International Journal of Internet Marketing and Advertising (46 papers in press)
SOCIAL MEDIA ADVERTISING AND CONSUMER DECISION-MAKING: THE MEDIATING ROLE OF CONSUMER ENGAGEMENT
by Dan Duku Dankwa
Abstract: This paper investigated the effectiveness of social media advertising on consumer decision-making and the mediating role of consumer engagement. Three constructs including emotional appeal, informativeness and advertising creativity were employed to assess the effectiveness of firms social media advertising on Customer decision-making. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses with structural equation modelling were employed to evaluate a proposed model on the relationships among the dependent and independent constructs. Tabachnick and Fidell (2007) formula was used to sample 310 active social media users. Only active followers of fashion brands were considered for this study. The study showed that consumer engagements influenced the relationship between informativeness (full mediation) and advertising creativity (partial mediation) in social media advertising and consumer decision-making. The study recommends that firms that advertise fashions brands on social media must focus on crafting advertisements that are creative and informative in order to influence decisions that consumers make on social media platforms. The study contributes to practice by indicating that emotional appeals of social media adverts no longer influence consumers decision-making on fashion brands, but rather the extent of information and newness of the adverts to satisfy their needs played a major role in consumers' decision making.
Keywords: Keywords: Advertisement; Consumer engagement; Purchase decision; Fashion; Social media.
Exploring Cultural Influences on Mobile Marketing Acceptance
by Meghan Pierce, Pingjun Jiang
Abstract: Mobile platforms are increasingly important outlets for marketing communications. Previous work has examined the impact of individual-level characteristics such as attachment, privacy concern, permission and risk avoidance on mobile marketing acceptance in cross-cultural settings, but calls for research to identify the cultural influences that account for market differences. The current work explores the influence of cultural values, measured at the individual level, on two dominant markets, the U.S. and China. Findings indicate uncertainty avoidance and long-term orientation are important antecedents to mobile marketing acceptance. We further clarify the role of individual-level characteristics and find risk avoidance and permission to significantly impact attitudes toward mobile marketing in both markets. rnrn
Keywords: mobile marketing acceptance; attitudes towards mobile marketing; cultural values; uncertainty avoidance; long-term orientation; US and China comparative study; international marketing; risk avoidance; permission; digital marketing.
The Congruent and Comparative Impacts of Weather on Consumer Reviews: Evidence from an Online Forum and Experiment
by Judy Ma, Dongling Huang, Yu Wang
Abstract: This research examines the impact of weather on consumer reviews of products and services. Although anecdotal and empirical evidence indicate that weather influences consumers choices and shopping behavior, little is known about how weather impacts consumers evaluations of products and services. We propose that consumer reviews are influenced by incidental weather conditions both during product experience and during retrospective product evaluation. Using both online consumer review data and an experiment, we find consistent evidence that (1) weather during experience and during retrospection have directionally congruent impacts on the positivity of product reviews and (2) changes in weather from experience to retrospection result in a comparative effect, by which negative (positive) changes in weather from the time of experience to the time of review are associated with more positive (negative) reviews. This research offers strategic implications for the timing of direct marketing messages, such as mobile advertising and product review solicitation.
Keywords: online consumer reviews; weather; mood-as-information; memory; direct marketing; empirical research; experimental research.
The Acceptance of Mobile Advertising: a social or personal matter?
by Reza Ashari Nasution, Devi Arnita
Abstract: This paper contributes to the extant literature on mobile advertising acceptance by extending the current TRA-based model to include the personal relevance of this form of advertising. The aim of this research was to investigate how social influence, represented by the subjective norms in the TRA model, and personal relevance play respective roles in influencing an individuals decision to embrace mobile advertising. The study involved male and female college students in Bandung aged between 18 and 25 years old (young millennials), which were reported by the Association of Advertising Companies in Indonesia to be the most attractive segment for mobile advertising. The findings indicate that millennials are attracted by the social trends of mobile advertising, but demonstrate independence in arriving at their final assessment of mobile advertising based on the personal relevance of this form of publicity.
Keywords: mobile advertising; social influence; social trend; personal relevance; theory of reasoned action; millennials.
Viewer Responses to Product Messages Using One-person Media Influencers
by Kyoo-Hoon Han, Eunmi Lee
Abstract: This study investigated the effect of product messages through one-person media, the growing media with great marketing potential, by conducting an experiment in which the perceived expertise of the influencer and the perceived commerciality of the message were manipulated. The results showed that when the perceived expertise of the influencer is high, the product message through one-person media generates a positive behavioral intention and attitude toward the message. The perceived commerciality, in contrast, was found to have an insignificant influence on persuasion effect. The interaction effect between the two independent variables was found to be significant. Based on the results of analysis, this study derives theoretical and practical implications for one-person media communication contexts, and suggests a direction for follow-up research.
Keywords: one-person media; social media; influencer marketing; product endorsement; mobile video; perceived expertise; perceived commerciality; MCN.
Is this the beginning of the end for retail websites? A professional perspective.
by Ricardo Ramos, Paulo Rita, Sérgio Moro
Abstract: This paper expects to understand professionals opinion concerning the impact of the increasing use of Social Media (SM) and commercial Mobile Applications (MA) instead of retail websites in their online strategy. Unstructured interviews with Internet professionals were applied on the LinkedIn professional SM platform, and one hundred and twenty-seven professionals provided their perspective. Data were analyzed using a Text Mining approach, and the outcome revealed professionals resistance to set SM in the center of the online strategy and highlighted the preference of users to use search engines that, in turn, will lead them to a retail website.
Keywords: retail website; social media; commercial mobile application; consumer behavior; text mining.
