Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Internet Protocol Technology

International Journal of Internet Protocol Technology (IJIPT)

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International Journal of Internet Protocol Technology (10 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Smart Approach To Constraint Programming: Intelligent Backtracking Using Artificial Intelligence   Order a copy of this article
    by Heng Du 
    Abstract: Constrained Programming is the concept used to select possible alternatives from constrained programming; a problem can be modelled in random terms. This paper proposes an AI-assisted Backtracking Scheme (AI-BS) by integrating the generic backtracking algorithm with Artificial Intelligence (AI). The AI-BS is an algorithm using intelligent backtracking (IB) inside a branch and bound context based on linear programming. The detailed study observes that the extreme dual ray associated with the infeasible linear program can be automatically extracted from minimum unfeasible sets. This research also explains the application of the proposed intelligent backtracking (IB) strategy using a branch-and-cut (BC) algorithm, which is named as IBBS. AI-assisted intelligent backtracking utilized to create a smart optimal schedule controller for home energy controllers to manage and optimize the energy consumptions peak hours. The AI-BS gives an optimal schedule for home appliances to limit the total load demand and schedule the domestic device\'s operations.
    Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Backtracking; Branch-and-Bound Problem; Branch-and-cut; Constrained Programming; Smart home electricity controller.

  • Validating and Verifying LwM2M Clients with Event-B   Order a copy of this article
    by Ines Mouakher, Fatma Dhaou, J. Christian Attiogbé 
    Abstract: Lightweight Machine to Machine (LwM2M) is an open industry standard built to provide a means to remotely perform service enablement and application management for the Internet of Things (IoT). It is a communication protocol used between a client software on an IoT device, and a server software. Modelling, formal verification and validation are crucial and necessary to increase protocol reliability. In this paper, we propose a refinement-based approach that helps us to model, to validate and to verify gradually the LwM2M specification, which was carried out using Event-B and Rodin/ProB frameworks. We present a formal model of the LwM2M client, and we verify deadlock freedom and some functional safety properties like consistency of its configuration. The verification is ensured by theorem prover and model checking techniques, and the validation is supported by animation and bounded exploration of the client formal model. Moreover, the transformation into Event-B opens several possibilities to analyze existing implementations of the LwM2M client and to derive both test cases and executable code.
    Keywords: IoT; internet of things; lightweight protocols; device management; OMA LwM2M; verification and validation; V&V; Event-B.

  • Relaxed Hybrid Routing To Prevent Consecutive Attacks In Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Dr J. Viji Gripsy, Kanchana K.r 
    Abstract: In the current trends, wi-fi networks and cellular ad-hoc community (MANET) have yielded incredible opportunity and recognition. This opportunity and popularity insisted on many forms of studies to recognition on it. This enormously bendy nature of the MANET additionally creates many community overall performance-associated and protection associated problems. Numerous security vulnerabilities threaten the technique in MANET in diverse ways . Collection variety attacks including grey hole and black hole assaults are such risky assaults that drastically weaken the functioning and performance of the network in specific situations. The proposed technique generates a fusion defines and that organizes with the ad hoc on-call for distance vector (AODV) routing protocol to slight these assaults. the new and changed protocol is called as SRD-AODV (secure route Discovery-Adhoc On-demand Distance Vector) protocol. This protocol includes one-of-a-kind additives and techniques to offer each proactive and reactive answers through deploying powerful authentication the use of the Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman algorithm (ECDHA) techniques. This additionally aims to comfortable the records packets and routing desk records and subsequently the incursion detection and prevention from sequential attacks in MANET. The performance of this protocol is measured with the help of overall performance parameters inclusive of packet shipping ratio, and put off. The SRD-AODV protocol additionally compares with attacked AODV and other present protocols.
    Keywords: MANET; Sequential Routing Attacks; AODV; Cryptography; Blackhole attack; Grey hole attack; Denial of Service.

