International Journal of Islamic Marketing and Branding (7 papers in press)
Halal Tourism: Guidelines for Oman
by Asad Rehman
Abstract: Halal tourism caters to the travel needs of Muslim tourists, who seek out a family friendly environment and place. With the huge potential of halal travel market, many countries, both Muslim and non-Muslim, are gearing up to cater to the needs of the Muslim travel market. Among Islamic nations Malaysia, Indonesia, and Turkey are the leading players in the halal tourism industry as per the GMTI (Global Muslim Travel Index) 2019. While nations like Singapore, Thailand, United Kingdom, Japan, Australia, etc. are also making their way into the top destinations for halal form of tourism. Oman which has always been among the top 10 destinations for halal tourism, appears to be on its way out from the GMTI rankings. Oman despite having all the constituents of making a top destination for halal tourism is found lagging behind. It thus becomes obligatory to delve deeper into these rankings to identify the underlying reasons behind Omans decline in the field of halal tourism and to suggest useful guidelines for encouraging halal tourism in Oman. This is an exploratory study; hence it is based on secondary sources like the available research papers and reports on halal tourism. Based on a comparison between Oman, Qatar and Singapore an analysis is made using the ACES (Access, Communications, Environment, Services) model of Mastercard Crescent-rating. The findings have been used to draw useful suggestions for improving the state of affairs of halal tourism in Oman.
Keywords: Destination; Halal; Islam; Tourism; Shariah.
Constructing Marketing Thought: The Case of Islamic Marketing
by Paul Sergius Koku
Abstract: This study conducts a bibliographic and content analysis of articles published to-date in the Journal of Islamic Marketing and the International Journal of Islamic Marketing and Branding in order to assess the scope of coverage and topics/themes discussed. The study found that the highest number of articles have been published on banking and finance-related issues in both journals. On the other hand, such other areas as New Product Development and Comparative Analysis have not experienced much research activity. The results of these analyses serve as a guide to areas where researchers could shine more light and to editors on where to encourage more submissions.
Keywords: Bibliographic analysis; content analysis; topics/themes.
Segmentation of Retail Bank Customers Based on Occasions (Agribank of Iran as Case Study)
by Mikael Parsa, Shahriar Azizi
Abstract: Maintaining and expanding market share in Iran banking industry has become extremely difficult as a result of increased competition. The interconnectedness of national and religious cultures as well as the personal interests of the customers have established many occasions in Iran. Using a combined approach of qual?QUAN, this study seeks to identify various occasions and then segment the customers in the retail sector on that basis in the Agribank of Iran. In the qualitative section and through individual in-depth interviews with 17 customers, 20 occasions were identified in four main categories of national-historical, religious, personal and special occasions. In the quantitative section, the data were gathered through a closed questionnaire from 421 customers. Using the clustering technique, the customers were classified in three categories: national-historical oriented (include 222 people of the sample equivalent to 53 per cent that constituted of married men), specific-oriented youth (consists of 111 members of the sample to 26 per cent that most of them are students and younger than 30 years old), and the personal-oriented ones (consists of 88 members of the research sample equivalent to 21 per cent that most of them are married women, the majority of them with a secondary-school level of education and below). Finally, the importance of occasions in each category is identified in each cluster.
Keywords: Occasion; Occasion Based Marketing; Agribank; Segmentation; Clustering technique.
Awareness towards Halal Pharmaceuticals: An Analysis of Pharmacists Views
by Baker Alserhan, Mehmet Bayirli, Fida Zakzouk
Abstract: Halal Pharmaceuticals remain understudied and an area of controversy, especially when it comes to ingredients used and process of manufacturing. In fact this study is one of the very first to address this issue which is becoming of increasing interest to marketers around the world who are targeting Muslim consumers. To test the validity of this interest, this study was carried out with the aim of exploring the level of awareness towards Halal pharmaceuticals in Jordan through analyzing the responses of pharmacists in the country collected using a structured questionnaire. Findings reveal that there is a general lack of awareness at all levels of the Halal aspect of pharmaceutical products. Patients didnt ask for Halal and pharmacists didnt know which of the products they sell were Halal. Furthermore no patients/customers presented a prescription by their doctor specifying Halal. However, older pharmacists and female pharmacists showed more tendency towards accepting the term Halal in pharmaceuticals. These results however maybe peculiar to Arab markets than the wider Muslim markets where Halal is part of the Islamic identity, unlike in Arab countries where Halal is assumed. Therefore, the study recommends further comparative investigations in other Arab and Muslim countries in order to be able to judge the level of awareness. Without clearly identifying the level of awareness marketers will not be fully able to engage these lucrative markets.
