International Journal of Internet Marketing and Advertising (43 papers in press)
Attribution Modeling in Digital Advertising for E-commerce
by Sergey Alexandrovskiy, Olga Trundova
Abstract: The authors aim to offer a probability approach for measuring media contribution to online conversions in e-commerce. The authors reviewed literature on attribution modelling with application of heuristics (Google Analytics) and probability (Markov chains) models. The survey used the data of customer journeys from 134132 users to build up the attribution model. As a result, Markov chains model minimizes the value of Direct online channel, and redistributes the value in favor of other traffic channels and gives a significant weight to the paid traffic. Markov chains model increases the importance of Display and Paid Search channels, which is not so noticeable in heuristic models. Findings of this study help marketers to apply Markov chains modeling in online advertising evaluation and budgeting. The authors proposed application of Markov chains attribution modelling in the e-commerce website. Other e-commerce companies might apply Markov chains attribution modeling in a similar way.
Keywords: attribution modeling; digital advertising; ecommerce; multi-channel measurement; Markov chains model; probability model.
Why are communal advertisements more effective than agentic ones? The role of the self-congruity effect
by Konrad Hryniewicz
Abstract: The article expands the knowledge on marketing effectiveness of advertisements containing agentic and communal content with recipients characteristics. Three studies were carried out (N = 398, N = 339, N = 512) where two advertising conditions were manipulated. One contained agentic content and second communal. The research focused on the relation recipients agency and communion with a series of measurements of the advertising effectiveness (self-congruity, purchase intention, the attitude toward the product, advertisement and brand). Results were summarized with a meta-analysis which showed that the increase in the effectiveness containing communal content significantly depended on the increase in the recipient's communion (the self-congruity effect) while the increase in the recipient's agency was related to the weaker and equal increase in the effectiveness containing both agentic and communal content (the lack of the self-congruity effect). The collected data indicates that the higher effectiveness of communal advertising depends on the recipients communion.
Keywords: communion; agency; advertising effectiveness; self-congruity; meta-analysis.
Adoption of VoD services: An investigation of extended Technology Acceptance Model
by Rahul Sharma, Amit Kakkar
Abstract: As the times are changing, so are the consumption patterns and purchase intentions of the customers for different products/services and the same are also witnessed in the entertainment industry. With the amalgamation of rock bottom data prices and wide penetration of smartphones, the streaming apps (VoD services) are witnessing a whirlwind acceptance among its target audience. The present study is conducted to study the factors influencing the purchase intention of VoD services. The conceptual model centered around TAM (Technology Acceptance Model) was theorised to study the purchase intention of VoD services with the addition of dimensions Perceived Enjoyment (PE) and Content and the antecedents of Perceived Usefulness (PU) and Perceived Ease of Use (PEOU). The data was collected from 207 respondents who were using VoD services and the responses were analysed using the Smart-PLS 2.0. The study established the significant and positive effect of PEOU and PU, Perceived Enjoyment (PE) and Content on the intention to use VoD services. The findings suggest the acceptance of newer technologies like VoD by customers because of Ease of Use and Usefulness along-with Content availability and Enjoyment. It establishes the fact that all the newer technologies which are useful and easy to use to the customers will be accepted by their respective target customers.
Keywords: VOD; Content; OTT; Technology Acceptance Model (TAM); Smart PLS.
Customers perspectives on marketing mix elements in social media-based purchases
by Bình Nghiêm-Phú
Abstract: Much research has examined customers perspectives on information tools in particular and the marketing mix elements in general. However, several theoretical gaps can still be observed. In this study, the roles that social media-based information inputs have with customers perceptions of trust in sellers (People), Products, Price, distribution method (Place), purchase process (Process) and their intentions were examined. Using data gathered from university students in Vietnam, this study found that textual descriptions and pictures created by sellers had some significant impacts on customers perceptions of trust in sellers and the purchase process. In addition, pictures and hashtags contributed by buyers had some significant influences on customers evaluations of price and the purchase process. Implications for marketing theory and practice were discussed, together with the limitations of this study and the directions for future research.
Keywords: social networks; organic information; induced information; online shopping; structural equation modeling.
Influence of Social Media and Online Reviews on University Students Purchasing Decisions
by Mostafa Torabi, Charles Bélanger
Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to investigate and gauge the influence of rating websites and social media on consumers purchasing behaviour and their choices. The present research considers a comparison between choosing a university and a restaurant by consumers based on using social media and online reviews. The study develops a multidimensional model to recognize the influence of online rating websites and social medial on consumer purchasing decisions.
Results reveal that information adoption and risk-taking are important factors towards consumer purchasing decisions. However, there is no significant relationship between demographic traits and consumer purchasing decisions based on the proposed model and findings. Moreover, the study confirms that long-term benefits outweigh the expediency of a decision when respondents were reviewing websites.
Keywords: social media; e-word of mouth; online reviews; information adoption; risk; consumer purchasing decisions.
Exploring Brand Humanization on SNSs: Brand Personality and Its Influence on Brand Partner Quality, Brand Attitude, and Consumer Behavioral Engagement
by Eun Sook Kwon, Jooyoung Kim
Abstract: This study explored whether consumers interacting with brands on SNSs attribute human-like personalities to brands and further examined the relationships between personality dimensions and brand performance measures. Responses from 922 research participants (530 brand followers and 392 brand non-followers on SNSs) were analyzed. Brand followers and brand non-followers attributed some of the same personality dimensions (Sophistication, Sincerity, and Competence) while there were differences between the two groups: Excitement only among brand non-followers; Agreeableness and Unpleasantness only among brand followers. The personality dimension Sincerity had a strong, positive influence on brand performance measures. Implications are discussed.
Keywords: Brand personality; Big Five; Brand partner quality; Brand attitude; Behavioral engagement; Social networking sites.
