International Journal of Internet Marketing and Advertising (37 papers in press)
Exploring the Brand Personalities of Facebook, YouTube, and LinkedIn
by Munya Mutsikiwa, Tania Maree
Abstract: For decades, marketers have applied brand personality to brands and organisations in order to facilitate relationships with consumers. This phenomenon has been studied across different product categories and industries however; it has not been reported for social media brands. Aakers Brand Personality Scale (BPS), rooted in the Big Five Personality Theory, has been the preferred measurement for most studies on brand personality. This research assessed the structure of the BPS across different samples on three social media platforms - Facebook, YouTube, and LinkedIn. The findings indicate that social media brand personalities do not follow the original structure of the BPS.
Keywords: brand personality; consumers; marketing; online; personality theory; social media; social network sites; Facebook; YouTube; LinkedIn.
Are SMEs "cutting corners" on social media marketing? An exploratory study in the Italian context
by Sara Bartoloni, Chiara Ancillai, Federica Pascucci, Gian Luca Gregori
Abstract: The recent rise of social media has presented small and medium size firms with renewed challenges and benefits. Despite the impact of social media on businesses activities has been largely acknowledged, research on their adoption and use by SME is still limited. Therefore, the scope of this study is twofold: bridging a theoretical gap and answering a business problem. In particular, the study aims to analyse social media adoption, level of usage, strategies and barriers in the context of SMEs. Empirical data were collected in two phases: a cross-sectional survey (122 completed questionnaires) followed by a multiple case study analysis of 7 SMEs. The findings show that, despite a high adoption rate of social media, its actual usage often seems to be improvised and lacking of a clear strategy. SMEs seem to be deficient of an adequate organisational structure, skilled human resources and financial resources. A positive relationship between the presence of a marketing function and social media use also emerged.
Keywords: Social media use; SMEs; digital marketing; marketing function; multiple case study; survey.
Exploring the Impact of Brand Selfie on Brand Attitude in the Twittersphere
by Xia Liu, Jeffrey Foreman
Abstract: This paper explores the impact of brand selfie on brand attitude in the Twittersphere. Specifically, the authors examine how brand attitude is influenced by four characteristics of brand selfies: physical attractiveness, emotion, product experience and social influence. The authors used a mixed-methods approach. First, a qualitative study was conducted to identify selfie characteristics that can potentially affect brand attitude. Second, in a quantitative study, multiple regression analysis was performed to examine the empirical impacts of the four selfie characteristics identified in study one. The findings provide insights into the way brand selfies are used in advertising and promotion on social media.
Keywords: Brand selfie; Twitter; Brand attitude.
User Response to e-WOM in Social Networks: How to Predict a Content Influence in Twitter
by Zohreh Yousefi Dahka, *Nastaran Hajiheydari, Saeed Rouhani
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to find influential factors on electronic word of mouth effectiveness for e-retailers in Twitter social media, applying data mining and text mining techniques and through R programming language. The relationship between using hashtag, mention, media and link in the tweet content, length of the content, the time of being posted and the number of followers and followings with the influence of e-WOM is analyzed. 48,129 tweets about two of the most famous American e-retailers, Amazon and eBay, are used as samples; Results show a strong relationship between the number of followers, followings, the length of the content and the effectiveness of e-WOM and weaker relevance between having media and mention with e-WOM effectiveness on Twitter. Findings of this paper would help e-retailing marketers and managers to know their influential customers in social media channels for viral marketing purpose and advertising campaigns.
Keywords: e-WOM; social media; e-retailing; content influence; data mining; electronic word of mouth; Twitter; text mining.
The time-varying effectiveness of customer engagement in social media
by Balamurugan Annamalai, Sanjeev Varshney
Abstract: This paper investigates the time-varying effect of customer engagement behaviour on brand performance in a social media context. Over 350,000 comments were retrieved from car brand owned Facebook pages over 66 months. Customer engagement in social media (Facebook) was measured using composite valence volume metric, with valence estimated through lexicon-based sentiment analysis. The brand performance was gauged through unit sales of the car brand. Change-point analysis identified time variation through shifts in brand life cycle stages. Time-series analysis assessed lead-lag effects of customer engagement on brand performance. Customer engagement in social media brand community leads brand performance during all brand life cycle stages, except the decline stage. The results are consistent with the theory of interpersonal influence, which postulates persuasive engagement is dominant until maturity stage. The work contributes to the fast-growing customer engagement literature by investigating the dynamic customer engagement brand performance relationship in a Facebook brand community context.