Attribution Modeling in Digital Advertising for E-commerce
by Sergey Alexandrovskiy, Olga Trundova
Abstract: The authors aim to offer a probability approach for measuring media contribution to online conversions in e-commerce. The authors reviewed literature on attribution modelling with application of heuristics (Google Analytics) and probability (Markov chains) models. The survey used the data of customer journeys from 134132 users to build up the attribution model. As a result, Markov chains model minimizes the value of Direct online channel, and redistributes the value in favor of other traffic channels and gives a significant weight to the paid traffic. Markov chains model increases the importance of Display and Paid Search channels, which is not so noticeable in heuristic models. Findings of this study help marketers to apply Markov chains modeling in online advertising evaluation and budgeting. The authors proposed application of Markov chains attribution modelling in the e-commerce website. Other e-commerce companies might apply Markov chains attribution modeling in a similar way.
Keywords: attribution modeling; digital advertising; ecommerce; multi-channel measurement; Markov chains model; probability model.
Why are communal advertisements more effective than agentic ones? The role of the self-congruity effect
by Konrad Hryniewicz
Abstract: The article expands the knowledge on marketing effectiveness of advertisements containing agentic and communal content with recipients characteristics. Three studies were carried out (N = 398, N = 339, N = 512) where two advertising conditions were manipulated. One contained agentic content and second communal. The research focused on the relation recipients agency and communion with a series of measurements of the advertising effectiveness (self-congruity, purchase intention, the attitude toward the product, advertisement and brand). Results were summarized with a meta-analysis which showed that the increase in the effectiveness containing communal content significantly depended on the increase in the recipient's communion (the self-congruity effect) while the increase in the recipient's agency was related to the weaker and equal increase in the effectiveness containing both agentic and communal content (the lack of the self-congruity effect). The collected data indicates that the higher effectiveness of communal advertising depends on the recipients communion.
Keywords: communion; agency; advertising effectiveness; self-congruity; meta-analysis.
Why follow beauty bloggers? An investigation with Brazilian consumers
by Irene Troccoli, Ana Maria Boa Morte, Marcio Abdalla
Abstract: This qualitative article examines whether the factors of an already tested behavioral model applied to blog users, that analyzed the influence of the perceived usefulness of blogger recommendations, the blog readers confidence in them, and the reputation of bloggers on consumers purchasing attitudes and intentions, are confirmed when it comes to followers of bloggers hired by a beauty hair products company in Brazil. By means of individual interviews and a focus group with followers of a blogger hired by the company, evidence confirmed the model, and also contributed academically with two novelties: 1) followers feel motivated in their relationship with a blogger when these contacts entertain them, not infrequently envolving aspects extraneous to seeking guidance on the companys products; 2) there is a fifth factor that motivates customers to follow the blogger: a personal identification with this professional. Limitations of this research are listed and future studies are suggested.
Keywords: Bloggers; Digital influencers; Reputation; Trust; Perceived usefulness; Attitude; Interview; Focus group; Qualitative; Behavioral model.
Customers perspectives on marketing mix elements in social media-based purchases
by Bình Nghiêm-Phú
Abstract: Much research has examined customers perspectives on information tools in particular and the marketing mix elements in general. However, several theoretical gaps can still be observed. In this study, the roles that social media-based information inputs have with customers perceptions of trust in sellers (People), Products, Price, distribution method (Place), purchase process (Process) and their intentions were examined. Using data gathered from university students in Vietnam, this study found that textual descriptions and pictures created by sellers had some significant impacts on customers perceptions of trust in sellers and the purchase process. In addition, pictures and hashtags contributed by buyers had some significant influences on customers evaluations of price and the purchase process. Implications for marketing theory and practice were discussed, together with the limitations of this study and the directions for future research.
Keywords: social networks; organic information; induced information; online shopping; structural equation modeling.
Influence of Social Media and Online Reviews on University Students Purchasing Decisions
by Mostafa Torabi, Charles Bélanger
Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to investigate and gauge the influence of rating websites and social media on consumers purchasing behaviour and their choices. The present research considers a comparison between choosing a university and a restaurant by consumers based on using social media and online reviews. The study develops a multidimensional model to recognize the influence of online rating websites and social medial on consumer purchasing decisions.
Results reveal that information adoption and risk-taking are important factors towards consumer purchasing decisions. However, there is no significant relationship between demographic traits and consumer purchasing decisions based on the proposed model and findings. Moreover, the study confirms that long-term benefits outweigh the expediency of a decision when respondents were reviewing websites.
Keywords: social media; e-word of mouth; online reviews; information adoption; risk; consumer purchasing decisions.
Exploring Brand Humanization on SNSs: Brand Personality and Its Influence on Brand Partner Quality, Brand Attitude, and Consumer Behavioral Engagement
by Eun Sook Kwon, Jooyoung Kim
Abstract: This study explored whether consumers interacting with brands on SNSs attribute human-like personalities to brands and further examined the relationships between personality dimensions and brand performance measures. Responses from 922 research participants (530 brand followers and 392 brand non-followers on SNSs) were analyzed. Brand followers and brand non-followers attributed some of the same personality dimensions (Sophistication, Sincerity, and Competence) while there were differences between the two groups: Excitement only among brand non-followers; Agreeableness and Unpleasantness only among brand followers. The personality dimension Sincerity had a strong, positive influence on brand performance measures. Implications are discussed.
Keywords: Brand personality; Big Five; Brand partner quality; Brand attitude; Behavioral engagement; Social networking sites.
Factors Affecting the Impact of Text Message Advertising
by Christos Livas, Apostolos Skotis
Abstract: The ubiquity of mobile devices has given rise to numerous interactive marketing tactics, many of which involve the delivery of written text. Due to the paucity of studies assessing the effectiveness of mobile marketing communications, the present research aims at identifying factors affecting text message (or short message service SMS) advertising impact. An investigation of one hundred and thirty-nine campaigns launched by eight leading multinational brands operating in the Greek cosmetics industry demonstrated that the introduction of targeted and shorter campaigns during seasonal sales, as well as the conveyance of emotional and rarity appeals, enhance purchase rate and sales impact. Results indicate that text message advertising should be geared towards particular marketing objectives. Its impact is enhanced by identification of contextual opportunities and adaptation of message content to consumers buying situations. Overall, with use of data from marketing practice, the present study contributes to improved campaign planning and execution.
