high accuracy, low complexity and good reliability.
Keywords: Dense Traffic Flow Area; Asphalt Pavement; Bearing Capacity; Model Construction.
Leadership competencies for high performance - a quality systems perspective
by Fulufhelo Masithulela, Kemlall Ramsaroop Ramdass, Kgabo Mokgohloa
Abstract: Organisations continuously experience change in terms of increasing customer demands. This realigns to the impact on quality, innovation, service speed and delivery, and price. In order to maintain competitive advantage in all these aspects, it has become inherent to examine leadership competencies in driving the organisation towards operational excellence. Empirical evidence shows that South Africa does not have sufficient competent leaders that have the ability to master the art of change management. The global business environment is dynamic in nature and competitiveness is vital for survival. Leadership is required to steer the organisation towards sustainable operational excellence. In addition, literature advocates management commitment in driving system implementation. Competent leaders have the ability to strategically position themselves in the implementation of a new system that affect the entire value chain. In this study, an evaluation is done to determine the leadership competencies required in the implementation of the ISO 9001 quality management system (QMS) through quantitative analysis. The paper aims to determine the leadership competencies that are essential from a South African perspective in the implementation of the ISO 9001 quality management standard.
Keywords: Leadership competencies; systems engineering; organizational leadership; ISO 9000.
Strategic Decisions on the Establishment of an Offshore Warehouse for Manufacturers with an E-Commerce Channel
by Qiran Wang, Yongzhong Wu, Yongwu Zhou
Abstract: While Chinese manufacturers increasingly use e-commerce platforms to sell products to overseas customers, expensive international express delivery is commonly used to meet the short order-to-delivery times. Many manufacturers are considering renting or constructing an offshore warehouse to reduce logistics costs while ensuring fast delivery. Goods are stored in the offshore warehouse and customer orders are fulfilled by the warehouse inventory. Strategic decisions arise regarding the need for as well as the location and capacity of an offshore warehouse. This paper establishes a discrete-event simulation model to analyze the dynamics of these decisions; the key variables include the order arrival rate and lead times in the supply chain. The optimal inventory policy (safety stock and replenishment quantity) of the offshore warehouse is obtained via a meta-heuristic method embedded in the simulation model. Experiments and a sensitivity analysis are conducted to evaluate the impact of the key variables on the strategic decisions.
Keywords: E-commerce; Offshore warehouse; Discrete-event simulation; Order-to-delivery time.
Identifying the Companies Bankruptcy Using an Enhanced Neural Network Model; Case Study: Evaluating the Bankruptcy of Iranian Stock Exchange Companies
by Shahin Ordikhani, Sara Habibi, Ahmad Reza Haghighi
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to utilize an enhanced neural network model to anticipate the bankruptcy of stock exchange companies and test the predictive power of this model by considering the concept of misclassification. Misclassifications decrease the accuracy of prediction. Among every one of the structures of the two-layer neural network, the Perceptron model with the structure of nine neurons in the input layer and a neuron in the output layer with the Levenberg learning algorithm demonstrated the most predictive power. The neuron structures three, five, and nine were considered to decide the proper characteristics of a two-layer perceptron for anticipating companies' bankruptcy. Among them, the two-layer perceptron with nine neurons in the input layer and one neuron in the output layer identified to has the best performance. The findings demonstrate that applying artificial neural network models amplify financial management for facing with fluctuations and bankruptcy.
Keywords: Effective Predicting Financial Rates; Bankruptcy; Neural Network; Machine Learnings; Predictive Power.
Product Acceptance; Service preference based on E-service Quality using G-Rough Set Theory
by Shib Sana, Mohammad Ehsan Souri, Reza Sheikh, Fatemeh Sajjadian
Abstract: Nowadays, the competitive environment of e-services companies has made them deliver high quality of services. In fact, perceived quality of E-services by consumers which determines their behavior towards products is defined as product acceptance. Consumers have a powerful potential to pass their experiences to other consumers. In this regard, this study intends to detect the rules determining the behavior of consumers in product acceptance based on perceived quality of e-services. Accordingly, 407 questionnaires were distributed among online retailers consumers and then Grey Rough set theory was applied to analyse them. Perceived quality dimensions and Net Promoter Score (NPS) were determined as condition and decision attributes, respectively. Finally, the six rules determining the behavior of consumers were extracted through data analysis process. Furthermore, the results showed that Efficiency, System availability, Fulfilment, Responsiveness and Contact are the most important factors determining product acceptance.
Keywords: Consumer behavior; Rough set theory; Grey system; Net Promoter Score; Service quality; Product acceptance.
Chinas Manufacturing Servitization Level and Its Impact on Enterprise Performance: Model and Empirical Study
by Jifei Xie
Abstract: A comprehensive evaluation index system and a fuzzy evaluation model of servitization level are constructed. Based on the cross-sectional data of 903 listed enterprises in 29 manufacturing industries in 8 provinces and cities in China in 2016, an empirical study on Chinas manufacturing servitization level and its impact on enterprise performance is carried out. The results show that: The first-tier cities and high-tech industries are in leading positions in servitization. There is an inverted U relationship between servitization level and both the return on equity and return on total assets, and a U relationship between servitization level and the return on personnel. In terms of human capital investment, the manufacturing enterprises are facing
Keywords: manufacturing servitization; index system; fuzzy evaluation model; empirical study.
Modelling and Assessment of the Impact of Supply Disruption and Cost of Recovery using System Dynamics Approach
by P. Raghuram, G. Harisankar
Abstract: Shorter product life cycles and customization have exposed the hidden problems in the supply chain. Supply disruptions, caused due any sudden event, is one of the major concerns of the manufacturing industry. This paper focusses on the impact of non-availability of parts from a supplier due to unpredictable events and the cost of recovery from such disruption. System dynamics approach is used to model the interactions between the variables required to maintain the availability of parts. In this model, time to restore operations, time to find alternate suppliers, inventory consumption till restoration, safety stock availability and backlogs are considered. This model was then used to assess disruption impact on inventory, lead time and recovery costs using iThink software. Assessment of supply disruption for all the procured parts will help the company to recognize and take proactive steps, such as identifying alternate suppliers, making engineering changes and modifying the manufacturing processes.
Keywords: supply disruptions; inventory; modeling; assessment; system dynamics.