Keywords: Customer engagement; Brand performance; Facebook; Sentiment analysis; Time-series analysis.
Identification and prioritization of effective criteria in the selection of outdoor advertising using the AHP technique
by Mohammad Reza Karimi Alavijeh, Amir Aslani Afrashteh, Atefeh Foroozan
Abstract: Nowadays, audiences are exposed to a wealth of information in their environments and therefore, according to the limitation of the audiences' focus, companies intend to attract the attention of audiences who are frustrated by the frequency of advertising in public media through spending optimum expense to their advertising messages. One of the advertising medium that is seen by many audiences in the environment and has become increasingly important in recent decades is the outdoor advertising. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to identify the criteria and factors effective in the effectiveness of outdoor advertising and the ranking of various outdoor advertising in Tehran. The statistical population is the experts of the advertising agencies of Tehran that in the first stage, after identifying 11 effective factors in the effectiveness of outdoor advertising in the literature review, seven important criteria were identified using SPSS software. In the second stage, according to these seven criteria, all types of outdoor advertising were completed by the experts through the paired comparison questionnaires (AHP) and ranked with Expert Choice software. The seven main criteria are: attracting attention with color and size, times of exposure to the audience, being seen in the audience ideal position, the duration of viewing the advertising message by the audiences, the last reminder before purchase, the cost of advertising, the low level of oldness and tediousness of the message. Also, billboard was ranked as the most effective medium for outdoor advertising, street furniture, alternative media and transit were placed in the next order, respectively.
Keywords: Media; Outdoor Advertising; Analytical Hierarchy Process.
Modelling the Impact of Activity in Brand Communities on Loyalty
by Azarnoush Ansari, Arash Riasi
Abstract: Purpose . By using the consumer centric model, this paper is attempting to find how social media based brand communities affect customers loyalty. Design/methodology/approach The statistical society of this research includes all of the followers of the fan page of a commercial bank on Instagram. The data is analyzed using structural equation modelling. Findings The findings revealed that markers of brand community and the customer relationship with the product, brand, and other customers have an impact on brand commitment. It was also found that higher degrees of brand commitment lead to higher degrees of brand loyalty. Practical implications The findings of this study can help marketing managers to have a better understanding of the factors that can directly or indirectly affect brand commitment and brand loyalty in social media based brand communities. Originality/value This is the first study that considers both the consumer centric model and the markers of brand community in order to identify different factors that affect brand commitment and brand loyalty in social media based brand communities.
Keywords: Social Media; Brand Community; Brand Loyalty; Brand Commitment; Consumer Centric Model.
eWOM via Social networking Site: Source versus Message Credibility
by Payal Kapoor, K.R. Jayasimha, Ashish Sadh, Srinivas Gunta
Abstract: New media has brought customers closer, they extensively indulge in eWOM. Unlike Face to Face WOM, which originates from known sources, eWOM on social media may originate from lesser known/unknown sources. Drawing on source credibility theory and persuasion research, aim of this study is to understand the interactive and distinct role of source and message credibility of eWOM towards consumers brand attitude. Brand attitude may be influenced differently by different levels and combinations of source and content (message) credibility. Using the Facebook interface 246 between subject factorial design experiments are conducted. Two way interaction effect of source and message credibility over consumers brand attitude is tested, further one-way Analysis of Variance is tested to examine the varying influence of different levels and combinations of source and message credibility. A significant two-way interaction of source and message credibility moderate brand attitude. Results suggest that different levels and combinations of perceived source and message credibility, on social networking site influence consumers brand attitude inconsistently. Study recommends caution to marketers while selecting online influencers for induced eWOM campaign as believability may be moderated by all the different cues of credibility differently.
Keywords: Social networking site; eWOM; Source credibility; Message credibility; Social media.
A new framework of electronic Word-of-Mouth (eWOM) in social networking sites: System-based approach
by Mona Jami Pour, Zahra Lotfiyan
Abstract: With the advent of social media and online communities, eWOM marketing has gained increasing importance as an effective strategy in reducing the customers' uncertainty, increasing their confidence, knowledge acquisition of social customers as well as increasing their purchase intention. Many businesses have become aware of potential advantages of using WOM marketing approach in social networks. However, despite the appeal of the concept, few studies have been conducted to identify the phenomenon and its driving forces and consequences. Hence, the main aim of current study is to provide a novel framework for eWOM marketing in social networking sites via a system-based approach which simultaneously identifies social WOM antecedents, its dimensions and consequences. To answer the main research questions, a comprehensive literature was reviewed along with focus group method, and then the extracted factors and related measures were evaluated and prioritized by experts. The proposed framework consists of antecedents of WOM marketing in social networking (including individual, organizational and environmental), the dimensions of WOM marketing (the type of eWOM, eWOM components and its activities) in social networks as well as its consequences (consequences for customers and for organizations).
