International Journal of Internet Marketing and Advertising (42 papers in press)
The impact of corporate social responsibility and customer trust on the relationship between website information quality and customer loyalty in e-tailing context
by Hoang Dung
Abstract: This research seeks to investigate the interrelationships among information quality, perceived corporate social responsibility (CSR) with a focus on ethical-legal dimensions, customer trust, and loyalty in the e-tailing context. An empirical survey on 374 online shoppers was conducted and a structural equation model was employed to test the hypothesized relationships. The studys results indicate that information quality has a significant impact on both perceived CSR and customer trust, in turn, perceived CSR and customer trust mediates the relationship between information quality and customer loyalty upon online shopping environment. This study is noteworthy that it provides a new theoretical perspective in explaining the path from information quality to customer trust and loyalty through perceived CSR in e-commerce. The results suggest that managers need to be aware of perceived CSR as a key goal and criteria in designing and evaluating the effectiveness of content marketing strategies.
Keywords: corporate social responsibility; e-commerce; website information quality; customer trust; customer loyalty.
Factors Affecting the Urge of Impulsive Buying on Social Commerce Instagram
by Elvina Susanti Sihombing, Indra Budi, Qorib Munajat
Abstract: The increasing number of Instagram users drives the digital retailers to sell their products through Instagram. In Instagram, users can follow other account which then enable them to receive post updates from other account. Consequently, digital retailer can provide stimuli to their followers through their daily post. Therefore, to improve their sales, it is important for retailers to know what factors can influence impulse buying behavior. This study aims to find those factors which can help digital retailers to improve their sales. This study used quantitative approach with 993 respondents. The data was processed using PLS-SEM in SmartPLS 2.0. We investigated five factors which are visual appeal, variety of product, price attribute, information quality, and components of parasocial interaction. From the result, we concluded that all the factors influence the urge to impulse buying on social commerce Instagram.
Keywords: Impulsive buying; Instagram; PLS-SEM; social commerce.
Investigating the effects of interaction satisfaction and interaction immersion in social media on customer value creation
by Fooziye Shaykhzade, Mohsen Alvandi
Abstract: The increasing number of social media users is a potential area for organizations and firms to
interact with their customers in a more proficient way. This technology can be used as an
effective tool to create interactions between firms and customers. The purpose of this research
is to reveal the importance of satisfaction and immersion in social media brand interactions
and the creation of customer value. This study is considered as an applied, empirical,
descriptive research study. The results show that satisfaction and immersion through social media
interactions create customer value for brands. Both Interaction Satisfaction and Interaction
Immersion have positive effects on customer value creation (CLV, CIV, and CKV). The
findings of this study show the importance of setting social media platforms for brands to
maximize the customer and firm interactions. The more the firms increase their social media
activities and interactions, the better customer value they get.
Keywords: Interaction Satisfaction; Interaction Immersion; Customer Value Creation; Social Media; Internet; Social Networks; Online Marketing.
Mobile customers experience and loyalty: A study of tablet gender divergence in Finland
by Sunday Adewale Olaleye, Ismaila Temitayo Sanusi, Jari Salo
Abstract: Customer loyalty consists of many variables that make it work, especially in a retailing context. This study presents the differences between the ways male and female online shoppers use tablets for online shopping. This divergence provides an insight into the customer online shopping experience and their loyalty through the aid of a tablet device. A quantitative methodological approach was employed in the study with a structural equation modelling technique to ascertain the relationships that exist between the constructs. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software was employed to conduct a reliability and multicollinearity test. The study reveals tablet commerce gender divergence and the importance of cultural, technological and psychological factors in building a smart customer experience that can ramp up positive attitudes amongst tablet users and build loyalty in online shopping. The study discusses the implications and highlights the limitations of the study.
Keywords: tablet commerce; gender divergence; smart customer experience; loyalty.
Social Break Up: Why Consumers Hide and Unlike Brands on Facebook
by Eun Sook Kwon, Eunice Kim, Yoo Jin Chung
Abstract: On social networking sites (SNSs), consumers often engage in break-up behaviors (i.e., hiding brand posts and unliking brand pages). These behaviors are the consumers direct expression that he or she no longer wants to see brand posts or wants to end the relationship and the association with the brand. This study examines what drives consumers to hide brand posts and unlike brand pages on Facebook by reviewing the literature on advertising avoidance, consumer-brand relationship, and studies on SNSs as a means for self-expression (i.e., perceived information overload, attitude toward social media marketing, perceived brand detachment, and self- and social-identity expressiveness). Analyzing responses from 354 research participants using Amazon Mechanical Turk who have ever liked a commercial brand, this study found that the intention to hide brand posts was strongly correlated with the intention to unlike brand pages, and variables such as perceived information overload, attitude toward social media marketing, and perceived brand detachment significantly influenced consumers break-up behaviors. Social-identity expressiveness only predicted the intention to unlike brands. Implications of the studys findings are discussed.
Keywords: advertising avoidance; perceived information overload; perceived brand detachment; attitude toward social media marketing; identity expression.