Factors Affecting the Impact of Text Message Advertising
by Christos Livas, Apostolos Skotis
Abstract: The ubiquity of mobile devices has given rise to numerous interactive marketing tactics, many of which involve the delivery of written text. Due to the paucity of studies assessing the effectiveness of mobile marketing communications, the present research aims at identifying factors affecting text message (or short message service SMS) advertising impact. An investigation of one hundred and thirty-nine campaigns launched by eight leading multinational brands operating in the Greek cosmetics industry demonstrated that the introduction of targeted and shorter campaigns during seasonal sales, as well as the conveyance of emotional and rarity appeals, enhance purchase rate and sales impact. Results indicate that text message advertising should be geared towards particular marketing objectives. Its impact is enhanced by identification of contextual opportunities and adaptation of message content to consumers buying situations. Overall, with use of data from marketing practice, the present study contributes to improved campaign planning and execution.
Keywords: mobile phones; mobile advertising; SMS; text message advertising; mobile promotions; campaign characteristics; message appeals; message adaptation; impact; effectiveness.
A Comparative Impact of Cause-Related Marketing and Sponsorship Leveraged Internet Display Advertising
by Wilson Ndasi, Elvira Bolat, Gelareh Roushan
Abstract: Cause-related marketing (CRM) and sponsorship activities have become an increasingly popular corporate social responsibility (CSR) strategy, whereby firms partner with non-profit organisations (NPOs) to achieve varieties of business objectives, while still supporting NPOs social causes. Advances in internet technology and e-commerce activities have facilitated the widespread use of internet CRM and sponsorship advertisement frames targeting potential donors and online customers. Typically, firms communicate through ads in a variety of ways, such as offering a precise donation amount (PDA) to the charity organisation in question, or by declaring mutually beneficial collaboration of the firms brand with the non-profit organisation (NPO), by stating an imprecise donation (IDA)offer. This study compares the effectiveness of PDA ads (both at low and high donation amounts) with imprecise donation amount (IDA) internet display advertisement frames, in terms of attitude and purchase intention from a fundraising perspective. Using a web-based experimental survey design involving the national representative sample, the results of the ANCOVA analysis revealed that there is no significant difference in attitudes between precise and imprecise donation ad frames(PDA & IPA). However, PDA advertisements were found to indicate higher purchase intention than the IDA ad frame; regardless of the perceived donation amounts were either low or high. Furthermore, PDA ads with higher donation amounts (versus low donation amount) engender greater purchase. This study contributes to the understanding of the effective use of cause-related and sponsorship internet ads, for consumer segmentation and targeting.
Keywords: Internet advertising; online cause-related marketing; online sponsorship; display ad ; donation amount; online Charity fundraising.
Is WhatsApp a New Age Advertising tool?
by Mallika Srivastava, Semila Fernandes
Abstract: With the emergence of social media, many organizations have started using social media platforms such as WhatsApp, Facebook, and Twitter for their marketing communication campaigns (Merlio, 2017). Given that todays consumers are considered digital natives and comprise the Generation C segment (born from 1982 to late 90s/early 00s termed as the psychographic group) (Forbes, 2018), one might suspect this group to be active in creating and disseminating product knowledge within social groups. This paper is an attempt, at studying the Generation C of urban consumers towards acceptance of WhatsApp as a tool for publicizing product information, and the impact of viewers reaction on watching the advertisements on WhatsApp towards their viral intention. The analysis of the dimension of the VRP (Viewers Response Profile) scale posited that consumers weighed the dimension of confusion the highest, and brand reinforcement as the weakest predictor of VRP. Additionally, Time spent on WhatsApp had significant impact on Viral Intention. Gender and Time spent on WhatsApp partially moderated the relationship between Viewers Affective Reaction and Viral Intention.
Keywords: Viewer response profile;WhatsApp;Viral intention.
Advertising in App: a Neuroscientific Approach
by Federico Cassioli, Michela Balconi
Abstract: The present study investigated, through eye-tracking, the impact of animation and interactivity in the Ad on visual behaviour. Users were asked to use an app, programmed by the research team, where 4 types of Ad stimuli, obtained by crossing the two features, were exhibited. Results from moderation analysis indicated Animation and Interactivity as predictors of the number of Ad fixations, a sign of higher attentional engagement. Furthermore, a negative effect of Interactivity on Animation was found, highlighting a tendency to avoid too complex Ad stimuli, in accordance with the concept of cognitive workload and the absence of an additive effect.
Keywords: Eye-tracking; In-App Advertising; Ad efficacy; Animation; Interactivity.
The Impact of Social Media Marketing Activities on Student Desires: Analyzing the Mediating Role of Brand Identity, Perceived Value, and Satisfaction
by Mohammad Zia Mohseni, Saeed Jafari Titkanloo
Abstract: With the increasing competitive circumstance in higher education, universities need to identify tools to increase student satisfaction and retention. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of social media marketing activities (SMMA) on students' willingness to participate and pursue higher education through the mediating role of brand identity (BI), perceived value (PV), and satisfaction (SAT). The population of the study includes the top four universities in Kabul that use social media to do their marketing activities. For data collection, 373 questionnaires were distributed among the students of these universities. The research model was tested using structural equation modeling technique. The findings show that SMMAs have a positive impact on BI, PV, and SAT. The results of data analysis also show that SMMAs through BI and PV indirectly affect SAT. Also, BI and PV through consent indirectly influence the Continuance Intention and the Participation Intention.
Keywords: Social Media Marketing Activities; Brand Identity; Perceived Value; Satisfaction; Higher Education.