Keywords: WOM marketing; eWOM; social media; system-based approach.
The impact of corporate social responsibility and customer trust on the relationship between website information quality and customer loyalty in e-tailing context
by Hoang Dung
Abstract: This research seeks to investigate the interrelationships among information quality, perceived corporate social responsibility (CSR) with a focus on ethical-legal dimensions, customer trust, and loyalty in the e-tailing context. An empirical survey on 374 online shoppers was conducted and a structural equation model was employed to test the hypothesized relationships. The studys results indicate that information quality has a significant impact on both perceived CSR and customer trust, in turn, perceived CSR and customer trust mediates the relationship between information quality and customer loyalty upon online shopping environment. This study is noteworthy that it provides a new theoretical perspective in explaining the path from information quality to customer trust and loyalty through perceived CSR in e-commerce. The results suggest that managers need to be aware of perceived CSR as a key goal and criteria in designing and evaluating the effectiveness of content marketing strategies.
Keywords: corporate social responsibility; e-commerce; website information quality; customer trust; customer loyalty.
Factors Affecting the Urge of Impulsive Buying on Social Commerce Instagram
by Elvina Susanti Sihombing, Indra Budi, Qorib Munajat
Abstract: The increasing number of Instagram users drives the digital retailers to sell their products through Instagram. In Instagram, users can follow other account which then enable them to receive post updates from other account. Consequently, digital retailer can provide stimuli to their followers through their daily post. Therefore, to improve their sales, it is important for retailers to know what factors can influence impulse buying behavior. This study aims to find those factors which can help digital retailers to improve their sales. This study used quantitative approach with 993 respondents. The data was processed using PLS-SEM in SmartPLS 2.0. We investigated five factors which are visual appeal, variety of product, price attribute, information quality, and components of parasocial interaction. From the result, we concluded that all the factors influence the urge to impulse buying on social commerce Instagram.
Keywords: Impulsive buying; Instagram; PLS-SEM; social commerce.
Investigating the effects of interaction satisfaction and interaction immersion in social media on customer value creation
by Fooziye Shaykhzade, Mohsen Alvandi
Abstract: The increasing number of social media users is a potential area for organizations and firms to
interact with their customers in a more proficient way. This technology can be used as an
effective tool to create interactions between firms and customers. The purpose of this research
is to reveal the importance of satisfaction and immersion in social media brand interactions
and the creation of customer value. This study is considered as an applied, empirical,
descriptive research study. The results show that satisfaction and immersion through social media
interactions create customer value for brands. Both Interaction Satisfaction and Interaction
Immersion have positive effects on customer value creation (CLV, CIV, and CKV). The
findings of this study show the importance of setting social media platforms for brands to
maximize the customer and firm interactions. The more the firms increase their social media
activities and interactions, the better customer value they get.
Keywords: Interaction Satisfaction; Interaction Immersion; Customer Value Creation; Social Media; Internet; Social Networks; Online Marketing.
Mobile customers experience and loyalty: A study of tablet gender divergence in Finland
by Sunday Adewale Olaleye, Ismaila Temitayo Sanusi, Jari Salo
Abstract: Customer loyalty consists of many variables that make it work, especially in a retailing context. This study presents the differences between the ways male and female online shoppers use tablets for online shopping. This divergence provides an insight into the customer online shopping experience and their loyalty through the aid of a tablet device. A quantitative methodological approach was employed in the study with a structural equation modelling technique to ascertain the relationships that exist between the constructs. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software was employed to conduct a reliability and multicollinearity test. The study reveals tablet commerce gender divergence and the importance of cultural, technological and psychological factors in building a smart customer experience that can ramp up positive attitudes amongst tablet users and build loyalty in online shopping. The study discusses the implications and highlights the limitations of the study.
Keywords: tablet commerce; gender divergence; smart customer experience; loyalty.
