Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Innovation and Learning

International Journal of Innovation and Learning (IJIL)

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International Journal of Innovation and Learning (43 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Student-Led Active Learning Classrooms: A Comparison of Role-Playing versus Gamification   Order a copy of this article
    by Mathupayas Thongmak 
    Abstract: New strategies are needed to gain more students’ attention, engagement and interests in the MIS major. This paper, therefore, investigates the applications of two active learning approaches that are role-playing and gamification in an introductory MIS course from 2016 to 2019. The active learning approaches are conducted through student-led group assignments. The effectiveness of role-playing and gamification in terms of students’ perceived usefulness, engagement intention, and satisfaction are explored by a quantitative method, using an online questionnaire. This paper provides a comparison between two approaches and the guideline for effectively implementing them in a course from the students’ viewpoint. The study shows an example of student-led active learning activities, which reveals the opportunities for IS faculty to easily apply and research further.
    Keywords: active learning; experiential learning; role-playing; gamification; information systems education; introductory course.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2022.10043248
  • Academic impact of sudden and unforeseen changes in the learning environment due to the COVID-19 pandemic   Order a copy of this article
    by Alejandro M. Fernández-Castro, Roberto Sánchez-Cabrero, Yousef H. Eiadat 
    Abstract: This study evaluates the impact of changes in the learning environment due to the COVID-19 restrictions at the university level in Singapore based on the grades and student evaluations of 282 students from two cohorts who in 2020 experienced in-class and online teaching consecutively and compares academic performance in both learning environments considering the existing relationship between student evaluations and teacher-student interaction. Results show differences in academic performance on the final exam between the two modes, however, these differences are not related to the student evaluation of the lecturer nor teacher-student interaction as these remained unalterable despite the transition from in-class to online learning. The conclusion is that it is possible to maintain an optimum quality of education without alterations in student evaluations or in teacher-student interaction in both online and in-class contexts. However, it is necessary to design a course appropriate assessment strategy consistent with the specific learning environment.
    Keywords: in-class learning; education online; e-learning; e-assessment; COVID-19; learning environment.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10043310
  • Performance evaluation of mechanical engineering degrees using Partial minimum squares and Data Envelopment Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Enrique De La Hoz, Rohemi Zuluaga, Alicia Camelo-Guarín, María Suarez-Sánchez 
    Abstract: This study analysed the causal relationship between the learning outcomes acquired in high school and university by mechanical engineering students in Colombia. The methodology articulates partial least squares and data envelopment analysis. The data represents the standardised exams conducted by the Colombian Institute for the Quality of Education from 2012 to 2019. The results indicate that 42% of the degrees that receive students with high levels of high school knowledge cannot add value to higher education learning outcomes. In parallel, 21% of the programs that receive students with low academic performance in high school can reach high-performance learning outcomes in higher education. In conclusion, the present methodology contributes to the spectrum of knowledge of models that support decision-making in the educational field to focus on improving academic levels and educational quality.
    Keywords: partial least squares; PLS; data envelopment analysis; DEA; education; predictive evaluation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10043671
  • Personalized Recommendation Model for Senior Learning: A Case Study of Thai Seniors to Enhance Social Network Skills   Order a copy of this article
    by Kanchana Boontasri, Punnarumol Temdee 
    Abstract: To promote senior learning, this study proposes a personalised recommendation model using the combination of performance, preference, and physical condition factors of the learners, namely the 3P personalised recommendation model. Presented in the set of pre-defined rules, it consists of learning object selection and content presentation. A total of 68 Thai seniors aged between 60 and 83 years old from senior school participated in the case study for enhancing social media skills, how to use LINE application, on electronic learning platform. The learners were required to complete all learning objects with flexible learning paces. The recommendation was given to everyone individually after having each test in a learning object. The proposed model was evaluated in learning enhancement ability and learner satisfaction. The result revealed that the recommendation provided by the proposed model could effectively enhance learning efficiency of seniors. Also, the proposed model obtained satisfaction at the very satisfied level.
    Keywords: senior learning; recommendation; personalised learning; social network skill.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10044387
  • Exploring the use of video-annotated peer feedback in oral presentation lessons   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: This study explored the use of video-annotated peer feedback in supporting student learning in oral presentation lessons. Nine student volunteers from one of the polytechnics in Malaysia participated in three rounds of video-annotated peer feedback sessions to improve their oral presentation skills. Even though video-annotated peer feedback was found to focus primarily on structure and body language, most of the feedback were specific and cognitive feedback consisting of summary comments, problem/strength identification, solution and explanatory comments were identified. Collectively, students perceived the use of video-annotated peer feedback positively in their learning. The prominent themes emerging from the analysis of students journal entries: students active engagement in creative problem-solving, enhanced understanding of weaknesses in doing oral presentation and students self-reflection seem to confirm the potential pedagogical benefits of using this approach in teaching of oral presentation.
    Keywords: video annotation; peer feedback; oral presentation; body language; cognitive feedback; student learning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10045012
  • Influence of Corpus Tools on Taiwanese EFL Writers’ Learning, Reception and Production of Academic Clusters   Order a copy of this article
    by Chin-Wen Chien 
    Abstract: The mastery of academic clusters can contribute to writers’ self-confidence as well as a possible increase in the quality of their academic writing. This study explored the influence of integrating academic clusters and corpus tools into two courses among ten graduate students and 35 seniors in Taiwan. The analysis of the online posts, interviews, reflections and questionnaire concluded that rich exposure to academic clusters and corpus tools could foster graduate students’ and undergraduates’ knowledge and use of academic clusters in their academic writing. Integrations of academic clusters and corpus tools were suggested to be included into academic writing courses in order to foster EFL writers’ knowledge of and attitude toward academic clusters and corpus tools.