How Twitter advertising influences the purchase intentions and purchase attitudes of Indian Millennial consumers?
by Suhail M. Ghouse, Rodney Graeme Duffett, Monica Chaudhary
Abstract: This research investigates the influence of Twitter advertising on the purchase intentions and purchase attitudes of the Millennial internet users in India, as well as to assess if the usage and demographic variables had an influence on their buying intentions and buying attitudes. A convenient sample was used to survey 500 Indian Millennials via self-administered structured questionnaires. The results reveal Twitter advertising has a positive impact on the purchase attitudes of Indian Millennials. More experienced Twitter users; logged-on more frequently; spent fewer hours; followed a greater number of companies/brands; were female; and younger Indian Millennial respondents had the most favourable perceptions towards Twitter advertising. The research findings will help traditional organisations to acknowledge and adapt their promotional strategies to include Twitter advertising in their marketing budgets. This study also contributes to attitudinal research literature in an Indian context, which lacks research in social media advertising featuring the Millennial segment.
Keywords: Millennials; Generation Y; buying behaviour; purchase intentions; purchase; consumer attitudes; Twitter marketing communication; social media marketing; India.
Worried about Digital Footprint?: Attitudes Toward Online Behavioral Advertising with the AdChoices Icon
by Soontae An, Hannah Kang
Abstract: This study examined the efficacy of using the AdChoices icon, a symbol that indicates the use of Online Behavioral Advertising (OBA) on websites. Despite the increased use of OBA for internet advertising, little is known as to its impact on user attitudes toward websites and advertisements that voluntarily display the icon. This study conducted a survey with 199 undergraduate students in the U.S and compared the effects of the icon in individuals with less favorable attitudes toward OBA in general to those in people holding more favorable attitudes toward OBA in general, in relation to their privacy concerns. For those with less favorable attitudes toward OBA, their attitudes toward the website displaying the icon increased significantly when the individuals perceived privacy concern was high. Those with more favorable attitudes toward OBA did not show much change regardless of individual privacy concerns. However, such an interaction effect was not observed for the advertisements themselves on websites displaying the icon. Furthermore, this study investigated the mediating role of attitudes toward the website with the icon in the relationship between perceived privacy concerns and attitudes toward the advertisement with the icon. The results indicate that effective self-regulation is a viable solution, and these results warrant more systematic research and the development of more effective self-regulatory mechanisms.
Keywords: Online behavioral advertising (OBA); Self-regulation; AdChoices icon; privacy concerns.
Consumer acceptance of online display advertising The effects of ad characteristics and attitude toward online advertising
by Priscilla Teika Odoom, Bedman Narteh, Raphael Odoom
Abstract: Extant research address online display advertising effectiveness as a function of ad characteristics. However, issues regarding the influence of specific ad characteristics remain under explored and fragmented. Also, the role of ATOA in facilitating the effects of ad characteristics on consumers ad acceptance is not properly addressed. Yet, these insights are essential for marketers to break through the clutter and enhance favourable reactions toward their display ads. This study extends existing online advertising literature by examining the influence of interactivity, placement, informativeness, personalisation, and exposure condition on ad acceptance; and also assesses the intervening effect of ATOA in these relationships, using the stimulus organism response model as a theoretical lens. An online survey was employed to gather the study data which was analysed using structural equation modelling. Findings support all except placement as essential ODA characteristics that directly influence ad acceptance among consumers, and ATOA emerged as a strong mediator of these relationships.
Keywords: ODA; online display advertising; online advertising effectiveness; attitude toward online advertising; stimulus organism response model; interactivity; personalisation; exposure condition; ad acceptance.
Why shopping on social media? A systematic review
by Carlos Oliveira, Ana Cristina Bicharra Garcia, Bruna Diirr
Abstract: Billions of people around the world currently use social media. They have been used for sharing and seeking information, which helped to boost its use for sales of products/services. Despite the vast possibilities of sales on social media, conversion rates for online sales on social media platforms are very low (less than 1%). In this paper, we present a systematic literature review addressing two questions: (Q1) What are the main factors impacting consumers buying behavior the literature has brought to light? (Q2) How has the perception of marketing in social media evolved in recent years? Our main contribution was to show what these factors are and how they relate to each other. Knowing these factors allows marketers to offer the highest number of stimuli and avoid discouragement on their pages/channels on social media.
Keywords: Shopping on social media; Buying behavior; Stimulus factors; Influencer marketing; Systematic review.
Examining customers intention to rely on online reviews
by Sridevi Periaiya, Manoraj Natarajan, Lakshmi Narasimhan Vedanthachari
Abstract: The use of online reviews among online shoppers has increased significantly in recent years and has reduced uncertainty and risks associated with online shopping. As it has become a reliable source for product information, this research study focused to identify and assess the intention of online shoppers reliability on online reviews. Here consumers intention to rely on online reviews were studied based on their decision-making style, personality trait, and online behaviour. A quantitative survey involving 375 Indian online shoppers were performed to identify and understand their reliance on online reviews. The study deliberates that consumer with high price consciousness, value consciousness, brand consciousness, and self-esteem rely on online reviews for their online purchases. On the other extent, consumer who are quality conscious and having online shopping anxiety do not rely on online reviews. This research adds to the growing literature on consumer information theory and validates the link between consumer shopping motivation and their informational needs.
Keywords: Online review; eWoM; decision-making style; self-esteem; online anxiety; information requirement;.
Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty with Corporate Multi-Brand Web Sites in an Era of Social Media and Misinformation.
by Meriem Agrebi, Jean Louis Chandon, Judith Lynne Zaichkowsky
Abstract: In the age of social media, are brand websites still relevant? Confronted by social media, multi-brand companies face a challenge to control their brand image and advertising content. Building an interactive website, as a common umbrella to their many brands, can produce a successful customer experience leading to satisfaction and brand loyalty. This paper investigates e-loyalty toward multi-brand websites that aggregate, on a single website, brands and products belonging to the same parent company (corporate brand). Using a quasi-experiment on two major corporate multi-brand websites, the study uncovers a positive multi-brand experience effect coming from the benefits of having multiple brands on the same site. The multi-brand experience on e-loyalty is stronger for first-time visitors compared to repeat visitors and e-loyalty increases with the number of brands purchased before visiting the website. The study provides strong evidence to support a positive effect of multi-brand websites on e-loyalty.
