Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Internet Marketing and Advertising

International Journal of Internet Marketing and Advertising (IJIMA)

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International Journal of Internet Marketing and Advertising (43 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Classifying bloggers based on content creation approaches: implications for influencer marketing strategies   Order a copy of this article
    by Beatrice Ietto, Federica Pascucci 
    Abstract: Today bloggers represent an established type of influencers and undiscussed marketing tool for promotional purposes. However, due to the multitude of bloggers acting as influencers that exist today, marketers might experience difficulties in identifying the most suitable bloggers. The aim of the paper is to build an empirically-based multidimensional framework which classifies consumer bloggers based on their content creation approaches. In particular, taking a social-practice theory perspective, content creation is considered as a routinised behaviour influenced by what the blogger considers as meaningful within a particular socio-cultural context. The analysis is based on a netnographic analysis of Australian music bloggers. The paper argues that a blogger’s content creation approach predominantly depends on the subjective importance that the blogger gives to one of following dimensions: personal influences, audience influences, community influences, commercial influences. According to the identified content creation approaches, the paper develops a bloggers’ classification multidimensional framework relevant for marketing practitioners wanting to identify bloggers for their promotional strategies.
    Keywords: blog marketing; netnography; music industry; influencers; influencer marketing; taxonomies; classifications; cultural intermediaries.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2022.10040546
    by GURVEEN KAUR, PANKAJ DESHWAL, Hamendra Dangi 
    Abstract: Customer engagement (CE) is an emerging research area that is receiving considerable attention not only from the management practitioners but the academicians as well. Regardless of the huge number of researches initiated in this area, the available literature looks splintered and lacks conceptual unidirectionality. Therefore, present research aims at administering a domain-based
    Keywords: customer engagement; customer engagement behaviour; customer brand engagement; brand community engagement; systematic review.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2022.10040867
  • Applications of Virtual Reality in marketing (2000-2020): A 4C marketing-mix based review and future research agenda   Order a copy of this article
    by Nidhi Yadav, Shikha Sota, Harish Chaudhary 
    Abstract: The last decade has seen a rapid technological transformation in the way marketing is thought and performed. Virtual reality (VR) is one such technology that is being applied across marketing channels to creatively engage, communicate, sell, and service the consumers. This paper is a systematic literature review of the last 20 years of research on applications of virtual reality in marketing. This paper provides a descriptive review of literature, tracks the evolution of the virtual reality concept from technological to experiential view, and outlines the application of VR across Lauterborn’s 4C marketing mix
    Keywords: virtual reality; marketing; literature review; marketing technology; 4C.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2022.10041599
  • Research about Persuasive Effects of Social Media Influencers as Online Opinion Leaders 1990-2020: A Review   Order a copy of this article
    by Louisa Ha, Yang Yang 
    Abstract: This paper examines the 167 scholarly journal articles published from 1990 to 2020 related to persuasive effects of online opinion leaders and social media influencers. The USA, China and Germany were the three most common settings those studies were conducted. Most research articles explained the influence mechanism of social media influencers based on prior celebrity endorsement research, focusing on credibility, trustworthiness, homophily and parasocial interaction. In this review, we examine what we learned from the research literature in eight topics about the persuasive effects of influencers: 1) typology of influencers and methods to identify influencers; 2) relationship between the influencers and followers; 3) characteristics of the followers of influencers; 4) scope of influence of the influencers, 5) mechanism of influence; 6) approaches/strategies of influencers to brand endorsement; 7) measurement of influence outcomes; and 8) ethics of social media influencer marketing. A research agenda is proposed on how to further develop social media influencer marketing research based on the technology affordance of each social media platform and important areas that have been under-explored.
    Keywords: opinion leader; social media; influencer marketing; celebrity endorsement; brand persuasion process.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2022.10043104
  • SMS advertisement and purchasing intentions: an emerging market perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by George Amoako, Albert Martins, Joshua Doe, Marian Tsegah 
    Abstract: This study sought to investigate and understand customer behaviour that determines attitudes in relation to SMS advertising and purchase intentions in Ghana. The quantitative method was used with simple random sampling technique in selecting the respondents. Four hundred eighty-five questionnaires were issued out, 420 were returned and 400 used as the sample size. Structural equation modelling was employed to analyse the relationship amongst the variables. The study findings supported the hypothesis that informative SMS advertisement, entertaining SMS advertisement, credibility of SMS advertisement and irritability of SMS advertisement all has positive influence on purchasing intentions of customers.
    Keywords: SMS advertisement; SMS advertising; purchase intentions.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2022.10044089
  • Brand accommodation to informal communications on social media: With the mediation of communication appropriateness and the moderation of product involvement   Order a copy of this article
    by Hyun Ju Jeong, Jihye Kim 
    Abstract: Drawing on communication accommodation theory, this experimental study investigates whether, how, and when brand communications cultivate consumer engagement on social media. Results show that informal (vs. formal) communications yield greater intentions to follow and share brand content. Further, the extent to which consumers perceive this communication as appropriate for brands within social media fully mediates the greater effects of informal (vs. formal) communications on following, sharing, and posting intentions, particularly for those low in product involvement. These findings highlight that assimilating brand communications to consumers’ casual conversations is processed as a heuristic cue driving social media engagement among low-involved consumers. This persuasion is psychologically mediated by the appropriateness of communication accommodation consumers may feel from the efforts of brands to reduce a social distance to them. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
    Keywords: communication accommodation; brand accommodation; consumer engagement; brand communications; communication appropriateness; product involvement; social media.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2022.10044096
  • Comparing the effectiveness of social media endorsers for mass and luxury markets   Order a copy of this article
    by Imene Ben Yahia, Lolwah Al-Mudahka 
    Abstract: This research mobilises the social learning theory to investigate the impacts of the endorser type (celebrity, micro-influencer, and macro-influencer) in social media on purchase intent of a mass-market and a luxury perfume. Two studies were conducted. 415 responses were collected from social media users, and data were analysed using partial least square structural equation modelling. Findings demonstrate that not only celebrities, but also macro-influencers are good endorsers of luxury perfumes. Indeed, their impact is as effective as that of celebrities in terms of meanings transfer and congruency. Micro-influencers, however, are more effective than celebrities when it comes to mass-market brands. In addition, for this category, the influence of macro-influencers is as strong as that of micro-influencers. Therefore, macro-influencers seem good endorsers for both luxury and mass-market perfumes. This study has important implications for both Marketing academicians and practitioners.