    Keywords: academic clusters; academic writing; corpus tools; learning; writers.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10045215
  • The influence of differentiated instruction on the academic performance of mathematics students in universities   Order a copy of this article
    by Norman Rudhumbu, Daimond Dziva 
    Abstract: Differentiated instruction (DI) is a teaching approach which seeks to ensure that lecturers in universities understand and respond to the different learning needs, interests and abilities of each of their students to be able to come up with teaching experiences and tasks that improve and make learning effective. The purpose of the study therefore was to establish whether there were differences in the academic performance of students taught using DI and those taught using traditional methods at a selected open university in Zimbabwe. The results showed significant differences in the academic performance of students taught using DI and those taught using traditional methods, with those students taught using DI performing much better academically. The results further showed that there was no significant academic performance differences between male and female students taught using DI. These results have implications on theory and practice with regards to the teaching of academically diverse mathematics students in universities.
    Keywords: academic performance; diverse students; differentiated instruction; performance differences; traditional teaching approaches; socio-cultural theory.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10045323
  • Elevating the organizational innovation and knowledge sharing capability through soft TQM practices   Order a copy of this article
    by Lim Ai-Fen 
    Abstract: The development of human capital skills and expertise is needed to transform the nation’s manufacturing industry into one that is smart, innovative, and resilient. Developing a human capital strategy (soft TQM practices) that places a premium on knowledge sharing (KS) and organisational innovation (OI) is crucial for the manufacturing sector’s digital transformation. The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive understanding of the significance and connections between soft TQM practices, KS, and OI among manufacturers. Two hundred twenty two valid responses from manufacturing firms were analysed, the study discovered a significant and positive relationship between these three-dimensional variables using partial least squares-structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM). Meanwhile, KS acts as a mediator between soft TQM practices and OI. By advancing theories of knowledge-based dynamic capabilities (KBDC), this research demonstrates the great influence of soft TQM practices on both KS and OI, which is important for manufacturing firms redesigned pivotal management strategy.
    Keywords: total quality management; TQM; knowledge sharing; organisational innovation; knowledge-based dynamic capabilities; KBDC; partial least squares-structural equation modelling; PLS-SEM.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10045589
  • A CHAID tree approach to motivation and academic performance in second language learning   Order a copy of this article
    by Alfonso Abad Mancheno, Roberto Sánchez-Cabrero, Ana C. León Mejía 
    Abstract: The findings of a study on the importance of affective motivation in learning a second language are presented in this article (L2). The study included 171 US university students who studied Spanish, German, Italian, or Japanese as a second language. The Dörnyei motivating model was used to create an online questionnaire, and the Chaid Tree predictive model outlined the most important variables that influence the Motivation to continue studying a second language. The findings show that the variables projection of intended effort and ideal self is both positively and significantly connected to students academic achievement and their intent to enrol in future foreign language programs. The deontic self, or ought-to-self, on the other hand, had no significant correlation with any of the other factors studied. There were no significant differences in gender in the cross-sectional analysis of age and gender, but there was a negative and significant link between age and academic achievement, as well as a positive and significant association between age and predicted effort.
    Keywords: motivation; foreign language learning; ideal self; ought-to-self; age; gender.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10045682
  • University Students’ Level of Boredom and their Coping Strategies in Emergency Remote Education during the Coronavirus Pandemic   Order a copy of this article
    by Mehdi Solhi, Serap Önen 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study was twofold: firstly, we investigated whether there is a difference between male and female university students’ level of boredom and their boredom coping strategies (i.e., cognitive approach, behavioural approach, cognitive avoidance, and behavioural avoidance) in emergency online lessons during the COVID-19 pandemic, and then an attempt was made to examine whether the participants’ academic level (i.e., freshman, sophomore, junior and senior) affects their boredom experiences and boredom coping strategies. A total of 201 undergraduate students from a Turkish state university participated in the study. Results indicated that the male university students experience higher levels of boredom than their counterparts. In addition, the female participants exhibited stronger inclination towards using both cognitive approach and cognitive avoidance than the males to strategically cope with boredom. Besides, the participants with different academic levels did not score differently in their level of boredom and they indicated a significant difference only in their behavioural avoidance in coping with boredom. Indeed, as the academic level of the participants increases, they exhibit a greater tendency to use behavioural avoidance to relief boredom.
    Keywords: academic boredom; boredom coping strategies; emergency online lessons.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10045809
  • Undergraduate Capstone Projects in Information Technology Course: Bridging the Gap Between Theory and Practical Skills   Order a copy of this article
    by Noman Mohammad, Khairudin Bin Kasiran 
    Abstract: This study was conducted in the School of Computing at a public university in Malaysia to identify the current issues in the existing undergraduate capstone project and to identify ways to improve the existing capstone project framework to make it more effective. Data was collected through in-depth, semi-structured interviews of faculty members and students who had recently completed the capstone project and focus group discussions. The findings reveal issues that could be categorised into: 1) lack of orientation; 2) role ambiguity between the supervisor and the lecturer; 3) misalignment between technical skills, project requirement, and support; 4) students’ prior educational background. Formal orientation, clear role allotment for lecturers and supervisors, more projects for each major subject, project-based experiences during courses, and inculcation of soft skills among students were some of the suggestions identified through data. The implications for various stakeholders and the limitations of the study have been discussed.
    Keywords: capstone; project-based learning; computer education; Malaysia; undergraduate education.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10045889
  • Online Education in COVID-19 Scenario: Challenges, Mitigation Strategies and Exploring a Case Study in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Anindita Desarkar 
    Abstract: India is one of the largest nations with many geographical differences, which makes the learning process a difficult one in the present COVID-19 scenario. However, online mode offers big opportunity to reach out to students in remote locations though it has its own challenges too. This paper identifies a few such challenges and suggests mitigation strategies towards the same. In addition, an in-depth analysis is performed on a real COVID-19 student dataset to understand student overall behaviour in this pandemic situation as well as their experience in the online learning mode. Also, an automated framework of performing student feedback analysis is presented, which can be utilised to understand the quality of online classes by finding more useful insights from student responses. These measures will definitely support a vulnerable student population to overcome the uncertainties present in the period of extraordinary disruption.
