Forthcoming articles

International Journal of Innovation and Learning

International Journal of Innovation and Learning (IJIL)

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International Journal of Innovation and Learning (59 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • AccurIT: a Prototype of a Machine Translation Engine for English to Arabic Translation   Order a copy of this article
    by Basem Alkazemi, Mohammed Nour, Atif Naseer, Ammar Natto, Gami Mohammad A. Grami 
    Abstract: Current machine translators have reached an unprecedented level of sophistication in dealing with not only isolated words, but also longer sentences and paragraphs. Despite the advances achieved in this field, several challenges remain to be resolved for machine translation (MT) to be on par with professional human translation, including the quality of grammar and context accuracy, pragmatics, relevance, choice of vocabulary and ability to translate large files effectively based on this lists criteria. Another extremely problematic area that we have observed is incorrect literal translation of English phrases, proverbs, idioms, figurative speech and clich
    Keywords: Translation; Machine Translation; ESL Learning.

  • Effects of Business Model Innovation on Corporate Sustainability: Intervening role of Organizational Learning and Strategic Flexibility   Order a copy of this article
    by Nitin Vihari 
    Abstract: In the current competitive economic environment, business models through their value creation mechanisms act as a support system in fostering the sustainability of a firm. Business model innovation is typically performed either by renewal or replication strategy. Drawing on the instrumental and integrative theories, a framework of hypotheses is developed that underlines the effects of business model innovation (renewal and replication) on a firms corporate sustainability practices. The operational responsiveness of the relationship between business model innovation and corporate sustainability practices is tested using organizational learning, strategic flexibility as sequential mediating variables and environmental dynamism as a moderating variable. Using a conclusive research design, the present study employed survey questionnaire to managerial workforce of the select Indian pharmaceutical companies. Out of a total of 354 questionnaires circulated across the select pharmaceutical companies, 248 were returned and 22 were discarded due to incompletely filled responses, resulting in a response rate of 68.84%. The study uses Structural Equation Modeling and Sequential Mediation Analysis, to test the proposed research model. Some of the findings indicate that both the types of business model innovation significantly predict corporate sustainability practices; organizational learning and strategic flexibility acts as sequential mediators and environmental dynamism strengthens the relationship. Furthermore, the study proposes key theoretical and practitioner underpinnings along with future research avenues.
    Keywords: Corporate Sustainability; Business model innovation; Organizational Learning; Strategic Flexibility; Environmental Dynamism.

  • Influence of job dissatisfaction on recent raise of employee turnover intention in UAE banks: A mixed-methods approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Hamad Alqubati, Christopher Dixon, Chowdhury Hossan 
    Abstract: High employee turnover can be a serious setback to the fulfilment of the strategic objectives of any organization. Statistics reveal that turnover intention among UAE nationals in the banking sector is increasing. Between 2011 and 2014, the ratio of UAE nationals in the banking sector has decreased from 35% to 34% despite growth in the sector. This study intends to focus on and identify the factors affecting the turnover among UAE nationals in the banking sector. Empirical estimates of the regression models from a sample of 100 respondents are integrated with qualitative analysis from 30 interviewees using a mixed methods approach. The estimated betas reveal that the cost of leaving a job, the retirement/after service benefits, the financial benefits, the peer-to-peer relationship, the leader-employee relationship, and the career growth prospects significantly affect turnover intention. The quantitative results reveal that financial benefits, after-service benefits such as pension, and other retirement benefits are the most important variables affecting job satisfaction and organizational commitment. In addition, the qualitative analysis suggests that work overload and stress along with financial benefits and after-service benefits determine job satisfaction. This paper attempts to enhance the rigour and validity of the data and findings by using a mixed methods approach. Furthermore, the factors highlighted in the study that cause turnover intention among UAE nationals in the banking sector call for a review of current managerial and policy-oriented practices in a multicultural and diverse work environment.
    Keywords: Mixed Method approach; Regression Analysis; Organizational Commitment; Job Satisfaction; Turnover Intention.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2019.10017729
  • Assessing the Effectiveness of business incubators   Order a copy of this article
    by Monika Dhochak, Satya Ranjan Acharya 
    Abstract: This study aims to examine the effectiveness of business incubators, those mentoring and guiding the startups to survive and grow. To assess the effectiveness of the selected business models of 29 incubators by DST (Department of Science & Technology), GoI, we reviewed the incubation process and their business model from incubators and tenants perspective. Business incubators are considered as an effective tool to develop the new ventures, leads to employment generation, innovation and economic growth. Better understanding of the driving factors of business incubators will improve the success rate of the new ventures. Furthermore, assessing business incubators effectiveness and services will help the business incubators to align their offerings according to the needs of the tenants, and tenants may work for better utilization of resources and make rational decision while deciding the incubators to work with. This integrative framework seeks to provide conceptual clarity of the various services provide by business incubators.
    Keywords: Business incubators; incubation process; incubators’ effectiveness; innovation.

  • Infusing Functionality of Social Media as a Transformative Higher Education Teaching and Learning Process into Social Learning System   Order a copy of this article
    by Tanty Oktavia, Achmad Nizar Hidayanto, Meyliana Meyliana, Suhono Harso Supangkat, Harjanto Prabowo 
    Abstract: In Web 2.0 era, social media are increasingly receiving attention in many sectors of the industry, including higher education institution. Social media can facilitate learning in various ways. It provides extensive learning support in line with social learning concept. With social media, there are substantial and pervasive changes to communication. Besides, it has become an essential part of personal life. A large volume of content is generated and diffused by online users. In this environment, there is an urgent requirement to infuse functionality of social media into teaching and learning activity in the higher education institution. The objective of this study is to identify the adoption of the functionality of social networks in higher education to increase learning performance. The methodology used in this study is conjoint analysis to map social media features into social media functionality based on student preferences. The result obtained in this study consist of two perspectives. For theory perspective, the mapping of the functionality of social media for higher education to build social learning systems must focus in presence functionality which represent status of users, so it can build intimacy and immediacy to increase learning process. Moreover, for institution perspective this social learning model can be an input for institution which want to integrate social media features into their learning process to enhance their learning process.
    Keywords: Social media; social learning; functionality; higher education institution.

  • Antecedents of student retention: the influence of innovation and quality of teaching in Brazilian universities   Order a copy of this article
    by Julio Cesar Ferro De Guimarães, Eliana Andréa Severo, Kleber Cavalcanti Nóbrega, Vilmar Antonio Gonçalves Tondolo 
    Abstract: Innovation in Teaching is related to a form of service delivery, in which teaching methods contribute to students learning process. Higher Education Institutions are looking for ways to engage and retain students. In this sense, this study aims to analyze the relationships between Innovation in Teaching, Quality in Teaching, Organizational Commitment and Student Retention. In order to achieve this goal, a quantitative, descriptive research was carried out with analysis through Modeling of Structural Equations, applied to 8 Higher Education Institutions (Public and Private), in the courses of Administration, Accounting Sciences and Production Engineering, with participation of 703 students in the southern states of Brazil. results show that innovation must generate quality, in order to compromise students. This study presents a framework for analysis of Innovation in Teaching, Quality in Teaching, Organizational Commitment and Student Retention.
    Keywords: Innovation in Teaching; Quality in Teaching; Organizational Commitment; Student Retention; Active Learning; Higher Education; Structural Equation Modeling.

  • Application of the means-end chain theory to study of the value perception on professional clients markets   Order a copy of this article
    by Zbigniew Pastuszak, Mieczyslaw Pawlowski, Ali Turkyilmaz 
    Abstract: The authors present the results of research on the perception of value in the relations of companies on the B2B market. The research was carried out using the the means-end chain (MEC) theory and the laddering interview method. Entrepreneurs' research in the form of structured interviews was used. Perception of value in organizational relationships can be considered in the aspects of the efficiency of running a business and the interaction between people. In times of easy-accessed information and easy-to-use means of communication, interpersonal interactions and societal values are becoming more and more important. They are willingly articulated by entrepreneurs in the form of a professed system of value. The mutual learning of business process participants at both individual and organizational level is of great importance.
    Keywords: value perceiveness; B2B relations; organisational learning; laddering interview method; means-end chain (MEC) theory.