    Keywords: influencer marketing; social media; endorsement; celebrity; social commerce.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2022.10044683
  • Does Online Shopping Allure Frugal Buyers ?   Order a copy of this article
    by Satinder Kumar, Aqwinder KAUR, Amina Omrane 
    Abstract: The present study aims at examining and pinpointing the essential factors that may influence online buyers’ behaviours in India. For this purpose, it considers frugality, assimilated for a long time to a low consumer spending, as an impactful dimension of the consumer purchasing behaviour. A questionnaire was administrated, during a period of three months ranging from May to July 2020, to 642 adult online buyers living in the North of India. Collected data were then analysed via SPSS and AMOS softwares. The overall findings show that frugal consumers draw their attention mainly to price and discounts, convenience of online shopping, product quality and durability, as well as security aspects while taking online shopping decisions. The results enrich the literature on frugal online buyers’ behaviours. They have practical implications for online marketers who are invited to understand the behaviour of frugal consumers and identify the factors that might affect their buying decisions.
    Keywords: frugal buying behaviour; online shopping; security; online convenience; online promotion; the North of India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2022.10044684
  • Modelling the Impact of Social Media Marketing for Apparel Brands: Evidence from India   Order a copy of this article
    by Amit Kumar Gupta, Vibhava Srivastava 
    Abstract: Social media has been widely acknowledged as a significant platform for different business activities. The study examines and models the interactions between social media marketing activities, their effectiveness, brand equity, and customer responses concerning apparel brands. The Indian apparel market is the second-largest retail market after food and grocery in India. The digital population of India amounted to approximately 688 million active users, of which 400 million users were active social media users as of January 2020. The primary data was collected from a survey of 266 respondents in India, of which 262 responses were found valid. WarpPLS 7.0 was used in which data was subjected to variance-based structural equation modelling for hypotheses testing. The study found that social media marketing activities of apparel brands with interactive and trendier contents would be proven effective, which would form favourable brand equity amongst the customers and eventually would result in customer loyalty. It also found that apparel brands’ interactive and trendier social media marketing activities would form customers’ willingness to pay a premium price if these activities are perceived as effective. The study concludes with the implications for academics as well as for industry.
    Keywords: social media marketing activities; brand equity; social media marketing effectiveness; customer loyalty; price premium willingness; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2022.10044685
  • Examining the effects of brand authenticity and brand identification on consumers’ willingness to pay premium   Order a copy of this article
    by RICHA JOSHI, Prerna Garg, Shampy Kamboj 
    Abstract: The present study proposes a holistic framework to understand the effect of brand authenticity and brand identification on willingness to pay premium by taking brand jealousy as a mediating variable. Brand jealousy is a feeling of jealousy a consumer experiences when the brand he loves is purchased/owned by other individual but he himself is not able to possess the brand. Also, the effect of brand authenticity and brand identification in influencing brand jealousy is evaluated through direct and indirect routes by taking brand love a mediator. The findings of the study reveal that brand identification and brand authenticity have a direct and significant effect on brand jealousy, brand love, and willingness to pay a premium. The study confirms that the managers of sportswear brands and marketing planners must not ignore the relative importance of brand authenticity and identification in their overall brand-related assessment. Additionally, they should also focus on brand love and jealousy to facilitate willingness to pay premium from the perspective of the consumer.
    Keywords: brand jealousy; brand love; brand identification; consumer-brand relationships; willingness to pay premium.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2022.10044687
    by Ruta Repoviene, Ausra Pazeraite 
    Abstract: This article presents theoretical and empirical aspects of content marketing towards customer value creation. Despite interest in content marketing and the importance of customer value in marketing theory, so far there is a lack of research in this area. Accordingly, the aim of this article is to fill this gap by determining the theoretical and empirical implications of content marketing dedicated to customer value creation. Based on conducted theoretical analysis, a conceptual model of content marketing towards customer value creation was developed. In the presented research paper, the corresponding model is examined in exploratory qualitative research by applying expert interview method. Given findings based on continuous theoretical analysis and empirical study provide an original approach and relevant suggestions on directions for both further scientific research and practical application of content marketing towards customer value creation.