Analyzing the Interrelationship between Online Reviews and Sales: The Role of Review Length and Sentiment Index in Electronic Markets
by Anu G. Aggarwal, Aakash
Abstract: With the advent of electronic commerce, online customer reviews (OCRs) have become a significant source of information related to a product/service. Now days, lot of research is being carried out to understand the role played by OCRs on the buying intentions and product evaluation of the prospective customers. In this paper, we use log linear regression models to include the effects of product price, review length, review volume and sentiments (positive or negative words) on the sales of a product. Using Amazon.com review data set, we show that in addition to the price, the customers are influenced by review volume, length, star rating & sentiment of reviews' text. We have also discussed the managerial as well as theoretical implication of the regression based sales modeling integrated with information processing technique of text mining and sentiment analysis.
Keywords: Electronic commerce; sentiment index; review length; text mining; sentiment analysis; online customer reviews (OCRs).
Negative eWOM on Social Media: Role of Individual, Contextual and Social Determinants
by Isha Sharma, Kokil Jain
Abstract: This study aims to expand the understanding of factors that lead to consumers intentions to engage in negative e-Word-of-Mouth (NEWOM) on social media, following a negative experience. In particular, the study empirically suggests that perceived power over social media and negative emotions positively influence NEWOM intentions while reappraisal of emotion regulations has a negative influence on NEWOM intentions. Perceived homophily and the factors of social cognitive theory including social outcome expectations and social media self efficacy are found to have a significant impact on consumers perception of power and control on social media. Brand attributions after a negative experience were found to influence negative emotions among consumers. Thus, including different individual, social and contextual factors, the study proposes a research model, which is designed using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) and tested using AMOS21. Finally, pertinent managerial and theoretical implications are highlighted.
Keywords: Negative e-Word-of-Mouth (NEWOM); Perceived Power and Control; Social Cognitive Theory; Perceived Homophily; Brand Attributions; Negative Emotions; Reappraisal of Emotion Regulation; Structural Equation Modelling.
DID YOU READ THE NEWS BEFORE PLAYING THE ADVERGAME? The Effects of Priming, Persuasion Knowledge and Placement Strength on Brand Attitude and Recall in Advergames
by Ayşegül Sağkaya Güngör
Abstract: With the advergames, marketers reach their goal of conveying their message to their target audience entertaining way. The study aims to find out, first, how the priming effects responses of the advergame players toward the brand. Additionally, persuasion knowledge and placement strength were investigated, along with priming. A 2x2x2 between-subjects laboratory experiment was conducted with, 204 participants. Results show that priming has significant effects on brand attitude and recall. The effects were partially persistent after the introduction of persuasion knowledge. When the placement strength was introduced, it was observed significant differences on brand attitude and recall.
Keywords: branded entertainment; advergame; advertainment; brand placement; priming; persuasion knowledge; placement prominence; placement strength.
Is it assortment or overall satisfaction which fires online repatronage intention in the silhouette of social norms?
by Sanjeev Prashar, Pranay Verma
Abstract: Satisfaction has been classified at assortment (transactional) level and at an overall (cumulative) level. This paper purports to analyze online repurchase intention in the context of satisfaction at these two levels for online retailing of footwear. The study also aims to differentiate assortment satisfaction from overall satisfaction. Additionally, the role of social norm in influencing these two types of satisfaction is investigated. A structured, self developed instrument was employed for cross sectional survey and to empirically test such collected data from 458 Indian customers who bought footwear, online. A two step structural equation modeling was applied to test the measurement and structural model. Measurement model checked the validity and reliability of the variables, while the structural model validated the hypothesized relationships between the variables. The finding of this empirical study shows that assortment satisfaction has a positive direct influence on overall satisfaction. However, it has no influence on repurchase intention, which is positively influenced by overall satisfaction. On the other hand, social norm influences both types of satisfaction but not repurchase intention. rnThis is the first study on online purchase of footwear which differentiates assortment satisfaction from overall satisfaction. Assortment satisfaction is the transactional part of satisfaction, while overall satisfaction is the cumulative satisfaction built over a period. Given the growth of online retail, this study provides scholars and practitioners with suggestions and recommendations on how assortment satisfaction can be used to build overall satisfaction. A new study which suggests the mangers that social norm can influence the customers satisfaction but not their purchase decision. rn
Keywords: Assortment satisfaction; Overall satisfaction; Repurchase intention; Online retailing; Social Norm.
Organic and Sponsored Ads: study on online purchase intent and visual behavior
by Marina Teixeira De Souza, Jorge Caldeira De Oliveira, Janaina Moura Engracia Giraldi
Abstract: Advertising on search sites using organic and sponsored ads corresponds to a Marketing strategy that allows the interaction between companies and their target audience from the use of keywords when doing the online search, in this way, the search sites act as between consumer needs and the large number of information available on web pages. Many studies have focused on ads on search pages and user interactions, but without considering the types of attention. Thus, this study aims to verify how the relationship between attention to organic and sponsored ads and types of visual behavior about the intention to buy online. A primary data collection was performed with 100 students from the Faculty of Administration, Economics and Accounting of Ribeir
Keywords: Organic Ads; Sponsored Ads; Online purchase intention; Visual behavior.
Comparing blogs with print ads for corporate branding. The role of source credibility
by Daniela Langaro, Maria De Fátima Salgueiro, Paulo Rita
Abstract: The increasing development of brand presence on social networking
sites (SNS) requires new practices for monitoring the results of brands efforts.