  • TQM and Organizational Innovation: A systematic review and research framework   Order a copy of this article
    by Ai-Fen Lim, Radha Krishnan Nair, Pik-Yin Foo 
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to build a conceptual framework to study the impact of Total Quality Management (TQM) on organizational innovation. Past and recent literatures that linked TQM concept with organizational innovation served as the backbone to develop the conceptual framework. The built framework consists of six chosen TQM practices and two-dimensional organizational innovation, namely product innovation and process innovation. Varying degree of the impact of each of the six proposed TQM practices towards product innovation and process innovation is worthy of subsequent empirical investigation to identify the most suitable combination as proposed in the framework. The best combination in the framework is expected to achieve process and product innovations which emphasizes on operational efficiency and effectiveness respectively. Since product and process innovations are important for organizations to operate in an efficient and effective manner, the management needs to invest time and effort to identify and implement the best TQM practices necessary to achieve organizational goals. This framework has the potential to serve as the solution to efficiently and effectively implement a set of organizational best practices to enhance the competitive position of an organization with the aspirations of becoming an industry leader.
    Keywords: Total Quality Management; Process innovation; Product innovation; Conceptual framework.

  • Repetitions as Communication Strategies in L2 Oral Interactions   Order a copy of this article
    by Suryani Awang, Wan Nuur Fazliza Wan Zakaria, Siti Shazlin Razak 
    Abstract: The implementation of Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) in early 1970s has greatly impacted second language (L2) learning worldwide and Malaysia is no exception. Since CLT approach focuses on the conveyance of a message while the grammatical rules are taught in an integrative manner, it is expected that students would use any sources available to them in getting their message across in oral interactions, including the use of various communication strategies (CSs) which is generally defined as intentional attempt to cope with any language-related problem of which the speaker is aware during the course of communication. Among the various types of CSs stated in the literature, repetitions became the focus of the current study because the authors initial observations showed they played different functions in communication, hence indicating their additional functions in oral communication aside from coping with something perceived as problematic in the interlocutors speech and gaining time during interactions, as stated in the literature. In order to elicit the strategies, six selected pairs were asked to act out role play tasks on specified topics given by their instructor in their English class. The role play sessions were video-recorded and the oral data were transcribed before they were analysed based on D
    Keywords: communicative competence; communication strategies; communicative language teaching (CLT); role play tasks; second language learners.

    by Leila Fanaee Marhamat, Reza Tadayoni, Mohammad Reza Zali 
    Abstract: Entrepreneurial learning can be observed in many innovative activities that take place in established organizations such as media companies. In recent years, the media industry is experiencing a dramatic transition in many aspects such as creating content, distributing content to consumers, and monetizing audiences. These changes oblige media companies to engage in entrepreneurial learning dealing with existing and potential opportunities of the market for surviving and growing. Despite the acknowledged importance of entrepreneurial learning, research explicitly addressing the question of what organization learns entrepreneurially is still in poor supply. Using grounded theory method and drawing on (5) in-depth case studies of Danish media companies involved in innovative services, this study addresses the aspects of entrepreneurial learning and develops a model that suggests three dimensions of entrepreneurial learning named learning opportunity recognition, learning opportunity discovery, and learning opportunity creation. We discuss how our model contributes to the entrepreneurial learning literature, and also we present its implications for future research and practice.
    Keywords: entrepreneurial learning; entrepreneurial opportunities; organizational learning; innovation; entrepreneurial activities; media companies; grounded theory.

  • Can Collaborative Relationship stimulate Innovation Capability and improve Performance in the Hospitality Industry?   Order a copy of this article
    by Akkaranan Pongsathornwiwat, Chawalit Jeenanunta, Kalaya Udomvitid 
    Abstract: An external source becomes one of important factors for sustaining long-term competitions. However, little is known about whether collaborative relationships enhance innovation capability, and consequently firm performance in hospitality contexts. The purpose of this paper is to examine complex relationships of collaboration, innovations, and performance in the hospitality industry. Based on a survey of 84 hotel in Bangkok, Thailand, the statistical analysis is first analysed using OLS regression method, and then utilizing Two Stage Least-Square method for robustness of the results. The findings indicate that collaboration has a positive impact on both internal and service innovation capabilities. However, only internal innovation capability has a direct positive sign on hotel performance. Interestingly, service innovation does not directly influence performance, but collaboration mediates the effect of service innovation capability on hotel performance.
    Keywords: supply chain collaboration; hotel innovation capability; supply chain innovation; hotel performance; survey research.

  • Development of Soft Skills Learning Management Model for Automotive Parts Industry in Thailand   Order a copy of this article
    by Blinda Changkajonsakdi, Sittichai Kaewkuekool 
    Abstract: This research aims to (1) study the labour competency, (2) design a learning management model, and (3) propose a conceptual framework that can be references for further research on soft skills for business management. The learning management model in this research was being designed by a total of 17 Thai specialists and foreign experts in the automotive parts production field, whereby its design was based on the labour competencies studies in the industry and accordingly to the survey results from specialists. Moreover, the model was being incorporated into vocational education curriculums to study its effects. Thus, the study results have shown that the labour competencies in the automotive parts industry are divided into four categories, namely attributes, soft skills, hard skills, and knowledge, while according to the specialists, the learning management model can then be organised into 14 different learning stations for workers in the automotive parts industry.
    Keywords: labour competency; learning management model; automotive parts; attributes; soft skills; hard skills; knowledge; vocational education.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2019.10020769
    by Iswan Riyadi, Hersulastuti Hersulastuti, Theresia Kriswianti Nugrahaningsih, I. Made Sudana 
    Abstract: Reading comprehension is a significant aspect of students' gaining understanding through reading. Low achievements in reading comprehension have long been linked to a lack of motivation and strategies. This study attempted to implement a model of reading comprehension based on metacognitive learning strategies. This study involved the following stages: developing metacognitive learning strategies in reading comprehension practice, and testing the validity, practicality and effectiveness of the model. Observation, interviews, document analysis, and questionnaires were used for data collection, while interactive modelling, evaluative analysis, and comparative analysis were employed for data analysis. Prior to implementation, this model was tested in two schools. Two classes from these schools were selected for this study, one as the treatment group and the other as the control group. Students' reading comprehension skills were found to improve significantly after application of metacognitive learning strategies. The model demonstrated its validity, practicality, and effectiveness for helping students gain a deeper understanding of the text. The results could be applied in developing better methods for enhancing reading skills.
    Keywords: metacognitive; learning; strategy; comprehensive; reading skills.

  • Teaching Decomposition Forecasting Models Using an Excel-Based Spreadsheet Application with Solver and Randomization   Order a copy of this article
    by Kurt Hozak 
    Abstract: This article describes an Excel-based application to help teach forecasting with additive and multiplicative decomposition models using the standard Solver add-in to identify intercept, linear trend, and seasonality parameters. By using the application, students can see how easy it is to apply Solvers GRG Nonlinear solving method in a relatively familiar forecasting context. To give additional opportunities to practice and encourage academic integrity, the software randomly generates data and layouts and disables copying and pasting between windows. Homework results suggest it provides a challenge despite offering extensive feedback and help. Students reported that it helped them learn forecasting and Excel. Those who correctly completed the assignment have had mixed results on a variety of forecasting exam questions. Even when using innovative technologies such as this application, additional resources, motivation, and opportunities may be necessary to facilitate breadth and depth of learning beyond the essentials required to complete assignments.
    Keywords: spreadsheets; Microsoft Excel; cheating prevention; forecasting; e-learning; educational software; learning technology.