    Keywords: content marketing; digital content; content idea; content distribution; customer value creation; social value; functional value; emotional value.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2022.10044689
  • Effects of e-marketplaces brand trust on repurchasing intention and WOM: Are they reinforced by consumers online shopping experience?   Order a copy of this article
    by Pedro De Santi, Julio Carneiro-da-Cunha, Robson Guerreiro 
    Abstract: Brand retailing websites with higher brand trust influence consumers’ repurchasing intention and word-of-mouth (WOM). However, we did not know if this assumption is valid in e-marketplaces. In addition, such relation could be moderated by the consumers’ previous experience in internet transactions. Considering this, we aimed to identify if the previous experience with internet transactions has a moderating effect between trust and loyalty factors among e-marketplaces consumers. We conducted a survey with 197 Brazilian e-marketplace consumers. Our results confirmed that brand trust was an antecedent of repurchasing and word-of-mouth intentions in e-marketplaces. Such word-of-mouth is also associated with the repurchasing intention. However, we identified that consumers’ previous online shopping experience did not have moderating effect in e-marketplaces. Managers of e-marketplaces should not segment their marketing strategies considering more/less-experienced consumers. Managers could improve WOM and repurchasing sales providing after-sales actions oriented to brand reinforcement to achieve higher consumers’ loyalty.
    Keywords: e-marketplace; electronic marketplace; online marketplace; brand trust; repurchasing; word-of-mouth; WOM.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2022.10044800
  • Relation Between Electronic Word of Mouth and Purchase Intention : Exploring the Mediating Role of Brand Image   Order a copy of this article
    by Amar Kumar Mishra, Deepak Kaushal, Swati Bisht 
    Abstract: Word of mouth is considered to be one of the preeminent mediums of communication for the consumer to exchange information regarding product/service which ultimately affects the behaviour of consumers. With the invention of the internet and technology, consumers have dropped the traditional way of communication and started moving towards online channels of communication to attain information regarding products/services to settle the purchase decision. Because of the vast growth of electronic word of mouth (EWOM) communication in India, many marketers and researchers are showing interest and trying to acknowledge how EWOM influences the behaviour of consumers and their purchase intention (PI). However, the mechanism through which EWOM influences PI has not been explored much. The main motive of this research was to examine the conceivable influence of EWOM communication on PI through brand image (BI) in context to Indian customers.
    Keywords: electronic word of mouth communication; EWOM; brand image; purchase intention; structural equation modelling.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2022.10045211
  • Gen- Z Social Electronic Word of Mouth Communication and Mediating Role of Contents Quality and Sources: PLS-SEM Path Modelling   Order a copy of this article
    by Manoj Kumar, Pradeep Mamgain, Krishna Pratap Singh 
    Abstract: The study examined elaboration likelihood model (ELM) information processing routes in the context of Gen-Z active social WOM seeking in the involvement of hospitality service buying. The ELM was employed and serial mediating routes of information processing were investigated. The samples (n = 430) were collected especially from the generation-Z group of individuals from different cities in India, such as Dehradun, Delhi, Nainital, Mussoorie, Bhubaneswar, Ranchi, Srinagar, Pune, Jaipur only. The partial least square-SEM was tested for the proposed relationship and bootstrapping used to verify potential mediation. The findings of the research indicate that active social media WOM information seeking to social WOM influence have a serial mediation effect of opinion leader, source of closeness and communication content quality and process investigated on two ELM routes (i.e., central and peripheral information processing route). The findings of this research may be an asset to the market communication leaders and corporate media administrators. However, it helps to understand the social media WOM communication active seeking pattern and being mediation factors of opinion leader, source of closeness and well as content quality indirectly effect into the further social media electronic word of mouth influence.
    Keywords: generation-Z; social media electronic word of mouth; communication content quality; CCQ; hospitality services; information processing; serial mediation; elaboration likelihood model; ELM.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2022.10045606
  • Social Media Marketing and Restaurant Purchase Intention: Do Online Brand Community Identification and Gender Matter?   Order a copy of this article
    by Blend Ibrahim 
    Abstract: Social media marketing (SMM) creates diverse content via social network sites to promote different products, services, information and ideas. This study is built on the stimulus-organism-response framework and uses and gratifications theory. It aims to investigate online brand community identification (OBCI) and purchase intention as major consequences of SMM activities (SMMAs). A structural equation modelling approach and a PROCESS macro were applied to analyse 338 online questionnaires completed by Facebook users who follow restaurant Facebook pages. The findings revealed that SMMAs have a significant positive influence on OBCI and purchase intention. Furthermore, OBCI acts as a mediator between SMMAs and purchase intention. These results indicate that gender role positively moderates the direct and indirect effect of SMMAs on purchase intention. Finally, the moderated mediation analysis findings suggest that female customers receive a high level of OBCI when interacting with SMMAs, which, in turn, increases purchase intention relative to males.
    Keywords: social media marketing; SMM; social network sites; SNSs; Facebook page; restaurant purchase intention; consumer behaviour; restaurant industry; online brand community identification; OBCI.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2022.10046259
  • The impact of user-generated fake news on brand equity: Moderating mechanisms of brand attitude and corporate reputation   Order a copy of this article
    by Beate Stiehler-Mulder, D. Maduku 
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of consumers’ perceived realism of user-generated fake content on consumer-based brand equity. In addition, the moderating roles of both brand attitude and corporate reputation on the impact of the perceived realism of user-generated fake news on brand equity is examined. A survey design was used to obtain 354 responses randomly from a South African national consumer panel. Scale validation and hypotheses testing were assessed by means of structural equation modelling. The results show that consumers’ perceived realism of fake news is significant and negatively related to brand equity. Moreover, the findings emphasise that brand attitudes and corporate reputation serve as moderating mechanisms through which the impact of the perceived realism of fake news on consumer-based brand equity is revealed. The findings extend the currently limited literature on the impact of fake user-generated content on brand equity.