Keywords: multi-brand websites; e-satisfaction; e-loyalty; website content features; online brand experience.
The Role of Online Source Credibility and Influencer Identification on Consumers Purchase Decisions
by Tugba Özbölük, Kutay Akdogan
Abstract: The easy access to social media has created influencers that take advantage of this opportunity and gather their own audience. It did not take long for influencers to enter the radar of marketers looking for different ways of reaching consumers. Influencer marketing has become one of the most popular tools in marketing communication. The increasing number of brand-influencer collaborations raises the question of whether influencers are as effective as they are thought to be.rnThe effect of influencers on consumers purchasing behaviour is an important topic in marketing. However, research on this topic is very scarce. Accordingly, this paper aims to investigate the effect of online source credibility and influencer identification on consumers purchase decisions. An online survey is conducted on 460 participants to achieve this aim. Results show that the perceived trustworthiness of influencers and influencer identification positively affects consumers purchase decisions.
Keywords: Influencer; Influencer Marketing; Online Source Credibility; Influencer Identification.
Innovation from Virtual Brand Community Members may only be Virtually Effective
by Paul Barretta, Fuat F?rat
Abstract: This study measures how effective crowdsourcing innovation from a Virtual Brand Community (VBC) is for promoting brand attachment of members and non-members of that VBC. Experimental design is used to survey members and non-members of the website Marvel.com to measure brand attachment and affect toward an innovation of the company in the form of a comic book universe reset, a form of product innovation for this market. Mean Difference Testing and Structural Equations indicate that brand attachment is higher at a statistically significant level when measuring the interaction effect of innovation source x community membership; the less consumers know about the source of the innovation the better; knowledge that innovation is sourced from the VBC may be effective for increasing brand attachment of members of the VBC, but not for non-members, indicating that applying characteristics of traditional brand communities to VBCs may not be effective.
Keywords: Virtual Brand Community; VBC; Brand Attachment; Marvel Comics; Crowdsourcing; Product innovation; Brand Community.
Cultivating consumer-brand relationship in social media: The role of consumer willingness to engage
by Terri Chan
Abstract: In todays digital era, social media advertising efforts continue to expand with strong abilities to concisely target, behaviorally profile, and interactively engage consumers. In the midst of plentiful brand information presented on social media, it has been argued that while consumers can attend to many brands, it is through consumers motivation to interact with one particular brand that brand-consumer relationship can be further fostered. Using stage theories of relationship development as the overarching framework, consumer and brand relationship in this study is conceptualized to be similar to the trajectory of a close friendship, which involves active engagement from both parties. Collating data from three independent sources, this study examined 195 leading consumer brands across 23 product categories in China to verify the role of consumers willingness to engage in shaping brand preference.
Keywords: consumer-brand relationship; consumer engagement; social media; empirical; online advertising; brand salience; brand distinctiveness.
Motivations underlying Vietnamese consumers post-adoption behaviors of mobile contextual advertising: Focusing on advertising value and security risk
by Xuan Cu Le
Abstract: This study tailors an advertising value and security risk-based post-adoption behavior model toward mobile contextual advertising (CAD). 316 valid responses were gathered to assess the reliability and validity of the model. The Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was applied for evaluating hypothesis testing. The findings expose that post-adoption behaviors are motivated by the predominance of advertising value over security risk. Besides, a mechanism of advertising value based on Choice Value Paradigm (CVP) and a manner of alleviating security risk via compliance factors are unraveled. Furthermore, use intention and seeking information intention increase the explanatory significance. This research guides marketers to understand how to adopt effective marketing trajectories based on the equivalence between advertising value for customers and information usage for firms business purposes. Also, firms guarantee policies associated with the validity of a comprehensive regulatory framework must be considered to address security risk in CAD
Keywords: advertising value; post-adoption behaviors; privacy statement; security risk; spatiotemporal focus.
Investigation of generational differences in advertising behavior and fake news perception among Facebook users
by Sunil Hazari
Abstract: Facebook is the largest social media platform that is used by all generations of users and businesses. Many users consider Facebook as a primary news source even though the news on Facebook is not authenticated. This fake news can be used for financial or political gain and can also impact consumer behavior towards products. The purpose of this study was to investigate advertising response behavior and fake news perception among multi-generational Facebook users in conjunction with other variables such as gender and political affiliation. Data were collected using a multi-stage quota sample of 400 respondents. A scale was developed and psychometrically tested as part of the study to determine fake news perception. Findings of this study can be used to drive engagement with Facebook users, and develop campaigns that use actionable segmentation scheme. Implications of user behavior and fake news perception are discussed, and future research directions are provided.
Keywords: Facebook; fake news; market segmentation; political marketing; political psychology; ideological differences; multi-generational differences.
A Moderated-Mediated Model of the Effect of Social Media Advertising on Consumer Buying Behavior: Evidence from India
by Krishna Kumar Rajarathinam, Logu Rathinam, Satyanarayana Parayitam
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to investigate the advertisement effectiveness of social media marketing among young consumers especially in Indian context. A conceptual model is developed and empirically tested after collecting data from 1325 respondents from two cosmopolitan cities of Southern India (Chennai and Coimbatore) using structured instrument. The hierarchical regression results indicate that: (i) Social media advertising is positively and significantly related to use of social media by consumers, (ii) Use of social media is significantly and positively related to (a) online buying behavior,(b) habitual buying behavior, (c) variety-seeking buying behavior, and (d) impulsive buying behavior. Results also indicate that various factors of social media (viz., accessibility, customization, user interest, and user interaction) moderate the relationship between social media advertising and use of social media by consumers. Finally, findings support for partial mediation of use of social media in the relationship between social media advertising and consumer buying behavior. Implications for advertising literature and practicing managers are discussed.