Multi-item single-source (MISS) production quantity model for imperfect items with rework failure, inspection errors, scraps, and backordering
by Javad Taheri-Tolgari, Abolfazl Mirzazadeh
Abstract: In this paper, a multi-item single-source (MISS) production quantity model is studied that includes some practical and realistic attributes. In practice, frequently, both the manufacturing process and screening procedure of a producer are not perfect, hence manufacturing and accepting a part of non-defects and a part of defects. Most of the verified inventory systems with defective quality items, although, have not allocated together such significant realistic or practical conditions including both imperfect item in the manufacturing process and imperfect classifying procedure. Therefore, in this research investigated a cost-minimizing imperfect quality system along with two Types of errors in the inspection process and refund that finds an optimum manufacturing quantity with backorder for the multiple items single machine. Finally, a numerical example is solved by sensitivity analysis to illustrate the practical and realistic applications of the presented methodology.
Keywords: Multi-item single-source (MISS); Imperfect item; Inspection error; Rework failure.
Network Design for Reverse Logistics Considering Carbon Tax
by Bandar Alkhayyal
Abstract: A research model using the market price for emission allowances per metric ton illustrates how the economic and environment mechanisms of carbon price can be formulated using deterministic equilibrium model. Moreover, this framework allows us to examine the performance of, and identify how the policy proposed would affect the profitability of remanufactured goods; a comprehensive study for the quantitative evaluation and performance of the model has been done using Orthogonal Arrays. As demonstrated by the results, the policy related to carbon tax brings about a powerful limitation on the quantity of emissions of carbon produced by the operations of supply chains; the case study herein employed real sites and data from the Boston region. Lacking in a carbon tax, the margin of profit realized by the A/C unit is 26%, while the amount suggested by the USEPA, $40/ton CO2 equivalent (tCO2e) tax, lessen the profit margin to 19%.
Keywords: Low Carbon Logistics; Reverse Supply Chains; Circular Economy; Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions; Extended Producer Responsibility; Industrial Engineering.
IMPLEMENTATION OF OEEML IN BEVERAGE BOTTLING PRODUCTION LINE (BBPL) (A case study of Pakistan beverage industry)
by Danaish -, Zongjin Ren, Shehdev Akhani, Muhammad Ayaz Akbar
Abstract: This research is based on a survey of 5 weeks study of Beverage Bottling industry in which a performance measurement metric namely Overall equipment effectiveness of manufacturing line (OEEML) implemented for measuring the actual performance of the beverage bottling production line (BBPL). Measurement of OEEML helps to understand in detail each step of the Production line (PL) process and it describes the areas of gap for best results in improvement plan. Overall equipment effectiveness of (PL) metric found superior in reducing the losses by highlighting them and improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the Beverage bottling production line (BBPL). The final results of the BBPL improved with a high percentage 14% of OEEML increased which results to increase the output productivity of the beverage bottling production line and reduction in per unit cost.
Keywords: Beverage bottling production line (BBPL); Overall equipment effectiveness of production line (OEEML); performance measurement; Loss structure; productivity improvement.
Biodegradable Plastics with Natural Additives as a Replacement for Synthetic Plastics
by Irene Gabriel, Amal Elhussieny, Marwa Faisal, Giacomo DAngelo, Nesma Aboulkhair, Nicola Everitt
Abstract: A massive outburst in the manufacturing of synthetic plastic has occurred due to its availability, durability and low-cost relative to glass, paper and fabric. In order to combat the plastic pollution phenomenon, it is impossible to eliminate the use of disposable plastic products; however, it could be replaced with an eco-friendly substitute. This study presents a comparison between different composite films with natural reinforcements. The matrices and reinforcements were produced from chitosan extracted from shrimp shells waste and rice straw waste, respectively. Experimental and statistical analysis were performed to define the most desirable filler type and concentration with respect to physical, biological, mechanical and thermal properties. Experimental results showed that the mechanical, thermal, and biological properties of the chitosan (and nano chitosan) films were improved by the addition of 25 wt. % and 35 wt. % of rice straws and nano rice straw fibres.
Keywords: Nanotechnology; fillers; composites; sustainability; valorisation; natural polymer.
Stability Analysis Of Cross-Section Of Double-Row Large-Diameter Pipeline Based On Bim Technology
by Wen-bo WANG
Abstract: For X80 pipeline with 1219mm diameter as the representative, an analysis method of the pipeline cross-section stability based on BIM technology is proposed in this paper. According to the basic theory of pipeline cross-section stability, the influence factors of pipeline cross-section instability are analyzed. According to the requirement of the stability check, the criterion for the stability of the cross-section of the double-row large-diameter pipeline under the pressure of external load is determined. The dynamic response and deformation law of the cross-section of the double-row large-diameter pipeline under the impact of rockfall are analyzed by ABAQUS software and BIM Technology. The stress-strain response of the cross-section is obtained. The reasons of the pipeline cross-section instability have been clarified, which provide some reference for the pipeline construction and protection.
Keywords: BIM technology; double-row; large-diameter pipeline; cross-section; stability.
Simulation Analysis On Continuous Collapse Resistance Of Assembled Building Structure Under Multi-Dimensional Earthquake
by Wei Sun, Yi Cui
Abstract: In order to provide reference for seismic research in related engineering design and enhance the continuous collapse resistance performance of building structures, the simulation analysis on continuous collapse resistance of assembled building structures under multi-dimensional earthquake is carried out. Taking the 5-story assembled building structure as the research object, the researched assembled building structure was modeled by SAP2000, and the load-time variable was defined and assigned to simulate multi-dimensional seismic waves. The simulation analysis on the continuous collapse resistance of building structures during the failure of the diagonal column, the long-side middle column and the internal column showed that under the multi-dimensional earthquake, the failure of the structural column had a great influence on the direct supporting beam, and the whole building structure appeared to a certain extent continuous collapse.
Keywords: multi-dimensional earthquake; assembled building structures; resistance to continuous collapse.
Sudden Risk Predication Model of Construction Supply Chain Based on Data Mining
by Jinrong Nie
Abstract: In order to improve the accuracy and capability of quantitative evaluation to sudden risks of the construction supply chain and effectively guide the prevention of them, a sudden risk quantitative evaluation and predication model of the construction supply chain based on data mining and multiple regression analysis is proposed. In this method, firstly, information acquisition and adaptive feature extraction are performed to characteristic quantity in quantitative analysis of sudden risks of the construction supply chain. Secondly, a stochastic probability density model is adopted to decompose characteristics of sudden risks of the construction supply chain, and risk evaluation and relevant predication are performed to the construction supply chain through internal control and extract control. The simulation results show that the method can provide relatively high accuracy in predicating sudden risks of the construction supply chain and has relatively good global convergence and optimisation ability in predication.
Keywords: Data mining; the construction supply chain; risk predication; feature extraction; regression analysis.