  • Effectiveness of Business Accelerator Services in Turkey: From the Perspective of Startups   Order a copy of this article
    by Ceren Cubukcu, Sevinc Gulsecen 
    Abstract: This study analyses the startup companies attending business accelerator programs in Turkey. Business accelerators are new generations of incubation programs born specially to support technology entrepreneurs and help them reach to the next level. This study makes a research on eight accelerator programs located in Turkey. Using a survey developed for entrepreneurs attending these accelerator programs, this study provides an inside look into the effectiveness of these programs from the perspective of startup companies. The main goal of this study is analyzing how startups use the services provided by the accelerator program. According to startups employee size, average monthly turnover and exportation status, several hypotheses have been identified for measuring the effectiveness of supports provided in these accelerator programs. The data of this study have been analyzed via SPSS and it contributes to the literature by analyzing accelerator supports and services so that accelerators can differentiate their programs according to the needs of the startups.
    Keywords: accelerators; incubators; startups; digital entrepreneurship.

  • The impact of different teaching methods on learning motivation A sociological case study on Hungarian vocational education   Order a copy of this article
    by Ágnes Győri, Ágnes Czakó 
    Abstract: This research paper is based on examines the motivational impact of more advanced assessment methods (student-centred collaborative, active pedagogical methods) and traditional pedagogical tools (passive frontal teaching methods) on learning, based on data taken from a survey conducted among Hungarian students of vocational education. The study analyses the question: how are the level of parental education and the family circumstances of students related to the acceptance of modern, innovative and motivating pedagogical/educational tools. Do traditional frontal teaching methods for passive learning or modern and innovative teaching methods that encourage active learning to motivate students? Results show that the degree to which students motivation is enhanced is influenced by school and family circumstances. Moreover, disadvantaged students are primarily motivated to learn through the use of new, student-centred pedagogical tools, which increase motivation through providing an experience of group work, shared thinking and debate, problem understanding, and co-creation.
    Keywords: Learning motivation; student-centred pedagogical methods; structured pedagogical methods; vocational education.

  • Business ecosystem perspective on innovation policy: a case study of San Diego life sciences   Order a copy of this article
    by Jukka Majava, Satu Rinkinen, Vesa Harmaakorpi 
    Abstract: This paper applies a business ecosystem perspective to analyse innovation policy. The research utilised a case study on San Diego, which is one of the top three life sciences ecosystems in the world. Unlike previous studies, this research is an analysis of the ecosystems evolution in each life-cycle phasebirth, expansion, leadership and self-renewaland the key innovation policy measures related to these phases. The findings indicate that traditional policy measures must be reconsidered in the era of business ecosystems.
    Keywords: business ecosystem; innovation; innovation policy; learning; life sciences; San Diego.

  • e-Learning Experiment: Web Conference Activities in Teaching at a Traditional University   Order a copy of this article
    by Donatella Gubiani, Matjaz Mozetic, Barbara Korousic Seljak, Tanja Urbancic 
    Abstract: Nowadays, higher-education institutions are transforming their educational activities from classic ways of providing knowledge to students towards more flexible and open forms of education, aiming to adapt to the needs of new generations of students. Virtual classrooms and e-learning are therefore being introduced not only at open universities offering distance learning, but also at other, traditional universities where face-to-face learning prevails. For this process to be successful, universities should carefully explore technological and infrastructural options, as well as pedagogical issues. In this paper we describe a small-scale experimental e-learning activity concerning the integration of open-source web-conferencing tools into a teaching scenario at a traditional university. In the experiment, we focus on technical aspects as well as on the students' and the teacher's experiences. The outcomes of the experiment are analysed to guide future improvements of the tested e-learning infrastructure and of the newly introduced educational activities, before introducing them at the university on a larger scale. While the experiment answers positively the question of very affordable technical solutions and reports about positive students' perceptions, it also reveals the need for teachers to be provided with specific knowledge about e-learning pedagogy in order to cope with new challenges, such as achieving student-centered teaching also in learning scenarios, including distance e-learning.
    Keywords: e-learning; higher education; universities digital transformation; web conferencing; open-source tools.

  • The Development of Social Emotional Learning Programmes in a Cross-Cultural Elementary Classroom   Order a copy of this article
    by Saowanee Pinchumphonsang, Sumalee Chanchalor 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to develop an intervention to improve the SEL skills of learners in a cross-cultural school context. The study involved the development and trial of an intervention programme designed to develop social emotional skills. Participants were 30 Thai learners as well as six learners from Myanmar, Cambodia and Laos in a socio-economic and culturally diverse classroom. Prior to participation, the 36 students completed the SDQ. The SDQ was also completed by parents/guardians and teachers of the 36 students. The intervention lasted 15 weeks and structured learning blended with 9 multimedia social stories along with various activities. The results are presented as pre-post for the whole group which was statistically significant, meaning that the intervention was effective in improving the social skills.
    Keywords: Learning innovation; Social emotional learning; Development; Elementary; SEL programmes; Active learning; Social story; Strengths and Difficulties Behaviour; SDQ; Cross-cultural.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2020.10020050
  • Tertiary Education and Labour Market in Slovenia A case of ISSBS master students study and employment satisfaction   Order a copy of this article
    by Vesna Skrbinjek, Dušan Lesjak 
    Abstract: The paper explores issues related to tertiary education (TE) graduates unemployment and labour market conditions in Slovenia. The contribution of this research is an empirical analysis and a case study, which uncovers the attributes and weaknesses of TE labour market and their divergence and failure, supported by the analysis of master students survey. Students lack opportunities to gain new knowledge and opportunities for personal and professional development when they finally enter the labour market. Entry into the labour market is particularly difficult for female TE graduates and graduates with social sciences, business and law degree. This research contributes to greater integration and to the achievement of strategic objectives of both TE and employment policies. Thus, it can help define the appropriate TE policies, objectives and particularly measures and mechanisms, which could encourage TE institutions management to decrease graduate unemployment and contribute to greater TE success. We realise and stress that policymakers need to do more to synchronize TE and employment policies to stifle the employability of graduates.
    Keywords: tertiary education; learning; study; graduates; labour market; satisfaction; unemployment; ISSBS; Slovenia.

  • The Moderating Effect of Gamification on the Relationship between Customer Engagement and New Service Development Process Involvement   Order a copy of this article
    by Voravee Ruengaramrut, Vincent Ribiere, Stefania Mariano 
    Abstract: Service sectors generate more than two-thirds of gross domestic product (GDP) globally. Within this highly competitive environment, service innovation is dramatically gaining more attention since innovativeness can create a long-term sustainable growth for organizations. The purpose of this study is to identify the influence of gamification on the level of customer involvement in the new service development (NSD) process. A quasi-experimental design was used where treatment and control groups participated in pre-test/post-test activities under gamified and none gamified environments. To analyse the results, Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was used to test the proposed theoretical framework. This study provides a first step toward further investigations of the role of gamification as moderator variable strengthening the relationship between customer engagement and new service development process involvement. Implications for theory and practice are discussed, and directions for future research provided.
    Keywords: gamification; customer engagement; new service development; process.

  • Application of reflective journals to assess self-directed learning in a blended learning setting: a case study in Hong Kong   Order a copy of this article
    by Kris M.Y. Law, Li-Ting Tang 
    Abstract: This paper presents the case study of a blended learning subject offered to a group of engineering students, in which a reflective journal was adopted as part of the assessment. It also presents an innovative attempt to explore the relationship between the reflections of students and their performance in the subject.rnThe feedbacks from students was collected and analyzed using text-mining techniques, and a machine-learning algorithm was used to identify the association between the reflective feedback text and the corresponding final grades of the students.rnThe supervised machine-learning algorithm produces an inferred function from the training data so as to make predictions about the output values of the testing data. rnThe results prove that reflective journals can be a valuable means of assessing student learning in a blended learning environment, and also offers a good reference for educators to have a better understanding regarding the performance of students. rn
    Keywords: Reflective journal; blended learning; engineering students; performance; machine learning; text mining; assessment.