Keywords: Social media; online buying behavior; impulsive buying behavior; variety-seeking buying behavior.
Brand Celebrities. Analysis of Celebrity Sponsorship Posts on Facebook
by Goetz Greve, Andrea Schlüschen, Claudia Fantapié Altobelli
Abstract: The social media accounts of celebrities have inspired innovative ways for companies to promote their brands. One form of celebrity-related advertising are celebrity-sponsorship posts. These posts often come at a high cost for the advertiser while it remains unclear which content characteristics are expected to influence the effectiveness of these posts. This paper investigates the impacts of content characteristics of celebrity-sponsorship posts on Facebook on customer engagement. Structural equation modelling was used to assess the characteristics of 313 sponsored posts from 128 celebrities endorsing 154 brands. Drawing on the dual mediation hypothesis and uses and gratification theory, this study reveals that distinct content characteristics drive either attitudes towards the celebrity or attitudes towards the brand, revealing the double-edged nature of celebrity-sponsorship posts. The findings suggest that marketing managers should carefully design celebrity sponsorship posts by adjusting the balance between celebrity and brand emphasis. Otherwise, there might be a threat of either the brand being overshadowed by the celebrity, thus reducing brand attitude, or the brand capturing the celebrity by - from a fans perspective - being obviously recognized as plain advertising; as such, this effect can harm the attitude towards the celebrity and, consequently, reduces customer engagement.
Keywords: Celebrities; Brands; Celebrity Sponsorship Posts; Social Media; Facebook.
Return on Investment (ROI) and Return on Ad Spend (ROAS) at the Action level of AIDA using Last Touch Attribution method on Digital Advertising platforms
by Sriram K V, Anup Ananda Poojary, Vineet Jawa, Giridhar B Kamath
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to help marketers realize the importance of the last-click attribution model at the Action level of the AIDA model on the Return on Investment (ROI). Marketers often rely on last-click attribution modelling, and they obtain undesired results as Google Ads and Facebook Ads use the last-click attribution model as the default model. Being plagued with attribution-based issues, firms can end up overspending their budget because the ROI shows discouraging results and firms end up curtailing the campaigns, which further drops the conversion. This paper analyses the data from a jewellery brands marketing campaigns to understand the effect of Action level advertisements on Google Ads and Facebook platforms over Return on Investment (ROI). In conjunction with the ROI being affected by last-touch attribution, the authors have questioned the effect of the AIDA models last phase/level, i.e., the Action levels effect on ROI from the advertising platform. The findings revealed that ROI through Google Ads and Facebook Ads were different in the Action level of the AIDA using the last touch attribution model. This study contributes to the evidence of the ROI queries that the marketers have faced in the current digital marketing domain.
Keywords: return on investment; ROI; last touch attribution; last click attribution; AIDA model; action level AIDA model; google ads; facebook ads; ROAS; analytics.
Effects of Celebrity, Social Media Influencer, and Peer Endorsements on Consumer Responses Toward a Celebrity-Owned Brand: The Role of Source Credibility and Congruency
by Shiyun Tian, Jo-Yun Li
Abstract: Considering the growing popularity of celebrity-owned brands through social media advertising, this study investigates how different types of product endorsers (i.e., celebrities, social media influencers [SMI], and peer Internet users) influence consumers judgments toward celebrity-owned brands on Instagram. Results indicated that perceived expertise was important in consumers evaluation of product endorsement messages, whereas perceptions of endorsers trustworthiness did not differ across the three conditions. In terms of endorsement effectiveness, celebrities and SMIs had more significant impacts on consumer responses than fellow consumers when endorsing a brand owned by the celebrity, in which perceived expertise mediated the relationship between endorser type and advertising effectiveness. In addition, the endorser-consumer congruency is more prominent to SMI endorsements than to peer endorsements, whereas the endorser-product congruency is more crucial to peer endorsements than to celebrity endorsements. Theoretical and practical implications for researchers and marketers are discussed.
Keywords: product endorsements; celebrity endorsements; social media influencer; peer; advertising; Instagram; celebrity-owned brand; source credibility; trustworthiness; expertise; endorser-consumer congruency; endorser-product congruency.
Influence of Post Types on Facebook Engagement: The Moderating Roles of Brand Category and Brand Internationalization
by Mathupayas Thongmak
Abstract: Strategies for brand community engagement have been lagging behind the social media growth. This paper thus attempts to understand the effects of content types on brand community engagement (likes, comments, and shares) in the understudied yet important country of Thailand using a comprehensive framework. This study collected 1,574 posts from 183 Facebook pages in nine brand categories. Content analysis was conducted to extract the content type of each post. The main study explored post-type effects together with the moderating influences of the brand category (FMCGs vs. non-FMCGs) and brand internationalization (global vs. local brands). The research also explored real cases of Facebook posts in nine brand categories and compared the influence of posts on fan engagement. The findings showed that different content types were utilized among brand categories and brand groups, but above all entertaining posts received the highest fan engagement. Both FMCG and global brands significantly moderated several relationships between post types and fan engagement. There was a small number of posts in some brand categories due to the nature of each industry. Recommendations are made regarding an effective content strategy to enhance Facebook page engagement for marketers and social media managers.
Keywords: Facebook; content strategy; uses and gratifications; brand page; engagement; brand category; brand internationalization; FMCG.