    Keywords: student; pandemic; learning environment; online education; psychological challenges; feedback analysis tool; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10045959
  • The Effects of Personalized Mathematic Instruction Supported by an Intelligent Tutoring System During the COVID-19 Epidemic and the Post-epidemic Era   Order a copy of this article
    by Jiyou Jia, Shanshan Li, Yanying Miao, JInxia Li 
    Abstract: It is hard to find empirical study to examine the online learning or blended learning’s effect on school pupils’ regular exam performance during the COVID-19 epidemic and afterwards. This study attempts to fill in this research gap. An intelligent tutoring system (ITS) was utilised in mathematics online instruction in many elementary and middle schools in China. It supports individualised teaching and learning and has positive effect on students’ learning. Two case studies are introduced to illustrate the system’s functions and effects on students’ mathematics learning performance. In the first case, a mathematics teacher in a junior high school provided the students with differentiated assignments during the epidemic. In the second case, a teacher in a primary school utilised the ITS to implement blended learning after the epidemic. Quasi-experiments were conducted and the regular examination’s data analysis result shows that the treatment group outperformed the control group.
    Keywords: online learning; personalised learning; blended learning; intelligent tutoring system; ITS; epidemic; mathematics instruction.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10046080
  • Metacognitive Strategies Use in Fostering EFL Learners’ Writing Skill during Remote Learning   Order a copy of this article
    by Raja Khan, TRIBHUWAN KUMAR 
    Abstract: Writing is a critical ability for efficient communication practiced extensively starting in primary school, yet individuals do not demonstrate appropriate writing competence in higher education. The closure of the offline classes has also impacted the learners’ writing abilities. This quasi-experimental study aims to improve students’ writing skills in the online classroom by boosting metacognitive practices. During online writing practice, learners were given instructions to use and gather information using metacognitive strategies. This study’s respondents were 80 EFL students from PSAU’s intermediate level. The data was acquired using a metacognitive survey and a writing task test. The Cambridge University rubrics were used to score the writing test. The metacognitive strategies employed by the teacher-researcher in writing paragraphs assigned during the writing instruction aided students’ consciousness in developing their writing process. The results showed an increase in the participant’s writing skills inconsistency and cohesion. It suggests that metacognitive strategies are essential in strengthening learners’ critical thinking capacity and encouraging them to organise, develop, and plan writing into a meaningful narrative.
    Keywords: writing skill; metacognitive skill; writing practice; remote learning; teaching mobility; metacognitive survey; PSAU’s intermediate level.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10046081
  • Perceptions and the New Paradigm of Thai Vocational Education   Order a copy of this article
    by Nongluck Manowaluilou, Prachyanun Nilsook, Prompilai Buasuwan 
    Abstract: The objectives were to: 1) assess and analyse students perceptions toward vocational education; 2) propose a new paradigm and alternative pathways to change students perceptions about vocational education. The use of mixed methods in this study developed a better understanding of secondary students decisions towards vocational education. The results obtained from different methods have enriched the understanding of vocational education issues and advanced research in vocational education. A five-point Likert scale questionnaire was used to analyse the perceptions of 802 secondary students from six Thai regions toward vocational education. In-depth interviews with 18 students in grades 712 were analysed using a content analysis. Secondary students who had completed or were enrolled in vocational education influenced secondary students views on vocational education. A new paradigm is required for new vocational education images, which may modify the image of vocational education and contribute to a new paradigm shift in vocational education.
    Keywords: vocational education innovation; new paradigm in vocational education; perceptions of vocational education; vocational learning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10046426
  • Formative feedback using quick polls: Benefits, challenges and engagement   Order a copy of this article
    by Angelito Calma, Lusheng Shao, William Ho 
    Abstract: This study investigates students’ perceptions in a formative feedback initiative introduced in a quantitative management subject. It uses data from 157 undergraduate and graduate students over two semesters collected via a survey and focus group discussion. It provides a novel contribution to the under-researched area of formative feedback in business education. Results were generally positive, with over 75% of the students agreeing that formative feedback is useful. They reported positive results across the survey questions relating to ease of and keenness to the feedback activity, their enjoyment in participating, improvement in their understanding, the usefulness of the feedback, and whether they would recommend such activity in other subjects. Results from the focus groups also reiterate these positive perceptions, where students highly regarded the immediacy and usability of the feedback in their learning and the engaging and non-threatening nature of the activity. Implications include practical uses and applicability to other disciplines.
    Keywords: feedback; formative feedback; business education; business decision analysis; polling.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10046427
  • Inclusion of Academic Self-Efficacy, Motivation, and Engagement with The Pre-University Cognitive Ability To Predict Students’ University GPA   Order a copy of this article
    by Ahmed Aldarmahi, Ismail Fasfous, Nada Abuarab, Asma Alkusayer, Mohamed Ahmed 
    Abstract: In recent years, much attention is given by education researchers and accrediting bodies to the role of non-cognitive ability on academic success and potential employment. This research paper aimed to explore the combined influence of non-cognitive and cognitive predictors in forecasting the academic performance of students, measured by university grade point average (GPA), at the end of the second year in university in Saudi Arabia. Results indicate that the key predictors of university GPA were academic achievement test/general aptitude test (AAT/GAT) scores and High School GPA (HSGPA). Pre-university cognitive abilities (AAT, GAT, and HSGPA) were collected from 1,121 participant students. Academic self-efficacy (AS), achievement motivation (AM), academic engagement (AE), and social engagement (SE) of students as key non-cognitive abilities for academic performance were determined. A moderate positive correlation between cognitive factors and AS and AM was found. On the contrary, a weak negative correlation was found with the AE and SA. Using the stepwise regression analysis, AS, AM, and AE together significantly predicted the university GPA over and above AAT, GAT, and HSGPA. A binary logistic regression analysis model was able to predict college of medicine students with a percentage of 68.4% without prior knowledge of university GPA.