  • The Acceptance and Effectiveness of Interactive Online Learning in Virtual Faceto-Face Learning Technology.   Order a copy of this article
    by Achara Suksakorn, Arnon Tubtiang 
    Abstract: In this research, we study influential factors affecting the acceptance of Interactive Online Learning in Virtual Face-to-Face Learning technology of high school students in Nonformal Education, in Thailand. The research methodology was applied by experimental research design, CIPPA model and questionnaires. The study conceptual framework based on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). The data is students performance of mathematic learning through Interactive Online Learning in Virtual FacetoFace Learning technology, One to Many platform. The results of this research shows the factors that influence acceptance of Interactive Online Learning in Virtual Face-to-Face Learning technology which have the positive relationship in the same direction to the technology adoption. The data obtained from the analysis can be used for planning and developing Interactive Online Learning in Virtual Face-to-Face Learning technology to meet the needs of students and teachers, and to help them gain more knowledge and understanding towards using Interactive Online Learning in Virtual Face-to-Face Learning technology more increasingly. Also, it can be served as a guideline for related researches, accomplishing the academic results in mathematics and other subjects in the future. For the theoretical practice, it leads to the new theory called the Modified UTAUT. The results based on this theory shows that all factors accept the hypotheses at the significance level of 0.05, where R squared of Y1 = 0.702 and R squared of Y2 = 0.602, showing the coverage of this research. This new theory is consistent with the academic results from the greater post-test score after study using Interactive Online Learning in Virtual Face-to-Face technology than the pre-test one.
    Keywords: MOOCs; interactive online learning; non–formal education; student or technology end user; technology acceptance; UTAUT; virtual face-to-face learning.

  • Kolb's Learning Model: An innovation towards career commitment   Order a copy of this article
    by Shaji Kurian, Saswata Chanda, Chandrabhanu Naik, Namrata Nanda 
    Abstract: Purpose: This paper aims to identify ones level of career-commitment with the help of self-effectiveness with their preferred learning style. Design/ Methodology/ Approach: A structured questionnaire was prepared to collect data. Out of 200, 151 responses were found to be valid. The data was interpreted using Grey Analysis in Microsoft Excel. Findings: The interpretation reveals that the pragmatists are leading, followed by reflectors, theorists and activists respectively. It is observed that the competency of influencing and openness, plays a vital role in the career-commitment.Practical Implications: To identify the mindset of an individual, type of learning, best suited for them. This helps the process of employee recruitment and retention. Originality/ Value: Grey analysis segregates individuals based on their preferred learning style, self-efficacy & effectiveness, to understand their career-commitment. Ultimately, opening a new door towards the advancement of contemporary learning system.
    Keywords: Kolb’s learning style; Self-efficacy; Effectiveness; Career commitment; Experiential learning.

  • Contributions of the Internet of Things in Education as Support Tool in the Educational Management Decision-making Process   Order a copy of this article
    by Rwrsilany Silva, Cleice Pontes, Carolina Watanabe, Rosália Maria Da Silva, José Moreira Silva Neto 
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to understand the contributions that the development of IoT provides to education, particularly in assisting the decision-making process and addressing some of the challenges that the educational system faces. From a methodological perspective, the study adopts a qualitative approach and applies bibliographic overview procedures that substantiate Internet of Things concepts in education and the decision-making process in education, as well as analysing the phenomena in the light of Contingency Theory precepts. As such, this study investigated several contexts for the application of this technology in learning and a more efficient management of educational organisation structure, in addition to indicating spaces for the construction of alternatives when making decisions hitherto compromised by the limitation of technological resources. Finally, this study successfully presents viable alternatives in the form of tools and resources to optimise the values and practices covered in the various approaches to the theme in question. rn
    Keywords: Internet of Things. Education Management. Intelligent Classroom. Learning. Decision-making process in Education. Internet of Everything. Student. Teacher. Innovation.

    by Agnieszka Sitko-Lutek, Monika Jakubiak 
    Abstract: The subject matter of the present study was employee development in the context of diversity management. The aim of the study was to identify and assess the influence of employees characteristics (such as age, gender, position held in the company, etc.) upon the applied and preferred methods of competence development used by respondents. rnThe empirical study was conducted among 2076 employees by means of quantitative research with a questionnaire. The study took place in 2016-2017 in over 50 Polish innovative companies. Data was compiled in contingency tables, which were further analyzed statistically. rnResults of the analyses indicated that characteristics of respondents have significant impact upon the applied and preferred methods of competence development used by them. Research results enable recommendations for managers and HR departments employees to be made as regards the management of diverse teams.
    Keywords: employee development; methods of development; innovation; innovativeness; learning; employees’ characteristics; diversity management; diverse teams.

  • The Strategic Impact of Reciprocal Teaching on the Metacognitive Reading Comprehension of Arabic Language Texts among Arab Students in Israel   Order a copy of this article
    by Haifaa Majadly, Salah Massarwa 
    Abstract: Previous researches argued that reciprocal teaching (RT) strategy contributes to students achievement and improve the reading comprehension. In the current study we ought to examine the effect of this strategy in the Arab community in Israel, and its consequences on reading comprehension of Arabic language. In order to examine this issue, a quasi-experimental method through practical application of educational units constructed in accordance with the strategic elements of RT was conducted. Sixty-one students from secondary public schools participated in this study. The participants served as two groups: experimental group and a control group. The results showed that there is a significant difference in the levels of metacognitive reading comprehension (self-monitoring, planning of task parameters, assessment of strategy) between the two groups. The reciprocal teaching strategy had a clear impact on the students skills and improved their level of comprehension of the texts. Further, the study confirmed that metacognitive reading comprehension dimensions depend upon the extent of students exposure to strategies and skills that give them the ability to interact with texts. Recommendations for the implementation of RT to benefit students are suggested, especially in the context of Arab population.
    Keywords: Reciprocal teaching; RT; reading comprehension; metacognitive reading comprehension; Arabic language; Arab students in Israel.

  • Determinants of Students Entrepreneurial Intention a Comparative study in Poland and Hong Kong   Order a copy of this article
    by Kris M.Y. Law, Monika Jakubiak 
    Abstract: This paper aims to empirically compare the entrepreneurial intentions between students from two countries, Poland and Hong Kong. This study investigates the entrepreneurial intentions in association with innovativeness and attitudes, between two groups of university students from different countries. The study was conducted in 2018 among 1000 students from universities in Hong Kong and 552 students from Poland. Four behavioral variables (entrepreneurial intention, attitude toward entrepreneurship, efficacy) were measured. First, attitudes, innovativeness and self-efficacy affect entrepreneurial intention. Second, significant differences between student groups from different cultural backgrounds are found. Thirdly, engineering and science students from Hong Kong manifest stronger entrepreneurial intentions than those from business courses whereas opposite results were obtained with regard to Polish students. Fourthly, students from business courses exhibit slightly stronger entrepreneurial intentions than those from engineering and science. rnThe difference between two countries implies that entrepreneurial intention is not merely affected by cultural background, but also discipline. Our study offers a good reference for educators clearly showing that courses should be designed taking in account cultural and other background specifics so as to become more effective.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship education; university students; entrepreneurial intention; Poland; Hong Kong.

    by Danh Nguyen Nguyen, Dang Tue Nguyen 
    Abstract: Which factors determine research and development outcomes of a university is a great concern of both government officials and university managers in Vietnam and many other countries. This study is conducted to test the hypotheses that research infrastructure, management, communication, human resource, financial source and facultys ability are the main determinants of university R&D outcomes. The study applies structural equation modelling method and uses a unique survey data collected from faculty staff in 115 science and technology universities in Vietnam. The study findings show that infrastructure and financial constraints are two factors that significantly affect facultys R&D outcomes. According to that, the authors proposed some policy suggestions.
    Keywords: R&D; university; determinants; Vietnam; faculty.