Users Awareness of Native Advertising from Instagram Media Publishers: The Effects of Instagrams Branded Content Tool on Attitudes and Behavioural Intent.
by Serena Iacobucci, Roberta De Cicco
Abstract: The Federal Trade Commission stated that any kind of endorsement or promotion on Instagram should be clearly and conspicuously disclosed in order to avoid users deceptions. Albeit the compulsoriness of this measure is still unclear, Instagram has introduced a Branded Content Tool for Paid Sponsorship disclosure that clearly states the presence of a material connection between the brand and the publisher or influencer. With an online experiment we examine the effects of this disclosure on ad recognition and the resulting attitude toward the advertised brand, attitude toward the advertising publisher, publisher credibility and intention to spread electronic word of mouth (eWOM). Findings from a sample of 231 participants show that exposure to a post with advertising disclosure through the Instagram disclosure tool leads to higher ad recognition compared to a post with no disclosure. However, ad recognition negatively affects attitude toward the brand, publisher credibility and intention to spread eWOM.
Keywords: native advertising; branded content; ad recognition; Instagram; attitudes; source credibility; electronic word-of-mouth;.
Social Break Up: Why Consumers Hide and Unlike Brands on Facebook
by Eun Sook Kwon, Eunice Kim, Yoo Jin Chung
Abstract: On social networking sites (SNSs), consumers often engage in break-up behaviors (i.e., hiding brand posts and unliking brand pages). These behaviors are the consumers direct expression that he or she no longer wants to see brand posts or wants to end the relationship and the association with the brand. This study examines what drives consumers to hide brand posts and unlike brand pages on Facebook by reviewing the literature on advertising avoidance, consumer-brand relationship, and studies on SNSs as a means for self-expression (i.e., perceived information overload, attitude toward social media marketing, perceived brand detachment, and self- and social-identity expressiveness). Analyzing responses from 354 research participants using Amazon Mechanical Turk who have ever liked a commercial brand, this study found that the intention to hide brand posts was strongly correlated with the intention to unlike brand pages, and variables such as perceived information overload, attitude toward social media marketing, and perceived brand detachment significantly influenced consumers break-up behaviors. Social-identity expressiveness only predicted the intention to unlike brands. Implications of the studys findings are discussed.
Keywords: advertising avoidance; perceived information overload; perceived brand detachment; attitude toward social media marketing; identity expression.
Analyzing the Interrelationship between Online Reviews and Sales: The Role of Review Length and Sentiment Index in Electronic Markets
by Anu G. Aggarwal, Aakash
Abstract: With the advent of electronic commerce, online customer reviews (OCRs) have become a significant source of information related to a product/service. Now days, lot of research is being carried out to understand the role played by OCRs on the buying intentions and product evaluation of the prospective customers. In this paper, we use log linear regression models to include the effects of product price, review length, review volume and sentiments (positive or negative words) on the sales of a product. Using Amazon.com review data set, we show that in addition to the price, the customers are influenced by review volume, length, star rating & sentiment of reviews' text. We have also discussed the managerial as well as theoretical implication of the regression based sales modeling integrated with information processing technique of text mining and sentiment analysis.
Keywords: Electronic commerce; sentiment index; review length; text mining; sentiment analysis; online customer reviews (OCRs).
Negative eWOM on Social Media: Role of Individual, Contextual and Social Determinants
by Isha Sharma, Kokil Jain
Abstract: This study aims to expand the understanding of factors that lead to consumers intentions to engage in negative e-Word-of-Mouth (NEWOM) on social media, following a negative experience. In particular, the study empirically suggests that perceived power over social media and negative emotions positively influence NEWOM intentions while reappraisal of emotion regulations has a negative influence on NEWOM intentions. Perceived homophily and the factors of social cognitive theory including social outcome expectations and social media self efficacy are found to have a significant impact on consumers perception of power and control on social media. Brand attributions after a negative experience were found to influence negative emotions among consumers. Thus, including different individual, social and contextual factors, the study proposes a research model, which is designed using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) and tested using AMOS21. Finally, pertinent managerial and theoretical implications are highlighted.
Keywords: Negative e-Word-of-Mouth (NEWOM); Perceived Power and Control; Social Cognitive Theory; Perceived Homophily; Brand Attributions; Negative Emotions; Reappraisal of Emotion Regulation; Structural Equation Modelling.