    Keywords: academic performance; self-efficacy; social engagement; motivation; cognitive factors; university GPA; higher education.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10046428
  • Developing Entrepreneurial Intentions in Emerging Markets: A Comprehensive Review of Educational Factors   Order a copy of this article
    by Zainab Abdallah, Mohammad Al Khasawneh, Amro Al-Madadha, Majd AbedRabbo 
    Abstract: This research investigates the effect of entrepreneurship education on graduates’ entrepreneurial intentions in emerging markets. It examines the effect of student, teaching, and learning factors on graduates’ entrepreneurship intentions in one integrated model. A quantitative approach using survey methodology was conducted in the emerging market of Jordan. In addition, structural equation modelling with 614 responses was carried out to assess the relationships hypothesised in this research. The findings indicate strong evidence for optimising entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial intentions. Furthermore, effectively motivating students to study entrepreneurship using modern teaching capabilities reduces risk-aversion attitude towards entrepreneurial activities and positively increases entrepreneurial intentions towards starting up a business. This research extends the existing literature by incorporating other perspectives beyond student factors, including teaching and learning environment factors, to conclude the significant factors that facilitate entrepreneurship education. Likewise, the paper examined the effect of entrepreneurial education in emerging markets, which remains under-researched.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship; entrepreneurship education; entrepreneurial intentions; emerging markets; Jordan.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10046429
  • A Data Mining Approach to Classifying E-learning Satisfaction of Higher Education Students: A Philippine Case   Order a copy of this article
    by MARIVEL GO, Rodolfo Jr. Golbin, Severina Velos, Johnry Dayupay, Feliciana Cababat, Jeem Clyde Baird, Hazna Quiñanola 
    Abstract: E-learning has become increasingly important for higher education institutions. It offers an alternative mode of learning for educational institutions during critical situations such as the COVID-19 pandemic. While e-learning has gained growing attention in the current literature, a significant gap is left unaddressed for emerging economies, particularly the Philippines. In this paper, the factors of e-learning in a higher education institution in the Philippines are analysed. A data mining approach is used to predict the satisfaction of higher education students given eleven features of the subjects. Four classifiers: 1) logistic regression; 2) support vector machine; 3) multilayer perceptron; 4) decision tree, are used to develop the predictive models. The findings reveal that the features considered in this paper can be used to accurately predict the student satisfaction towards e-learning of higher education students in the Philippines.
    Keywords: e-learning; machine learning; data mining for e-learning; e-learning in the Philippines.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10046430
  • Innovation through Indigenous Knowledge Sharing, Organizational Memory, and Indigenous Knowledge Erosion on Indigenous Batik Enterprise (A Structural Equation Modeling in Action)   Order a copy of this article
    by Retno Kusumastuti, Achmad Nizar Hidayanto, Vishnu Juwono, Evie Oktafia, Kurnia Sandy, Halimatus Sa'diyah 
    Abstract: Indigenous knowledge is associated with the knowledge of indigenous communities that are shared from generation to generation. The aim of the study is to measure the influence of innovation to indigenous knowledge sharing, organisational memory, and indigenous erosion on indigenous Batik Enterprise. This study using a quantitative approach and data collecting method were a self-administered questionnaire and virtual focus group discussion with the representative of Indigenous Batik Enterprise. The results showed that indigenous knowledge sharing has an effect on organisational memory of indigenous batik enterprise. Second, innovation has an effect on organisational memory on Indigenous Batik Enterprise. Third, indigenous knowledge erosion has an effect on organisational memory. Fourth, indigenous knowledge erosion has a significant effect on indigenous knowledge sharing. Fifth, innovation has a significant effect on indigenous knowledge erosion.
    Keywords: innovation; indigenous knowledge sharing; indigenous knowledge erosion; knowledge management; organisational memory.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10046431
  • Open innovation and new product development in food manufacturing SMEs: the role of trust   Order a copy of this article
    by Kewalee Silapacharanan, Pittawat Ueasangkomsate, Haruthai NUMPRASERTCHAI 
    Abstract: The rapid changing of the business environment and technology has led many SMEs to engage in new product development (NPD) so as to deliver competitiveness in the market. This study is aimed at explaining the relationship between open innovation (OI), trust, and NPD performance in SMEs. Data is collected through a survey from 123 Thai SMEs in food manufacturing involved in launching new product during 2017 to 2019. The data was analysed by descriptive statistics and PLS-SEM. The results show that outbound OI practice has a direct effect on enhancing NPD performance, whereas inbound and coupled OI implementation need trust as a mediator, thus having an indirect effect on such performance. The findings reveal that SMEs in food manufacturing need to recognise the importance of open innovation along with the building of trust, if they are to achieve higher NPD performance.
    Keywords: open innovation; trust; new product development; NPD; SME; food; manufacturing.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2022.10046432
  • The productivity of technological networks in the Amazon innovation system: an analysis about the Triple Helix system in the state of Par   Order a copy of this article
    by Phelipe André Matos Cruz, Márcia Jucá Teixeira Diniz, Jorge O. Moreno 
    Abstract: One of the biggest challenges for the economic science is understanding sustainable practices of innovation. In this sense, we analysed factors contributing to the improvement and continuity of partnerships between university, government, and industry. For this, we observed institutional partnerships in Para (Amazon region) according to the structure of the Triple Helix model. We applied the data envelopment analysis (DEA) to measure their technological productivity and the social network analysis (SNA) to illustrate their connections. We found that the insufficiency of the Transformation Industry may have limited the entrepreneurial potential of universities and the development of the Innovation System in that region. This way, our experiment contributes to the Amazon innovation system (AIS) knowledge and attends to recent calls to adapt traditional models to present different realities of technological collaboration.