Keywords: mobile phones; mobile advertising; SMS; text message advertising; mobile promotions; campaign characteristics; message appeals; message adaptation; impact; effectiveness.
Customer Orientation and e-WOM in the hotel sector
by José L. González-Porras, José L. Ruiz-Alba, Javier Morales Mediano
Abstract: Customers frequently engage in electronic Word of Mouth (e-WOM) to share their service experience. This is particularly important in hospitality where the role of front-line employees and their level of customer orientation are critical. However, it has not yet been studied how the Customer Orientation of Service Employees (COSE) influences e-WOM. This study addresses this gap. Qualitative data were collected from family-run hotels through three independent studies with 25 different participants: Focus Group, in-depth Interviews and an Online Focus Group. This research provides novel findings that contribute to a deeper understanding of how the COSE dimensions play different roles in the three types of customers e-WOM (positive, neutral and negative). This investigation also contributes to the literature by identifying new factors that could be incorporated in the COSE model, such as attitude, customisation and extra-role performance. Some managerial contributions regarding COSE and a future research agenda are proposed.
Keywords: customer orientation; service employees; front-line employees; electronic word of mouth; hotel sector; highly relational services; attitude; extra-role performance; customisation; family business.
A Comparative Impact of Cause-Related Marketing and Sponsorship Leveraged Internet Display Advertising
by Wilson Ndasi, Elvira Bolat, Gelareh Roushan
Abstract: Cause-related marketing (CRM) and sponsorship activities have become an increasingly popular corporate social responsibility (CSR) strategy, whereby firms partner with non-profit organisations (NPOs) to achieve varieties of business objectives, while still supporting NPOs social causes. Advances in internet technology and e-commerce activities have facilitated the widespread use of internet CRM and sponsorship advertisement frames targeting potential donors and online customers. Typically, firms communicate through ads in a variety of ways, such as offering a precise donation amount (PDA) to the charity organisation in question, or by declaring mutually beneficial collaboration of the firms brand with the non-profit organisation (NPO), by stating an imprecise donation (IDA)offer. This study compares the effectiveness of PDA ads (both at low and high donation amounts) with imprecise donation amount (IDA) internet display advertisement frames, in terms of attitude and purchase intention from a fundraising perspective. Using a web-based experimental survey design involving the national representative sample, the results of the ANCOVA analysis revealed that there is no significant difference in attitudes between precise and imprecise donation ad frames(PDA & IPA). However, PDA advertisements were found to indicate higher purchase intention than the IDA ad frame; regardless of the perceived donation amounts were either low or high. Furthermore, PDA ads with higher donation amounts (versus low donation amount) engender greater purchase. This study contributes to the understanding of the effective use of cause-related and sponsorship internet ads, for consumer segmentation and targeting.
Keywords: Internet advertising; online cause-related marketing; online sponsorship; display ad ; donation amount; online Charity fundraising.
Is WhatsApp a New Age Advertising tool?
by Mallika Srivastava, Semila Fernandes
Abstract: With the emergence of social media, many organizations have started using social media platforms such as WhatsApp, Facebook, and Twitter for their marketing communication campaigns (Merlio, 2017). Given that todays consumers are considered digital natives and comprise the Generation C segment (born from 1982 to late 90s/early 00s termed as the psychographic group) (Forbes, 2018), one might suspect this group to be active in creating and disseminating product knowledge within social groups. This paper is an attempt, at studying the Generation C of urban consumers towards acceptance of WhatsApp as a tool for publicizing product information, and the impact of viewers reaction on watching the advertisements on WhatsApp towards their viral intention. The analysis of the dimension of the VRP (Viewers Response Profile) scale posited that consumers weighed the dimension of confusion the highest, and brand reinforcement as the weakest predictor of VRP. Additionally, Time spent on WhatsApp had significant impact on Viral Intention. Gender and Time spent on WhatsApp partially moderated the relationship between Viewers Affective Reaction and Viral Intention.
Keywords: Viewer response profile;WhatsApp;Viral intention.
Advertising in App: a Neuroscientific Approach
by Federico Cassioli, Michela Balconi
Abstract: The present study investigated, through eye-tracking, the impact of animation and interactivity in the Ad on visual behaviour. Users were asked to use an app, programmed by the research team, where 4 types of Ad stimuli, obtained by crossing the two features, were exhibited. Results from moderation analysis indicated Animation and Interactivity as predictors of the number of Ad fixations, a sign of higher attentional engagement. Furthermore, a negative effect of Interactivity on Animation was found, highlighting a tendency to avoid too complex Ad stimuli, in accordance with the concept of cognitive workload and the absence of an additive effect.
Keywords: Eye-tracking; In-App Advertising; Ad efficacy; Animation; Interactivity.
The Impact of Social Media Marketing Activities on Student Desires: Analyzing the Mediating Role of Brand Identity, Perceived Value, and Satisfaction
by Mohammad Zia Mohseni, Saeed Jafari Titkanloo
Abstract: With the increasing competitive circumstance in higher education, universities need to identify tools to increase student satisfaction and retention. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of social media marketing activities (SMMA) on students' willingness to participate and pursue higher education through the mediating role of brand identity (BI), perceived value (PV), and satisfaction (SAT). The population of the study includes the top four universities in Kabul that use social media to do their marketing activities. For data collection, 373 questionnaires were distributed among the students of these universities. The research model was tested using structural equation modeling technique. The findings show that SMMAs have a positive impact on BI, PV, and SAT. The results of data analysis also show that SMMAs through BI and PV indirectly affect SAT. Also, BI and PV through consent indirectly influence the Continuance Intention and the Participation Intention.
Keywords: Social Media Marketing Activities; Brand Identity; Perceived Value; Satisfaction; Higher Education.