The current research proposes that users exposure to brand-related content by
means of participating on brand pages is a key measure to be monitored.
This proposition builds on previous studies which relate positive business
consequences with users exposure to brand communications. Despite the
relevance of capturing users participation on brand pages, so far very limited
effort has been made to propose a construct for measuring it. Thus, three
studies were implemented and a new construct was proposed and validated for
internal consistency, unidimensionality and nomological validity.
Keywords: Brand communications; Social Media; Social Networking Sites; Participation; Facebook; SNS; Construct development.
THE ROLE OF RETARGETED ADVERTISEMENTS (RTA) IN DEALING WITH DEFLECTING CUSTOMERS AND ITS IMPACT ON THE ONLINE BUYING PROCESS
by Geetha Mohan
Abstract: Objective of this study is to find the effectiveness of re-targeting advertisements (RTA) in persuading the online shoppers to buy. These ads are targeted at individuals based on their previous search behavior and those online shoppers who are perceived to be interested in their products by marketers. The effectiveness of retargeted ads was measured by click through rate, purchase intention and purchase. An in-depth interview with experts followed by three studies was done. A cross sectional and comparative study with normal advertisement; a longitudinal study with creative retargeted ads and the last one with cross channel retargeting techniques were done. All the studies support that retargeted ads are effective at a relative low cost and also established it as an efficient method of communicating to online shoppers. These ads are specifically to people interested and inclined towards the product and this makes it a reliable tool to boost the sales of the e-commerce businesses.
Keywords: Re-targeted advertisements; click through rate; online purchase; effectiveness; interactive advertisement model; knowledge persuasion model.
The impact of relationship quality and social support on online shopping behaviour: an analysis of social media users selling intention.
by Ree C. Ho, Robin Cheng
Abstract: Social commerce is getting more popular with its sales volume increase rapidly, and drives more consumers to start buying in the social media. The main aim of this study was to investigate the social support and relationship quality to explain consumer selling behaviour within social media. Sample size was 296 respondents collected via survey questionnaire. The data was tested with structured equation modelling. The results showed that user interaction in social network influenced the attitude needed to venture into online business. On the other hand, relationship quality and social support enhanced the consumers perception on the controlling the shopping process. In conclusion, the research findings provide the theoretical implications on the selling perspective of social commerce.
Keywords: social commerce; selling intention; relationship quality; social support; online shopping; social media apps.
Searching for answers? An examination of search engine advertisement strategy, ranking and keywords to generate clicks
by Michael North
Abstract: Search engine advertisements are paid search results that appear above the organic search results retrieved by Google. These search engine advertisements typically generate a 2% click-through rate, but browsers are more inclined to click when purchase intentions are high. This study examined almost 100,000 instances of search engine advertisements measured in weeks from an insurance company. Results point to generic search engine advertisements generating more clicks than specific. Search engine advertisements ranked first receive far more clicks than subsequent rankings. Lastly, near-synonyms such as Cover and Protect generate more clicks than an expected keyword such as Insure. Managerial implications are discussed to help companies maximize search engine advertising campaigns.
Keywords: search engine advertising; advertising; marketing; search engine optimization; specific search engine advertising; generic search engine advertising; search engine ranking; near-synonyms; strategic communication.
SOCIAL MEDIA ADVERTISING AND CONSUMER DECISION-MAKING: THE MEDIATING ROLE OF CONSUMER ENGAGEMENT
by Dan Duku Dankwa
Abstract: This paper investigated the effectiveness of social media advertising on consumer decision-making and the mediating role of consumer engagement. Three constructs including emotional appeal, informativeness and advertising creativity were employed to assess the effectiveness of firms social media advertising on Customer decision-making. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses with structural equation modelling were employed to evaluate a proposed model on the relationships among the dependent and independent constructs. Tabachnick and Fidell (2007) formula was used to sample 310 active social media users. Only active followers of fashion brands were considered for this study. The study showed that consumer engagements influenced the relationship between informativeness (full mediation) and advertising creativity (partial mediation) in social media advertising and consumer decision-making. The study recommends that firms that advertise fashions brands on social media must focus on crafting advertisements that are creative and informative in order to influence decisions that consumers make on social media platforms. The study contributes to practice by indicating that emotional appeals of social media adverts no longer influence consumers decision-making on fashion brands, but rather the extent of information and newness of the adverts to satisfy their needs played a major role in consumers' decision making.
Keywords: Keywords: Advertisement; Consumer engagement; Purchase decision; Fashion; Social media.
Exploring Cultural Influences on Mobile Marketing Acceptance
by Meghan Pierce, Pingjun Jiang
Abstract: Mobile platforms are increasingly important outlets for marketing communications. Previous work has examined the impact of individual-level characteristics such as attachment, privacy concern, permission and risk avoidance on mobile marketing acceptance in cross-cultural settings, but calls for research to identify the cultural influences that account for market differences. The current work explores the influence of cultural values, measured at the individual level, on two dominant markets, the U.S. and China. Findings indicate uncertainty avoidance and long-term orientation are important antecedents to mobile marketing acceptance. We further clarify the role of individual-level characteristics and find risk avoidance and permission to significantly impact attitudes toward mobile marketing in both markets. rnrn
Keywords: mobile marketing acceptance; attitudes towards mobile marketing; cultural values; uncertainty avoidance; long-term orientation; US and China comparative study; international marketing; risk avoidance; permission; digital marketing.