DID YOU READ THE NEWS BEFORE PLAYING THE ADVERGAME? The Effects of Priming, Persuasion Knowledge and Placement Strength on Brand Attitude and Recall in Advergames
by Ayşegül Sağkaya Güngör
Abstract: With the advergames, marketers reach their goal of conveying their message to their target audience entertaining way. The study aims to find out, first, how the priming effects responses of the advergame players toward the brand. Additionally, persuasion knowledge and placement strength were investigated, along with priming. A 2x2x2 between-subjects laboratory experiment was conducted with, 204 participants. Results show that priming has significant effects on brand attitude and recall. The effects were partially persistent after the introduction of persuasion knowledge. When the placement strength was introduced, it was observed significant differences on brand attitude and recall.
Keywords: branded entertainment; advergame; advertainment; brand placement; priming; persuasion knowledge; placement prominence; placement strength.
Is it assortment or overall satisfaction which fires online repatronage intention in the silhouette of social norms?
by Sanjeev Prashar, Pranay Verma
Abstract: Satisfaction has been classified at assortment (transactional) level and at an overall (cumulative) level. This paper purports to analyze online repurchase intention in the context of satisfaction at these two levels for online retailing of footwear. The study also aims to differentiate assortment satisfaction from overall satisfaction. Additionally, the role of social norm in influencing these two types of satisfaction is investigated. A structured, self developed instrument was employed for cross sectional survey and to empirically test such collected data from 458 Indian customers who bought footwear, online. A two step structural equation modeling was applied to test the measurement and structural model. Measurement model checked the validity and reliability of the variables, while the structural model validated the hypothesized relationships between the variables. The finding of this empirical study shows that assortment satisfaction has a positive direct influence on overall satisfaction. However, it has no influence on repurchase intention, which is positively influenced by overall satisfaction. On the other hand, social norm influences both types of satisfaction but not repurchase intention. rnThis is the first study on online purchase of footwear which differentiates assortment satisfaction from overall satisfaction. Assortment satisfaction is the transactional part of satisfaction, while overall satisfaction is the cumulative satisfaction built over a period. Given the growth of online retail, this study provides scholars and practitioners with suggestions and recommendations on how assortment satisfaction can be used to build overall satisfaction. A new study which suggests the mangers that social norm can influence the customers satisfaction but not their purchase decision. rn
Keywords: Assortment satisfaction; Overall satisfaction; Repurchase intention; Online retailing; Social Norm.
Organic and Sponsored Ads: study on online purchase intent and visual behavior
by Marina Teixeira De Souza, Jorge Caldeira De Oliveira, Janaina Moura Engracia Giraldi
Abstract: Advertising on search sites using organic and sponsored ads corresponds to a Marketing strategy that allows the interaction between companies and their target audience from the use of keywords when doing the online search, in this way, the search sites act as between consumer needs and the large number of information available on web pages. Many studies have focused on ads on search pages and user interactions, but without considering the types of attention. Thus, this study aims to verify how the relationship between attention to organic and sponsored ads and types of visual behavior about the intention to buy online. A primary data collection was performed with 100 students from the Faculty of Administration, Economics and Accounting of Ribeir
Keywords: Organic Ads; Sponsored Ads; Online purchase intention; Visual behavior.
Users' brand page participation: A new construct to measure participation on social networking sites
by Daniela Langaro, Maria De Fátima Salgueiro, Paulo Rita
Abstract: The increasing development of brand presence on Social Networking sites (SNS) requires new practices for monitoring the results of brands
Keywords: Brand communications; Social Media; Social Networking Sites; Participation; Facebook; SNS; Construct development.
THE ROLE OF RETARGETED ADVERTISEMENTS (RTA) IN DEALING WITH DEFLECTING CUSTOMERS AND ITS IMPACT ON THE ONLINE BUYING PROCESS
by Geetha Mohan
Abstract: Objective of this study is to find the effectiveness of re-targeting advertisements (RTA) in persuading the online shoppers to buy. These ads are targeted at individuals based on their previous search behavior and those online shoppers who are perceived to be interested in their products by marketers. The effectiveness of retargeted ads was measured by click through rate, purchase intention and purchase. An in-depth interview with experts followed by three studies was done. A cross sectional and comparative study with normal advertisement; a longitudinal study with creative retargeted ads and the last one with cross channel retargeting techniques were done. All the studies support that retargeted ads are effective at a relative low cost and also established it as an efficient method of communicating to online shoppers. These ads are specifically to people interested and inclined towards the product and this makes it a reliable tool to boost the sales of the e-commerce businesses.
Keywords: Re-targeted advertisements; click through rate; online purchase; effectiveness; interactive advertisement model; knowledge persuasion model.