How Twitter advertising influences the purchase intentions and purchase attitudes of Indian Millennial consumers?
by Suhail M. Ghouse, Rodney Duffett, Monica Chaudhary
Abstract: This research investigates the influence of Twitter advertising on the purchase intentions and purchase attitudes of the Millennial internet users in India, as well as to assess if the usage and demographic variables had an influence on their buying intentions and buying attitudes. A convenient sample was used to survey 500 Indian Millennials via self-administered structured questionnaires. The results reveal Twitter advertising has a positive impact on the purchase attitudes of Indian Millennials. More experienced Twitter users; logged-on more frequently; spent fewer hours; followed a greater number of companies/brands; were female; and younger Indian Millennial respondents had the most favourable perceptions towards Twitter advertising. The research findings will help traditional organisations to acknowledge and adapt their promotional strategies to include Twitter advertising in their marketing budgets. This study also contributes to attitudinal research literature in an Indian context, which lacks research in social media advertising featuring the Millennial segment.
Keywords: Millennials; Generation Y; buying behaviour; purchase intentions; purchase; consumer attitudes; Twitter marketing communication; social media marketing; India.
Worried about Digital Footprint?: Attitudes Toward Online Behavioral Advertising with the AdChoices Icon
by Soontae An, Hannah Kang
Abstract: This study examined the efficacy of using the AdChoices icon, a symbol that indicates the use of Online Behavioral Advertising (OBA) on websites. Despite the increased use of OBA for internet advertising, little is known as to its impact on user attitudes toward websites and advertisements that voluntarily display the icon. This study conducted a survey with 199 undergraduate students in the U.S and compared the effects of the icon in individuals with less favorable attitudes toward OBA in general to those in people holding more favorable attitudes toward OBA in general, in relation to their privacy concerns. For those with less favorable attitudes toward OBA, their attitudes toward the website displaying the icon increased significantly when the individual’s perceived privacy concern was high. Those with more favorable attitudes toward OBA did not show much change regardless of individual privacy concerns. However, such an interaction effect was not observed for the advertisements themselves on websites displaying the icon. Furthermore, this study investigated the mediating role of attitudes toward the website with the icon in the relationship between perceived privacy concerns and attitudes toward the advertisement with the icon. The results indicate that effective self-regulation is a viable solution, and these results warrant more systematic research and the development of more effective self-regulatory mechanisms.
Keywords: Online behavioral advertising (OBA); Self-regulation; AdChoices icon; privacy concerns
Consumer acceptance of online display advertising – The effects of ad characteristics and attitude toward online advertising
by Priscilla Teika Odoom, Bedman Narteh, Raphael Odoom
Abstract: Extant research address online display advertising effectiveness as a function of ad characteristics. However, issues regarding the influence of specific ad characteristics remain under explored and fragmented. Also, the role of ATOA in facilitating the effects of ad characteristics on consumers’ ad acceptance is not properly addressed. Yet, these insights are essential for marketers to break through the clutter and enhance favourable reactions toward their display ads. This study extends existing online advertising literature by examining the influence of interactivity, placement, informativeness, personalisation, and exposure condition on ad acceptance; and also assesses the intervening effect of ATOA in these relationships, using the stimulus organism response model as a theoretical lens. An online survey was employed to gather the study data which was analysed using structural equation modelling. Findings support all except placement as essential ODA characteristics that directly influence ad acceptance among consumers, and ATOA emerged as a strong mediator of these relationships.
Keywords: ODA; online display advertising; online advertising effectiveness; attitude toward online advertising; stimulus organism response model; interactivity; personalisation; exposure condition; ad acceptance.
Why shopping on social media? A systematic review
by Carlos Oliveira, Ana Cristina Bicharra Garcia, Bruna Diirr
Abstract: Billions of people around the world currently use social media. They have been used for sharing and seeking information, which helped to boost its use for sales of products/services. Despite the vast possibilities of sales on social media, conversion rates for online sales on social media platforms are very low (less than 1%). In this paper, we present a systematic literature review addressing two questions: (Q1) What are the main factors impacting consumers buying behavior the literature has brought to light? (Q2) How has the perception of marketing in social media evolved in recent years? Our main contribution was to show what these factors are and how they relate to each other. Knowing these factors allows marketers to offer the highest number of stimuli and avoid discouragement on their pages/channels on social media.
Keywords: Shopping on social media; Buying behavior; Stimulus factors; Influencer marketing; Systematic review
Examining customer’s intention to rely on online reviews
by Sridevi Periaiya, Manoraj Natarajan, Lakshmi Narasimhan Vedanthachari
Abstract: The use of online reviews among online shoppers has increased significantly in recent years and has reduced uncertainty and risks associated with online shopping. As it has become a reliable source for product information, this research study focused to identify and assess the intention of online shoppers’ reliability on online reviews. Here consumers intention to rely on online reviews were studied based on their decision-making style, personality trait, and online behaviour. A quantitative survey involving 375 Indian online shoppers were performed to identify and understand their reliance on online reviews. The study deliberates that consumer with high price consciousness, value consciousness, brand consciousness, and self-esteem rely on online reviews for their online purchases. On the other extent, consumer who are quality conscious and having online shopping anxiety do not rely on online reviews. This research adds to the growing literature on consumer information theory and validates the link between consumer shopping motivation and their informational needs.
Keywords: Online review; eWoM; decision-making style; self-esteem; online anxiety; information requirement;
Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty with Corporate Multi-Brand Web Sites in an Era of Social Media and Misinformation.
by Meriem Agrebi, Jean Louis Chandon, Judith Lynne Zaichkowsky
Abstract: In the age of social media, are brand websites still relevant? Confronted by social media, multi-brand companies face a challenge to control their brand image and advertising content. Building an interactive website, as a common umbrella to their many brands, can produce a successful customer experience leading to satisfaction and brand loyalty. This paper investigates e-loyalty toward multi-brand websites that aggregate, on a single website, brands and products belonging to the same parent company (corporate brand). Using a quasi-experiment on two major corporate multi-brand websites, the study uncovers a positive multi-brand experience effect coming from the benefits of having multiple brands on the same site. The multi-brand experience on e-loyalty is stronger for first-time visitors compared to repeat visitors and e-loyalty increases with the number of brands purchased before visiting the website. The study provides strong evidence to support a positive effect of multi-brand websites on e-loyalty.