    Keywords: user-generated fake news; fake news; perceived realism; corporate reputation; brand attitude; social media.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2022.10046939
  • Purchasing Intentions and Digital Influencers   Order a copy of this article
    by Dimitri Laroutis, Philippe Boistel, Mustafeed Zaman 
    Abstract: While the web marketing literature has recently called into question the impact of influencers on their followers’ purchasing behaviour, very few studies have addressed this issue per se. Our study aims to fill this gap by examining the variables that boost followers’ purchasing intention. Based on survey data collected from 247 followers, we built an econometric model designed to anticipate followers’ buying intentions. Our findings show that followers’ purchasing behaviours is influenced not only by the characteristics of the influencer being followed, but also by those of the follower in question, the product or service on offer, and the overall congruence of these factors. These variables reveal an impact on consumer intentions ranging from
    Keywords: digital influencers; influencer marketing; purchase intentions; social media; social media influencers; stated preference method.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2022.10046940
  • Reassessing brand versus concept associations: comparing free association task and sensory cue-based task   Order a copy of this article
    by Tilottama Chowdhury, Feisal Murshed, Meghan Messier 
    Abstract: Brand associations can trigger memories of people, places, and emotions that are desirable and as such, creating and maintaining a unique set of brand associations in the consumers’ mind space takes on increasing importance in today’s interactive marketing environment. This article explores an important variation in the nature and dynamics of brand associations based on two distinct approaches: free association task versus sensory cue-based task. Studies 1a and 2a employed the sensory cue-based task (related to the sound, taste, touch, smell, and sight) and studies 1b and 2b utilised the traditional free association approach to extract participants’ brand associations pertaining to a financial service brand and the concept associations related to financial security. Findings indicate that the free association task evokes tangible associations and conversely, the sensory cue-based task evokes intangible associations. The article contributes to branding theory, marketing communication literature, and offers managerial insights.
    Keywords: brand association; concept association; free association task; sensory cue-based task; brand communication.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2022.10046941
  • What drives Generation Z to Advocate for a Brand Online   Order a copy of this article
    by Vivek Mishra, Biswajit Das 
    Abstract: The objective of this study is to: 1) examine the impact of brand-related antecedents; brand social-benefits, brand distinctiveness, brand prestige and brand warmth on online brand advocacy (OBA) behaviour of Gen Z; 2) examine the impact of OBA on consumers’ purchase intent; 3) to consider the moderating effect of social media involvement (SMI) on the relationship between the aforementioned antecedents and OBA. Based on an online questionnaire, data from 221 students were analysed using SPSS and Amos 23.0. The structural model reveals all antecedents to be positively related to OBA, which had a subsequent positive impact on purchase intent. Interestingly, SMI did have a moderating effect on the relationship between brand prestige, brand social benefits and OB, indicating the significance of engagement levels of Gen Zers and its impact on their advocacy intentions online. The paper shall be pivotal in enhancing brand trust and loyalty in these turbulent times.
    Keywords: online brand advocacy; OBA; brand social benefits; brand prestige; brand distinctiveness; brand warmth; purchase intent; social media.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2022.10046942
  • My Brand, My Self(ie) Why Consumers Portray Themselves in Brand-Selfies   Order a copy of this article
    by Anne Mareike Flaswinkel, Markus Rump, Reinhold Decker 
    Abstract: By presenting themselves in self-portraits with brands, so-called brand-selfies (BSs), consumers can demonstrate their personal attachment to brands. A closer look at this mainstream phenomenon expands the understanding of consumer-brand relationships. The ease of sharing and networking has increased the importance of BSs in marketing. Because they reveal a lot about consumers’ opinions and spread quickly on social networks, BSs can be a valuable marketing tool. In a cross-sectional study, we identify brand identification as the strongest predictor of consumers’ intention to portray themselves with a brand in a BS. Furthermore, we find belonging and reward to have significant impact on the intention to post a BS. We distinguish consumer motivations for posting BSs from general motivations for posting selfies, add to previous research on selfie posting behaviour and user-generated content, and conclude with a discussion of implications for marketers looking to incorporate selfie marketing into their marketing strategy.
    Keywords: electronic word-of-mouth; e-WOM; brand-selfie; social media marketing; user-generated content; UGC; brand identification; selfie marketing; consumer behaviour.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2022.10046943
  • An Examination of the Relationship among Conspicuous Consumption, Social Media Addiction, Narcissism, and Empathy: A Research on University Students   Order a copy of this article
    by Ayse Akbulut, Elif Esiyok, Ceyhan Cigdemoglu, Ozlen Ozgen 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to reveal the relationship between conspicuous consumption behaviour, social media addiction, narcissistic characteristics, and empathy for university students. Using a cross-sectional survey design, with a non-random sampling strategy, a total of 1,215 participants completed the online survey. Data were analysed through the structural equation modelling technique using the AMOS statistical analysis package to discover the relationship among variables. Findings indicated that social media addiction has a moderately positive relationship with conspicuous consumption, a weak negative relationship with empathy, and a moderately positive relationship with narcissism. As a result, both empathy and narcissism have an impact on conspicuous consumption, and social media addiction affects empathy. This study contributes to the literature in terms of exploring the relationship between empathy and conspicuous consumption together for young consumers.