Keywords: Halal pharmaceuticals; awareness; certification; pharmacists; Jordan.
Muslim Youths' e-Lifestyle and Its Impacts on Wellbeing
by Siti Hasnah Hassan, Shao Zhen Teo, Imran Mahmud, Azizah Omar
Abstract: In the lives of young people, particularly the students, the Internet has become all-pervasive. Internet development has sparked debates on how the online activities and online behaviour of youths can affect their wellbeing. While the positive aspects of Internet usage have the potential to learn and improve social relationships, overuse of the Internet can lead to addiction, as well as online risks such as abuse, cyberbullying, and sexual exploitation. This research aims to examine the impact of e-lifestyle on wellness dimensions and the total wellbeing of Muslim youth in Malaysia. The data was collected through a survey of 255 Muslim respondents aged between 18 and 24 years and analysed using SmartPLS 3.0. The results indicate that the second-order construct of e-lifestyle has a significant effect on all wellness dimensions, while only social wellness has a significant effect on the total wellbeing of Muslim youth. Later, the future implications are discussed, and a conclusion is provided.
Keywords: E-lifestyle; Wellbeing; Youth; Muslim Youth; Internet addiction; Wellness Dimension.
DOES SERVICE QUALITY MATTERS TO ENSURE THE LOYALTY OF THE JEMAAH OF A MOSQUE?
by Yuvaraj Ganesan, Anwar Allah Pitchay, Azminah Mohd Mydin
Abstract: The purpose of the study is to examine the effects of service quality offered by Mosque that influence satisfaction of worshippers (Jemaah) and, subsequently lead to their loyalty. Next, the study discover the role of satisfaction as a mediating construct between the service quality and loyalty of the Jemaah. 277 respondents participated in this study through a self-administered questionnaire which distributed using a convenience sampling technique. The respondents were the Jemaah who worshipped at a mosque in Penang, Malaysia. The results showed that three constructs of service quality, i.e. tangibility, assurance, and empathy have positive and significant effects on the satisfaction of the Jemaah. Furthermore, there are mediating effects of satisfaction on the relationship between service quality namely the tangible, assurance and empathy aspects on the loyalty of the Jemaah to visit mosque. The output of this study has several practical implications such as the management of mosque should emphasise on thes7e significant constructs to enable them to enhance the sustainability of a mosque, encourage frequent visits and gain the loyalty of the Jemaah to the mosque. The findings provided a guiding principle for improving service quality, satisfaction and loyalty in the worshipping place.
Keywords: Service Quality; Satisfaction; Loyalty; Mosque; Structural Equation Modelling (SEM).
Special Issue on: Halal Purchasing and Supply Chain Management
Halal Procurement Strategy in the food industry: a focus group discussion
by Marco Tieman, Zalina Zakaria, Ainin Sulaiman, Siti Qhairunissa Ramli
Abstract: A focus group discussion on halal procurement strategy was conducted with food multinationals. The focus group discussion illustrated that leading halal procurement strategies are founded on solid halal risk & reputation management; harmonise, standardise and simplify halal; backup plans for halal critical items purchasing; local suppliers of halal critical items; all suppliers of halal critical items need to be halal certified; business contingency plans by suppliers; and leveraging synergy advantages. There is a preference for local or regional sourcing instead of global sourcing, and a preference for multiple sourcing, instead of single sourcing. The substance of relationship between buyer and supplier evolves based on the maturity of a supplier relationship. Monitoring and evaluation of halal critical suppliers require a combination of vendor rating, benchmarking, and physical audits. There is potential for collaborative purchasing with purchasing organisations both within and outside their own group of companies. As halal procurement is a new field of research, further qualitative research has been recommended.
Keywords: halal procurement; halal purchasing; halal; halal risk management; halal reputation management; procurement; purchasing.