Keywords: multi-brand websites, e-satisfaction, e-loyalty, website content features, online brand experience
The Role of Online Source Credibility and Influencer Identification on Consumers’ Purchase Decisions
by Tugba Özbölük, Kutay Akdogan
Abstract: The easy access to social media has created influencers that take advantage of this opportunity and gather their own audience. It did not take long for influencers to enter the radar of marketers looking for different ways of reaching consumers. Influencer marketing has become one of the most popular tools in marketing communication. The increasing number of brand-influencer collaborations raises the question of whether influencers are as effective as they are thought to be.rnThe effect of influencers on consumers’ purchasing behaviour is an important topic in marketing. However, research on this topic is very scarce. Accordingly, this paper aims to investigate the effect of online source credibility and influencer identification on consumers’ purchase decisions. An online survey is conducted on 460 participants to achieve this aim. Results show that the perceived trustworthiness of influencers and influencer identification positively affects consumers’ purchase decisions.
Keywords: Influencer; Influencer Marketing; Online Source Credibility; Influencer Identification
Analysing the interrelationship between online reviews and sales: the role of review length and sentiment index in electronic markets
by Anu G. Aggarwal, Aakash
Abstract: With the advent of electronic commerce, online customer reviews (OCRs) have become a significant source of information related to a product/service. Nowadays, lot of research is being carried out to understand the role played by OCRs on the buying intentions and product evaluation of the prospective customers. In this paper, we use log linear regression models to include the effects of product price, review length, review volume and sentiments (positive or negative words) on the sales of a product. Using Amazon.com review dataset, we show that in addition to the price, the customers are influenced by review volume, length, star rating and sentiment of reviews' text. We have also discussed the managerial as well as theoretical implication of the regression-based sales modelling integrated with information processing technique of text mining and sentiment analysis.
Keywords: electronic commerce; sentiment index; review length; text mining; sentiment analysis; online customer reviews; OCRs.
Negative eWOM on social media: role of individual, contextual and social determinants
by Isha Sharma, Kokil Jain
Abstract: This study aims to expand the understanding of factors that lead to consumers' intentions to engage in negative e-word-of-mouth (NEWOM) on social media, following a negative experience. In particular, the study empirically suggests that perceived power over social media and negative emotions positively influence NEWOM intentions while reappraisal of emotion regulations has a negative influence on NEWOM intentions. Perceived homophily and the factors of social cognitive theory including social outcome expectations and social media self efficacy are found to have a significant impact on consumer's perception of power and control on social media. Brand attributions after a negative experience were found to influence negative emotions among consumers. Thus, including different individual, social and contextual factors, the study proposes a research model, which is designed using structural equation modelling (SEM) and tested using AMOS21. Finally, pertinent managerial and theoretical implications are highlighted.
Keywords: negative e-word-of-mouth; NEWOM; perceived power and control; social cognitive theory; perceived homophily; brand attributions; negative emotions; reappraisal of emotion regulation; structural equation modelling; SEM.
Is it assortment or overall satisfaction which fires online repatronage intention in the silhouette of social norms?
by Sanjeev Prashar, Pranay Verma
Abstract: Satisfaction has been classified at assortment (transactional) level and at an overall (cumulative) level. This paper purports to analyse online repurchase intention in the context of satisfaction at these two levels for online retailing of footwear. A two step structural equation modelling was applied to test the measurement and structural model on the data collected from 458 Indian respondents. The finding of this empirical study shows that assortment satisfaction has a positive direct influence on overall satisfaction but no influence on repurchase intention, which otherwise is positively influenced by overall satisfaction. Social norm influences both types of satisfaction but not repurchase intention. This is the first study on online purchase of footwear which differentiates assortment satisfaction from overall satisfaction. Given the growth of online retail, this study provides scholars and practitioners with suggestions and recommendations on how assortment satisfaction can be used to fabricate overall satisfaction.
Keywords: assortment satisfaction; overall satisfaction; repurchase intention; online retailing; social norm.
The role of retargeted advertisements in dealing with deflecting customers and its impact on the online buying process
by Geetha Mohan
Abstract: Objective of this study is to find the effectiveness of retargeting advertisements (RTA) in persuading the online shoppers to buy. These ads are targeted at individuals based on their previous search behaviour and those online shoppers who are perceived to be interested in their products by marketers. The effectiveness of retargeted ads was measured by click-through rate, purchase intention and purchase. An in-depth interview with experts followed by three studies was done. A cross sectional and comparative study with normal advertisement; a longitudinal study with creative retargeted ads and the last one with cross channel retargeting techniques were done. All the studies support that retargeted ads are effective at a relative low cost and also established it as an efficient method of communicating to online shoppers. These ads are specifically to people interested and inclined towards the product and this makes it a reliable tool to boost the sales of the e-commerce businesses.
Keywords: retargeted advertisements; RTA; click-through rate; CTR; online purchase; effectiveness; interactive advertisement model; knowledge persuasion model.
The impact of relationship quality and social support on social media users' selling intention
by Ree C. Ho, Robin Cheng
Abstract: Social commerce is getting more popular with its sales volume increase rapidly, and drives more consumers to start conducting business in the social media. The main aim of this study was to investigate the role of social support and relationship quality in influencing the consumer selling behaviour. Sample size was 296 respondents collected via survey questionnaire and data was analysed with structured equation modelling. The results showed that user interaction in social media influenced the attitude needed to venture into online business. On the other hand, relationship quality and social support enhanced the consumers' perception on controlling the shopping process. In conclusion, the research findings provide insightful theoretical implications on the selling aspect of social commerce.
Keywords: social commerce; selling intention; relationship quality; social support; online shopping; social media apps.