    Keywords: conspicuous consumption; social media addiction; narcissism; empathy; social media; young consumers.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2022.10047370
  • The Role of Internet Celebrities in Purchase Intention and Impulse Buying   Order a copy of this article
    by Massoud Moslehpour, Alaleh Dadvari, Pei-Kuan Lin, Erdenebaatar Odgerel 
    Abstract: With the introduction of social media, celebrity endorsement has become trendy, influencing commercial strategy. While the economic impact of impulsive purchasing is well known globally, a model is developed to investigate the relationship between Internet celebrity endorsement and impulsive buying. The article looks into whether purchasing behaviour and e-WOM are linked to buying behaviour. An online survey of 426 using structural equation modelling (SEM) investigates the relationships among constructs. The results demonstrate a link between Internet celebrity endorsement and impulsive buying. Skincare purchase intent is closely linked to impulsive buying with electronic word of mouth as partial mediator. This study examines the impact of celebrity recommendations in cyberspace using planned behaviour, social identity, and response theory. It also shows how to efficiently recruit celebrity endorsers to increase client purchase intent, which promotes impulsive buying. Researchers and beauty product marketers can better understand consumer behaviour to target clients.
    Keywords: internet celebrity endorsement; ICE; electronic word-of-mouth; e-WOM; purchase intention; impulsive buying behaviour; IBB.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2022.10047371
  • Does a chatbot’s location influence consumer attitude and intentions?   Order a copy of this article
    by Irene Roozen, Mariet Raedts, Guillaume Waetermans 
    Abstract: Chatbots engage in real-time conversations with customers. Moreover, they can collect data in a digital landscape that is increasingly sensitive to privacy. The objective of this study was to help strategic marketing decision-makers better understand how and where chatbots can be used effectively to gather consumer data. We analyse whether consumers’ privacy concerns influence their adoption. Furthermore, we invest if privacy concerns, and subsequently information disclosure, are significantly influenced by the chatbot’s location. In an experimental study (N = 398) we compared the (in)direct effects of the same chatbot in two different locations: Facebook and its own retailer’s website. Our results show that interacting with a chatbot on Facebook led to significantly lower attitudes towards chatbots and lower intentions to use chatbots. Both relationships are sequentially mediated via higher privacy concerns and less comfort with information disclosure. Companies therefore need to consider where to deploy their chatbots.
    Keywords: chatbot; privacy concerns; information disclosure; Facebook; Facebook messenger; retailer website; adoption behaviour; consumer-firm interaction.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2022.10047372
  • Antecedents of Brand Love leading to Purchase Intention towards Refurbished Video Game Consoles   Order a copy of this article
    by Akshay Kancherla, Jossy George, Benny Godwin 
    Abstract: This paper examines different constructs that influence purchase intention of refurbished video game consoles to assess its multi-factorial association with brand love. The data was collected from video game console cafes in the cities of Bangalore and Pune, India. The findings demonstrate that adoption determinants and social influence have a positive influence on brand love, while notably, environmental involvement has a positive influence on an individual’s purchase intention. Brand love won’t singularly influence positive purchase intention in the context of refurbished video game consoles. The paper clarifies that brand love alone cannot influence the purchasing decision of an individual in the context of refurbished video game consoles, the companies selling or remanufacturing these products can benefit by advertising these products as being environmentally involved. This is the first paper that examines the effects of brand love and purchase intentions in the context of refurbished video game consoles.
    Keywords: environmental involvement; brand love; adoption determinants; social influence; purchase intention; refurbished video game consoles.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2022.10048838
  • Brand personality management of Indian business schools on Twitter: A machine learning approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Anand V, Daruri Venkata Srinivas Kumar 
    Abstract: Business schools in India use Twitter as one of the marketing communication channels for establishing distinctive brand images among the social media users. Quantifying the internet brand personality dimensions is essential to manage a business school brand image. The nature and volume of social media data necessitate the usage of data mining and machine learning models for data analysis. We computed the brand personality dimension scores of ten leading business schools in India by applying the machine learning-based model developed by Pamuksuz, Yun and Humphreys on 31,757 tweets. We also examined the congruence between the communicated and perceived brand personalities. Our results suggest that some of the older public schools are unable to properly align their communicated brand personalities with perceived brand personalities. Also, private schools need to improve on the sincerity dimension of brand personality. The results might spur some researchers to use the model with different data sources and scales. A counterintuitive subset of our results might make the Indian business schools re-think their branding strategies on social media networks. We provided directions for further research towards effectively managing the online brand personalities.
    Keywords: business school; internet brand personality; social media; Twitter; machine learning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10050212
    by Paulo Rita, João Guerreiro, Sara Matos 
    Abstract: Consumers are overwhelmed with advertising messages which makes some of them unable to break the clutter to be viewed and shared. The purpose of the current paper is to study how visual attention, arousal, and pleasure may lead to advertising sharing intention. This study followed an experimental design using consumer neuroscience methods, more specifically, eye tracking and electro dermal activity, evaluating how typicality and the celebrity factor can influence consumers’ visual attention and arousal. Participants watched four ad campaign scenarios: a typical ad without celebrities (T), a typical ad with celebrities (TC), an atypical ad without celebrities (A), and an atypical ad with celebrities (AC), with arousal and pleasure being measured through the self-assessment manikin and their sharing intention through a questionnaire. Findings showed that atypical ads generate higher levels of arousal and pleasure, which positively influences sharing intention. Also, when comparing (TC) with (AC), the celebrity factor presents lower arousal levels in the TC scenario.