    Keywords: triple helix model; Amazonian innovation system; productivity; social network analysis; SNA; data envelopment analysis; DEA.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10046903
  • Cognitive Styles and Informal Learning Strategies in the Workplace: The Mediating Role of Intrinsic Motivation   Order a copy of this article
    by Sergio Santoro  
    Abstract: This study analyses the relationship between cognitive styles and managers’ informal learning strategies. Intrinsic motivation is considered to be a mediating variable between these two constructs. Structural equation modelling was used to evaluate the relations in the research model. The hypotheses proposed in our research model were tested on a sample of 244 bank managers from all Brazilian regions. Results show that, from the three-dimensional model of cognitive styles, knowing cognitive style has a positive effect on both cognitive and behavioural learning strategies, whereas planning and creating cognitive styles have positive effects on behavioural learning strategies but they have non-significant effects on informal cognitive learning strategies. Intrinsic motivation mediates the relation between cognitive styles and informal learning strategies.
    Keywords: psychological trait; cognitive styles; workplace informal learning strategies; intrinsic motivation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10047233
  • A Study on assessing innovation management capacity based on ISO 56002 for enterprises in Vietnam   Order a copy of this article
    by Van Thanh Nguyen, Minh Hiep Ha 
    Abstract: The survival of enterprises depends heavily on their ability to innovate. As the world becomes increasingly global and the development of new technologies is accelerating, the ability to innovate effectively may be even more important in the future. However, innovation management can be difficult and many managers feel frustrated that there is no clear method for doing it. The purpose of this study is to investigate the current state of innovation management of some enterprises in Vietnam and identify the main factors that affect innovation management in Vietnam’s businesses. The reality of innovation management was analysed by a survey on innovation management of businesses in Vietnam based on dimensions specified in the innovation management standard ISO 560002. The survey result shows that many of the innovation elements in ISO 56002 are found in the practices of leading enterprises in Vietnam and that in Vietnam, larger-sized firms tend to struggle to apply the requirements of ISO 56002.
    Keywords: productivity measurement; SMEs performance analysis; innovation management; innovation; best practices for innovation management; innovation practices; ISO 56002; Vietnam.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10047347
  • A Comparative Analysis of Instructional Delivery Methods in a Higher Education Institution in the United Arab Emirates.   Order a copy of this article
    by Lisa J. Brashear 
    Abstract: This comparative quantitative study aims at investigating whether instructional delivery methods, such as online, hybrid, blended learning and face to face delivery methods, had an effect on students’ grades when teaching mathematics to English language learners in a higher education Institution in the United Arab Emirates. Final course grades, in GPA format, of 574 students were collected over the course of three academic years. Assumptions of analysis of variance (ANOVA), Post hoc tests, effect sizes Cohen’s d were examined. The statistically significant difference across four different instructional delivery methods showed effect sizes that grew from medium to large to very large when increasing the amount of online instruction. These findings surpass other studies and suggest a high practical significance. The consequences of COVID?19 on instructional delivery methods had a favourable effect on students’ grades. Higher education Institutions in the UAE may use these findings for future planning, even beyond the pandemic. Recommendations are made for further research to include more variables and other disciplines.
    Keywords: comparative study; instructional delivery method; instruction; mode; higher education; UAE; quantitative study; group difference; ANOVA; post hoc test; effect size.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10048177
  • Student Emotions and Online Class Engagement in the Time of Pandemic   Order a copy of this article
    by Fayrene Chieng, Fidella Tiew, Wendy Law, Yew Hua Ling 
    Abstract: In response to COVID-19 pandemic, universities around the world have been forced to shift to online study. The abrupt shift towards online learning compounded by social isolation and reduced interactions with teachers and peers may have taken a toll on students’ emotions affecting their engagement. This study examined how positive and negative emotions influence online student engagement (OSE) in the time of pandemic. Quantitative research was conducted using an online survey that was administered to undergraduate students at a private university in East Malaysia, of which 207 have responded. The findings revealed that enjoyment and frustration influenced significantly and positively online student engagement. Conversely, anxiety and boredom are negatively related to online student engagement. This study improves understanding of students’ academic emotions and their online engagement. It helps higher education administrators and policymakers to explore the influential effects of students’ emotions on facilitating students’ online engagement.
    Keywords: academic emotions; online student engagement; OSE; higher education; pandemic; Sarawak.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10048199
  • Business School Strategies for Successful Research Commercialization Process in Thailand   Order a copy of this article
    by Sasivimol Meeampol, Bordin Rassameethes 
    Abstract: This study is empirical research that investigates how a business school in Thailand extended its resources for commercializing university research assets. We fed the process of the university's business school in terms of its commercialization strategy and the need for different research outputs. The research aimed to explore the role of the business school beyond the university Technology Transfer Office as part of empirical research. Data was gathered on alternative products, life span, market size, entry barriers, potential long-run growth rate, trend and taste of potential customers, and total market potential. In our project, the business team analyzed the research outputs of more than 100 products using three techniques Technology Readiness Levels, General Electric/McKinsey Matrix concept and consulting. The team worked closely with researchers, business school professors, business students, experienced entrepreneurs, and experts in different techniques to develop a strategy for bringing individual research-based products to the marketplace. The paper argues that the success of the research commercialization process relies on the development of appropriate assessment criteria, strategies, business attractiveness, competitive strength of research, and researchers' willingness to commercialize. The role of the business school is then to formulate business strategies appropriate for the circumstances. Finally, the intervention of the business school can create mutual trust between stakeholders and contribute significantly to a thriving research commercialization process, substantially lessening the likelihood of failure.
    Keywords: Consulting Approach; Commercialization; General Electric/McKinsey Matrix; Research Commercialization; Technology Readiness Levels (TRL); and Technology transfer.