Study On Design Of Interior Lighting System For Office Buildings With Large Windows
by Xing-gang ZHANG
Abstract: In this paper, an interior lighting system is designed for the building based on PLC. The hardware of the system focuses on the design of the interior environment light acquisition unit, human body signal acquisition unit, watchdog unit, and demodulation unit to achieve overall system monitoring and signal controlling of hardware operation. The software of the system repeatedly invokes the subroutine through the main program to execute the commands issued by the upper computer to complete the control of the overall system operation. Experiments show that the average energy consumption of the system is 50J, and the average reaction time is 0.2s, and the maximum operating stability coefficient is 0.9. The system can reduce the energy consumption and reaction time of lighting operation, improve the system operation stability, and provide scientific support for the development of this field.
Keywords: large windows; office buildings; interior lighting systems; design.
Mechanical & Physical Behaviour of 3D Printed Polymer Nanocomposites-A Review
by Mir Irfan Ul Haq, Ankush Raina, Aysha Farzana Kichloo, Ruttba Aziz
Abstract: In the modern product development process, 3D printing is emerging as a novel technology for rapid manufacturing of components with complex geometries. Thermoplastic polymers are widely being 3D printed, however due to their poor mechanical properties, there is a growing need for polymer composites which possess better performance. The favorable properties offered by nanocomposites have led to shift in focus towards development and characterisation of various nanocomposites. In this paper studies directed towards nanocomposites processed via Fused Deposition Modeling method have been reviewed. The effect of various reinforcing agents and various process parameters on mechanical properties of these nanocomposites has been presented. The literature suggests that additive manufacturing has tremendous potential in improving the properties of the polymeric composites. Moreover, the 3D printing technology is flexible enough to shorten the product development time. However, the effect of various process parameters on the mechanical properties needs to be studied in detail.
Keywords: 3D printing; Nanocomposites; Polymers; Mechanical Testing; Product Development; Fused Deposition Modelling.
Research on Collaborative Distance English Teaching System Based on Mobile Cloud Computing
by Xiaozhen Shi, Lei Hou, Dunn Wang
Abstract: In order to overcome the problems of low success rate and poor robustness of traditional distance English teaching system, this paper proposes a new collaborative distance English teaching system based on mobile cloud computing. In the hardware part of the system, USB-to-JTAG device is used to download files, and the reverse direction principle is used to upload English teaching resources. The software part of the system is built with the structure of Yangtze River. Virtual teaching places and video voice teaching methods are established to achieve long-distance synchronous teaching. The experimental results show that the success rate of the cooperative distance English teaching system based on mobile cloud computing is 98.2%, and the robustness of the teaching system is 94.5%, which are obviously higher than the traditional methods. It proves that the proposed method has better reliability and is more suitable for English teaching system.
Keywords: Mobile Cloud Computing; Collaboration; Distance Learning; English Teaching.
Simulation Research on Active Control of Low Frequency Modal Vibration of Double-Joint Flexible Manipulator
by Laoxiang Liu
Abstract: In order to solve the problem of low control precision and high noise in the traditional vibration control method of manipulator, the active control method of low-frequency modal vibration of double-joint flexible manipulator is proposed. In this method, the finite element equation and modal technology are used to construct the dynamic model of the double-joint flexible manipulator and distinguish the low-frequency mode from the high-frequency mode. Then, the low-frequency mode of the dynamic model is transformed into the state-space equation based on the state variable. The simulation results show that the position errors of the elastic displacement in X and Y directions of the slave arm and the center of the mobile platform under the control of the proposed method in this article are all less than 0.02mm compared with those failure to implement control.
Keywords: double joint; flexible manipulator; low frequency; modal vibration; active control; simulation.
Deployment of the Taguchi technique for surface roughness optimisation
by Ismail W. R. Taifa, Vivek A. Deshpande, Nesredin Chekole Deresse
Abstract: The aim is to investigate the machining parameters that are important to optimise surface roughness (Ra) through experimentation for EN45 steel material (AISI 9260). Optimisation of the machining parameters for a cylindrical grinding operation helps to save time, cost, and influence to get better surface characteristics and surface finish. The study deployed the Taguchi technique. The scrutinised factors included the feed rate, work speed and the depth of cut (DOC). Experimental set up involved the L9 orthogonal array. Minitab® and Microsoft® Excel 2016 generated results after applying the design of experiment. The Ra was tested by using a portable surface roughness tester. The silicon carbide wheel and a hydraulic cylindrical grinder machine were used. After analysing the generated results, DOC was found to be statistically significant. The influential parameter of Ra was found to be DOC as it contributed to 45.3% and 58.6% before and after heat treatment processes, respectively.
Keywords: optimisation; Taguchi methods; surface roughness; cylindrical grinding operation; grinding process; EN45 steel material; ANOVA; affinity diagram; design of experiment; orthogonal array.
A non-radial approach to improve the interval cost efficiency score in DEA
by Simin Tohidnia, Ghasem Tohidi
Abstract: This paper suggests an approach for improving the cost efficiency score of inefficient decision making units (DMUs) with interval data. Corresponding to each inefficient DMU, we consider an interval ideal input vector and then develop two non-radial models to determine a point in the production possibility set that can produce the given interval output vector with the minimum possible cost and is closest point to the corresponding ideal point. By replacing the observed interval input vector with the interval input vector of the obtained point, one can improve the lower bound of the interval cost efficiency score as much as possible while the upper bound can achieve one. A numerical example also will be designed to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach.
Keywords: Data envelopment analysis; cost efficiency; interval data; ideal input vector; non-radial model.
Optimization of Total supply chain cost of Multi-Echelon system in Leagile network under probabilistic Demand
by ADAM NAGA PHANEENDRA
Abstract: In the era of competitive digitalised world inventory management and cost control in total Supply Chain (SC) becomes challenging job for industrialists and researchers. In general, Supply chain contains of multi-supplier, retailer, and manufacturing plants at various locations where it supplies versatile products to the end users with trending expectations in stochastic demands. To control total SC cost, the optimum level of inventory should establish at every location by considering various influencing factors. Therefore, this paper developed a computational complex problem considering all practical scenarios subjected to quantity, cost, capacity and space constraints with the aim of minimizing total SC cost and improving legality of SC network. A Novel Self-adaptive Harmonic Search (NSHS) algorithm applied to accomplish accurate results efficiently. Finally, this novel model demonstrated with an illustrative example tested with practical data to prove its feasibility and effectiveness.
Keywords: Inventory management; order quantity; Novel Self-adaptive Harmonic Search (NSHS).
Solution Approaches for Multi-workday Vehicle Routing Problem with Manual Unloading
by Tarit Rattanamanee, Suebsak Nanthavanij, Aussadavut Dumrongsiri
Abstract: The daily delivery routes and carried loads of vehicles are determined for a multi-workday planning period. Upon arrival at customer locations, workers, who are pre-assigned to vehicles, must perform manual unloading of goods. The multi-workday vehicle routing problem (MW-VRP) with manual unloading is solved using three solution approaches, namely, minimum-distance fixed-route, minimum-distance varying-route workload-constrained, and workload-balanced varying-route. The total travel distances of vehicles and average percent residual energies among workers are determined and compared among the three approaches. The results show that the MW-VRP which considers the physical workloads that workers have to endure each workday throughout the planning period can help to distribute daily manual handling tasks more evenly among workers.