  • Cognitive Wireless Communication Network Information Sharing Method Based On Blockchain Technology   Order a copy of this article
    by Wei Luo 
    Abstract: Cognitive Wireless Communication Networks provides a unified vision of the latest developments to maximize limited radio bandwidth use. The challenges of wireless technologies increase; economics and legislation would demand new multidisciplinary frameworks for spectrum sharing. Recently, cognitive radio technologies have been implemented to deal with the issue of spectrum scarcity. In this paper, a cognitive wireless network based on blockchain technology (CWN-BT) has been proposed. Blockchain strategies can provide encrypted communication networks for closed wireless transactions. Due to its multiple advantages, such as transaction speed, confidentiality, better security, increased performance, etc., blockchain technology has been considered one of the most researched fields in recent years. Since each device in a blockchain depends on the data stored in a successive unit,it ensures secured transactions and resources in the wireless cognitive network. The outcome shows that Blockchain helps to enhance wireless network security in different ways.
    Keywords: Cognitive wireless network; blockchain technology; spectrum sharing.

  • Mathematical Modelling of Packet Transmission during Reclamation Period in NewReno TCP and CTCP   Order a copy of this article
    by Bhavika Gambhava, C.K. Bhensdadia 
    Abstract: Usage of wireless links along with wired links has made the Internet growth viable even in isolated places. TCP/IP protocol suite is an indispensable element of the Internet. TCPs congestion control immensely contributes in the performance and robustness of the Internet. Flow control of TCP is invoked when a packet loss is detected by the sender. Unconditional reduction of congestion window may be considered unbefitting and results in to inferior performance. The issue is compounded in wireless channels where packet losses are frequently due to channel errors rather than congestion. In this condition, treatment for losses can be different for congestion and corruption to improve efficiency. Composite TCP (CTCP) is a loss and delay based mechanism. CTCP utilises duplicate acknowledgements along with RTT estimations to make a fair decision about the type of loss. The primary objective of this paper is to show the critical impact of Reclamation Period to regain the original value of cwnd after an episode of error. In addition to this, the paper attempts to show the performance benefit of CTCP so as to justify that if an appropriate value of cwnd can be determined though a reasonable approach, it leads to significant performance improvement without hurting the other concerns. CTCP improves performance by 96.02% and 11.54% in case of 0.001 packet error rate for erroneous and congested networks respectively. The improvement is higher with increase in error rate.
    Keywords: Reclamation Period; Round Trip Time; Congestion Window; Fast Recovery; TCP; CTCP; cwnd; ssthresh; SRTT.

  • SNTAM - Secure Neuro-Fuzzy Based Trusted Neighbor Selection and Attackers Detection in Multipath Ad-Hoc Network   Order a copy of this article
    by Sandeep Patil, Lalita Admuthe, Meenakshi Patil 
    Abstract: An ad-hoc network comprises a set of wireless nodes with no pre-defined infrastructure. They are provisional in the environment and can be created wherever and dispersed behind a restricted period. They are often validated by the deployment scenarios, where one cannot place and deal with infrastructure. e.g. combat zone, a catastrophe relief or an impulsive meeting and so on. The most well-known attribute of a wireless network is dynamic. They also have inadequate channel strength, security belief issues and functioning with narrowed battery power. In confront of the route, the data packets of an assured pathway to remove the data misleading and control overheads that consume power and bandwidth. This study explores the capabilities of working with different attacks like a vampire attack. This attack is forever hindrance to the networks by reducing the nodes bandwidth and energy. In addition, the protocol detects a replica attack that can capture the neighbor's address and act as a genuine node on the network. These two attacks can spoil the entire system activities and use network abilities. Consequently, creates questions about the trust among the nodes and the honesty of the transmissions. The proposed Secure Neuro-fuzzy Based Trusted Neighbor Selection and Attackers Detection in Multipath Ad-Hoc Network (SNTAM) protocol focused to eliminate these attackers from the network to form the communication path by an optimized way of Neuro-fuzzy techniques. The results show that SNTAM gives effective results in securing the network in all the parameters and attributes especially packet delivery ratio (PDR) which is almost 100% and residual energy of nodes which is more than compared protocol. Furthermore, SNTAM protocol can avoid sampled malicious nodes effectively.
    Keywords: MANET; Channel Capacity; Energy; Attackers; Vampire attack; Replica Attack; Trust; Reliability.