Searching for answers? An examination of search engine advertisement strategy, ranking and keywords to generate clicks
by Michael North
Abstract: Search engine advertisements are paid search results that appear above the organic search results retrieved by Google. These search engine advertisements typically generate a 2% click-through rate, but browsers are more inclined to click when purchase intentions are high. This study examined almost 100,000 instances of search engine advertisements measured in weeks from an insurance company. Results point to generic search engine advertisements generating more clicks than specific. Search engine advertisements ranked first receive far more clicks than subsequent rankings. Lastly, near-synonyms such as 'cover' and 'protect' generate more clicks than an expected keyword such as 'insure'. Managerial implications are discussed to help companies maximise search engine advertising campaigns.
Keywords: search engine advertising; advertising; marketing; search engine optimisation; specific search engine advertising; generic search engine advertising; search engine ranking; near-synonyms; strategic communication.
Special Issue on: ICCMI 2018 Strategic Use of Social Media as a Marketing Tool
Engagement and Reactions of Brand Posts on Brand Fan Pages in Facebook: An Investigation of Brand Posts Characteristics.
by Ioannis Antoniadis, Costas Assimakopoulos, Symeon Paltsoglou
Abstract: Engagement and Reactions of Brand Posts on Brand Fan Pages in Facebook: An Investigation of Brand Posts Characteristics.Social Networking Sites (SNSs) are considered to be an essential channel of marketing communication with consumers and stakeholders alike. Companies and brands use them to engage with consumers, strengthening brand awareness and brand loyalty through open dialogue. To achieve those goals, posts in SNSs must attain high levels of engagement. In this paper, the factors that increase the engagement of brands' posts in SNSs are investigated, by examining the most popular 83 Greek brand pages on Facebook. A total number of 8,727 posts were collected and analyzed, in order to identify the characteristics of posts that drew the attention of consumers, and led to higher levels of engagement, using an OLS regression model. The novelty of this research lies in the inclusion of the recently at the time introduced reaction to Facebook. Our findings imply that richness of content (images, videos), message length and positive reactions increase the engagement and the popularity of posts. On the other hand, posting time does not seem to have a statistically significant impact on the engagement of a post. Our results expand the existing literature in understanding the ways consumers interact with brand posts on Facebook including reactions, and finally offer suggestions for further research.
Keywords: Social Networking Sites; Consumer engagement; Popularity; Facebook Reactions; Facebook brand page.
Examining consumer responses to YouTube ads through facial expressions and self-reports: The role of gender identity and emotional appeals
by Maria Voutsa, Eirini Tsichla, Leonidas Hatzithomas, Kostoula Margariti
Abstract: The study focusses on the value of gender identity as a moderator in the relationship between consumers experienced and self-reported joy towards a YouTube video advertisement. In a laboratory experiment, participants were exposed to an emotional advertising appeal (aggressive versus warm) and their self-reports were compared with their facial expression analysis. The results show that in the warm advertising scenario, high masculine individuals who experienced joy tend to mask their emotions and under-report their level of joy. A similar reaction was recorded for low masculine individuals exposed to the aggressive advertising scenario. Self-reported joy acts, also, as a mediator of the impact of experienced joy on consumers attitudes and purchase intentions. The findings raise significant concerns regarding the appropriateness of relying solely on self-report measures when examining constructs susceptible to social desirability issues, yielding important implications for both academics and practitioners.
Keywords: Gender identity; emotional appeals; advertising; facial expression analysis.
Optimal Instagram Advertising Design Features. A study on brand image and Millennials' purchase intention.
by Ioannis Rizomyliotis, Dimitrios Zafeiriadis, Kleopatra Konstantoulaki, Apostolos Giovanis
Abstract: Social media advertising and especially text-based online platforms have been studied for decades. Still, the investigation of the most effective mix of key design elements in Instagram ads in relation to consumer purchase intention and brand image is still underexplored. This study aims to examine the impact of three key advertisement design elements (colour, font size and layout) on brand image and consumer purchase intention. Three hundred twenty participants were randomly assigned to the conditions of the experiment. The findings provided insights into the way the design elements alter the intention of the consumers to buy and their perceptions of the brand image respectively.
Keywords: Instagram advertising; brand image; purchase intention; visual elements; colour; font; layout.
Special Issue on: VCBMC-2019 E-Commerce, Social Media and Consumer Behaviour
Political Partys Fan Page Posts and Online Engagement on Facebook
by Manpreet Kaur, Rajesh Verma
Abstract: The substantial growth in the social media user base has transformed the way of information dissemination from traditional mass media to new media specially for political purpose. The present study aimed to analyse the impact of Political Partys Fan Page Posts on their Online Engagement. A descriptive research design is used on extracted 1555 posts from official Facebook pages of two major national parties of India using access token in R Software, analysed through ANOVA. The results revealed the significant impact of media type, post valence, content type, posting day on political engagement in terms of Likes, Comments and Shares whereas, posting time has an insignificant impact on getting Likes and Comments. The results of the study are relevant to the theory of information dissemination and will contextually contribute to the literature. The findings will provide valuable and directly applicable implications for social media marketing along with assistance to political actors and practitioners while making new media strategies.
Keywords: Media Type; Post Valence; Content Type; Posting Day and Time; Online Engagement.
Adoption of VoD services: An investigation of extended Technology Acceptance Model
by Rahul Sharma, Amit Kakkar
Abstract: As the times are changing, so are the consumption patterns and purchase intentions of the customers for different products/services and the same are also witnessed in the entertainment industry. With the amalgamation of rock bottom data prices and wide penetration of smartphones, the streaming apps (VoD services) are witnessing a whirlwind acceptance among its target audience. The present study is conducted to study the factors influencing the purchase intention of VoD services. The conceptual model centered around TAM (Technology Acceptance Model) was theorised to study the purchase intention of VoD services with the addition of dimensions Perceived Enjoyment (PE) and Content and the antecedents of Perceived Usefulness (PU) and Perceived Ease of Use (PEOU). The data was collected from 207 respondents who were using VoD services and the responses were analysed using the Smart-PLS 2.0. The study established the significant and positive effect of PEOU and PU, Perceived Enjoyment (PE) and Content on the intention to use VoD services. The findings suggest the acceptance of newer technologies like VoD by customers because of Ease of Use and Usefulness along-with Content availability and Enjoyment. It establishes the fact that all the newer technologies which are useful and easy to use to the customers will be accepted by their respective target customers.