Keywords: Vehicle routing problem; multi-workday planning; physical workload balancing; worker-vehicle pre-assignment.
Remaining Useful Life Estimation by Stochastic Markov Model and Monte-Carlo Simulation
by SMRITI MISHRA, PRASHANT BHARDWAJ
Abstract: Estimation of remaining tool life is important in planning condition based maintenance program and helps us by preventing any production loss. The paper proposes a method to obtain Remaining Useful Life (RUL) Estimation of a single point turning tool using stochastic Markov method. In this experiment mild steel work piece is machined for a constant length on lathe machine by high speed steel tool and flank wear width for different number of passes of tool over work piece is recorded for constant feed, speed and depth of cut up to failure. A state based model is developed considering four gradually degraded stages of the tool. The rate equations are derived for the four state Markov model representing the change of the state probability with respect to time for each state which is solved by Runge-Kutta method by using MATLAB software. The analytical results are verified by Monte Carlo Simulation.
Keywords: Cutting tool; Prognosis; MTTF.
The value of ecosystem collaboration: Fleet life cycle data -based cost-benefit model
by Sini-Kaisu Kinnunen, Salla Marttonen-Arola, Timo Kärri
Abstract: To successfully manage asset fleets requires data collection from a fleet that can be distributed globally and into several companies. Thus, data collection is often conducted by multiple actors in a business ecosystem, which makes it difficult to get access to all the data concerning a fleet. It is important to demonstrate the value that can be achieved by systematically utilizing fleet data as a support of fleet-level decision-making. There is huge potential to benefit from fleet data due to increasingly gathered data, Internet of Things technologies, and data analysis tools. In this paper, a model is proposed to illustrate the ecosystem around a fleet and how to evaluate the costs and benefits of fleet data utilization in an ecosystem. The challenge lies in determining whose value should be maximized and how the ecosystem could develop collaboration in data utilization to create value for the ecosystem.
Keywords: cost-benefit model; value creation; fleet; asset management; data utilization; ecosystem; collaboration; value of data; cost of data.
Material selection for design of powered hand truck using TOPSIS
by Aditya Patil, Bhushan Adavadkar, Harsh Chhatriwala, Mohit Keswani, Sachin Chede
Abstract: Selection of materials in engineering design have vital role. Choice of relevant material for particular product is major task for designers. In this paper we are using Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) TOPSIS tool for selecting the material for the designing of powered hand truck. The suitable five materials (SS 304, AISI 1010, AISI 1020, Al 6061-T6, Al 5052-O) are taken into consideration and with attributes as 5 material properties as well as characteristics (tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, density, affordability, machinability) are considered for analysis purpose. The attribute weights are computed using entropy method. As per the analysis AISI 1020 is more suitable material and hence chosen for designing and fabrication of powered hand truck.
Keywords: material selection; MCDM; TOPSIS method; Weightage calculation; Entropy method.
Assessment of human and system related barriers during implementation of Green Leagile Six Sigma (GLSS) in Indian manufacturing industries
by NAVEEN VIRMANI, Urmi Ravindra Salve
Abstract: There is a radical change at level of competition during past few years in manufacturing industries. Today, the customer desire high quality products at economical price and that too in minimum span of time. So, it is required for industries to adopt manufacturing strategies in compliance with customer requirements and preferences. Also, there is a need of using greener technologies to manufacture products. Therefore, it is imperative to produce economical products quickly while maintaining quality norms (ISO, OHSAS etc). Industries are required to adopt state-of-art technology, methods and research strategies to compete in the global market. In this paper, concept of Green Leagile Six Sigma has been discussed and human factors and system related barriers had been identified through literature review. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) technique used to categorize the attributes into constructs. Also, Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used for model fit.
Keywords: GLSS; Agile; Green; EFA; CFA; Lean; Six Sigma.
Demand-Supply Planning and Sustainability Aspect for Agro-based Perishables in Cold-chain
by AMAN BHATNAGAR, Prem Vrat, Ravi Shanker
Abstract: The primary objective of this paper is to: (i) determine the optimum storage requirements for agro-based perishables using production and distribution planning model to absorb the demand fluctuations in an economic manner, encouraging inter-state transportation of perishables so that available infrastructure is utilized efficiently, (ii) determine the cost variation along the potato value chain from farm to fork (iii) analysing the cost of building cold storage, (iv) focus on the sustainability aspect of cold-chain in order to have better utilisation of the cold storages and logistics, thereby reducing food loss and carbon footprints (v) determine the payback period of the investment made, Profit & Loss (PnL), Un-discounted rate of return, Earnings before interest, taxes, and amortization (EBITA) Margins, Profit After Tax (PAT), projected balance sheet and depreciation schedule.
Keywords: cold-chain; cold storage; potato value chain; inter-state trade; transportation; logistics distribution and perishable agri-value chain.
Production Lead Time Improvement through Lean Manufacturing
by Sisay Geremew Gebeyehu, Amdework Gochel, Muluken Abebe
Abstract: The aim of this research was to improve the production lead time by minimizing different wastes which does not add value on final product. First, the current production floor and layout has been studied and mapped using Value Stream Mapping and Spaghetti Diagram is applied to identify manufacturing wastes. Next, lean manufacturing techniques have been deployed to improve the bottleneck areas. The result shows that production lead time was reduced by 23.66%, process cycle efficiency was improved 8.6%, Work in Process (WIP) time reduced by 25.59%, non-value adding time (waiting time) reduced by 37.74%, total distance traveled reduced by 61.2% and the number of workers reduced by 9. Finally, it was concluded that the research has significant benefit for Hibiret Manufacturing & Machine Building Industry (HMMBI) and similar manufacturing industries.
Keywords: Lead time; lean manufacturing; value stream map.
A maintenance optimization approach based on genetic algorithm for multi-component systems considering the effect of human error
by Hagag Maher, Mohamed F. Aly, H. Afefy Islam, Tamer Abdelmaguid
Abstract: The total maintenance cost can be reduced by grouping maintenance actions of several components. This paper contributes to the existing literature by introducing an enhanced maintenance optimization approach that considers the effect of maintenance crew loading due to grouping on the maintenance decisions of multi-component systems. A modified mathematical model is firstly developed for evaluating the failure probability function of each component, the remaining useful life and the maintenance cost. Economic and structural dependencies are taken into consideration. A simulation is secondly implemented to provide estimates of the associated costs with changes in the decision variables. Using the simulation model, an optimization approach based on a genetic algorithm is thirdly developed to minimize the long-term mean maintenance cost per unit time. Computational results show that the proposed maintenance optimization approach provides considerable maintenance cost savings and emphasizes the importance of considering the effect of maintenance crew constraints in maintenance scheduling.