From dancing on the street to dating online: evaluating guerrilla street marketing performance
by Therese Roux, Marcel Saucet
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to explore how marketing communication professionals assess the performance of street guerrilla marketing campaigns. The method included a literature review and qualitative interviews with 20 marketing communications professionals from Europe and the United States of America. It was found that professionals carefully and purposefully select appropriate environments and combine distinctive instruments to track cognitive, affective and behavioural responses. The focus moved to acquiring and quantifying online diffusion rather than responses on street level. The results of the study are important for both researchers and practitioners who design and organize campaigns as well as users of alternative out-of-home media channels. Understanding the practices of experienced professionals helped to identify practical techniques used to evaluate contemporary street guerrilla marketing instruments. This article is one of the first to explore the effects of contemporary guerrilla marketing on the street as well as online.
Keywords: street marketing; ambient marketing; guerrilla marketing; marketing communication professionals.
The Congruent and Comparative Impacts of Weather on Consumer Reviews: Evidence from an Online Forum and Experiment
by Judy Ma, Dongling Huang, Yu Wang
Abstract: This research examines the impact of weather on consumer reviews of products and services. Although anecdotal and empirical evidence indicate that weather influences consumers choices and shopping behavior, little is known about how weather impacts consumers evaluations of products and services. We propose that consumer reviews are influenced by incidental weather conditions both during product experience and during retrospective product evaluation. Using both online consumer review data and an experiment, we find consistent evidence that (1) weather during experience and during retrospection have directionally congruent impacts on the positivity of product reviews and (2) changes in weather from experience to retrospection result in a comparative effect, by which negative (positive) changes in weather from the time of experience to the time of review are associated with more positive (negative) reviews. This research offers strategic implications for the timing of direct marketing messages, such as mobile advertising and product review solicitation.
Keywords: online consumer reviews; weather; mood-as-information; memory; direct marketing; empirical research; experimental research.
The Acceptance of Mobile Advertising: a social or personal matter?
by Reza Ashari Nasution, Devi Arnita
Abstract: This paper contributes to the extant literature on mobile advertising acceptance by extending the current TRA-based model to include the personal relevance of this form of advertising. The aim of this research was to investigate how social influence, represented by the subjective norms in the TRA model, and personal relevance play respective roles in influencing an individuals decision to embrace mobile advertising. The study involved male and female college students in Bandung aged between 18 and 25 years old (young millennials), which were reported by the Association of Advertising Companies in Indonesia to be the most attractive segment for mobile advertising. The findings indicate that millennials are attracted by the social trends of mobile advertising, but demonstrate independence in arriving at their final assessment of mobile advertising based on the personal relevance of this form of publicity.
Keywords: mobile advertising; social influence; social trend; personal relevance; theory of reasoned action; millennials.
Internet advertising of offensive products: The effects of cartoons on adult consumer attitudes
by Pakakorn Rakrachakarn, George Moschis, Thittapong Daengrasmisopon
Abstract: During recent decades, internet advertising has been increasingly used for promoting various types of products. As offensive products generally yield more negative responses to the audience, this study was conducted to identify the effects of different advertising designs on adult consumer responses to offensive product advertisements on the Internet. A 4 x 4 factorial design was used in the experiment where Internet users reported their responses to different banner advertising designs (with and without cartoons) of offensive and non-offensive products. The findings indicate that for the main effects of online banner advertising designs, cartoon ads (ad with drawing) have a less favourable effect on attitude toward the brand when it is non-cartoon (real images), regardless of product type (offensive or non-offensive). Moreover, there is a no interaction effect between ad design and product types on consumer response, even though cartoon ads used in offensive product advertising yield less favourable attitude toward the product than non-cartoon ads.
Keywords: Internet advertising; offensive products; offensive advertising; advertising design; cartoons.
Comparing Blogs with Print Ads for Corporate Branding. The Role of Source Credibility
by Gema Vinuales, Daniel A. Sheinin
Abstract: The explosion of new media and usage represents one the most significant trends in marketing communications today. One of the major challenges in this environment is which type of media is most effective at communicating a corporate message. Across two studies, we demonstrate that a message in a blog generates a more positive corporate-brand attitude and higher engagement than the identical one in a print ad, and that source credibility mediates this effect. A blog is perceived as having higher source credibility than a print ad.
Keywords: Source credibility; corporate identity; corporate branding; blogs; print ads; marketing communications; media effectiveness; corporate message.
Viewer Responses to Product Messages Using One-person Media Influencers
by Kyoo-Hoon Han, Eunmi Lee
Abstract: This study investigated the effect of product messages through one-person media, the growing media with great marketing potential, by conducting an experiment in which the perceived expertise of the influencer and the perceived commerciality of the message were manipulated. The results showed that when the perceived expertise of the influencer is high, the product message through one-person media generates a positive behavioral intention and attitude toward the message. The perceived commerciality, in contrast, was found to have an insignificant influence on persuasion effect. The interaction effect between the two independent variables was found to be significant. Based on the results of analysis, this study derives theoretical and practical implications for one-person media communication contexts, and suggests a direction for follow-up research.
Keywords: one-person media; social media; influencer marketing; product endorsement; mobile video; perceived expertise; perceived commerciality; MCN.