Keywords: VOD; Content; OTT; Technology Acceptance Model (TAM); Smart PLS.
Special Issue on: Emerging Issues in Social Media Influencers
The Influence of Influencer Marketing on YouTube Influencers
by Fulya Acikgoz, Sebnem Burnaz
Abstract: In recent years, the YouTube platform is evolved into a primary marketing instrument for brands promotion. Marketers apply YouTube influencers to promote their brands, so the influencers share sponsored content with their followers. Although most of the brands prefer to work with YouTube influencers, the factors that affect sponsored content value has not been sufficiently known. Also, the influence of sponsored content on followers attitudes towards YouTube influencers has not been clearly understood. This paper, therefore, aims to fulfill this gap in the literature and determines three factors which may affect the sponsored content value as well as attitudes towards YouTube influencers. For this purpose, a conceptual model was developed based on the Advertising Value Model (Ducoffe, 1996). The revised model was tested using structural equation modeling by collecting data from 411 university students who frequently use YouTube. The findings reveal that entertainment and informativeness are the key factors of sponsored content value that affects attitudes towards YouTube influencers. Theoretical and managerial implications are debated for future research.
Keywords: YouTube; YouTube Influencers; Influencer Marketing; Advertising Value Model (AVM); Sponsored Content.
Online Influencers: Healthy Food or Fake news
by Catarina Vasconcelos, Renato Renato, Álvaro Dias, Leandro Pereira, José Santos
Abstract: Today we live in a globalized world, with no boundaries, and where we can be updated of any information by the minute. This globalization phenomenon has a lot of advantages as well as disadvantages. It is wonderful to know the news by the minute, however the easiness and swiftness real news spreads, and same goes to the fake news. Tools, such as search engines like Google, Bing, Yandex, etc. and Social Media (i.e. Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter) or Blogs, are turning information sharing easier, but uncontrolled. Since it is very difficult to assess the reliability of online news or information, this study seeks to understand the reliability of these new diet trends, who are these people that shared the information, and the impact of it on the society. Findings show that even though the society is being influenced by the brands, this increasing awareness for a healthy diet could be something positive for the society, however the conclusions are that it is not.
Keywords: Online advertising; marketing; international knowledge transfer; sponsorship.
Fame and Envy 2.0 in Luxury Fashion Influencer Marketing on Instagram: Comparison Between Mega-Celebrities and Micro-Celebrities
by Seunga Jin
Abstract: This study addresses contemporary issues of online celebrities and the dynamics of fame and envy in Instagram influencer-based luxury fashion marketing and advertising from a consumer psychology perspective. A randomized between-subjects experiment (N = 108) examined the influence of mainstream mega-celebrities versus Instagram micro-celebrities on various dimensions of consumer behavior. The results indicate stronger main effects of Instagram micro-celebrities (versus mainstream mega-celebrities) on buying intention. Mediation analyses confirm the mediating effects of parasocial interaction on the relationship between celebrity types and buying intention. Data analyses show moderating effects of materialism and envy in accounting for the effects of celebrity types on fashion marketing outcomes. This study provides marketing scholars with relevant theoretical explanations about consumer psychology of luxury and envy in social media marketing. With regard to managerial implications, current findings provide brand managers and advertising practitioners with empirical data about the efficacy of micro-celebrity practices in Instagram influencer marketing.
Keywords: Instagram Micro-Celebrity; Social Media Influencer Marketing; Parasocial Interaction; Luxury Fashion Brand Endorsement; Social Media Envy; Materialism; Social Identity Theory.
Impact of social media influencers on customer engagement and brand perception
by Rahul Chander Jaitly, Omvir Gautam
Abstract: The availability and widespread use of social media has made it the preferred medium for companies wanting to spread product information, create public opinion and gain followers. To this end, social media influencers act as a dynamic third party endorser to spread a brands message to vast audience across the world. Consumers who exhibit a positive attitude towards the social media credibility are attracted through social media advertisements. The present study examines the perceptions of agencies for opting social media influencers and their role in customer engagement and brand awareness. For this purpose, the study also assesses different methods adopted by these influencers for influencing customers using a systematic review. The findings of the study indicate customers perception and attitude are much influenced via these influencers since they are more capable of communicating to a niche segment. As compared to traditional advertising strategies, this new technological means of influencers pave way to new competitive strength to the agencies in engaging customers and creating brand awareness.
Keywords: social media influencers; customer engagement; brand awareness; advertising strategies; social media advertising.
CREDIBILITY OF DIGITAL INFLUENCERS ON YOUTUBE AND INSTAGRAM
by Elmira Djafarova, Natasha Matson
Abstract: This study explores the phenomenon and influence of beauty influencers on Instagram and YouTube through the analysis of top micro-celebrity profiles and surveys with the followers.
YouTube was identified as the most influential for those aged 18-21 and less powerful for older target group, suggesting beauty reference group influence decreases as the age increases. An exploration into credibility of beauty gurus revealed trustworthiness as the most important factor determining credibility. Quality of images and professionalism of profiles is also crucial in reliability of profiles on these platforms.
Keywords: Social media; digital influencers; Instagram; YouTube; reference groups.