Keywords: Maintenance grouping; multi-component systems; genetic algorithm; maintenance human constraints; maintenance process simulation.
Buffer allocation in asynchronous serial production systems with Bernoulli machines during transients
by Hongwei Liu, Wenchong Chen, Ershi Qi
Abstract: Some asynchronous production systems can never be truly balanced. This phenomenon demands the incorporation of asynchronism and unreliability in buffer allocation problems (BAPs). This paper reports a BAP in an asynchronous serial production system with Bernoulli machines. A profit-based integer programming model is formulated to maximize the throughput and minimize the buffer capacity simultaneously. Because the production run is finite in the current mass customization environment, a transient analysis is used to estimate the system performance. Piecewise closed-form expressions are derived for a two-machine case based on Markovian structures. For M > 2 machine lines, an efficient recursive algorithm based on aggregation is developed. Considering the non-linear characteristic of this BAP, a dynamic-objective particle swarm optimization with neighborhood searching is developed. This approach is verified by a case from an assembly plant. The results demonstrate that the programming method can increase the system profit by 1.85%.
Keywords: Buffer allocation; asynchronous serial production line; Bernoulli machines; transient analysis; dynamic-objective particle swarm optimization.
Robust Simultaneous Lot-sizing and Scheduling with considering Controllable Processing Time and Fixed Carbon Emission in Flow-shop Environment
by Mehdi Bijari, Milad Mirnajafi Zadeh
Abstract: A new robust model is presented for simultaneous lot-sizing and scheduling problem in a flow-shop environment with controllable processing time in this study. In view of the importance of carbon emissions in green production, this model takes account of limitations in this respect. Different speeds of machines can also affect production, back order, inventory holding costs, scrap rates, as well as carbon emissions. In the present study, a new model is proposed under certainty and uncertainty. In order to deal with uncertainty, robust optimization is employed. The robust model in this study is in non-deterministic polynomial-time (NP) hardness complexity class; therefore, a total of five heuristic algorithms are introduced based on Fix-and-Relax (F&R) and Fix-and- Optimize (F&O) approaches to solve larger instances. In conclusion, the results obtained from the algorithms based on F&O are given higher quality solutions compared with those based on F&R heuristic.
Keywords: Simultaneous Lot-Sizing and Scheduling; Controllable Processing Time; Carbon Emission; Robust Optimization; Fix and Optimize.
Optimal Pricing for Ride Sharing
by XIANGYING CHEN, Yongzhong Wu, Yuxin Lu, Yongwu Zhou
Abstract: The ride sharing business has developed rapidly in recent years. The pricing of the ride sharing service is critical for the profitability of the operators. Pricing too high may reduce passenger demand, and hence increase detours and distance, while pricing too low may reduce the revenue. In order to analyze the dynamics of optimal pricing, a mathematical model is developed to maximize the total profit.In the model, the higher-level pricing decision depends on the lower-level order assignment and routing problem.Numerical experiments with the model show that the operator does not necessarily benefit from providing the ride sharing option. The pricing of ride sharing is critical for profitability. When the total travel demand is high (e.g., in peak hours), the operator should adopt a lower relative pricing in order to maximize profit.
Keywords: Ride sharing; optimal pricing,vehicle routing problem; choice model; order assignment.
Robust Design Optimization of Cutting force and Material Removal Rate in thread turning process
by Suraj Rane, Amar Dalvi, Sujay Kharat, Raheel Kittur
Abstract: Thread Cutting is a most commonly used method of producing threaded components in small scale industries. Literature review revealed that enough research is not undertaken in optimization in thread turning, in spite of it being a widely used method of producing threads. The present work highlights a case from a small scale organization, manufacturing hexagonal headed bolt with high accuracy in lean environment. The objective was to optimize Cutting Force and Material Removal Rate, which were indicators of power consumption and productivity, respectively. To obtain optimal levels of input parameters using less number of components, Robust Design Methodology was used. The input parameters studied are cutting speed, depth of cut and infeed angle, in external thread turning of Mild Steel. The optimum level of each input variable was found out for minimum cutting forces generated and maximum material removal rate. Significant improvement in power savings and productivity was observed.
Keywords: Thread turning; Cutting forces; Material removal rate; Robust Design; Taguchi method; ANOVA; Orthogonal array; Signal-to-Noise Ratio; Cutting speed; Depth of cut; Infeed angle.
Simulation modeling for performance optimization of the skimmed milk powder production system of a dairy plant
by Anil Kr. Aggarwal
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to deal with the simulation modelling and performance optimisation for the skimmed milk powder production system of a dairy plant using genetic algorithm (GA). This analysis is based on Markov birth-death process, the mathematical formulation of the system is carried out to derive first order Chapman-Kolmogorov differential equations by assuming that the failure and repair rate of each subsystem follows exponential distribution. The proposed method is used to compute long run availability using normalising condition, initial boundary conditions and recursive method. It provides the optimum system availability level for different combinations of failure and repair rates parameters of the subsystems of the skimmed milk powder production system of a dairy plant concerned. The results are presented and discussed with the plant personnel to adopt and practice suitable maintenance policies/strategies to enhance the productivity and quality of skimmed milk powder production system of the dairy plant.
Keywords: Markov process; Markov modelling; Chapman-Kolmogorov differential equations; long run availability; performance optimization; skimmed milk powder production system.
Locating warehouses shared by retailers for fast-fashion products considering consumers waiting cost
by Zhi-hua Hu
Abstract: This study developed and formulated a strategy based on warehouses shared among retailers for fast-fashion products retailing. The requested products are delivered from a nearby warehouses shared by several retailers. However, the consumers waiting times decrease the service satisfaction and still have the risk that the delivered products were not accepted by consumers. The numerical results demonstrate that the waiting cost is affected by travelling times, delivery cost, fixed cost for shared warehouses, and the waiting cost function of time, whereas the profit is mainly affected by product gross profit, discount compensated to consumers for waiting, the unmet ratio after the requested products are delivered to the retailer, and the variable cost of handing and storing products. The consumers waiting at the retailers are impacted by the loss of waiting times. Simultaneously, the retailers take a loss when the delivered products are not suitable for the consumers.
Keywords: Logistics management; fast fashion; warehouse; retailing; waiting cost.