A Typology of Customer Experience with Social Media Branded Content: A Netnographic Study
by Muhammad Waqas, Zalfa Laili Binti Hamzah, Noor Akma Mohd Salleh
Abstract: Drawing on consumer culture theory (CCT), this study explores the customer experiences with branded content posted on social media platforms. A netnography of the comments of the members of the Volvo Truck brand community was conducted to grasp the consumer expressions of experiences with the branded content. It was revealed that social media branded content experience typology comprises experiences such as self-identity, social bonding, aesthetic, utilitarian, humour, awe-inspiring, and discerning. The findings contribute to the research on customer experiences in social media and may help in designing the branded content which provides favourable experiences and fosters engagement in social media.
Keywords: customer experience; social media; branded content; consumer culture theory; self-identity; social bonding; utilitarian; aesthetic; humour; awe-inspiring.
Is this the beginning of the end for retail websites? A professional perspective.
by Ricardo Ramos, Paulo Rita, Sérgio Moro
Abstract: This paper expects to understand professionals opinion concerning the impact of the increasing use of Social Media (SM) and commercial Mobile Applications (MA) instead of retail websites in their online strategy. Unstructured interviews with Internet professionals were applied on the LinkedIn professional SM platform, and one hundred and twenty-seven professionals provided their perspective. Data were analyzed using a Text Mining approach, and the outcome revealed professionals resistance to set SM in the center of the online strategy and highlighted the preference of users to use search engines that, in turn, will lead them to a retail website.
Keywords: retail website; social media; commercial mobile application; consumer behavior; text mining.
Attribution Modeling in Digital Advertising for E-commerce
by Sergey Alexandrovskiy, Olga Trundova
Abstract: The authors aim to offer a probability approach for measuring media contribution to online conversions in e-commerce. The authors reviewed literature on attribution modelling with application of heuristics (Google Analytics) and probability (Markov chains) models. The survey used the data of customer journeys from 134132 users to build up the attribution model. As a result, Markov chains model minimizes the value of Direct online channel, and redistributes the value in favor of other traffic channels and gives a significant weight to the paid traffic. Markov chains model increases the importance of Display and Paid Search channels, which is not so noticeable in heuristic models. Findings of this study help marketers to apply Markov chains modeling in online advertising evaluation and budgeting. The authors proposed application of Markov chains attribution modelling in the e-commerce website. Other e-commerce companies might apply Markov chains attribution modeling in a similar way.
Keywords: attribution modeling; digital advertising; ecommerce; multi-channel measurement; Markov chains model; probability model.
Why are communal advertisements more effective than agentic ones? The role of the self-congruity effect
by Konrad Hryniewicz
Abstract: The article expands the knowledge on marketing effectiveness of advertisements containing agentic and communal content with recipients characteristics. Three studies were carried out (N = 398, N = 339, N = 512) where two advertising conditions were manipulated. One contained agentic content and second communal. The research focused on the relation recipients agency and communion with a series of measurements of the advertising effectiveness (self-congruity, purchase intention, the attitude toward the product, advertisement and brand). Results were summarized with a meta-analysis which showed that the increase in the effectiveness containing communal content significantly depended on the increase in the recipient's communion (the self-congruity effect) while the increase in the recipient's agency was related to the weaker and equal increase in the effectiveness containing both agentic and communal content (the lack of the self-congruity effect). The collected data indicates that the higher effectiveness of communal advertising depends on the recipients communion.
Keywords: communion; agency; advertising effectiveness; self-congruity; meta-analysis.
Why follow beauty bloggers? An investigation with Brazilian consumers
by Irene Troccoli, Ana Maria Boa Morte, Marcio Abdalla
Abstract: This qualitative article examines whether the factors of an already tested behavioral model applied to blog users, that analyzed the influence of the perceived usefulness of blogger recommendations, the blog readers confidence in them, and the reputation of bloggers on consumers purchasing attitudes and intentions, are confirmed when it comes to followers of bloggers hired by a beauty hair products company in Brazil. By means of individual interviews and a focus group with followers of a blogger hired by the company, evidence confirmed the model, and also contributed academically with two novelties: 1) followers feel motivated in their relationship with a blogger when these contacts entertain them, not infrequently envolving aspects extraneous to seeking guidance on the companys products; 2) there is a fifth factor that motivates customers to follow the blogger: a personal identification with this professional. Limitations of this research are listed and future studies are suggested.
Keywords: Bloggers; Digital influencers; Reputation; Trust; Perceived usefulness; Attitude; Interview; Focus group; Qualitative; Behavioral model.
Customers perspectives on marketing mix elements in social media-based purchases
by Bình Nghiêm-Phú
Abstract: Much research has examined customers perspectives on information tools in particular and the marketing mix elements in general. However, several theoretical gaps can still be observed. In this study, the roles that social media-based information inputs have with customers perceptions of trust in sellers (People), Products, Price, distribution method (Place), purchase process (Process) and their intentions were examined. Using data gathered from university students in Vietnam, this study found that textual descriptions and pictures created by sellers had some significant impacts on customers perceptions of trust in sellers and the purchase process. In addition, pictures and hashtags contributed by buyers had some significant influences on customers evaluations of price and the purchase process. Implications for marketing theory and practice were discussed, together with the limitations of this study and the directions for future research.