    Keywords: consumer brand engagement (CBE); advertising campaigns; typicality; celebrities; sharing intention; consumer neuroscience.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10050589
    by Juliana Christino, Erico Cardozo, Luisa Sepúlveda Marins 
    Abstract: This study aimed to investigate particularities in the formation of favourable attitudes toward advertising in mobile game applications. For this purpose, the following constructs were elected: 1) entertainment, credibility, informativeness, irritation and personalisation from Sigurdsson et al. (2018); 2) general attitudes towards ads and general attitudes towards in-game ads from Poels et al. (2013); 3) the reward construct from Busch et al. (2013) as a pioneer extension ever made in studies related to in-app ads (within the apps) of the interstitial-type specifically in mobile games. A survey was conducted with 260 players. The data was analysed using structural equation modelling. The results showed
    Keywords: attitude; players’ attitudes; towards advertising; mobile games; publicity; advertising in mobile games.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10050590
  • Effectiveness of Social Media Influencers and Their Impact on Customers' Attitudes and Buying Intention   Order a copy of this article
    by Hadeel Elmousa, Wong Foong Yee, Cheah Jun Hwa 
    Abstract: This research aims to bridge the industry and literature gaps by corroborating the impact of social media influencers on consumer attitudes and intentions towards promotions. A total of 350 responses were acquired through the purposive sampling method. The selected approach for testing the hypotheses was partial least squares (PLS). The observations corroborated the model by substantiating that source credibility, subjective norms, and meaning transfer were significantly related to attitude. Furthermore, source credibility, attitude, and subjective norms were significantly related to buying intention. From various contexts, this study contributes to the marketing literature and sector. First, this work employed the theory of reasoned action from the psychology domain to demonstrate the association between behaviour and attitude in human activities, which is presently being extended to an influencer marketing situation in Malaysia. Second, the outcomes of this research can offer profound insights and guiding principles for firms, marketing agencies, marketers, and influencers.
    Keywords: social media influencers; SMIs; influencer marketing; attitude; purchase intention; subjective norms; partial least square; PLS.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10050994
  • The Influence of Digital Marketing on Tourist's Behavioral Intentions from Social Networks and E-WOM Interactions   Order a copy of this article
    by Miriam R. Aziz, Adel F. Al Alam 
    Abstract: This study aims to examine the influence of social networks and electronic word of mouth (e-WOM) on tourists’ behaviour from the perspective of destination image and satisfaction. Data are collected on a purposive sample of 1,600 tourists visiting and/or travelling to Lebanon in 2019. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is used to extract the factor structure and verify the validity and reliability of the measurement model. Structural equation modelling (SEM) is used to examine the conceptual model, which confirms e-WOM has a positive significant impact on destination image, which in turn has a significant impact on tourists’ satisfaction. Key results of this work provide practical insights for the tourism industry organisations in order to build and enhance their competitive advantage destination based on consumers’ intentions.
    Keywords: e-WOM; tourism; social networks; and consumer behaviour.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10051248
  • Who are the right customers for mobile and paper coupons?   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Galib 
    Abstract: This study aims to investigate the factors that will help marketers identify suitable consumers for mobile and paper coupons. The quantitative research study adopts a series of three studies using two different types of coupons. The data analysis was done through factor analysis, multiple regression, and t-test. This study revealed that consumer’s usage intention between mobile and paper coupons is contingent upon their level of technology acceptance, need for haptics, smart shopping behaviour, and risk averseness. Through shedding light on consumer’s behavioural attributes, this research will contribute to the advancement of marketing theory in the emerging coupon literature. It will also help marketers develop their segmentation, communication, and distribution strategies and target the right customers accurately. It is the first study to examine the differences in consumers’ perception between mobile and coupons in light of different behavioural attributes.
    Keywords: mobile and paper coupon; technology acceptance; TECH; need for haptics; smart shopping behaviour; SMSB; risk averseness; RISK.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10051383
  • Social Media Marketing and Consumer Behavior in the New Normal: The Relationship Between Content and Interaction   Order a copy of this article
    by Ebru Çil, Ismail Erkan, Emmanuel Mogaji 
    Abstract: This study examines whether brands’ changing social media marketing activities (SMMA) have an impact on consumer responses in the
    Keywords: new normal; COVID-19; consumer behaviour; interactivity; content quality; S-O-R model; consumer response; social media marketing activities; SMMA.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10051578
  • The Level of Involvement and Consumer Response to Advertising through Hashtags: A Segmentation Approach with Self-Organizing Maps   Order a copy of this article
    by Manijeh Bahrainizadeh, Sepideh Aslami, Nosrat Jamshidi 
    Abstract: Nowadays, using hashtags in advertising is becoming critical, but the audience’s reaction to this type of advertising is not yet clear to advertisers. This study aims to identify different segments of consumers on social networks based on their level of involvement and response to advertising via hashtags as well as a demographic variable. Through an experiment, this study examined consumer responses to hashtags in social media-based advertising. The survey was conducted on an available sample of 545 Instagram, Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn users. The results showed three distinctive segments of social network users: relatively rationally non-involved consumers rationally involved consumers and relatively emotionally involved consumers. The findings of this research are important for marketers who advertise via hashtags since little is known regarding social networks user segments according to consumers’ responses and levels of involvement in advertising via hashtags. This research addresses this gap and has important implications for marketers.
    Keywords: hashtag; involvement; consumer response; self-organising maps; segmentation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10051579
  • Examining the relationship among sensory brand experience, brand love, brand advocacy and brand commitment using a comparative study of three brands of Social Networking Sites (SNSs)   Order a copy of this article
    by Abhay Jain, SUZANEE MALHOTRA 
    Abstract: This paper seeks to analyse the impact of sensory brand experience of three popular brands of SNSs on the feelings of brand love for the millennials. Further, the impact of brand love on brand advocacy and brand commitment for the three brands is examined. Using self-administered online survey questionnaire responses collected from 750 active millennial users of Facebook, Instagram, and WhatsApp the research hypotheses are evaluated using factor analysis and structural equation modelling (SEM). The findings support that sensory brand experience has an impact on brand love and that further brand love also impacts the advocacy and commitment for the brands. This study seeks to enrich the brand love literature by exploring sensory brand experience (a sub-dimension of broader brand experience notion) which has not been extensively studied in the past, that too for millennials from an Indian sub-continent perspective.