Stochastic analysis of an imperfect production-inventory system with consideration of random machine breakdown, rework, inspection, and environmental emissions
by Rubayet Karim, Koichi Nakade
Abstract: Incorporation of production disruption, quality, inspection, and environmental concerns in the production and inventory model has obtained significant attention in literature; nevertheless, researchers study these subjects individually. It is necessary to jointly incorporate all those aspects in a single research study to support decision making, and gain new insights for complexities in practice. This paper takes the initiative in this respect. The objective is to determine the optimal rate of production and to examine the impact of emission penalty cost along with other costs on the production rate and on the long-run average cost of a manufacturing system. First, using the renewal reward theorem, a model is formulated by considering a penalty cost for emission. Next, another model is developed by extending the previous model to account for the circumstances where the manufacturing system does not incur an emission penalty cost. The developed models are examined numerically and compared.
Keywords: production-inventory model; defective items; environmental emission; machine breakdown; rework; inspection; Renewal reward theorem.
Production quality improvement for the soft drinks bottling industry through six sigma methodology
by Ismail W. R. Taifa, George S. Mwaluko, Ebenezer Dawson Makundi
Abstract: Increase of rejection rate (percentage) in the production process of soft drinks is one of the chronic problems in industries. Over four months, the production rejection rate (PRR) increased up to 12.62%. This resulted in an estimated loss of 93,412,800 Tanzanian Shilling (TZS) at X-Company. Therefore, this study explored how to improve the quality of production in the manufacturing process of the Tanzanian soft drinks industry. The Six Sigma methodology - DMAIC (define-measure-analyse-improve-control) - was employed. DMAIC considers existing products, process and improves the same. An in-depth insight into PRR and speed of acquiring such insight while increasing the problem diversification was successfully performed. Still, soft drinks companies face high PRR. The critical reasons occur during bottle filling and crowning operations. The sigma level was found to be 4.9 with the cost of poor quality being 12.62%. This study achieved a potential annual saving of 280,238,400 TZS.
Keywords: Six Sigma; six sigma methodology; DPMO; DMAIC; quality improvement; continuous improvement; production rejection rate; soft drinks; bottling industry; manufacturing rejects.
An analytical study on establishing strategies for improving the productivity of the spinning industries
by Ismail W. R. Taifa, Ibrahim Joseph Mwasubila, Beatus A. T. Kundi
Abstract: Strategies for improving the productivity of the spinning industries are much needed. In this paper, a case of a spinning industry was systematically studied. The strategies for enhancing productivity were established through a mixed approach. The studied industry experienced low productivity as they were only achieving 55%68% of their production plan. Also, their actual operational machine availability was 67%. The proposed strategies include improving the spooling and the drawing process by installing new machinery technology; improve raw materials and components flow; hiring well-trained workers; develop employee training programs; search for new market segments; establish effective information and communications technology section, and develop an implementable maintenance plan. The study also revealed that system dynamics modelling helps to arrange descriptive information analytically. Thus, Vensim software was applied to illustrate the 2 I.J. Mwasubila et al. differences between productivity, specifically before and after implementing the established strategies. The study considered only a single industry and single-factor productivity measures.
Keywords: productivity improvement; productivity index; single-factor productivity; multifactor productivity measures; strategies; competitive strategy; system dynamics; Vensim software; spinning mill.
Optimization of multiobjective supply chain networks considering cost minimization and environmental criteria
by John Wilmer Escobar, Natalia Segura Rosas, Juan Camilo Paz Roa
Abstract: This article considers the optimisation problem of a multi-objective mass-consumption supply chain network considering cost minimisation and environmental criteria, as well as the analysis of scenarios with variable demand. This study seeks to determine the closure and consolidation of distribution centres and the identification of product flows in the network. The efficiency of the mathematical model has been tested with real information obtained from a Colombian multinational company manufacturing products of mass-consumption. The results confirm the efficiency of the model and its positive impact on determining the environmental impact of gas emissions related to the type of transportation used and the appropriate cost for the case study company.
Keywords: Network Optimization; Multiobjective Mathematical Model; Total Cost; Environmental Impact; Logistics; Scenario Analysis.
Vulnerability Evaluation of High-rise Earthquake-proof Buildings in High-pressure Area
by Lilin Wang
Abstract: Traditional structural vulnerability analysis neglects the structural mode of earthquake-proof buildings and the role of isolation layer, and there are some deviations in the results of vulnerability evaluation of high-rise earthquake-proof buildings. Therefore, the structural vulnerability evaluation of high-rise earthquake-proof buildings is studied, and the structural vulnerability evaluation method of high-rise earthquake-proof buildings in high-pressure areas based on fuzzy comprehensive evaluation is proposed. Tthe relationship between magnitude and intensity, and the law of intensity attenuation are analyzed, and the differences between traditional earthquake-proof building structure and isolation layer structure are compared; Combining with the method of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation, the vulnerability of building structure is calculated and evaluated according to the fuzzy relation matrix between evaluation index and vulnerability level as well as the index weight coefficient matrix. The experimental results show that the evaluation performance of the proposed method is better than that of the experimental comparison method.
Keywords: high-pressure area; high-rise building; earthquake-proof structure; vulnerability; evaluation.
Agent-Based Heuristics Model for Measuring Customer Disruption Impact on Production and Inventory Replenishment
by Ammar Al-Bazi, Tunde Adediran
Abstract: Agent-based simulation approach in production and inventory environment is capable of responding and adapting to disruptions caused by customers changing requirements. The impacts of disruptions in production and inventory systems can be measured through learning and decision-making ability of system agents. In this paper, agent-based modelling integrated with heuristic optimisation approach is presented as embedded within a scheduling and rescheduling framework. The proposed approach is implemented in a disrupted OEMs parts manufacturing system. The integration of the framework modules in connection with inventory control helped production planners to manage disruptions by tracking order processing times and quantities and for performance measurement. The proposed approach is compared with the few existing related methods like the sequential method. The proposed approach not only revealed the impact of disruptions in terms of process times and order quantities but offered 'available times' which were applied for production support and inventory replenishment. This demonstrates a valuable and viable resolution strategy responding and adapting to disruptions caused by customers.
Keywords: Customer Disruption Impact; OEM Environment; Production scheduling; Inventory Replenishment; Agent-Based Simulation; Heuristics Optimisation.
An overview of industry 4.0 in manufacturing industries
by Dheeraj Nimawat, B. Gidwani
Abstract: In the current scenario, manufacturing industries are rapidly moving towards customized production from mass production to meet the current market competition. Industry 4.0 prompts the digitalization time. Industry 4.0 emphasizes intelligent products, potential customers, and change of industrial machine suits. It is interconnected inside the advanced and innovative view with the comparing virtual portrayal. Industry 4.0 inventiveness has engaged an impressive concentration of industries and researchers. This paper comprises study of 164 reputed research papers and addresses evolution of Industry 4.0, key technologies, initiatives by various nations in this era, review of empirical analysis on Industry 4.0, and presented future scope in the area of Industry 4.0 regarding survey of barriers to adopt Industry 4.0, maturity of Industry 4.0 concept and impact of key technologies of Industry 4.0 in the todays scenario. This paper will help to the existing and future industries, and researchers in the context of Industry 4.0.