Keywords: social networks; organic information; induced information; online shopping; structural equation modeling.
Influence of Social Media and Online Reviews on University Students Purchasing Decisions
by Mostafa Torabi, Charles Bélanger
Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to investigate and gauge the influence of rating websites and social media on consumers purchasing behaviour and their choices. The present research considers a comparison between choosing a university and a restaurant by consumers based on using social media and online reviews. The study develops a multidimensional model to recognize the influence of online rating websites and social medial on consumer purchasing decisions.
Results reveal that information adoption and risk-taking are important factors towards consumer purchasing decisions. However, there is no significant relationship between demographic traits and consumer purchasing decisions based on the proposed model and findings. Moreover, the study confirms that long-term benefits outweigh the expediency of a decision when respondents were reviewing websites.
Keywords: social media; e-word of mouth; online reviews; information adoption; risk; consumer purchasing decisions.
Exploring Brand Humanization on SNSs: Brand Personality and Its Influence on Brand Partner Quality, Brand Attitude, and Consumer Behavioral Engagement
by Eun Sook Kwon, Jooyoung Kim
Abstract: This study explored whether consumers interacting with brands on SNSs attribute human-like personalities to brands and further examined the relationships between personality dimensions and brand performance measures. Responses from 922 research participants (530 brand followers and 392 brand non-followers on SNSs) were analyzed. Brand followers and brand non-followers attributed some of the same personality dimensions (Sophistication, Sincerity, and Competence) while there were differences between the two groups: Excitement only among brand non-followers; Agreeableness and Unpleasantness only among brand followers. The personality dimension Sincerity had a strong, positive influence on brand performance measures. Implications are discussed.
Keywords: Brand personality; Big Five; Brand partner quality; Brand attitude; Behavioral engagement; Social networking sites.
Special Issue on: ICCMI 2018 Strategic Use of Social Media as a Marketing Tool
Examining consumer responses to YouTube ads through facial expressions and self-reports: The role of gender identity and emotional appeals
by Maria Voutsa, Eirini Tsichla, Leonidas Hatzithomas, Kostoula Margariti
Abstract: The study focusses on the value of gender identity as a moderator in the relationship between consumers experienced and self-reported joy towards a YouTube video advertisement. In a laboratory experiment, participants were exposed to an emotional advertising appeal (aggressive versus warm) and their self-reports were compared with their facial expression analysis. The results show that in the warm advertising scenario, high masculine individuals who experienced joy tend to mask their emotions and under-report their level of joy. A similar reaction was recorded for low masculine individuals exposed to the aggressive advertising scenario. Self-reported joy acts, also, as a mediator of the impact of experienced joy on consumers attitudes and purchase intentions. The findings raise significant concerns regarding the appropriateness of relying solely on self-report measures when examining constructs susceptible to social desirability issues, yielding important implications for both academics and practitioners.
Keywords: Gender identity; emotional appeals; advertising; facial expression analysis.
Optimal Instagram Advertising Design Features. A study on brand image and Millennials' purchase intention.
by Ioannis Rizomyliotis, Dimitrios Zafeiriadis, Kleopatra Konstantoulaki, Apostolos Giovanis
Abstract: Social media advertising and especially text-based online platforms have been studied for decades. Still, the investigation of the most effective mix of key design elements in Instagram ads in relation to consumer purchase intention and brand image is still underexplored. This study aims to examine the impact of three key advertisement design elements (colour, font size and layout) on brand image and consumer purchase intention. Three hundred twenty participants were randomly assigned to the conditions of the experiment. The findings provided insights into the way the design elements alter the intention of the consumers to buy and their perceptions of the brand image respectively.
Keywords: Instagram advertising; brand image; purchase intention; visual elements; colour; font; layout.
Engagement and Reactions of Brand Posts on Brand Fan Pages in Facebook: An Investigation of Brand Posts Characteristics.
by Ioannis Antoniadis, Costas Assimakopoulos, Symeon Paltsoglou
Abstract: Engagement and Reactions of Brand Posts on Brand Fan Pages in Facebook: An Investigation of Brand Posts Characteristics.Social Networking Sites (SNSs) are considered to be an essential channel of marketing communication with consumers and stakeholders alike. Companies and brands use them to engage with consumers, strengthening brand awareness and brand loyalty through open dialogue. To achieve those goals, posts in SNSs must attain high levels of engagement. In this paper, the factors that increase the engagement of brands' posts in SNSs are investigated, by examining the most popular 83 Greek brand pages on Facebook. A total number of 8,727 posts were collected and analyzed, in order to identify the characteristics of posts that drew the attention of consumers, and led to higher levels of engagement, using an OLS regression model. The novelty of this research lies in the inclusion of the recently at the time introduced reaction to Facebook. Our findings imply that richness of content (images, videos), message length and positive reactions increase the engagement and the popularity of posts. On the other hand, posting time does not seem to have a statistically significant impact on the engagement of a post. Our results expand the existing literature in understanding the ways consumers interact with brand posts on Facebook including reactions, and finally offer suggestions for further research.
Keywords: Social Networking Sites; Consumer engagement; Popularity; Facebook Reactions; Facebook brand page.