    Keywords: brand advocacy; brand commitment; sensory brand experience; brand love; millennials; social networking sites; SNSs.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10051725
  • The Influence of Perceived Risk and Branding on Fresh Produce Purchase Online   Order a copy of this article
    by Archana Kumar, Eklou Amendah 
    Abstract: The overall objective of this study is to examine consumer attitudes toward online fresh produce shopping using perceived risk factors such as performance, financial, and social risks. Online grocery shopping has picked up steam in the US since the beginning of the pandemic; however, the purchasing habits of fresh produce remains unclear. Shopping for fresh produce online has several issues including inherent variability of the produce, difference in customer preferences, delivery, and freshness issues. This study identifies some risk factors associated with purchasing fresh produce online and highlights the role of branding as a means to mitigate these risks. The authors use structural equation modelling to analyse the data. A multi-group structural approach is also used to examine the impact of the moderating variables on the causal relationships. The results show that financial concern is the biggest risk factor and branding the fresh produce reduces this risk considerably.
    Keywords: online fresh produce; branded fresh produce; performance risk; financial risk; social risk.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10051916
  • Segmenting Consumers on Social Networks Based on Individual Motivations for Engagement in eWOM Communication with Self-Organizing Maps   Order a copy of this article
    by Manijeh Bahrainizadeh, Hamid Izadi 
    Abstract: Social networks allow consumers to share marketing content and advertise products for free through electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) communication. Consumers regularly share eWOM regarding their motivations. Some of these motivations have been identified in previous studies. This study aimed to understand how consumers can be segmented on social networks according to the individual motivations for engagement in eWOM. A self-organising map was used for segmentation. Data were collected by sending questionnaire links to 385 Iranian users of Telegram, Facebook, and Instagram using a convenience sampling method. A total of three segments were identified: active users with low individual motivation, who spent a relatively long time on social networks, but had low individual motivations to participate in eWOM activities. Active users with high individual motivations were young users who devoted the most time to social networks and were highly motivated. Finally, inactive users with individual motivations who, despite having sufficient individual motivations, spent very little time on social networks. This study, by applying a self-organising map for segmenting consumers on social networks, provides insights into how companies should make strategies to engage consumers in eWOM communication, taking into account individual motivations.
    Keywords: electronic word-of-mouth communication; eWOM; individual motivations; segmentation; self-organising maps; SOMs; social networks.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10052688
  • An empirical investigation into information search behaviour of Indian consumers   Order a copy of this article
    by Anuradha Malik 
    Abstract: Information search behaviour of consumers is a notable field of research. The present study has explored the information search behaviour of consumers for services by hypothesising and testing an information search behaviour model. Single cross sectional research design has been employed for the study. Data for the study was collected through structured questionnaire from Delhi-NCR region of India. The context of the study is banking services, hotel booking and insurance services. Structural equation modelling (SEM) has been used to test the hypothesised model. The findings reveal that perceived benefits of search, involvement and self-confidence of consumers positively impacted external search effort by consumers. The present research has contributed by providing in-depth knowledge about information search behaviour of Indian consumers. Implications of the study and suggestions for future research have been provided in the study.
    Keywords: consumer behaviour; information search behaviour; services; Indian consumers; external search effort; structural equation modelling; SEM.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10052942
  • eWOM Consumers Tryst with Trust and Transitions A Qualitative Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Rishikesh Bhaiswar, N. Meenakshi, Deepak Chawla 
    Abstract: The study highlights how online shoppers build, erode, or make trust superfluous in obtaining eWOM communications. Further, the study traces when, why and how online shoppers transition between offline word of mouth (WOM) and eWOM communications. The qualitative investigation involved collecting data by conducting four focus group discussions (FGD) and five in-depth interviews from online shoppers purchasing electronic gadgets using eWOM information. The initial coding was used to get an overview of entire datasets, and final coding was applied to categorise data into fewer category themes and subthemes. The findings of this study unveiled that online shoppers attributed trust to the quality of eWOM information, valence, and visualisation of product information. eWOM lost trust in online communications when they experienced fake reviews and ratings, incomplete reviews or information, or untrustworthy platforms. Further, eWOM users found trust to be superfluous if they were expert consumers, or when they purchased a well-established brand. Lastly, eWOM users transitioned to offline WOM to confirm, verify, build confidence in the entire decision journey of buying high-priced electronic consumer durables (ECD)s.
    Keywords: electronic word of mouth; eWOM; trust in eWOM; distrust in eWOM; fake eWOM and transition from eWOM to WOM.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10053115
  • Online brand experience for a tourist destination and its influence in behavioural intentions in post-visit stage   Order a copy of this article
    by Lina Marcela Padilla-Delgado, Alexander Zuñiga-Collazos 
    Abstract: Nowadays, in order to attract more tourist attention, destinations have decided to focus on marketing, in particular, the experience a tourist may involve before, during and after engaging with the destination. The present study aims to work on the gap of quantitatively test and analyse the six dimensions of online brand experience and its relationship with behavioural intentions. The research methodology proposes a model using a sample of 112 national tourists who have visited the City of Cali. The data analysis is performed through a partial least squares (PLS) model using the SMARTPLS software. The study identifies positive and direct relationships between brand experience and the behavioural intentions of the national tourist in post-visit context. It highlights the role of the different media platforms within the path of living the brand experience in an online context.