  • Training Needs Analysis: The Impact of the Quality of Teaching on Student Learning, Staff Satisfaction, and Institute Business Performance   Order a copy of this article
    by Keai Lim 
    Abstract: This training needs analysis (TNA) study investigated and determined the influence of teaching quality on student learning, staff satisfaction, and institute business performance. Various data collection methodologies were adopted based on Tobey and McGoldrick (2016) BPLL structure which was then subjected to respective data analysis tools and yielded training and non-training issues and training recommendations. It was observed that the deployment of competent academic staff and assurance of high teaching quality was required to better understand the diverse international students as a means to increase student recruitment rate and boost the business performance. The TNA findings also revealed that it was critical to ensure the motivation and attitude of the academic staff towards reskilling and upskilling in areas that would improve their work performance. Accordingly, four training recommendations with respective learning outcomes and overviews, and two non-training recommendations were proposed to heighten academic staff’s global awareness and motivation at work.
    Keywords: BPLL framework; training needs analysis; TNA; quality teaching; student learning; staff satisfaction; business performance.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10048686
  • The effects of tablet PC-based instruction on junior high school students’ self-regulated learning and learning achievement   Order a copy of this article
    by Harrison Hao Yang, Ling Chen, Kexin Jia, Zhuo Qu, Yinghui Shi 
    Abstract: Tablet personal computers (PCs) are being widely used in K-12 education. The effectiveness of tablet PC-based instruction on student learning outcomes remains unclear. This quasi-experimental study examines the effects of tablet PC-based instruction on students’ self-regulated learning and learning achievement in Chinese language courses. Participants were 198 students from four junior high school classes in Northwest China. Two classes (n = 101) were set as the experimental group by employing a tablet PC-based instructional approach, while the other two classes (n = 97) were the control group, using a traditional approach without tablet PCs. The results showed students receiving tablet PC-based instruction had significantly higher learning achievement and self-regulated learning abilities than those receiving a traditional lecture-based approach without tablet PCs. In addition, this study found no significant differences in learning achievement among students with different learning styles. These results indicate that tablet PC-based instruction offers significant benefits for junior high school students.
    Keywords: tablet PC; junior high school student; self-regulated learning; SRL; learning achievement; learning styles.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10049055
  • Women on Boards and Firm Performance in Turkey: A Case Study of the ?stanbul Stock Exchange   Order a copy of this article
    by Özlem ATAY, Fatih Çetin, Elif Savaskan 
    Abstract: The aim of this study is to examine the relationship of women on board and firm performance. The research is based on the BIST-100 Index that consists of the 100 largest and most traded stocks from various sectors in Turkey. Data were collected from annual reports and company disclosures covering the 12-year period between 2010 to 2021. Using STATA software, we used a dynamic panel regression to test the effect of women on board via two different company performance indicators as return of assets (ROA) and return of equity (ROE). The results have indicated that there is not any significant relationship between board gender diversity and measured firm performance indicators. Also, the significant role of board diversity on the firm performance in terms of education and learning is examined. As a conclusion, possible theoretical and implicational explanations are provided.
    Keywords: gender diversity; gender inequality; innovation and learning; women on board; ?stanbul Stock Exchange; Turkey.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10049795
  • European Contexts of Volunteering and Inclusion of Migrant Children in Schools   Order a copy of this article
    by Valerij Dermol, Spela Javornik, Susana Amalia De Juana-Espinosa, Plamen Mirazchiyski, Ales Trunk 
    Abstract: Volunteers are perceived as an important link in the inclusion of migrant students in schools, when institutions cannot take care of this on their own. For the theoretical part of the article systematic literature review was done, starting with 15,826 initial results, systematically reduced to 15 sources included in the theoretical part. The article discusses the role of volunteering in the inclusion of migrant students in schools and pay special attention on the results (reasons/need to volunteer) within the RoMigSc project. While the results show that volunteers expect personal benefit (e.g., career advancement), most of them are also internally (e.g., concerned for the disadvantaged ones) and externally (e.g., people close to them also volunteer) motivated. Future research, and especially practice shall consider recruiting internally motivated volunteers to work with migrant students. Although personal benefits can also increase volunteering, internal motivation is one of the leading factors.
    Keywords: volunteering; migrant students; motivation for volunteering; volunteering benefits; youth; RoMigSc project; school inclusion; migrant integration; language barrier; cultural diversity.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10050122
  • Tutorial Experience during Online Learning: A Topic Modelling Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Chioma Okoro, Peter Baur, Oliver Takawira 
    Abstract: The role of tutoring in teaching and learning cannot be overemphasised. However, limited studies exist on tutors’ strategies, tools, and techniques to assist in their role as teaching assistants. This study aimed to identify the strategies, tools, techniques, and challenges encountered during online tutoring during the lockdown periods necessitated by the COVID-19 pandemic. The study employed a quantitative approach to collect data among tutors within a faculty in a higher education institution. Short-text data were analysed to output themes using topic modelling in supervised machine learning. Findings indicated that technology and tutors were helpful and appreciated during the period under investigation. The challenges were primarily technical and social. Similarities between students’ and tutors’ perceptions were noted. The study’s findings are beneficial to higher education policymakers and authorities to better support tutors going forward. This is especially important as universities gradually reopen contact learning with blended/online approaches.
    Keywords: tutoring; students’ performance; higher education; topic modelling; sentiment analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10050123
  • A survey of smart learning practices: contexts, benefits, and challenges   Order a copy of this article
    by Billy Tak-Ming Wong, Kam Cheong Li, Thomas Hon Tung Chan 
    Abstract: Smart learning has emerged as a significant area of inquiry in both research and practice. However, related reviews of this area have given scant scholarly attention to its research contexts, benefits, and challenges. This paper seeks to extend the previous review studies to investigate smart learning in these areas. A total of 155 smart learning research papers published in 2011 to 2020 were collected from Web of Science, Scopus, and ProQuest for review. The findings reveal that most relevant studies were conducted in the computer science discipline with a particular focus on online and face-to-face smart learning at the university educational level. They also show the benefits of smart learning such as enhanced teaching and learning support and improved learning outcomes, as well as challenges such as integration with other systems and teachers competence and training. The findings serve to advance the understanding of smart learning and shed light on its future design and implementation.