The impact of relationship quality and social support on online shopping behaviour: an analysis of social media users selling intention.
by Ree C. Ho, Robin Cheng
Abstract: Social commerce is getting more popular with its sales volume increase rapidly, and drives more consumers to start buying in the social media. The main aim of this study was to investigate the social support and relationship quality to explain consumer selling behaviour within social media. Sample size was 296 respondents collected via survey questionnaire. The data was tested with structured equation modelling. The results showed that user interaction in social network influenced the attitude needed to venture into online business. On the other hand, relationship quality and social support enhanced the consumers perception on the controlling the shopping process. In conclusion, the research findings provide the theoretical implications on the selling perspective of social commerce.
Keywords: social commerce; selling intention; relationship quality; social support; online shopping; social media apps.
Searching for answers? An examination of search engine advertisement strategy, ranking and keywords to generate clicks
by Michael North
Abstract: Search engine advertisements are paid search results that appear above the organic search results retrieved by Google. These search engine advertisements typically generate a 2% click-through rate, but browsers are more inclined to click when purchase intentions are high. This study examined almost 100,000 instances of search engine advertisements measured in weeks from an insurance company. Results point to generic search engine advertisements generating more clicks than specific. Search engine advertisements ranked first receive far more clicks than subsequent rankings. Lastly, near-synonyms such as Cover and Protect generate more clicks than an expected keyword such as Insure. Managerial implications are discussed to help companies maximize search engine advertising campaigns.
Keywords: search engine advertising; advertising; marketing; search engine optimization; specific search engine advertising; generic search engine advertising; search engine ranking; near-synonyms; strategic communication.
SOCIAL MEDIA ADVERTISING AND CONSUMER DECISION-MAKING: THE MEDIATING ROLE OF CONSUMER ENGAGEMENT
by Dan Duku Dankwa
Abstract: This paper investigated the effectiveness of social media advertising on consumer decision-making and the mediating role of consumer engagement. Three constructs including emotional appeal, informativeness and advertising creativity were employed to assess the effectiveness of firms social media advertising on Customer decision-making. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses with structural equation modelling were employed to evaluate a proposed model on the relationships among the dependent and independent constructs. Tabachnick and Fidell (2007) formula was used to sample 310 active social media users. Only active followers of fashion brands were considered for this study. The study showed that consumer engagements influenced the relationship between informativeness (full mediation) and advertising creativity (partial mediation) in social media advertising and consumer decision-making. The study recommends that firms that advertise fashions brands on social media must focus on crafting advertisements that are creative and informative in order to influence decisions that consumers make on social media platforms. The study contributes to practice by indicating that emotional appeals of social media adverts no longer influence consumers decision-making on fashion brands, but rather the extent of information and newness of the adverts to satisfy their needs played a major role in consumers' decision making.
Keywords: Keywords: Advertisement; Consumer engagement; Purchase decision; Fashion; Social media.
Exploring Cultural Influences on Mobile Marketing Acceptance
by Meghan Pierce, Pingjun Jiang
Abstract: Mobile platforms are increasingly important outlets for marketing communications. Previous work has examined the impact of individual-level characteristics such as attachment, privacy concern, permission and risk avoidance on mobile marketing acceptance in cross-cultural settings, but calls for research to identify the cultural influences that account for market differences. The current work explores the influence of cultural values, measured at the individual level, on two dominant markets, the U.S. and China. Findings indicate uncertainty avoidance and long-term orientation are important antecedents to mobile marketing acceptance. We further clarify the role of individual-level characteristics and find risk avoidance and permission to significantly impact attitudes toward mobile marketing in both markets. rnrn
Keywords: mobile marketing acceptance; attitudes towards mobile marketing; cultural values; uncertainty avoidance; long-term orientation; US and China comparative study; international marketing; risk avoidance; permission; digital marketing.
From dancing on the street to dating online: evaluating the effects and outcomes of guerrilla street marketing
by Therese Roux, Marcel Saucet
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to explore how marketing communication professionals assess the performance of street guerrilla marketing campaigns. The method included a literature review and qualitative interviews with 20 marketing communications professionals from Europe and the United States of America. It was found that professionals carefully and purposefully select appropriate environments and combine distinctive instruments to track cognitive, affective and behavioural responses. The focus moved to acquiring and quantifying online diffusion rather than responses on street level. The results of the study are important for both researchers and practitioners who design and organize campaigns as well as users of alternative out-of-home media channels. Understanding the practices of experienced professionals helped to identify practical techniques used to evaluate contemporary street guerrilla marketing instruments. This article is one of the first to explore the effects of contemporary guerrilla marketing on the street as well as online.