    Keywords: brand experience; online platforms; recommendation intention; re-purchase intention; tourism destination; social media platforms; sensorial dimension; social dimension.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10053471
  • Identifying sources of noise within the networked interplay of marketing messages in social media communication.   Order a copy of this article
    by Kimberley Hardcastle, Prabash Edirisingha, Paul Cook 
    Abstract: Social media networks include multiple platforms, devices, human and non-human actors with varying functionalities, making message noise inevitable. The constructed nature of message noise and its influence on shaping meaning is documented; however, the types of noise and how this noise operates within the network requires exploration to enhance understanding. Drawing on observations made during a 21-month Netnography of a service brand’s hashtag community, we collected a dataset comprising 1,000 screenshots from Instagram and Twitter. Results reveal social media message meanings are interrupted by the network creating noise at five key interception points. Findings reveal three different types of noise that emerge within the network. This includes technical, material and architectural noise. Findings contribute to managing effective communication and identify variables that have not previously been discussed. This helps marketers and advertisers to understand the operationalisation of noise type and noise interception in the social media environment, offering practitioners a competitive advantage and the opportunity to support consumers in overcoming technological barriers when accessing marketing messages in the digital realm.
    Keywords: social media communication; platform functionality; technology devices; marketing messages; internet message noise; network configuration.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10053472
  • Can personalised prosocial ads be harnessed for brand equity enhancement?   Order a copy of this article
    by Setareh Heidari, Sepideh Nasiri, Donya Rahmani, Somaye Nargesi 
    Abstract: Brands from various industries are partnering on social initiatives, using social media to speak out on social challenges. A prosocial ad needs to attract the audience's attention before it can have the intended impact. Since standing out in the digital environment is a constant issue for brands seeking to improve equity, marketers have employed a personalisation strategy. The highlights are: 1) this study developed and validated a comprehensive model to examine the mechanism of personalised ad impact on brand equity; 2) personalised ads were found to be a significant antecedent of brand self-expressiveness and perceived ad value; 3) brand engagement is boosted by a favourable attitude toward the ad and a high level of brand self-expressiveness; 4) customers’ engagement with brand-related content on Instagram leads to higher brand equity; 5) theoretical and practical implications for how brand managers can improve brand equity employing the research model are offered.
    Keywords: personalised advertising; prosocial advertising; brand equity; cause-related marketing; brand engagement; brand self-expressiveness; perceived ad value; attitude toward the ad.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10053473
  • Far More Than Just Flying! Role of Airline Brand Experience in Shaping Brand Satisfaction and Brand Loyalty   Order a copy of this article
    by Harleen Pabla, Harmeen Soch 
    Abstract: The aim of this article is to fill the gap in literature which is to examine the influence of individual brand experience dimensions on brand satisfaction and brand loyalty. For this study, a sample of the Indian aviation sector was selected since there is little data available on the aviation business in emerging economies. The study is based on primary data collected from 501 passengers who have travelled by air using structured questionnaire. IBM SPSS 24 and PLS 3.3.3 have been used to analyse and interpret data. The empirical findings demonstrate that all dimensions of brand experience impact brand satisfaction and brand loyalty with the exception of the behavioural dimension. Based on importance-performance map analysis (IPMA), sensory dimension holds more importance on brand satisfaction and the emotional dimension has a stronger impact on brand loyalty. The results of this study can assist managers in creating a more advanced experience framework to attract satisfied and loyal customers.
    Keywords: brand experience; brand satisfaction; brand loyalty; aviation sector; PLS-SEM; importance-performance map analysis; IPMA; PLS-Predict.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2023.10053596

Special Issue on: The Disruptive Marketing Landscape

  • Harvesting the power of Location Data to improve customers experience and destination attractiveness.   Order a copy of this article
    by Olga Pachni-Tsitiridou, Konstantinos Fouskas 
    Abstract: Consumers increasingly use mobile applications and devices that is a valuable source of data for organisations. Mobile devices are utilised in every step of the customer’s journey, from planning to sharing their experience, thus they are considered a valuable source of data for public and private organisations. Data from these sources include location and textual information and can help tourism organisations and destinations improve their offerings, understand customers’ preferences and needs. Our field research based on interviews of 13 organisations in the Greek ecosystem, shows that tourism organisations use insights mainly from social networks and although acknowledging their benefits do not utilise location data. This paper aims not only to pinpoint the opportunities for organisations and destinations to utilise different location data types and identify the necessary complementary skillsets needed but also to identify the importance of inter-organisational relationships among key stakeholders to achieve sustainable competitive advantage.
    Keywords: location data; customer experience; destination attractiveness; location technologies; digital transformation; interorganisational relations.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2022.10044801
  • Why Do People Post Instagram Stories   Order a copy of this article
    by Nutnicha Keerakiatwong, Viriya Taecharungroj, Jesper Döpping 
    Abstract: Instagram Story has now become a widely used feature for self-presentation. However, despite its popularity, limited research has addressed the Instagram Story concept. Research lacunas that we aimed to fill included lack of in-depth understanding of the motives and self-presentation affordances that the platform offers to users. This research elucidates reasons why people post on Instagram Story and its characteristics and features that enhance self-presentation by highlighting input from 23 regular Instagram Story contributors in Bangkok, Thailand. Results determined that people used Instagram Story to connect with others of a similar disposition, to present their lifestyle, passion and values and as a means of archiving and recollecting past activities. This study also explains the affordances of Instagram Story and reinforces the current body of knowledge by highlighting the role of ephemerality and culture. We suggest brands to leverage Instagram Story and help users have fun, connect and shape their identities.
    Keywords: Instagram Story; social media marketing; self-presentation; video marketing.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIMA.2022.10046944