Role of Brand Experience, Brand Trust and Brand Love in Assessing Brand Loyalty: A Study of Fashion Jewellery Brands among Women
by Dheeraj Nim, Shamily Jaggi, Gursimranjit Singh
Abstract: Building strong brands become an imperative part of almost every firm and jewellery firms are not an exception to this. This present paper is an attempt to assess the mediating role of brand trust, brand satisfaction and brand love in the relationship between brand loyalty and brand experience. The hypotheses framed were tested from randomly collected data through self-administrated questionnaire filled by 300 females across PAN India. Responses were taken on five point Likert scale and the measurement model was tested through Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) technique with Smart Partial Least Square (PLS) 2.0 software. The results revealed that brand trust and brand love fully mediates the relationship between brand loyalty and brand experience whereas mediation effect of brand satisfaction is insignificant. The study found new directions for better explaining the brand experience and brand loyalty relationship that will help jewellers/marketers in designing their marketing strategies effectively.
Keywords: Brand; Experience; Jewellery; Love; Loyalty; Satisfaction; Trust; Women.
Antecedents of trust and purchase intention in social commerce in Brazil
by Natália Pagan, Karina Pagan, Janaina Giraldi, Edgard Merlo
Abstract: This article sought to create a theoretical model for trust and its antecedents, and purchase intention on social commerce websites in Brazil. The antecedents investigated were privacy, safety, proximity, familiarity, and habit of using the website. For this, we collected data from 350 Brazilian participants who use Facebook for purchases. Privacy, safety, familiarity, and the habit of using the website positively influence trust in the Brazilian social commerce website, while proximity does not have a positive influence on it. Trust was positively influenced by the purchase intention. International and Brazilian website administrators who wish to enter the Brazilian market can use the results of this paper to win consumer trust regarding their websites and thereby sell their products and/or services.
Keywords: Social commerce. E-commerce. Social Media. Trust. Antecedents of trust. Purchase Intention. Internet. SEM. Marketing Research. Web 2.0.
Privacy may be more important in Beijing than in Hong Kong in Location-Based Services
by Ranjan Kini, Qianyu Zhao-Serranos
Abstract: Location-based technologies are getting sophisticated, and there are many studies conducted focused on the influence of permission, trust, relevance, and context issues in the acceptance of Location-based services (LBS) and advertising in various cultural backgrounds. Understanding the perception of LBS in the e-commerce maturity spectrum is important for marketers to maximize the impact of these technologies. In this empirical study, the authors found that Beijing is a little more acceptive of LBS in a certain category of products and services while Hong Kong is acceptive in other categories. The research also identified that there are two groups of respondents progressives and vexessives, in both locations. The larger group progressives are openly embracing LBS and smaller group vexessives are often annoyed with LBS and are very slow in accepting of these technologies. The challenge is to identify the efficacy of these technologies for different categories of products in different economic, legal and cultural backgrounds and find effective solutions.
Keywords: Location-Based Services in Beijing and Hong Kong; Location-Based Mobile Advertising in Beijing and Hong Kong; Location-Based Mobile Marketing in Beijing and Hong Kong; Interactive Marketing; Privacy in Beijing and Hong Kong; \r\nInteractive Advertising\r\n.
Technology Disruption in Healthcare: Artificial Intelligence Application, Challenges, and Policy Recommendations in India
by Sheshadri Chatterjee, Ranjan Chaudhuri, Alkis Thrassou, Demetris Vrontis
Abstract: Artificial intelligence (AI) technology, along with its related algorithms, hardware, capability, and applications, is rapidly expanding across sectors and industries, globally. Through a combination of theoretical and qualitative research this study identifies the different applications of AI in the healthcare sector, including biomedicine, disease diagnostics, hospital record management, living assistance, biomedical research, and more. Particular emphasis is placed on the case of Indian hospitals and the relevant opportunities and challenges for sustainable growth of AI in the healthcare sector, at both the policy and governmental levels. The study finds that policy improvements, greater investment in R&D activities, and effective governance constitute the keys towards the maximisation of both the potential and actual benefits of AI in the healthcare sector.
Keywords: artificial intelligence; AI governance; healthcare; hospitals; regulation; policy; opportunities and challenges; India.
Special Issue on: Social Media Marketing in the Digital Era
Cosmetics Interest and Behaviour Generated from Social Media Advertising and e-WOM among Female Millennials
by Helen Inseng Duh
Abstract: Cosmetics demand is growing among female millennials, who are high users of social media and electronic word-of-mouth (e-WOM) for purchase decision-making. However, the social media platforms and other information sources generating cosmetics interest and desired marketing outcomes from millennials, reported to be fickle and notoriously disloyal are unknown. Marketers spend to advertise on various social media platforms amidst e-WOM that consumers share, but do not know the advertising effectiveness of each social media platform or whether purchase behaviour is driven by e-WOM. This study was aimed at modifying the Attention, Interest, Desire, Action (AIDA) model to examine the impact of YouTube, Instagram and Facebook adverts on female South African millennials cosmetics interest, purchase intention and willingness to pass-along information. It also compared the impact with how e-WOM influence cosmetics interest and purchase intention. Users (N=259) of all three social media platforms were surveyed. Structural equation modelling results revealed that cosmetics interest was ignited by attention drawn from YouTube and Instagram adverts. This interest influenced purchase intention and willingness to pass-along information. Information received from e-WOM influenced cosmetics interest, but not purchase intention. This study contributes by modifying and testing the AIDA model in the context of social media advertising.
Keywords: Social Media; YouTube; Facebook; Instagram; Cosmetics interest; e-WOM; Information pass-along; Female Millennials; Purchase Intention; AIDA Model.
Attributes of Instagram influencers impacting consumer brand engagement
by Helen Inseng Duh, Thabile Thabethe
Abstract: Social media influencers are described as people having the power to influence consumers brand opinions, reactions and behaviour. The attributes giving influencers the power, especially on Instagram, where a single post can cost up to $1.2 million need examination. Three models have been proposed for the understanding of attributes accountable for brand communicators persuasiveness/effectiveness. These models needed integration and testing in the context of Instagram influencers, brand engagement and millennials. Considering that South-Africas large number of millennials are significantly drawn to famous influencers on social media, this study extended Ohanians (1990) integrated source credibility model to examine Instagram influencers attributes impacting millennials brand engagement. Data was quantitatively collected from 330 millennials in a socio-economically and culturally diverse university. Structural equation modelling results revealed that influencers trustworthiness, familiarity, similarity and likability were the significant drivers of brand engagement. Likabilitys impact was surprisingly negative. Expertise and attractiveness did not impact brand engagement significantly.