Special Issue on: Social Media Marketing in the Digital Era
Cosmetics Interest and Behaviour Generated from Social Media Advertising and e-WOM among Female Millennials
by Helen Inseng Duh
Abstract: Cosmetics demand is growing among female millennials, who are high users of social media and electronic word-of-mouth (e-WOM) for purchase decision-making. However, the social media platforms and other information sources generating cosmetics interest and desired marketing outcomes from millennials, reported to be fickle and notoriously disloyal are unknown. Marketers spend to advertise on various social media platforms amidst e-WOM that consumers share, but do not know the advertising effectiveness of each social media platform or whether purchase behaviour is driven by e-WOM. This study was aimed at modifying the Attention, Interest, Desire, Action (AIDA) model to examine the impact of YouTube, Instagram and Facebook adverts on female South African millennials cosmetics interest, purchase intention and willingness to pass-along information. It also compared the impact with how e-WOM influence cosmetics interest and purchase intention. Users (N=259) of all three social media platforms were surveyed. Structural equation modelling results revealed that cosmetics interest was ignited by attention drawn from YouTube and Instagram adverts. This interest influenced purchase intention and willingness to pass-along information. Information received from e-WOM influenced cosmetics interest, but not purchase intention. This study contributes by modifying and testing the AIDA model in the context of social media advertising.
Keywords: Social Media; YouTube; Facebook; Instagram; Cosmetics interest; e-WOM; Information pass-along; Female Millennials; Purchase Intention; AIDA Model.
How Do People Adopt Information on Social Media? The Role of eWOM in Revealing Travel Itineraries
by Nilsah Cavdar Aksoy, Alev Kocak Alan, Ebru Tumer Kabadayi, Hayri Sinan Dagistanli
Abstract: Social media, through its increasing importance and expanding usage areas, represents a source of information exchange for individuals day by day. The information released in this electronic environment has become an element of word-of-mouth communication. This type of information indicates an area that should be managed for all sectors, including the tourism sector. The purpose of this study is to explain adoption behaviors of individuals towards tourism information in social media, within the framework of information-related factors and source-related factors. In doing so, Information Adoption Model was utilized to explain individuals' adoption of the information they obtained via the Internet while planning their trips. Survey method was used in this study, and the data obtained were tested with structural equation modelling. The results of the study showed the following: (1) source homophily positively relates to both source expertise and source trustworthiness, (2) effective factors on information credibility are source credibility, source expertise, and argument quality, (3) information credibility and former three positively relates to information usefulness, (4) information usefulness exerts a positive influence on information adoption.
Keywords: social media; eWOM; information adoption; information usefulness; information credibility; argument quality; source expertise; source trustworthiness; source homophily.
A Brand-Centric Framework for Ephemeral Media: Conceptual Approach to Instagram Stories
by Fatih Pinarbasi
Abstract: Social media is one of the most widely investigated areas for consumer research in recent years, as well as it has a crucial role in consumers lives. Time-constrained, disappearing media content (namely ephemeral media) is one of the recent trends in social media consumer behavior with the popularity of Snapchat and Instagram Stories. Previous studies mostly investigated individual side of ephemeral media with empirical approaches. Research up to the present has not yet determined a conceptual structure for evaluating ephemeral media. This study aims to contribute social media literature by developing a comprehensive framework for ephemeral media concept, as well as being the first study to undertake ephemeral media with typology, conceptual structure and theoretical background. Typology part of the study reviews the attributes of ephemeral media and segments them into three clusters namely meta attributes, visual attributes and interaction attributes. Conceptual structure part assesses antecedents, consequences and control variables for ephemeral media by considering different approaches. Last part, theoretical background section investigates theories which can be used for ephemeral media researches. The study utilises a grounded theory approach for developing a conceptual framework and has an interpretive nature for preparing future research directions. As the study reveals a comprehensive framework for ephemeral media concept, further studies could explore each elements of the framework.
Keywords: liquid consumption; ephemeral media; brand communication; instagram.
Attributes of Instagram influencers impacting consumer brand engagement
by Helen Inseng Duh, Thabile Thabethe
Abstract: Social media influencers are described as people having the power to influence consumers brand opinions, reactions and behaviour. The attributes giving influencers the power, especially on Instagram, where a single post can cost up to $1.2 million need examination. Three models have been proposed for the understanding of attributes accountable for brand communicators persuasiveness/effectiveness. These models needed integration and testing in the context of Instagram influencers, brand engagement and millennials. Considering that South-Africas large number of millennials are significantly drawn to famous influencers on social media, this study extended Ohanians (1990) integrated source credibility model to examine Instagram influencers attributes impacting millennials brand engagement. Data was quantitatively collected from 330 millennials in a socio-economically and culturally diverse university. Structural equation modelling results revealed that influencers trustworthiness, familiarity, similarity and likability were the significant drivers of brand engagement. Likabilitys impact was surprisingly negative. Expertise and attractiveness did not impact brand engagement significantly.
Keywords: Influencer marketing; Social Media; Influencers’ Attributes; Ohanian Model; Brand Engagement; Millennials; Trustworthiness; Expertise; Familiarity; Attractiveness; Likability; Similarity; South Africa.
The Influence of Brand Image for the Online Direct Selling of a Malaysian Micro-enterprise Cosmetic Brand: The Mediating Role of Brand Awareness
by Rajat Subhra Chatterjee, Linda A.P. Seduram, Tan Sin Kwang, Chay Yau Choon
Abstract: In the backdrop of the augmented growth of micro-enterprises in Malaysia, this study examined the effects of credibility opinion, electronic word of mouth (eWOM), and social interaction on brand awareness and brand image. This study adopted a cross-sectional design by collecting quantitative data from 223 conveniently selected female online users of Susenji, which is a cosmetic brand and they live in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The findings revealed that eWOM and social interaction have a significant positive effect on brand awareness. Besides that, eWOM, credibility opinion, and brand awareness have a significant positive effect on brand image. The findings also revealed that brand awareness mediates the relationship between social influence and eWOM. The study contributed primarily to the current literature of the online direct selling micro-enterprises and the mediating relationship between brand awareness and the cosmetic brand industry.
Keywords: Malaysia; Micro-enterprise; cosmetics; brand image; brand awareness; eWOM; credibility opinion; social interaction; social media; direct selling; mediating.