Keywords: Industry 4.0; Big Data; Autonomous Robots; Simulation; Additive Manufacturing; Industrial Internet of Things; Augmented Reality; Cyber Physical Systems; Fourth Industrial Revolution.
Single Commercial Aircraft System Value Evaluation Method Based on Requirements Engineering and Value Driven Design in Commercial Aircraft Preliminary Design Stage
by Cheng Chen, Nan Ma, Yang Song
Abstract: The paper proposes a single commercial aircraft system value evaluation method which is applicable in the commercial aircraft preliminary design stage. The approach introduces the idea of Value Driven Design and is integrated in the framework of requirements engineering. The method takes functions and cost as major considerations to obtain value scorings and uses Analytic Hierarchy Process to guide and transmit design value calculations and introduces cost and safety as design constraints of evaluation. The aircraft power supply is taken as an example to illustrate the utilisation of the method. The method can not only provide the corresponding value scorings for different design schemes of an aircraft system, but also help to explore the influence of function optimization and iteration on the functions and values of subsystems and systems, thereby help aircraft designers and project managers make trade-offs and decisions from the perspective of function value.
Keywords: system value evaluation; requirements engineering; value driven design; analytic hierarchy process; commercial aircraft.
BEHAVIOURAL INVENTORY MANAGEMENT: A NEW APPROACH TO INVENTORY CLASSIFICATION BASED ON STOCK-INDUCED CONSUMPTION INDEX
by Neeta Sharma, Prem Vrat
Abstract: This paper presents an analysis of exploratory survey conducted to investigate the consumers perception by using the instrument of structured questionnaire about stock-induced consumption of various commodities which would invariably result in resource wastage. The intended outcome of this survey is to find out the stock-induced consumption index of these commodities which exhibit behavioural tendencies of different consumers. This would eventually be used by inventory control practitioners to estimate the shape parameter (?) of these commodities because parameter estimation is identified as the major limitation resulting in poor applicability of the stock-dependent demand inventory models. In addition, this paper attempts to classify these commodities on the basis of their high, medium and low potential for stock-induced consumption (HML analysis) to facilitate use of resources to their maximum efficiency by concentrating on items having the greatest potential for wasteful consumption. Perishability is considered as one of the driving forces in stock-induced consumption
Keywords: stock-dependent demand; stock-induced consumption index; perishability index; HML analysis; behavioural inventory management.
Minimizing Makespan of Batch Processing Machine with Unequal Ready Times
by Leena Ghrayeb, Shanthi Muthuswamy, Purushothaman Damodaran
Abstract: This research considers scheduling a single batch processing machine at a contract electronics manufacturer. The processing times, ready times and the sizes of the jobs are given and the total size of the batch should not exceed the machine capacity. The batch ready time is equal to the latest ready time of all the jobs in the batch. The objective is to minimize the makespan. The commercial solver used to solve the mathematical formulation proposed requires long run times. Consequently, several heuristics and lower bounding procedures are proposed. Through an experimental study, it is shown that one of the lower bounds is within 40% of the best known integer solution from CPLEX for the 200-job instances. The heuristics are very effective in finding good quality solutions with short run times. For smaller problem instances, the quality of the heuristic solution is within 10% of the best known solution from CPLEX.
Keywords: Batch Processing Machine; Scheduling; Makespan; Heuristics; Lower bound.
Reconfiguration of Hospital Outpatient Pharmacies by Adopting the Concept of Group Technology for Arrangement of Drugs on Shelves
by Hamdi Bashir, Ibrahim Garbie
Abstract: Reconfiguration of hospital outpatient pharmacies is necessary to achieve several benefits, including improved workflows, reduction in the total distances travelled by pharmacy drug pickers, and reduction in patient waiting times, thereby increasing patient satisfaction. To achieve this purpose, this paper proposes the use of a methodology that involves application of group technology, a manufacturing concept, to the drug-shelving problem. To demonstrate its practicality, the proposed methodology is applied to an outpatient pharmacy in a public hospital, in which 21 drug groups, comprising 114 different drugs, are clustered into eight cells, where each cell consists of interrelated drug groups that are to be located in close proximity on the shelves. Unlike those proposed in the literature, the methodology described in this paper, in addition to its simplicity, has the advantage of retaining the arrangement of drugs in their groups while minimising the total distance that pharmacy drug pickers travel to fill prescriptions.
Keywords: drug shelving; travel distances; group technology; cellular manufacturing.
A Simulated Annealing Approach to Minimize Makespan in a Hybrid Flowshop with a Batch Processing Machine
by Santha RajaKumari Upadhyayula, Shanthi Muthuswamy, Purushothaman Damodaran
Abstract: A two-stage hybrid flowshop with a batch processing machine (BPM) in stage 1 and a set of discrete processing machines in stage 2 is considered in this research. Job sizes and their processing times are given. The BPM can process multiple jobs simultaneously as long as the total size of all jobs does not exceed its capacity, and the processing time is dictated by the longest processing job in the batch. In stage 2, the jobs have to be processed one at a time. The objective is to minimise the makespan. As the problem under study is NP-hard, a simulated annealing (SA) algorithm was designed. A mathematical formulation was also developed and a commercial solver was used to solve the problem instances. An experimental study was conducted to compare SA with the solver. The study highlights the efficiency of SA in solving larger problem instances with good quality solution in shorter computational time.
Keywords: batch processing machines; BPMs; scheduling; hybrid flowshop; simulated annealing; makespan; heuristics.
Optimal control of a stochastic production inventory system with controllable backorder rate and investment to reduce inventory level variability
by Hsien-Jen Lin
Abstract: This paper develops an inventory model that allows the backorder rate and inventory level variability to be control variables to widen the scope of applications of Lin's (2017a) model. We assume that the backorder rate is dependent on the amount of shortages according to a negative exponential function and the supplier could offer a backorder price discount on the stock-out item by negotiation to determine a target value of backorder rate and secure more backorders. Moreover, we investigate the impact of investing in inventory level variability reduction on inventory related costs. The objective of this paper is to simultaneously determine the optimal backorder price discount, inventory level variability, and switch-over control parameters m and M to minimise the long-run total expected cost of the system and improve the competitive edge. Numerical examples are also given to demonstrate the benefits of the model.
Keywords: production inventory model; backorder price discount; investment; variable production rate; backorder rate.