Special Issue on: VCBMC-2019 E-Commerce, Social Media and Consumer Behaviour
Political Partys Fan Page Posts and Online Engagement on Facebook
by Manpreet Kaur, Rajesh Verma
Abstract: The substantial growth in the social media user base has transformed the way of information dissemination from traditional mass media to new media specially for political purpose. The present study aimed to analyse the impact of Political Partys Fan Page Posts on their Online Engagement. A descriptive research design is used on extracted 1555 posts from official Facebook pages of two major national parties of India using access token in R Software, analysed through ANOVA. The results revealed the significant impact of media type, post valence, content type, posting day on political engagement in terms of Likes, Comments and Shares whereas, posting time has an insignificant impact on getting Likes and Comments. The results of the study are relevant to the theory of information dissemination and will contextually contribute to the literature. The findings will provide valuable and directly applicable implications for social media marketing along with assistance to political actors and practitioners while making new media strategies.
Keywords: Media Type; Post Valence; Content Type; Posting Day and Time; Online Engagement.
Adoption of VoD services: An investigation of extended Technology Acceptance Model
by Rahul Sharma, Amit Kakkar
Abstract: As the times are changing, so are the consumption patterns and purchase intentions of the customers for different products/services and the same are also witnessed in the entertainment industry. With the amalgamation of rock bottom data prices and wide penetration of smartphones, the streaming apps (VoD services) are witnessing a whirlwind acceptance among its target audience. The present study is conducted to study the factors influencing the purchase intention of VoD services. The conceptual model centered around TAM (Technology Acceptance Model) was theorised to study the purchase intention of VoD services with the addition of dimensions Perceived Enjoyment (PE) and Content and the antecedents of Perceived Usefulness (PU) and Perceived Ease of Use (PEOU). The data was collected from 207 respondents who were using VoD services and the responses were analysed using the Smart-PLS 2.0. The study established the significant and positive effect of PEOU and PU, Perceived Enjoyment (PE) and Content on the intention to use VoD services. The findings suggest the acceptance of newer technologies like VoD by customers because of Ease of Use and Usefulness along-with Content availability and Enjoyment. It establishes the fact that all the newer technologies which are useful and easy to use to the customers will be accepted by their respective target customers.
Keywords: VOD; Content; OTT; Technology Acceptance Model (TAM); Smart PLS.
Special Issue on: Social Media Marketing in the Digital Era
Cosmetics Interest and Behaviour Generated from Social Media Advertising and e-WOM among Female Millennials
by Helen Inseng Duh
Abstract: Cosmetics demand is growing among female millennials, who are high users of social media and electronic word-of-mouth (e-WOM) for purchase decision-making. However, the social media platforms and other information sources generating cosmetics interest and desired marketing outcomes from millennials, reported to be fickle and notoriously disloyal are unknown. Marketers spend to advertise on various social media platforms amidst e-WOM that consumers share, but do not know the advertising effectiveness of each social media platform or whether purchase behaviour is driven by e-WOM. This study was aimed at modifying the Attention, Interest, Desire, Action (AIDA) model to examine the impact of YouTube, Instagram and Facebook adverts on female South African millennials cosmetics interest, purchase intention and willingness to pass-along information. It also compared the impact with how e-WOM influence cosmetics interest and purchase intention. Users (N=259) of all three social media platforms were surveyed. Structural equation modelling results revealed that cosmetics interest was ignited by attention drawn from YouTube and Instagram adverts. This interest influenced purchase intention and willingness to pass-along information. Information received from e-WOM influenced cosmetics interest, but not purchase intention. This study contributes by modifying and testing the AIDA model in the context of social media advertising.
Keywords: Social Media; YouTube; Facebook; Instagram; Cosmetics interest; e-WOM; Information pass-along; Female Millennials; Purchase Intention; AIDA Model.
How Do People Adopt Information on Social Media? The Role of eWOM in Revealing Travel Itineraries
by Nilsah Cavdar Aksoy, Alev Kocak Alan, Ebru Tumer Kabadayi, Hayri Sinan Dagistanli
Abstract: Social media, through its increasing importance and expanding usage areas, represents a source of information exchange for individuals day by day. The information released in this electronic environment has become an element of word-of-mouth communication. This type of information indicates an area that should be managed for all sectors, including the tourism sector. The purpose of this study is to explain adoption behaviors of individuals towards tourism information in social media, within the framework of information-related factors and source-related factors. In doing so, Information Adoption Model was utilized to explain individuals' adoption of the information they obtained via the Internet while planning their trips. Survey method was used in this study, and the data obtained were tested with structural equation modelling. The results of the study showed the following: (1) source homophily positively relates to both source expertise and source trustworthiness, (2) effective factors on information credibility are source credibility, source expertise, and argument quality, (3) information credibility and former three positively relates to information usefulness, (4) information usefulness exerts a positive influence on information adoption.
Keywords: social media; eWOM; information adoption; information usefulness; information credibility; argument quality; source expertise; source trustworthiness; source homophily.