Keywords: street marketing; ambient marketing; guerrilla marketing; marketing communication professionals.
The Congruent and Comparative Impacts of Weather on Consumer Reviews: Evidence from an Online Forum and Experiment
by Judy Ma, Dongling Huang, Yu Wang
Abstract: This research examines the impact of weather on consumer reviews of products and services. Although anecdotal and empirical evidence indicate that weather influences consumers choices and shopping behavior, little is known about how weather impacts consumers evaluations of products and services. We propose that consumer reviews are influenced by incidental weather conditions both during product experience and during retrospective product evaluation. Using both online consumer review data and an experiment, we find consistent evidence that (1) weather during experience and during retrospection have directionally congruent impacts on the positivity of product reviews and (2) changes in weather from experience to retrospection result in a comparative effect, by which negative (positive) changes in weather from the time of experience to the time of review are associated with more positive (negative) reviews. This research offers strategic implications for the timing of direct marketing messages, such as mobile advertising and product review solicitation.
Keywords: online consumer reviews; weather; mood-as-information; memory; direct marketing; empirical research; experimental research.
The Acceptance of Mobile Advertising: a social or personal matter?
by Reza Ashari Nasution, Devi Arnita
Abstract: This paper contributes to the extant literature on mobile advertising acceptance by extending the current TRA-based model to include the personal relevance of this form of advertising. The aim of this research was to investigate how social influence, represented by the subjective norms in the TRA model, and personal relevance play respective roles in influencing an individuals decision to embrace mobile advertising. The study involved male and female college students in Bandung aged between 18 and 25 years old (young millennials), which were reported by the Association of Advertising Companies in Indonesia to be the most attractive segment for mobile advertising. The findings indicate that millennials are attracted by the social trends of mobile advertising, but demonstrate independence in arriving at their final assessment of mobile advertising based on the personal relevance of this form of publicity.
Keywords: mobile advertising; social influence; social trend; personal relevance; theory of reasoned action; millennials.
Internet advertising of offensive products: The effects of cartoons on adult consumer attitudes
by Pakakorn Rakrachakarn, George Moschis, Thittapong Daengrasmisopon
Abstract: During recent decades, internet advertising has been increasingly used for promoting various types of products. As offensive products generally yield more negative responses to the audience, this study was conducted to identify the effects of different advertising designs on adult consumer responses to offensive product advertisements on the Internet. A 4 x 4 factorial design was used in the experiment where Internet users reported their responses to different banner advertising designs (with and without cartoons) of offensive and non-offensive products. The findings indicate that for the main effects of online banner advertising designs, cartoon ads (ad with drawing) have a less favourable effect on attitude toward the brand when it is non-cartoon (real images), regardless of product type (offensive or non-offensive). Moreover, there is a no interaction effect between ad design and product types on consumer response, even though cartoon ads used in offensive product advertising yield less favourable attitude toward the product than non-cartoon ads.
Keywords: Internet advertising; offensive products; offensive advertising; advertising design; cartoons.
Comparing Blogs with Print Ads for Corporate Branding. The Role of Source Credibility
by Gema Vinuales, Daniel Sheinin
Abstract: The explosion of new media and usage represents one the most significant trends in marketing communications today. One of the major challenges in this environment is which type of media is most effective at communicating a corporate message. Across two studies, we demonstrate that a message in a blog generates a more positive corporate-brand attitude and higher engagement than the identical one in a print ad, and that source credibility mediates this effect. A blog is perceived as having higher source credibility than a print ad.
Keywords: Source credibility; corporate identity; corporate branding; blogs; print ads; marketing communications; media effectiveness; corporate message.
Viewer Responses to Product Messages Using One-person Media Influencers
by Kyoo-Hoon Han, Eunmi Lee
Abstract: This study investigated the effect of product messages through one-person media, the growing media with great marketing potential, by conducting an experiment in which the perceived expertise of the influencer and the perceived commerciality of the message were manipulated. The results showed that when the perceived expertise of the influencer is high, the product message through one-person media generates a positive behavioral intention and attitude toward the message. The perceived commerciality, in contrast, was found to have an insignificant influence on persuasion effect. The interaction effect between the two independent variables was found to be significant. Based on the results of analysis, this study derives theoretical and practical implications for one-person media communication contexts, and suggests a direction for follow-up research.