    Keywords: smart learning; smart education; contexts; benefits; challenges.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10050402
  • Learning in a Hybrid Synchronous Mode: Experiences and Views of University Students   Order a copy of this article
    by Kam Cheong Li, Billy Tak-Ming Wong, Reggie Kwan, Manfred Wu 
    Abstract: This paper reports the results of an empirical study on students’ experiences and views of hybrid synchronous learning based on its institution-wide implementation in a university in Hong Kong. Data were collected from a questionnaire survey with 2,752 participants and a focus group discussion with 21 participants. The results reveal the students’ positive feedback on this learning mode such as enhancing motivation, willingness to ask questions, having a suitable environment to attend online lessons and understanding course contents. The positive views also cover instructors’ teaching in terms of paying attention to students, time management, teaching progress, maintaining student engagement, handling technical matters, as well as administration of assignments and assessments. However, issues and challenges were also found, such as students’ interactions with classmates and their relationships with them. The results provide relevant information for education institutions to design and offer effective hybrid synchronous education for students.
    Keywords: hybrid synchronous learning; face-to-face learning; COVID-19; pandemic; university students; Hong Kong.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10050534
  • Social Innovation across Non-Profit Organizations: Analytical Hierarchical Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Ayesha Matloub, Aniza Othman, Ajmal Mian 
    Abstract: This work aims to assess social innovation across non-profit organisations of the United Arab Emirates. This work aims to assess social innovation across non-profit organisations of the United Arab Emirates by exploring the criteria and sub-criteria of social innovation relevant to UAE NGOs. The work develops a hierarchical framework of social innovation using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) model. Needed data was collected from top directors and senior managers at NGOs in the UAE through personal interviews. All to recommend strategies for improving social innovation practices in NGOs of the UAE. The proposed framework should help NGOs and social innovators to improve their social innovative practices. Literature on social innovation in the UAE context is limited, and data was collected from NGOs in the UAE only. This work provides a comprehensive strategy for improving social innovation across NGOs of the UAE by contributing to the emerging field of social innovation literature.
    Keywords: social innovation; UAE; NGO; non-profit; emerging economies.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2022.10050573
  • To Boom and Bloom? Didactic Development in Online Distance Learning: Students   Order a copy of this article
    by Ivana Simonova, Ludmila Faltynkova, Katerina Kostolanyova, Slavomira Klimszova, Tereza Guziurova 
    Abstract: After a 18-month period of online distance instruction (ODI) during the COVID-19 pandemic, the question appears about the quality of the process. To answer the question, the main objective of the research is to compare the process of ODI in autumn 2020 and one year later, and to discover whether there is any development. In total, 500 respondents participated. Data were collected through two online questionnaires. Each respondent provided feedback on two courses first, on the course that they appreciated; second, on the course that they did not like. Four criteria were applied for evaluation of the courses: 1) the first contact and communication; 2) learning content acquisition; 3) learning content delivery and assessment; 4) students final feedback on online distance instruction. The findings discovered positive and negative features of the process. The findings served as a basis for didactic recommendations when designing and conducting online distance courses.
    Keywords: online distance instruction; COVID-19; upper secondary; higher education; didactic recommendations; students’ reflection; didactic development; didactic principles; TP(A)CK; SAMR model.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10050757
  • 4C-based learning model as an effective tool in language classrooms: The case of Kazakh schools   Order a copy of this article
    by Gulzat Berkinbayeva, Zhanat Dauletbekova, Perizat Yelubayeva, Zhanna Bugybayeva 
    Abstract: The 4C-based learning model aims to develop students’ communication, collaboration, critical thinking and creativity skills. These skills have been recognised by educators as essential elements in training successful professionals. However, a preliminary review of school curricula concluded that the 4C model is poorly applied, and the main focus is still on subject knowledge. For this reason, this study aims to develop and describe teaching strategies that could integrate the 4C model into a language learning process. As the main teaching method, cooperative learning was shown in teamwork, games, and case studies were selected for critical analysis. Hence, a fully visible gain in the 4C model development allows concluding that the resulting learning strategies were highly effective as didactic instrumentation. Practical implications are the didactic scenarios that could be used in foreign language teaching with the objective of both subject knowledge and universal competencies included in the 4C model.
    Keywords: 4C model; communication; critical thinking; collaboration; creativity; corporate learning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10050832
  • Factors influencing the spread of cyberbullying among adolescents in private schools: Kuwait   Order a copy of this article
    by Sara Al-loughani, Eiman Tamah Al-Shammari 
    Abstract: Cyberbullying has risen at an extraordinary speed in the educational sector in recent years. There is a shortage of published research in various social-cultural settings in developing countries, with the majority of the literature coming from developed and/or western countries. In this context, this study aims to determine the prevalence of cyberbullying and investigate factors associated with cyberbullying in Kuwaiti private high schools, such as age, parental role, school role, educational level, and educational performance factors. The study was carried out on a sample of 700 students aged 14 to 18 and the results indicate that cyberbullying is common in Kuwaiti private schools and is age-related. Several students, however, indicated that cyberbullying had no impact on academic success. Furthermore, the study found that cyberbullying has a detrimental effect on cyberbullying victims' psychological well-being. Furthermore, positively engaged and considerate parents and schools contribute to the reduction of cyberbullying. According to the study's results, school-based counselling centres are required to deal with cyberbullying situations. Anti-bullying activities should be developed and implemented in these facilities. They should also raise students' awareness of prevention and coping strategies.