  • Influencing innovativeness of enterprises by selected HRM practices   Order a copy of this article
    by Aneta Karasek 
    Abstract: Enterprises can influence and shape the behaviour of individuals in order to boost the innovativeness of the enterprise by applying HRM practices. The objective of the study is to identify relations between the application of a coherent bundle of HRM practices and internal sources of innovation, effectiveness of the individual phases of the innovative process, and the novelty scale of the innovation. The study was conducted among 92 innovative enterprises in Poland. The study is based upon an original bundle of HRM practices in six HRM areas significant for an innovative enterprise. The results show that there are relationships between the bundle of HRM practices and the innovativeness of an enterprise viewed in three aspects. Therefore, this article contributes to theory by original complementary approach to HRM practices and innovativeness of the enterprises. Analysis of the study resulted in a broad set of managerial implication of usage of HRM practices.
    Keywords: innovativeness; HRM practices; innovative enterprise; employee behaviour; Polish enterprises; innovation; internal sources of innovation; effectiveness of innovation process; novelty of innovation; knowledge management; organisational learning; value creation.

  • Online Newspapers in the English Classroom at High School   Order a copy of this article
    by Tatiana Lisitsyna, Marina Pastushkova, Olga Putistina, Tatiana Lobovskaya 
    Abstract: the paper reports the results of an experimental study on the use of authentic online newspapers in developing students reading skills in senior classes by the English high school teachers of Murmansk and the Murmansk region, Russia. The study adopted questionnaire as a research method. The experimental study analyzed the educational process of developing students reading skills in senior classes at English lessons and detected the major difficulties for the students in the reading comprehension of media texts. Quantitative and qualitative data came from 135 English teachers of Murmansk and the Murmansk region (Russia), and the findings revealed the effectiveness of the use of media texts and materials, that integrate the language and media education and contribute to the development of students critical thinking and cognitive abilities at high school. This study also focused on the problems of the use of English press and outlined the selection criteria for the online media and newspaper reading activities to be used in the English classroom. The results of the study clearly demonstrate that the use of online newspapers contributes to the development of students critical thinking, their media and scientific literacy and makes the educational process more interactive.
    Keywords: online newspapers; reading skills; media education; language education; newspaper reading activities.

  • Knowledge as an Important Factor in the Process of Creating Brand Equity   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: The papers contribution is to present the importance of implicit and explicit knowledge in the process of creating brand equity. Knowledge is the most important factor of competitiveness and factors such as capital, financial assets or labour force are proving to be less important. Companies utilise and transfer knowledge to processes and activities aimed at creating high-value brands, thus increasing their competitiveness. A strong and trusted brand provides the company with competitive advantage and in order to achieve it, employee knowledge is required. This paper investigates the role of knowledge in the process of creating brand equity in the studied company and to develop and coordinate the development and practice of implicit and explicit knowledge in the process of creating brand equity. The results of the survey, have shown that they have the required implicit and explicit knowledge which plays an important role in creating brand equity.
    Keywords: brand; brand equity; knowledge; implicit knowledge; explicit knowledge; knowledge management processes.

  • Impact of Marketing resource on Company performance on B2B markets   Order a copy of this article
    by Gregor Jagodic, Borut Milfelner 
    Abstract: The main goal of the paper is to researsch the impact of marketing resources on company performance for companies on B2B markets. The conceptual model, including market orientation, marketing strategy, ICT support factors for B2B markets and company performance was proposed and empirically tested. The research results show that market orientation and its sub-constructs, namely competitor orientation and customer orientation have a positive impact on implementation of marketing strategy and ICT support for B2B markets. Also, implementation of good marketing strategies for companies on B2B markets and ICT support on B2B markets have a positive impact on company performance.
    Keywords: B2B market; market orientation; marketing strategies; competitive advantage; ICT; innovation; learning; financial and non-financial performance indicators; company performance.