  • Computation on scheduling attacks and optimal resource utilization in wireless sensor networks via optimization techniques   Order a copy of this article
    by Narasimha Prasad S, Senthamil Selvan K, Lakshmi Dhevi B, Niranjil Kumar A 
    Abstract: Security issues of wireless sensor nodes for classifying sensory data and is accuracy is needed to prevent wastage of sensor resources. The limitation occurs due to processing of small scale samples in training or data imbalance which occurs due to nodal density. In this context pre-processing of sensor data to overcome scheduling attacks is considered with two algorithms proposed. The first is “Time Stamp Reordering for Scheduling Attack” (TSRSA) and second is “Energy Efficiency based Routing using Simulated Annealing” (EERSA).The former is susceptible to scheduling attacks whereas the later alleviate this by using Simulated Annealing. EERSA method provides optimal moves as data traverses using energy bound values as well time bound transitions using propagation delay and offset values. The simulation of both developed protocols its misalignment ratio and consolidated residual energy are measured and compared.
    Keywords: Scheduling attacks; Misalignment ratio; Wireless Sensor Networks.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPT.2023.10050332
  • Distribution and Tracking Current Live Location of Recognized Criminal Face at Decentralized Blockchain through Image   Order a copy of this article
    by Sana Zeba, Mohammad Amjad 
    Abstract: In the current era, the Internet of Things (IoT), Blockchain Technology, Face recognition are the most emergent technology to make more advance and smart cities. In our day-to-day life, security and recognition play a significant position, and managing those security and recognition are vital for the service providers. Major parts of security depend on passwords, encryption, recognition, secure storage, etc. To prevent any criminal of IoT applications or for preventing any unethical activities of IoT applications, we have proposed a decentralized solution to find the live location of the recognized criminal face. We have stored the recognized information at blockchain storage and used the time stamping, signature, and transaction of blockchain to ensure the security and track the current location of the criminal face with blockchain.
    Keywords: Blockchain Technology; IoT; Face Recognition; criminal recognition; criminal tracking.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPT.2023.10054246
  • A Comparative Performance Analysis of TCP Congestion Control Algorithm: Elastic TCP vs e-Elastic TCP   Order a copy of this article
    by Vivek Kumar Jaiswal, Sanjeev Patel 
    Abstract: The transmission control protocol (TCP) is a widely used transport layer protocol for reliable IP networks It was originally developed on wired networks that further also extended for wireless networks while the network has limitations on wireless networks Although multimedia applications require congestion control mechanism that is not necessarily a reliable transmission Due to congestion, several faults may occur in the network such as delay, packet loss, timeouts which overall decreases the throughput of the network. To handle congestion in the network due to various reasons many algorithms have been designed We have proposed an enhanced Elastic (e-Elastic) for further improvement of performance. Our proposed algorithm improves the average throughput with 5.11%, 10.14%, 10.69%, and 11.07% over Elastic, CUBIC, Veno, and New Reno, respectively.
    Keywords: TCP congestion control; Reno; CUBIC; Veno; Elastic TCP; e-Elastic TCP; Average throughput; Loss-ratio.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPT.2023.10054706
  • Towards a transmission control mechanism for data centers based on flow deadline and size over Software Defined Networking   Order a copy of this article
    by Tianfang Yu, XueSong Qiu 
    Abstract: As the core infrastructure of cloud computing, data centers (DCN) support lots of online services, such as Web search, recommendation systems and social networks, etc. These services are usually interactive applications and possess strict deadline constraints. Missing deadlines not only influences user experience, but also wastes network bandwidth resources. Some research shows that TCP protocol cannot provide deadline-aware transmission services for intra-DCN traffic. On the one hand, the partition/aggregation pattern DCN takes generates plenty of many-to-one communication traffic. These data flows concurrently traverse into the bottleneck link and lead to packet loss and TCP timeout. On the other hand, TCP protocol cannot learn about upper application information and always fairly allocate bottleneck bandwidth. As a result, those throughput aware flows have bigger sending windows, yet deadline-aware flows have to queue for forwarding, along with longer delays. To address the issue above, we present DSATC (Deadline and Size-aware Transmission Control), a transmission control mechanism based on flow deadline and size.
    Keywords: data center; SDN; deadline-aware; congestion control; TCP protocol.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIPT.2023.10054892