Keywords: Influencer marketing; Social Media; Influencers’ Attributes; Ohanian Model; Brand Engagement; Millennials; Trustworthiness; Expertise; Familiarity; Attractiveness; Likability; Similarity; South Africa.
The Impact of Social Media Advertising on Purchase Intention:
The Mediation Role of Consumer Brand Engagement
by WEERAPORN SUPOTTHAMJAREE
Abstract: This study aims to investigate the impact of social media advertising on purchase intention by analysing the mediating role of consumer brand engagement (CBE). From the literature review, there are two issues that gain more attention from current marketing researchers because there are remaining differences in factors, concepts, definitions, or measurement dimensions. First, different factors are used as advertising elements in the context of social media. Second, CBE uses different concepts, definitions, and measurement dimensions. The study deployed an exploratory sequential mixed-methods design. Data collected from a sample of 560 Thai people engaged with social media advertising, as Thailand is the leading country in using social media in Southeast Asia, were analysed using structural equation modelling (SEM). The findings suggest that social media advertising consisting of credibility, informativeness, entertainment, and information access affects CBE (measured as a second-order construct) and purchase intention. Additionally, CBE affects brand loyalty and purchase intention. In addition, it is found that CBE fully mediates the relationship between social media advertising and purchase intention.
Keywords: Social media advertising; Consumer brand engagement; Brand loyalty; Purchase intention.
Instagram Marketing: Understanding the Adoption Factors for Small and Medium Enterprises
by Harun Zuraini, Farzana Parveen Tajudeen
Abstract: The emergence of social media has changed traditional marketing approaches which need to be reviewed to accommodate todays world. This includes Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) which tend to have limited marketing and advertising budgets. In line with this, Instagram is a perfect alternative marketing channel because it is effective and low costing. Taking into account the immense potential of Instagram for businesses, this study examines the factors that influence the SMEs intention to adopt Instagram as a marketing channel. A survey of 154 SME companies in Malaysia was conducted. The theoretical framework used was based on the TOE (Technology, Organization and Environment) framework. The outcome of this study helps marketing managers and organizations top management to better understand the potential of Instagram as a marketing channel, and the factors that need to be considered for its adoption.
Keywords: Instagram; Social media; SMEs; Marketing; Business; Advertising; Low cost; Malaysia; TOE; Benefits.
How Do People Adopt Information on Social Media? The Role of eWOM in Revealing Travel Itineraries
by Nilsah Cavdar Aksoy, Alev Kocak Alan, Ebru Tumer Kabadayi, Hayri Sinan Dagistanli
Abstract: Social media, through its increasing importance and expanding usage areas, represents a source of information exchange for individuals day by day. The information released in this electronic environment has become an element of word-of-mouth communication. This type of information indicates an area that should be managed for all sectors, including the tourism sector. The purpose of this study is to explain adoption behaviors of individuals towards tourism information in social media, within the framework of information-related factors and source-related factors. In doing so, Information Adoption Model was utilized to explain individuals' adoption of the information they obtained via the Internet while planning their trips. Survey method was used in this study, and the data obtained were tested with structural equation modelling. The results of the study showed the following: (1) source homophily positively relates to both source expertise and source trustworthiness, (2) effective factors on information credibility are source credibility, source expertise, and argument quality, (3) information credibility and former three positively relates to information usefulness, (4) information usefulness exerts a positive influence on information adoption.
Keywords: social media; eWOM; information adoption; information usefulness; information credibility; argument quality; source expertise; source trustworthiness; source homophily.
A Brand-Centric Framework for Ephemeral Media: Conceptual Approach to Instagram Stories
by Fatih Pinarbasi
Abstract: Social media is one of the most widely investigated areas for consumer research in recent years, as well as it has a crucial role in consumers lives. Time-constrained, disappearing media content (namely ephemeral media) is one of the recent trends in social media consumer behavior with the popularity of Snapchat and Instagram Stories. Previous studies mostly investigated individual side of ephemeral media with empirical approaches. Research up to the present has not yet determined a conceptual structure for evaluating ephemeral media. This study aims to contribute social media literature by developing a comprehensive framework for ephemeral media concept, as well as being the first study to undertake ephemeral media with typology, conceptual structure and theoretical background. Typology part of the study reviews the attributes of ephemeral media and segments them into three clusters namely meta attributes, visual attributes and interaction attributes. Conceptual structure part assesses antecedents, consequences and control variables for ephemeral media by considering different approaches. Last part, theoretical background section investigates theories which can be used for ephemeral media researches. The study utilises a grounded theory approach for developing a conceptual framework and has an interpretive nature for preparing future research directions. As the study reveals a comprehensive framework for ephemeral media concept, further studies could explore each elements of the framework.
Keywords: liquid consumption; ephemeral media; brand communication; instagram.
The Influence of Brand Image for the Online Direct Selling of a Malaysian Micro-enterprise Cosmetic Brand: The Mediating Role of Brand Awareness
by Rajat Subhra Chatterjee, Linda A.P. Seduram, Tan Sin Kwang, Chay Yau Choon
Abstract: In the backdrop of the augmented growth of micro-enterprises in Malaysia, this study examined the effects of credibility opinion, electronic word of mouth (eWOM), and social interaction on brand awareness and brand image. This study adopted a cross-sectional design by collecting quantitative data from 223 conveniently selected female online users of Susenji, which is a cosmetic brand and they live in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The findings revealed that eWOM and social interaction have a significant positive effect on brand awareness. Besides that, eWOM, credibility opinion, and brand awareness have a significant positive effect on brand image. The findings also revealed that brand awareness mediates the relationship between social influence and eWOM. The study contributed primarily to the current literature of the online direct selling micro-enterprises and the mediating relationship between brand awareness and the cosmetic brand industry.