  • An integrated model of e-learning continuance intention in Indonesia   Order a copy of this article
    by Ramadiani Ramadiani, Azainil Azainil, Frisca Frisca, Achmad Nizar Hidayanto, Herkules Herkules 
    Abstract: There had been some research concerning behaviour in using e-learning system. Most of the analysis focuses on the students' behavioural intention to use the system, without doing further analysis to find out their continuance intention to use it again. Therefore, this research aims to develop a model that describes the influencing factors on e-learning continuance intention of Indonesian students. Analysis in this research is focused on the investigations of the e-learning satisfaction, e-learning usefulness, and e-learning effectiveness, from the four main aspects: e-learning materials/multimedia, service quality, interaction, and learner's characteristics. By using structural equation modelling approach, several analyses were conducted to 635 respondents' data, obtained from various universities in Indonesia. This research found that almost all of the factors analysed in this research have a significant influence on continuance intention of Indonesian students, with e-learning satisfaction and e-learning usefulness as the main factors that influence directly, and navigation, reliability, tangibles, self-efficacy, and learner-content interaction as the main factors that influence indirectly.
    Keywords: e-learning; continuance intention; structural equation modelling; satisfaction; benefits; effectiveness; service quality; interaction; user characteristics; information technology; Indonesia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2019.10021086
  • Forward-looking approach in the accounting of financial instruments: case study of Slovenian Pension Company   Order a copy of this article
    by Mojca Gornjak 
    Abstract: The replacement of IFRS standard for financial instruments has an impact on new definitions of business models, on new forward-looking approach for measurement of financial instruments, like equities or bonds and on new loss allowance provisions with lowering the figures. The comparison between IAS 39 and IFRS 9 is essential because of the disclosures of the compared figures in the annual reports. The replacement is actual in more than 140 countries, where the organisations do the accounting under IFRS. We expect the innovativeness in accounting in the sense of implementing future expectation not only in daily operations but also in strategic levels. The model of expected credit losses (ECLs) affects organisations' performance as we shown in the case study research. The contribution to the management accounting is in defining the approach of the replacement of the IAS 39 with IFRS 9 and calculating the effects on financial statements and shareholders' values.
    Keywords: innovation in accounting; IFRS 9; IAS 39; business model; expected credit loss; ECL; SPPI test; financial statements.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2019.10021088
  • The role of engineering education for innovation in the 21st century   Order a copy of this article
    by Wisuit Sunthonkanokpong, Elizabeth Murphy 
    Abstract: This conceptual paper first presents a synthesis of the central target and related concepts of five innovation policies from Asia. The paper then identifies how engineering education (EE) can help realise this target. Methods involved online, quantitative, key concept analysis combined with qualitative analysis of units of meaning. Analysis of the policies revealed that the overall target was social and economic prosperity. The prosperity is powered by a capacity for sustainability and inclusivity and by five other sub-categories of capacity as follows: human; relational; research and development; science, technology and innovation and; entrepreneurship and competitive. EE can contribute to social and economic prosperity by helping to build this capacity. Building capacity requires a shift from teaching as telling, to teaching as doing, from transmission of knowledge, to construction of knowledge, from teacher- to learner-centred learning and from didactic teaching to project- and problem-based learning situated in authentic, scientific, social and technological contexts.
    Keywords: prosperity; 21st century engineer; sustainability; inclusion; capacity; innovation; progress; economy; social.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2019.10021090
  • Assessment-oriented formative test   Order a copy of this article
    by Siti Mina Tamah, Johannes V.D. Wirjawan 
    Abstract: Administering formative tests during instructional process in one academic year is prevalently individual-oriented - expecting students to do the quizzes individually - similar to the one when a summative test is carried out. The challenge appears when teachers have implemented group work, but they still implement non-group work oriented formative tests. The underlying argument is that it is essential for formative test administration to come closer to the paradigm implemented regularly. The class session for regular basis should be reflected in the test class session. This paper aims at introducing the insights of executing authentic assessment in the formative test administration while keeping student engagement. They include: 1) the change from individual assessment into group assessment; 2) the change from individual assessment into representative assessment; 3) the change from individual assessment into representative assessment with structured discussion. Furthermore, the encouraging voice of a group of language teachers following group assessment workshop will be revealed.
    Keywords: formative test; group work; representativeness; structured discussion; authentic assessment; innovation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2019.10021091
  • Start-ups' accelerators support open innovation in Portugal   Order a copy of this article
    by Silvia Fernandes, Guilherme Castela 
    Abstract: Modern competitiveness is tough, mainly due to new technologies and platforms. Managers must cope with these challenges to keep their businesses innovative and successful. An important step is to exploit the potential of open innovation. This work analyses where Portugal stands in terms of innovation in general, propensity for open innovation and innovation sustainability. A HJ-Biplot methodology was applied to a valid sample from the community innovation survey (CIS) for Portugal. The analysis suggests that Portuguese firms must cut back on activities that are not leading to the right outcomes. And the choice of right partners can cause more ideas to be executed and diffused. Innovation accelerators can help in this approach toward better innovation turnovers and country's innovation index. These issues are relevant to research in the face of fast trends such as the fourth industry (IoT, cyber-physical environments) and smart cities.
    Keywords: innovation accelerators; open innovation; innovation return; entrepreneurship; internet of things; IoT; community innovation survey; CIS; HJ-Biplot; Portugal.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2019.10021092
  • Reverse open innovation: open innovation as a relevant factor for reverse innovation   Order a copy of this article
    by Pedro Cortonesi, Fernanda Ribeiro Cahen, Felipe Mendes Borini 
    Abstract: We investigated the role of open innovation in the reverse innovation process. Reverse innovation is an innovation initially launched in a developing country and later introduced to an advanced country. Von Zedtwitz et al. (2015) developed a typology of global innovation with sixteen innovation flows between advanced and emerging countries, ten of which are reverse innovation flows. We argue that their typology can be expanded. By adopting an inductive case study, we provided a nuanced analysis of open innovation as a trigger for reverse innovation based on an in-depth case analysis of a foreign subsidiary and its network of local partners in an emerging market. Our research extended the typology of Von Zedtwitz et al. (2015) by identifying open innovation occurring in emerging markets and influencing the process of reverse innovation in multinational companies. By adding analyses of open innovation, we theorised that new reverse innovation configurations emerge. The managerial contributions are related to how multinational companies can benefit from open innovation and leverage the potential of reverse innovation to increase innovation performance and competiveness in the global setting.
    Keywords: open innovation; typology; reverse innovation; emerging country.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2019.10021093
  • The Bologna reform and its impact on the motivation and activities of the academics - a national case study: Slovenia   Order a copy of this article
    by Zvone Vodovnik 
    Abstract: In Europe and in Slovenia, the Bologna reform of higher education has not yet been completed. This process was introduced with the aim of improving the efficiency and quality of teaching among others. A necessary condition for the successful implementation of the reform is the active involvement of teachers; however, this may be achieved only if the teachers are highly motivated for creative professional work. The objective of this analysis is to establish whether the legal regulation governing this reform and its implementation has had a positive impact on the motivation of the teachers during the advanced reform of higher education on the basis of the Bologna Declaration. The results of this research indicate that the regulation of the legal position of teachers is not completely aligned with the values arising from international law.
    Keywords: higher education; employment law; academics; rights and duties; Bologna reform; lifelong learning; Slovenia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2019.10021079
  • The role of social media in collective learning   Order a copy of this article
    by Khalid Abdul Wahid, Wan Saiful 'Azzam Wan Ismail, Haruthai Numprasertchai 
    Abstract: In the first decade of the 21st century, e-learning has become one of the key factors in the revolution of learning process. E-learning combines modern interactive learning methods with knowledge management methods that provide better evaluation of knowledge. Social media, as one of ICT tools, has brought revolutionary new ways of interacting, participating, cooperating and collaborating which involve users generating content and connecting with people through a 'many-to-many', rather than the traditional 'one-to-many', communication approach. However, collective learning using social media among higher institution students has not been given much attention especially within a Malaysian context. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to investigate the acceptance of social media in learning among higher institution students. Data from 359 students were collected from both science and technology and social science clusters at Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM). Data was analysed using SmartPLS. The result showed that all antecedents of technology acceptance which included performance expectancy, effort expectancy and facilitating condition have positive significant effect on collective learning except social influence.
    Keywords: collective learning; effort expectancy; social influence; facilitating conditions; performance expectancy; social media.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2019.10017705
  • The nature of online students' feedback in higher education   Order a copy of this article
    by Syerina Azlin Md Nasir, Wan Fairos Wan Yaacob, Nurazleena Ismail 
    Abstract: The response of students to learning is a key element for measuring the extent to which the quality of education is perceived in online learning. Analysing the nature of students' feedback is important in improving student skills and shaping learning behaviour in online learning. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the nature of the feedback itself. We conducted an analysis on students' feedback in web-based learning for two selected courses which were exam based and non-exam based courses. As a result, the feedback received was then categorised using the thematic analysis according to different nature of feedbacks. Next, regression analysis was carried out on the count of discovered nature of feedback to determine its relationship and usefulness as evaluated by the instructor. This study disclosed four disparate natures of feedbacks based on the responses and has significant positive correlation between the use of feedback.
    Keywords: blended learning; online discussion; regression analysis; student feedback; thematic analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2019.10021080
  • Evaluation of the impact of the Hyflex learning model   Order a copy of this article
    by Chin-Yen Alice Liu, Ruben C. Rodriguez 
    Abstract: The HyFlex learning model adopted by Texas A&M University - San Antonio's College of Business offers students who are separated online from their peers and instructors the same opportunities to obtain impartial educational quality. This learning model accomplishes this by allowing students the flexibility to attend the class: 1) face-to-face; 2) synchronously; or 3) asynchronously via the adobe connect online-based meeting platform. This study focuses on evaluating the impact that HyFlex has regarding student achievements by assessing their performances from one quantitative course section offered in the program. Quantitative data was collected to examine multiple perspectives in regards to relationships between students' performance and their decision on attendance options in the same course. Findings include clarification on the preconception of quality assurance and efficacy on the HyFlex learning model, distance learning in general, as well as for quantitative courses deployed in a non-traditional online format. Future implications for research are discussed.
    Keywords: adobe connect; autonomous learning/learners; distance education; online learning; online course delivery; HyFlex course model; quantitative courses.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2019.10021084
  • Artefact-based approach for improving social presence in e-learning   Order a copy of this article
    by Noorihan Abdul Rahman, Roslim Mohamad, Aminat Showole 
    Abstract: Requirements elicitation is an initial process in software development. This process is used to gather an accurate set of requirements in order to produce unambiguous system requirements for system developers. In developing e-learning, the element of social presence can help the students to socially interact and feel connected virtually. Thus, there is a need to improve requirements elicitation process by identifying social presence factors in e-learning. The objective of this paper is to improve requirements elicitation process through artefact-based approach in e-learning domain. Usability evaluation for the artefacts are carried out in study one, study two and study three by using multiphase method design. The artefact-based approach results prove that social presence requirements can be elicited and thus contribute to the knowledge of requirements engineering. The evaluation results also prove that artefact-based approach for social presence requirements is acceptable as the process for motivating social interaction in the e-learning domain.
    Keywords: e-learning; consensus; requirements artefact; requirements elicitation; social presence; social requirements; learner; multiphase; Delphi.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2019.10021085
  • To be or not to be an entrepreneur? Students' perceptions of barriers to entrepreneurship   Order a copy of this article
    by Jana Hojnik, Doris Gomezelj Omerzel, Tina Bratkovič Kregar 
    Abstract: The aim of this study is to explore how students who are attending or have completed at least one course in entrepreneurship perceive barriers to entrepreneurship. Based on a sample of 193 students from University of Primorska (Slovenia), we first conducted exploratory factor analysis and found five factors related to barriers to entrepreneurship. We then employed cluster analysis and identified barriers to entrepreneurship for four groups of students. The findings of the conducted study enable us to advise and help students who seem to be prospective entrepreneurs to develop the lacking competencies and start their own ventures in the future.
    Keywords: barriers to entrepreneurship; clusters; entrepreneurship; higher education/university; Slovenia; students.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2019.10021087
  • Evaluation of e-learning as a learning agent   Order a copy of this article
    by Gede Rasben Dantes, Ni Ketut Suarni, I. Ketut Dharsana, Nyoman Dantes, I. Nyoman Laba Jayanta, Ni Komang Arie Suwastini, Gede Jana Adi Putra 
    Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the e-learning as a learning agent. The main feature of this system is to identify a learning style of the student through a log system that relates the students' achievement in mastering the learning content. The students' learning style was determined by Bayesian network algorithm that enabled the system to classify the students' learning style into textual, audio, or video. With this identification, the system would be able to recommend suitable learning contents for the students. The study revealed that the e-learning was capable of identifying the students' learning style. From the total 34 research subjects involved in the study, the system successfully identified 16 students' learning styles, where 14 students were revealed to have textual learning style, one student was revealed to prefer audio content, and the other student was revealed to prefer video content. Thus, the study concluded that the adaptive e-learning system evaluated in the study was capable of identifying the students' leaning styles, and thus capable of recommending suitable materials for the students, hence rendering the e-learning system as a mere content management system, but also as an agent of learning.
    Keywords: e-learning as a learning agent; e-learning; learning style; Bayesian network; BN.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2019.10021089