    Keywords: cyberbullying; bullying; Kuwait; psychological; technology.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2022.10050667
  • The quality teaching and learning standard: level of understanding and implementation by school principals in Kosovo   Order a copy of this article
    by Fatjonë Bislimi, Osman Buleshkaj 
    Abstract: This study examines the second standard of principals' professional practice – the quality teaching and learning standard – by Kosovo school principals. The combined method of qualitative and quantitative research is meant to better reflect participants' perspectives and reinforce scientific interaction. The samples for this study were 272 primary and secondary school teachers from 26 different Kosovo municipalities, as well as ten primary and secondary school principals from five Kosovo municipalities. The results of this study show that school principals have a limited understanding of the quality teaching and learning standard. Findings show that school principals understand some of the qualities of effective teaching and learning, and they practice some leadership activities to foster implementation of the quality teaching and learning standard. The results of this study help identify the extent to which school principals in Kosovo are focused on the quality teaching and learning standard and serve as recommendations for improvement.
    Keywords: school principal; quality teaching; learning; leadership.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2022.10050668
  • Neurological examination lab during SARS-CoV-2 pandemic: an experience from Humanitas University, Milan, Italy   Order a copy of this article
    by Matteo Biroli, Valeriano Vinci, Licia Montagna, Silvia Oldani 
    Abstract: Core diagnostic and physical examination skills in neurology are fundamental for aspiring physicians. Merging theory with practical activities is an efficient way to strengthen the learning process. However, SARS-CoV-2 pandemic hard tested the possibility to perform them. This article aims at describing/evaluating the way Humanitas University managed this issue implementing innovative flipped-learning-based activities. The five-day neurology lab was re-designed aiming at avoiding unnecessary contacts, maximising skills acquisition and meeting students' needs, satisfaction, expectations. Mandatory SARS-CoV-2 serology/swab testing before activities' beginning assured every student's safety. Student's satisfaction assessment, performed through two online questionnaires, showed that the new organisation of the neurological lab received significantly higher appreciation compared to previous year's activities. Flipped-learning-based activities helped grasping the essence of different neurological syndromes and the required skills to recognise them. In view of this, we believe that flipped-learning-based activities could constitute a powerful innovative method to build solid knowledge in the neurology field.
    Keywords: neurological examination; SARS-CoV-2 pandemic; university; medical education; medical students; neurology; e-learning; flipped-learning; blended learning; physical examination.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2022.10043068
  • Learning from each other: leaders' social representations of career beginners and career beginners' self-assessment   Order a copy of this article
    by Kristina Rakinić, Uršula Čebron Lipovec, Katarina Babnik 
    Abstract: Today's youth face prejudice and stereotyping in the workplace; in times of crisis, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, their prevalence and strength may increase. We conducted a qualitative study of social representations of key exchange partners – leaders and career beginners. In the first phase, we conducted semi-structured interviews to identify the dominant social representations that small business leaders (N = 9) hold about career beginners. In the second phase, we examined how future career beginners (N = 26) responded to five hypothetical work situations based on the leaders' social representations. The social exchange partners shared the narrative that career growth, advancement, and financial incentives are important motivators for career beginners, but contradicted each other in their accounts of career beginners' initiative levels and in their accounts of preferred leadership styles. The findings help to raise awareness of the mutual representations and expectations of different age groups in the work context.
    Keywords: social representations; leaders; career beginners; thematic analysis; vignettes; age-related stereotypes.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2022.10043602
  • COVID-19 pandemic and preparedness of teachers for online synchronous classes   Order a copy of this article
    by Deep Jyoti Gurung, Manmayuri Goswami 
    Abstract: COVID-19 pandemic has forced educational institutes to shut down, and teachers are compelled to adopt technology ardently so that the teaching-learning process does not suffer. Gradually, it is being realised that synchronous online classes are required to enhance the teaching-learning experience. The major challenge in India is the lack of preparedness of the teachers, as most teachers have little experience with technology. Nevertheless, they have to adapt themselves quickly. However, to effectively use technology for synchronous online teaching, teachers have to be technology ready and proficient with utilising the platform used for online classes. This study attempts to understand the impact of teachers' preparedness on the use of online platforms for synchronous teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper integrates the technology readiness index (TRI) and technology acceptance model (TAM), also known as the TR and acceptance model (TRAM), to investigate the phenomenon mentioned above.
    Keywords: technology acceptance model; TAM; technology readiness; TR; technology readiness and acceptance model; TRAM; teacher preparedness; COVID-19; pandemic.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2022.10043251

Special Issue on: EIC2020 Concept and Innovation Technology to Support Green Environment in Society

  • Implementation of semi-autonomous robot as solution to water pollution from floating trash   Order a copy of this article
    by Hirdy Othman, Mohammad Iskandar Petra, Liyanage Chandratilak De Silva, Wahyu Caesarendra, Sena Seneviratne, Adam Glowacz 
    Abstract: A vast and immense global production of plastics had burdened the world ever since the increasing demand for plastics consumption for the past five decades. These non-biodegradable plastics were then thrown away and became wastes. Some of these plastic wastes were re-processed without any proper environmental protection controls which eventually caused the rapid destruction of the Anthropocene. It was estimated that more than 19 million kilograms of plastic wastes were spotted in the ocean annually. The adoption of a small-scale research project, the floating trash collector robot as the means of cleaning the water bodies was proposed. The robot is a semi-autonomous vehicle and is equipped with integrated sensors with a centralised computational processing system (CPS). The unique architecture of the exoskeleton design enables this robot to collect floating plastic wastes. This system is highly suitable and applicable to be used for Brunei's historical floating water village. This technology could also be adopted for other places in the world where plastic pollutions required intervention using an innovative solution.
    Keywords: plastic consumption; plastic waste; floating trash collector robot; innovative solution.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2022.10050666