Keywords: Malaysia; Micro-enterprise; cosmetics; brand image; brand awareness; eWOM; credibility opinion; social interaction; social media; direct selling; mediating.
Special Issue on: ICCMI 2018 Strategic Use of Social Media as a Marketing Tool
Engagement and Reactions of Brand Posts on Brand Fan Pages in Facebook: An Investigation of Brand Posts Characteristics.
by Ioannis Antoniadis, Costas Assimakopoulos, Symeon Paltsoglou
Abstract: Engagement and Reactions of Brand Posts on Brand Fan Pages in Facebook: An Investigation of Brand Posts Characteristics.Social Networking Sites (SNSs) are considered to be an essential channel of marketing communication with consumers and stakeholders alike. Companies and brands use them to engage with consumers, strengthening brand awareness and brand loyalty through open dialogue. To achieve those goals, posts in SNSs must attain high levels of engagement. In this paper, the factors that increase the engagement of brands' posts in SNSs are investigated, by examining the most popular 83 Greek brand pages on Facebook. A total number of 8,727 posts were collected and analyzed, in order to identify the characteristics of posts that drew the attention of consumers, and led to higher levels of engagement, using an OLS regression model. The novelty of this research lies in the inclusion of the recently at the time introduced reaction to Facebook. Our findings imply that richness of content (images, videos), message length and positive reactions increase the engagement and the popularity of posts. On the other hand, posting time does not seem to have a statistically significant impact on the engagement of a post. Our results expand the existing literature in understanding the ways consumers interact with brand posts on Facebook including reactions, and finally offer suggestions for further research.
Keywords: Social Networking Sites; Consumer engagement; Popularity; Facebook Reactions; Facebook brand page.
Examining consumer responses to YouTube ads through facial expressions and self-reports: The role of gender identity and emotional appeals
by Maria Voutsa, Eirini Tsichla, Leonidas Hatzithomas, Kostoula Margariti
Abstract: The study focusses on the value of gender identity as a moderator in the relationship between consumers experienced and self-reported joy towards a YouTube video advertisement. In a laboratory experiment, participants were exposed to an emotional advertising appeal (aggressive versus warm) and their self-reports were compared with their facial expression analysis. The results show that in the warm advertising scenario, high masculine individuals who experienced joy tend to mask their emotions and under-report their level of joy. A similar reaction was recorded for low masculine individuals exposed to the aggressive advertising scenario. Self-reported joy acts, also, as a mediator of the impact of experienced joy on consumers attitudes and purchase intentions. The findings raise significant concerns regarding the appropriateness of relying solely on self-report measures when examining constructs susceptible to social desirability issues, yielding important implications for both academics and practitioners.
Keywords: Gender identity; emotional appeals; advertising; facial expression analysis.
Optimal Instagram Advertising Design Features. A study on brand image and Millennials' purchase intention.
by Ioannis Rizomyliotis, Dimitrios Zafeiriadis, Kleopatra Konstantoulaki, Apostolos Giovanis
Abstract: Social media advertising and especially text-based online platforms have been studied for decades. Still, the investigation of the most effective mix of key design elements in Instagram ads in relation to consumer purchase intention and brand image is still underexplored. This study aims to examine the impact of three key advertisement design elements (colour, font size and layout) on brand image and consumer purchase intention. Three hundred twenty participants were randomly assigned to the conditions of the experiment. The findings provided insights into the way the design elements alter the intention of the consumers to buy and their perceptions of the brand image respectively.
Keywords: Instagram advertising; brand image; purchase intention; visual elements; colour; font; layout.
The Effects of Cultural Differences on Social Media Behaviour
by Myron Guftométros, João Guerreiro
Abstract: This paper studies the relationship between culture and social media marketing using Hofstedes cultural dimensions. The data were organically gathered from 6750 posts from 225 different Facebook brand pages and 15 different countries. The gathered data included the engagement metrics such as the amount of likes, shares and comments and the various versions of likes such as: love, wow and funny. Interesting differences were found that could be explained by Hofstedes dimensions. Countries low in individualism and/or high in power distance share posts more than comments. Also, the use of the funny and wow emoticon responses are related to higher scores on individualism. Findings from this paper show that the use of Hofstedes dimensions to group countries into different cultures predict some online consumer behaviour patterns, particularly on Facebook.
Keywords: Cross-Cultural; Hofstede; Social Media Marketing; eWOM; Consumer Behaviour; Engagement.
THE INFLUENCE OF ONLINE WORD-OF-MOUTH COMMUNICATION ON SMARTPHONES PURCHASE INTENTION
by João Rosário, Sandra Maria Correia Loureiro
Abstract: The objective of this study is to compare the influence of eWOM information on Facebook, Instagram and YouTube coming from Digital Influencers in the purchasing intention of smartphones. For such, a quantitative methodology was adopted using three online questionnaires, made to Portuguese adults who use social media. This comparison was based on the determinants of the eWOM communication that influence the consumers\' purchasing intentions found in the IACM, which is a model introduced by Erkan and Evans to explore the influence of eWOM on consumers` purchase intentions. The results showed that the eWOM information from Digital Influencers has influence on smartphone purchase intention than eWOM. In addition, their information has a greater impact on Instagram and YouTube than on Facebook.
Keywords: electronic word-of-mouth; digital influencers; IACM model; social networks; information quality; information credibility; information needs; attitude towards information; information usefulness; information adoption; purchase intention.