Cost optimisation of a discrete-time retrial queue with Bernoulli feedback and starting failure
by Shweta Upadhyaya
Abstract: In this paper, we explore the performance characteristics of a discrete-time Geo/G/1 retrial queue with Bernoulli feedback where the server is subjected to starting failure. On the arrival of a customer, the server may either resume its service successfully with probability υ or may not resume its service successfully with probability ῡ = 1 − υ due to some faults which in turn force the server to repair and the customer may join the orbit. The service time, retrial time and repair time are general distributed. The purpose of this paper is two-fold. Firstly, we use generating function method and supplementary variable technique to derive expressions for system size, orbit size and other performance measures. Secondly, for a cost-effective system, we have found the optimal values of some critical system parameters such that the total system cost is minimised using particle swarm optimisation (PSO) technique. Finally, sensitivity analysis is also provided.
Keywords: discrete-time retrial queue; preferred customer; impatient customer; Bernoulli feedback; starting failure; system size; particle swarm optimisation.
Impact of product-package design on material waste due to stock-induced consumption phenomenon
by Neeta Sharma, Prem Vrat
Abstract: This paper attempts to examine the impact of product-package design in influencing the consumption behaviour due to stock-induced consumption phenomenon. The exploratory research presented in this paper shows how a design feature in a product or packaging can enhance consumption rate over the normal consumption resulting in waste. It also reports the findings of primary research data collected through controlled condition experimentation on two consumable products from FMCG category - toothpaste and shampoo. It is shown that a bigger orifice size results in extra consumption in tubed or bottled products and the discounts offered by the manufacturer on bigger size products may be more than offset by the excess stock-induced consumption due to orifice size. The orifice size and product viscosity play significant role in controlling stock-induced material waste. The paper suggests the need for standardisation of orifice size and product viscosity to minimise the material waste in such products. Additionally, this research explores the effect of instantaneous volumetric stock availability for consumption in toothpaste tube on its consumption rate and attempts to estimate stock-dependent consumption parameters α and β for the consumption of toothpaste.
Keywords: stock-dependent demand; stock-induced consumption; product and package design; sustainable consumption; orifice size; material waste.
The simulation of elevator traffic flow based on VC++
by Renyu Luo, Qingsheng Guo, Huali Wang, Jianfeng Zhong, Tianming Yu, Xueliang Wang, Renkai Luo
Abstract: Elevators have become an indispensable tool for people. If each program is used in practice, it will waste a lot of human resources, material resources and financial resources, so the elevator simulation platform has played its advantages. Among them, the generation of traffic flow is the key factor. In order to realise the reasonable configuration of the elevator, it is necessary to accurately simulate the traffic flow in each period of the building, and the MATLAB program is calling by VC++ to complete the simulation. Through this method, the traffic flow at different times can be simulated by simple operation, and this method can fully play the advantages of the respective programs.
Keywords: elevator traffic flow; VC++; MATLAB; simulation; traffic pattern; elevator; starting floors; destination floors; Poisson distribution; up peak traffic mode.
Modular product architecture to manage product development complexity
by Ahm Shamsuzzoha, Petri Helo, Sujan Piya, Mohammed Alkahtani
Abstract: Shorter product life cycles, together with heterogeneous market demands, are forcing manufacturing companies to eliminate or reduce complexities in product development and supply chain. These complexities arise due to high level of interdependencies between component interfaces and supply chain participants. To address such complexities, companies need to focus on their product architecture and supply chain design. In this research, the impact of product architecture on developing modular products is highlighted. This modular principle is elaborated with the objective to reduce product development complexities. A case example is presented to define the importance of product architecture with the help of a design structure matrix (DSM) tool to reduce product development complexity. In addition, various drivers responsible for supply chain complexities are identified and categorised, and the relationship between product architecture and supply chain complexities are defined within the scope of this research.
Keywords: product architecture; design structure matrix; DSM; modularity; complexity; component interfaces; supply chain.
Exploring the factors affecting supply chain performance in dairy industry using exploratory factor analysis technique
by Rahul S. Mor, Arvind Bhardwaj, Sarbjit Singh, Vinkel Kumar Arora
Abstract: This paper explores the factors affecting supply chain performance of dairy industry and to develop a framework using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) technique. A pre-structured questionnaire survey was conducted to explore the key factors of three interfaces of dairy supply chain viz. procurement, production, and distribution. The respondents were requested to rate the 50 statements/issues of different dairy supply chain practices on five-point Likert scale. The results of EFA grouped the 50 statements into eleven factors. The results reveal that dairy industry necessities substantial development in the supply chain practices in order to be competitive and proficient. Further, the study is helpful for the firms in the milk processing sector for handling the demand fluctuations, improved product quality, execution of effective information system, process flexibility and hence, enhanced supply chain performance.
Keywords: exploratory factor analysis; EFA; supply chain; dairy industry; multivariate data analysis; procurement; production; distribution.
Design of urban landscape visual simulation system based on three-dimensional simulation technology
by Song Yang, Jing Yang
Abstract: Aiming at the problems of inaccurate visual modelling of urban landscape and high cost of the system, a visual simulation system of urban landscape based on three-dimensional simulation technology is proposed and designed. For the hardware part, the overall framework of the system is designed, and the static landscape modelling and dynamic landscape driving are analysed, respectively. For the software part, the development process of the visual simulation system for urban landscape is described, the urban landscape plan is acquired, and the urban landscape model library is constructed. The experimental results show that the accuracy of the visual modelling system for urban landscape designed by the proposed method is over 80%, and the accuracy is good. The highest cost coefficient used in the visual simulation system for urban landscape is 0.7, the cost is low, and the users are satisfied with the system.
Keywords: three-dimensional simulation technology; urban landscape; vision; system design.
Selection of optimal assembly strategy at an engine assembly plant using fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making tools
by L.N. Pattanaik, Abinash Jena
Abstract: This paper is presenting a methodology to select an optimal assembly strategy using two fuzzy multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) tools as illustrated in a case study of an engine assembly plant. Based on an automotive engine assembly system, the existing challenges and related criteria are identified. Four potential assembly strategies compatible with existing system are developed to address the challenges. Two different fuzzy MCDM tools (VIKOR and TOPSIS) are applied for the multi-criteria problem to select the optimal assembly strategy. Four decision makers (DMs) from middle-level management are involved during the process. A comparison of results from the two MCDM tools is performed to consolidate the decision. For the present case, reconfigurable assembly system (RAS) is found to be the most preferred assembly strategy by both the MCDM tools. The ranking for rest of the alternatives are also found.
Keywords: assembly strategy; reconfigurable assembly systems; RASs; multi-criteria decision making; MCDM; fuzzy-VIKOR; fuzzy-TOPSIS.