Special Issue on: ICTE 2018 Innovative Ways to Enhance Learning through Technology

  • Implementation of blended learning in higher education institutions in Albania: An analysis of factors that affect students learning experience   Order a copy of this article
    by Rezart Prifti 
    Abstract: All levels of education, and especially higher education institutions, are transforming their methods to follow the dynamics of technology and labour market demands. Blended learning is emerging as an effective and low-risk strategy to improve quality, as well as to make education more accessible. This research aims to discuss the introduction of blended learning in a higher education institution in Albania, and to examine the effect of the blended approach in students learning experience, focusing on their satisfaction from both online and traditional elements of a course. The results show that satisfaction from online components has an important impact on students learning experience in a larger proportion that classroom components.
    Keywords: Blended learning; learning experience; course satisfaction; learning management system; student satisfaction; higher education.

  • Investigating the effectiveness of vocabulary learning tasks from the perspective of the technique feature analysis: The effects of pictorial annotations   Order a copy of this article
    by Yan Huang, Di Zou, Fu Lee Wang, Reggie Kwan, Haoran Xie 
    Abstract: This study investigates the effectiveness of three kinds of word learning exercises in terms of Nation and Webbs technique feature analysis (2011). Three commonly used vocabulary learning tasks: reading comprehension, sentence writing, and cloze-exercise combined with two types of annotations: pictorial annotations and textual annotations obtained four tasks. One hundred and twenty college students were recruited and allocated randomly to the four tasks groups to test their learning effectiveness respectively. In task 1, participants were provided with a reading passage and 10 words with pictorial annotations. In task 2, the reading passage was the same as task 1, but the annotations for words were textual and participants were required to fill in ten blanks according to some textual hints. In task 3, participants were required to fill in blanks according to the pictorial annotations provided. In task 4, participants were asked to make sentences with the ten words according to the textual annotations provided. The results demonstrated that cloze-exercises with textual glosses were as effective as reading comprehension with pictorial glosses; and cloze-exercises with pictorial glosses were as effective as sentence-writing with textual glosses, which are in accord with the checklist proposed by Nation and Webb (2011) for technique feature analysis and validates the effectiveness of pictorial annotations to word learning.
    Keywords: technique feature analysis; pictorial annotations; vocabulary acquisition; textual annotations; imaging.

  • Investigating the use of mobile instant messaging-facilitated 5E-flipped learning: A two-stage study   Order a copy of this article
    by Ying Tang, Khe Foon Hew, Chung Kwan Lo 
    Abstract: Despite the worldwide popularity of flipped learning, we understand little about how to coherently structure a flipped class with appropriate communication services to engage students. This two-stage study examines in flipped learning context, how students perceived learning guided by the 5E design model (Engagement-Exploration-Explanation-Elaboration-Evaluation), and how different technologies impacted the learning experience. We first reported a multiple-case study on how students felt about the 5E model-based flipped learning, facilitated by mobile instant messaging (MIM) tools. We then conducted a comparative study to investigate how students felt about using either MIM or a threaded asynchronous forum for discussion. The results suggested that 92% of participants found flipped learning more engaging and 81% reported that flipped learning gave them more time to discuss or solve problems. Most students welcomed using MIM for flipped learning, but online forum was still preferred for academic discussions. Possible reasons and suggestions for future research are discussed.
    Keywords: flipped learning; flipped classroom; instructional design; mobile instant messaging; higher education.

  • The Analysis of Timeout Behaviours in Online Tests   Order a copy of this article
    by Huixiao Le, Jiyou Jia, Lunghei Wong 
    Abstract: Based on a dataset of more than 7.4 million records of learners doing online tests activity in an online platform, and the concept of Online Learning Activity Index (OLAI), this paper analyses the Timeout Be-haviours in online tests and attempts to answer the following two ques-tions: what are the characteristics of those online learners with Timeout Behaviours in online tests? Does the amount of questions in a test in-fluence learners Timeout Behaviours? Descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and regression analysis are conducted to find the general pattern underneath the cases. Afterwards, this paper investigates how to optimize the amount of questions in one test in view of the Timeout Behaviours.
    Keywords: online learning; online test; online learning activity index; learning ana-lytics.

  • Supporting more engaged learning: the case for the 3D printer a position paper   Order a copy of this article
    by Theodor Wyeld 
    Abstract: Students are increasingly connected to an online world. As such, they expect their university learning experience to emulate their everyday online experiences. Until recently, however, traditional university teaching has tended to focus on knowledge transfer. In order to reengage with students, many universities are providing online tools and courses. But, not all topics are suitable for online learning. Some topics still require hands-on experience especially where the outcome is targeted to the manufacturing industry. The 3D printer is a teaching tool that benefits from both hands-on and online support. Moreover, it can be used to help reengage students disaffected by traditional teaching methods and as a tool for transitioning to more online teaching methods. This paper outlines how the 3D printer is being used in university classrooms to supplement online teaching which is career focussed.
    Keywords: online teaching; 3D printer; multimedia; additive manufacturing; learning experience; entrepreneur; metacognition; innovation; creativity.