Keywords: one-person media; social media; influencer marketing; product endorsement; mobile video; perceived expertise; perceived commerciality; MCN
Engagement and brand loyalty through social capital in social media
by Mohammad Abuljadail, Louisa Ha
Abstract: This paper examines the process of brand-customer engagement based on the establishment of social capital through social media - Facebook. An online survey of 576 Facebook users in Saudi Arabia was conducted to examine customer engagement in Facebook. Although individuals indicated that they are more likely to engage in brands' Facebook pages if the posts offer more hedonic benefits (e.g., socialising and entertainment) than utilitarian benefits (e.g., coupons and discounts), they are more likely to become loyal to the brand if they receive utilitarian benefits from the brand's Facebook page. Many marketers depend on engagement metrics found in the common social media such as likes, shares and comments. But using only those engagement measures will be misleading because the effectiveness of utilitarian content might not be visible as hedonic content for marketers because it tends to generate less likes. Utilitarian content is the one that directly drives brand loyalty.
Keywords: engagement; social media; Saudi Arabia; social capital; Facebook marketing; brand loyalty; local brands; global brands.
Text me on WhatsApp, let us talk about brands! The power of mobile word of mouth on mobile purchase intention
by Ismail Erkan, Abdulaziz Elwalda, Mushfiqur Rahman, Seden Doğan, Sinan Nardali
Abstract: The aim of this research is to examine the impacts of MWOM conversations in mobile messaging applications on mobile purchase intention. With this purpose, we developed a conceptual model based on the information acceptance model (IACM). Data collected from 385 participants were analysed using structural equation modelling (SEM). The results support the proposed model and provide both theoretical and practical implications for marketers. This study demonstrates that MWOM in messaging applications has a significant positive impact on mobile purchase intention, which in turn affects both social commerce intention and offline purchase intention.
Keywords: mobile word of mouth; MWOM; mobile purchase intention; messaging applications; WhatsApp; information acceptance model; IACM.
Consumer attitudes towards mobile advertising: an updated vision
by Maria Elena Aramendia-Muneta, Cristina Olarte-Pascual
Abstract: Mobile advertising plays a significant role in the digital world, where consumers respond and react according to the content of the message. The short messaging service (SMS) is one of the mobile phone communication tools marketers use. This research examines the well-known and widely cited paper by Tsang et al. (2004), and replicates their research. We obtained some contradictory results; specifically, we found that the only variable that substantially affected attitude was entertainment. Within the proposed model, attitudes, intentions and behaviour are interconnected, confirming the hypothesis. At the same time, permission-based mobile marketing is on the rise due to high consumer exposure to advertisements. Our findings about mobile advertising have important theoretical and practical managerial implications.
Keywords: mobile phone; short messaging service; SMS; mobile advertising; consumer attitudes; permission-based; incentives; informativeness; credibility; irritation; entertainment.
Decision-making styles of young Indian consumers in the context of online shopping
by Sanjeev Kumar, Rakesh Belwal, Kartikeya Raina
Abstract: The paper examines applicability of Sproles and Kendall's consumer styles inventory (CSI) of young Indian shoppers in context to online shopping. The study was conducted in two phases. Based on sample of 229, decision making styles of consumers were discovered using exploratory factor analysis, and a further confirmatory factor analysis was carried out to validate the dimensions discovered with an additional sample of 207 students. Six of the original eight factors from CSI were found to be applicable in the Indian sample. Additionally, 'risk avert' and 'shopping avoiding' were identified as two new factors to contextualise the instrument to the Indian situation.
Keywords: consumer decision-making styles; online shopping; young consumers; exploratory factor analysis; EFA; confirmatory factor analysis; CFA; India.
The development of an in-house affiliate marketing network - a case study
by Ladislav Beranek
Abstract: The aim of this case study is to present the influence of some organisational and managerial activities on the structure of an in-house affiliate marketing network. The data has been obtained particularly based on interviews with the affiliate marketing manager during a period of over two years. The influence of incentives, monitoring, and enforcement carried out within the operation of in-house affiliate marketing on the evolution of a respective affiliate marketing network is demonstrated. This case study enriches the literature devoted to affiliate marketing by the identification and specification of how managerial activities affect relationships and structure in the affiliate marketing network.
Keywords: e-commerce; affiliate marketing network; network structure; case study.