A Brand-Centric Framework for Ephemeral Media: Conceptual Approach to Instagram Stories
by Fatih Pinarbasi
Abstract: Social media is one of the most widely investigated areas for consumer research in recent years, as well as it has a crucial role in consumers lives. Time-constrained, disappearing media content (namely ephemeral media) is one of the recent trends in social media consumer behavior with the popularity of Snapchat and Instagram Stories. Previous studies mostly investigated individual side of ephemeral media with empirical approaches. Research up to the present has not yet determined a conceptual structure for evaluating ephemeral media. This study aims to contribute social media literature by developing a comprehensive framework for ephemeral media concept, as well as being the first study to undertake ephemeral media with typology, conceptual structure and theoretical background. Typology part of the study reviews the attributes of ephemeral media and segments them into three clusters namely meta attributes, visual attributes and interaction attributes. Conceptual structure part assesses antecedents, consequences and control variables for ephemeral media by considering different approaches. Last part, theoretical background section investigates theories which can be used for ephemeral media researches. The study utilises a grounded theory approach for developing a conceptual framework and has an interpretive nature for preparing future research directions. As the study reveals a comprehensive framework for ephemeral media concept, further studies could explore each elements of the framework.
Keywords: liquid consumption; ephemeral media; brand communication; instagram.
Special Issue on: Emerging Issues in Social Media Influencers
The Influence of Influencer Marketing on YouTube Influencers
by Fulya Acikgoz, Sebnem Burnaz
Abstract: In recent years, the YouTube platform is evolved into a primary marketing instrument for brands promotion. Marketers apply YouTube influencers to promote their brands, so the influencers share sponsored content with their followers. Although most of the brands prefer to work with YouTube influencers, the factors that affect sponsored content value has not been sufficiently known. Also, the influence of sponsored content on followers attitudes towards YouTube influencers has not been clearly understood. This paper, therefore, aims to fulfill this gap in the literature and determines three factors which may affect the sponsored content value as well as attitudes towards YouTube influencers. For this purpose, a conceptual model was developed based on the Advertising Value Model (Ducoffe, 1996). The revised model was tested using structural equation modeling by collecting data from 411 university students who frequently use YouTube. The findings reveal that entertainment and informativeness are the key factors of sponsored content value that affects attitudes towards YouTube influencers. Theoretical and managerial implications are debated for future research.
Keywords: YouTube; YouTube Influencers; Influencer Marketing; Advertising Value Model (AVM); Sponsored Content.
Online Influencers: Healthy Food or Fake news
by Catarina Vasconcelos, Renato Renato, Álvaro Dias, Leandro Pereira, José Santos
Abstract: Today we live in a globalized world, with no boundaries, and where we can be updated of any information by the minute. This globalization phenomenon has a lot of advantages as well as disadvantages. It is wonderful to know the news by the minute, however the easiness and swiftness real news spreads, and same goes to the fake news. Tools, such as search engines like Google, Bing, Yandex, etc. and Social Media (i.e. Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter) or Blogs, are turning information sharing easier, but uncontrolled. Since it is very difficult to assess the reliability of online news or information, this study seeks to understand the reliability of these new diet trends, who are these people that shared the information, and the impact of it on the society. Findings show that even though the society is being influenced by the brands, this increasing awareness for a healthy diet could be something positive for the society, however the conclusions are that it is not.
Keywords: Online advertising; marketing; international knowledge transfer; sponsorship.
Fame and Envy 2.0 in Luxury Fashion Influencer Marketing on Instagram: Comparison Between Mega-Celebrities and Micro-Celebrities
by Seunga Jin
Abstract: This study addresses contemporary issues of online celebrities and the dynamics of fame and envy in Instagram influencer-based luxury fashion marketing and advertising from a consumer psychology perspective. A randomized between-subjects experiment (N = 108) examined the influence of mainstream mega-celebrities versus Instagram micro-celebrities on various dimensions of consumer behavior. The results indicate stronger main effects of Instagram micro-celebrities (versus mainstream mega-celebrities) on buying intention. Mediation analyses confirm the mediating effects of parasocial interaction on the relationship between celebrity types and buying intention. Data analyses show moderating effects of materialism and envy in accounting for the effects of celebrity types on fashion marketing outcomes. This study provides marketing scholars with relevant theoretical explanations about consumer psychology of luxury and envy in social media marketing. With regard to managerial implications, current findings provide brand managers and advertising practitioners with empirical data about the efficacy of micro-celebrity practices in Instagram influencer marketing.
Keywords: Instagram Micro-Celebrity; Social Media Influencer Marketing; Parasocial Interaction; Luxury Fashion Brand Endorsement; Social Media Envy; Materialism; Social Identity Theory.
Impact of social media influencers on customer engagement and brand perception
by Rahul Chander Jaitly, Omvir Gautam
Abstract: The availability and widespread use of social media has made it the preferred medium for companies wanting to spread product information, create public opinion and gain followers. To this end, social media influencers act as a dynamic third party endorser to spread a brands message to vast audience across the world. Consumers who exhibit a positive attitude towards the social media credibility are attracted through social media advertisements. The present study examines the perceptions of agencies for opting social media influencers and their role in customer engagement and brand awareness. For this purpose, the study also assesses different methods adopted by these influencers for influencing customers using a systematic review. The findings of the study indicate customers perception and attitude are much influenced via these influencers since they are more capable of communicating to a niche segment. As compared to traditional advertising strategies, this new technological means of influencers pave way to new competitive strength to the agencies in engaging customers and creating brand awareness.
Keywords: social media influencers; customer engagement; brand awareness; advertising strategies; social media advertising.