  • Using Immersive Reality in Training Nursing Students   Order a copy of this article
    by Sin-Chun Ng, Lap-Kei Lee, Andrew K. Lui, Ka-Fai Wong, Wan-Yee Chan, Hiu-Hin Tam 
    Abstract: Every nursing student is trained to possess certain skills and qualities before they go for the clinical training in a hospital. They must be very competent in all the fundamental nursing skills including reporting vital signs of a patient, techniques for different kinds of injection methods and simple wound dressing. They should be familiar with a hospital ward environment. This paper introduces the use of immersive reality including Virtual Reality (VR) and Augment Reality (AR) for nurse training. With these new technologies, nursing students can practise their nursing skills by visualizing a clinical environment at anytime and anywhere. It also provides a platform for the clinical simulations of a number of scenarios where students have to carry out routine tasks and practices. For learning the fundamental nursing skills, students can practise the special skills over the 3D models in an immersive way. Our application can reduce inexperienced nursing students anxiety and make them more familiar with the ward environment and the fundamental nursing skill, which can then minimize medical error in their real practicum.
    Keywords: virtual reality; augmented reality; nurse training; virtual ward environment.

  • Adaptive e-learning model for learning English as a second/foreign language   Order a copy of this article
    by Katerina Kostolanyova, Ivana Simonova 
    Abstract: The main aim of the article is (1) to describe how learners
    Keywords: adaptive e-learning; ESL; EFL; sensory preferences; VARK; reading comprehension; listening comprehension.

Special Issue on: ICBL2018/ISET2018 Enhancing Learning Effectiveness with Multifaceted Learning

  • The Use of 360-degree Videos to Facilitate Pre-Learning and Reflection on Learning Experiences   Order a copy of this article
    by Shinichi Sato, Makoto Kageto 
    Abstract: This study investigates the effective use of 360-degree videos recorded during student fieldwork. Typical fieldwork procedures comprise three steps: pre-learning, on-site fieldwork, and post-learning. This study aims to support mainly pre- and post-learning steps. Four fieldwork experiences were targeted in which the students recorded 360-degree videos, reflected on their experience, and presented their experiences to non-participating students by showing their 360-degree videos on a virtual reality headset. By observing these actions, the authors were able to determine some of the effects of using 360-degree videos as a learning aid, including helping students detect what they missed while on site, maintaining students excitement and motivation after returning, and promoting pre-learning for younger students. Further practical efforts are needed to confirm such effects and pursue appropriate use of 360-degree video for fieldwork.
    Keywords: virtual reality; 360-degree camera; experiential learning; fieldwork; reflection; higher education.

  • Older Adults as the Internet Users: Age and Gender Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Ivana Simonova, Petra Poulova, Pavel Prazak, Blanka Klimova 
    Abstract: Currently, aging has become an important topic as the amount of older adults is increasing. Therefore, there are efforts to prolong an active life of older people, and ICT, both devices and services may assist them in this process. The purpose of this study is to explore the use of the Internet among older people in the Czech Republic with respect to their age and gender. The key methods exploited in this study include a questionnaire survey. The results indicate that the age is a decisive factor in the use of the Internet by seniors. However, the gender seems not to belong to important factors. Generally, older people mostly use the Internet for socializing (communication, sharing images), gaining information and exploiting e-services (banking, shopping). The results also suggest that they should be trained in the use of the Internet and considering the collected information.
    Keywords: older adults; seniors; active; age; gender; Internet; Internet activities; Internet services; University of the Third Age (U3V); questionnaire.

  • Understanding K-12 students information literacy in informal learning environments: a literature review   Order a copy of this article
    by Sha Zhu, Di Wu, Harrison Yang, Yang Li, Jason MacLeod 
    Abstract: Information literacy has long been considered as a set of decontextualized skills from behaviorist perspective, or as a learning process from the constructivist perspective. With both conceptualizations, information literacy research has primarily emphasized formal learning environments. This literature review relies upon socio-cultural theory to expand understanding of K-12 students information literacy within the under-represented perspective of informal learning environments, such as homes, public properties, and online spaces. Guided by the research questions, the inclusion and exclusion criteria were identified to select the related literatures for review. Based on the literature review, it has been found that K-12 students engage in a range of digital meaning-making practices in informal learning environments. Finally, it is recommended that the evaluation standards and approaches for students information literacy should be changed, and a collaborative relationship should be established among schools, families, and the society for the promotion of information literacy.
    Keywords: K-12 students; information literacy; informal learning environments; socio-cultural perspective; family spaces; public places; online places.

  • Peer Assessment of Peer Assessment Plan: A Deep Learning Approach of Teacher Assessment Literacy   Order a copy of this article
    by Wing Shui Ng, Haoran Xie, Fu Lee Wang, Tingting Li 
    Abstract: The rationales of using assessment to enhance learning have been highly recognized. However, the issue of assessment literacy deficiency and insecurity about effective assessment implementation among pre-service and in-service teachers has been documented, which inevitably weakens the effectiveness of using assessment to improve learning. In this study, a deep learning approach with a core component of peer assessment of peer assessment plan was implemented to enhance the assessment literacy of a group of pre-service teachers. The design was informed by the taxonomy of learning in the cognitive domain and affective domain. Results show that they were able to prepare peer assessment plans in good quality. In addition, after conducting peer assessment on peer assessment plan, they demonstrated a deep level of attitude change and explicitly expressed their willingness to implement peer assessment in their future teaching. This provides evidence that the deep learning approach to a great extent enhanced teachers assessment literacy.
    Keywords: Assessment Literacy; Peer Assessment; Peer feedback; Assessment for Learning; Assessment Education; Deep Learning; Taxonomy of Learning; Blended Learning; Pre-service Teacher; Teacher Training.

Special Issue on: Strengthening Vocational Education Systems for the Disruptive Innovation Era

  • Relevance of Student Productive Skills Competencies Based on Construction Services Needs   Order a copy of this article
    by Rolly R. Oroh, Julyeta P.A. Runtuwene, Morris S.S. Tumanduk, Verry R. Palilingan 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the relevance of student productive skills competencies according to the needs of construction services. This study uses a quantitative research approach. Data was obtained through the performance test instrument for students as respondents with 3 work indicators in construction work, namely preparation of supporting materials, preparation of work sites, and implementation of work. The instrument was developed from the results of focus group discussions with actors of construction services and in accordance with the Indonesian National Work Competency Standards. Student respondents were taken randomly from 3 Vocational High Schools (VHS) in North Sulawesi. Respondents from construction service actors are representatives of 5 construction service companies listed in the Construction Services Development Board of North Sulawesi. The results of the study found that students had the relevance of productive skill competencies, with details of 63.46% of students being the most suitable, 34.62% of students were quite suitable and a number of 1.92% of students were less suitable. Then it was concluded that students of vocational high schools in North Sulawesi as respondents had a minimum standard of productive skills competency according to the needs of construction services in carrying out construction work. The contribution of this study is to show the data as a result of this study about the level of achievement of the productive skills competency of VHS student that relevance with the needs of the construction service industry.
    Keywords: Productive Skills; Student Productive Skills Competencies; Relevance of Vocational Education; Construction Services.

  • Education Indicator Evaluation of UI Green Metric of Campus Sustainability of Faculty of Engineering Universitas Negeri Semarang   Order a copy of this article
    by Wahyuningsih , I. Made Sudana, Dewi Selvia Fardhyanti, Moch Fathoni Setiawan, Syahdan Sigit Maulana, Agung Nugroho, Ahmad Mustamil Khoiron 
    Abstract: Education is one of the categories and indicators of sustainable campus assessment used in UI Green Metric World University Ranking. This research aimed to evaluate the education indicator in Faculty of Engineering Universitas Negeri Semarang toward the ranking in UI Green Metric. Mixed assessment is carried out to identify curriculum, study implementation plans, and sustainable research. The requirements assessment collected in each department then screened through terminology scan as preliminary assessment. Then sustainability linkages were analysed to henceforth calculate. The result showed that Faculty of Engineering Universitas Negeri Semarang has 53.79% sustainability ratio of education indicator. This evaluation contributes as a reference to increase the value of sustainability in education indicators especially the curriculum and study implementation plans.
    Keywords: campus sustainability; UI Green Metric; curriculum; study implementation plans; research.