Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Innovation and Learning

International Journal of Innovation and Learning (IJIL)

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International Journal of Innovation and Learning (41 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Analysis of the relationship between student profiles and the results obtained in a University course gamification study   Order a copy of this article
    by Milena Oliveira, Fabiano Leal, Alexandre Pinho, José Arnaldo Montevechi 
    Abstract: The objective of this study was to understand the ways that different personality traits of students affect their gamification experiences within the university educational context. The effectiveness of implemented gamification within the aforementioned context was also measured. A required class in the Industrial Engineering course was gamified in order to conduct this research. The effectiveness average of the gamification in engaging students was 83% and increased motivation among students in the classroom was also observed in the results. Cluster analysis verified that students with the best performance in the gamified course were those who exhibited medium high levels of personality traits linked with conscientiousness, extroversion, and openness to experiences. The results highlight the value of gamification and the need to move from the one-size-fits-all approach to more personalized applications. This study provides guidelines to designers who might seek to employ a personalized gamification approach to improve individual performance.
    Keywords: Gamification; Personality traits; Higher education; Human learning; Active learning; Design; Educational technology; Human behavior; Computers; Innovation; Engagement; Motivation.

  • Non-cognitive constructs measurement model development based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) in the context of the Academic Performance of engineering students.   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: This study is an application of Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1985, 1987) which is an extension of the theory of reasoned action (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980; Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975). As in the original theory of reasoned action, a vital factor in the theory of planned behavior is the individuals intention to perform a given behavior. In this paper, it is in contexts of the educational process. This confirmatory analysis is a factor analysis that is designed to predict and explain how student intention determines a students performance in academic achievements. The researchers are proposing a model based on Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) with six non-cognitive traits simultaneously. The model is to establish causal inferences between these traits with academic performance over a period of four years in the context of engineering studies. The scope and focus of this paper are to develop and validate the measurement model as a prerequisite towards model development based on the Theory of planned behavior.
    Keywords: Theory of Planned Behavior; Structural Equation Modeling; Non-cognitive traits; Measurement model; Construct validity; factor analysis; learning assessment; leaning behavior.

  • Business Simulation Games as an Active Learning Teaching Methodology: Students Perceptions   Order a copy of this article
    by Marco Aurélio Butzke, Anete Alberton, Tatiani Schmitt, Sidnei Vieira Marinho 
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to present the results of an analysis of students perceptions on the use of business games as a teaching strategy and learning environment. The students perceptions of a business game based on simulation were analyzed for associations with their academic background, personal characteristics, and previous experiences. The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics, factor analysis, and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The main findings indicated that academic background and personal characteristics were associated with significant differences in perceptions of learning environment factors, while students professional experience and previous experience with business games were also associated with significant differences in their factors ratings that facilitate learning. The research results show that the processes of teaching and learning within management courses using business simulation games draws on innovative features to explore the complexity of decision-making processes and offers an effective and enjoyable learning environment. To minimize the simplification of causal relationships in the decision-making process when using business simulation games, further research is recommended with the inclusion of reverse logistics and sustainability processes, also routines from other areas to broaden students' perceptions regarding the complexity of the decision-making process.
    Keywords: Business Games; Active Learning; Teaching with Business Games and Simulations; Learning Assessment.

  • Analysing students engagement in higher education through transmedia and Learning Management Systems: a text mining approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Fernando José De Aires Angelino, Sandra Maria Correia Loureiro, Ricardo Godinho Bilro 
    Abstract: This research aims to explore how students engagement can be promoted through transmedia using a set of activities within the Moodle Learning Management System for a syllabus topic about innovation, during a full semester. The analysis of case studies, the writing of essays, or the participation in an online forum were among the performed activities by a group of eighty-one university students in their senior year. To perform the data analysis, we followed a mixed-method approach between descriptive statistics, data mining analysis based on the open-source software Orange and a final questionnaire. The results achieved reveal that students engagement tends to increase by participating in the online forum and by performing some of the proposed tasks which required extensive information search from various media sources.
    Keywords: Transmedia; Learning management systems; Moodle; Students’ engagement; Text mining; Orange software; Higher education;.

  • The right to an effective education: live legal clinic as an innovative teaching method   Order a copy of this article
    by Sabiha Shala, Dukagjin Leka 
    Abstract: The right to education is guaranteed by international conventions and state constitutions. Indeed, the right to an effective education is challenging many countries offering law education. This is a particular problem for law students in Kosovo and Montenegro. This article presents the current situation in these two countries with regard to providing clinical legal education as the most innovative and effective teaching method in this area, and recommends solutions based on the most appropriate international models. An analysis of the relevant official documents, scientific articles, and law study programs of many universities in Europe shows that live legal clinics are an integral part of law programs. Currently, there are no live legal clinics in Kosovo and Montenegro as part of law study programs, and this must be remedied if they are to provide an effective legal education. A combination of the Croatian and Polish models could be the solution. Thus, the key contribution of this paper is the proposal of a novel model for effective legal education for two countries under research.
    Keywords: right to education; live legal clinic; effective education; innovation; Kosovo; Montenegro.

  • A framework to promote Creative Ideation using ICTs   Order a copy of this article
    by Apiwat Meoupphakarn, Jariya Neanchaleay, Saranya Chuathong 
    Abstract: In this three-phase study, the researchers designed and implemented a framework to support learners Creative Ideation (CI). Phase 1 involved administration of self-report surveys with (N=364) undergraduate students in Thailand to identify the motivation-related factors most likely to predict CI. Results revealed that the factors were Intrinsic Motivation (IM) and Self-efficacy (SE). Phase 2 involved the design of the framework with strategies to foster IM and SE, a project-based learning approach, a design thinking process and use of the Social Networking Site, Facebook. In phase 3, the framework was implemented in an Educational Technology program in which students (N=40) collaborated, communicated and interacted in Facebook groups to design websites. Analysis of results of pre- and post-surveys revealed significantly higher self-reports for IM, SE and CI.
    Keywords: Creative ideation; Creativity; Intrinsic motivation; Self-efficacy; Facebook; Project-based learning; Design; Higher education; Framework; ICTs.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2022.10036053
    by Leticia Rodrigues Da Fonseca, Marcelo Ribeiro Silva, Sheldon William Silva, Guilherme Marques Pereira 
    Abstract: This study aims to understand the role of individual mental models in the learning of software developers. Qualitative research of a multiple case study was conducted in four Software Development Organizations (SDOs) applying semi-structured interviews. The subjects interviewed were involved in the software development process. The analyses were performed by the qualitative data analysis software Weft_QDA, which allowed the identification and analysis of speeches related to the theoretical concept of this study. It was identified that the previous knowledge of software experts, the complexity of projects, the rotation of tasks, and the information and communication technologies employed in the work environment enhance individual mental models from their internal images worldviews, leading to an efficient process of software development in SDOs. The results show that individual mental models manage the acquisition, retention, use, and elimination of information and experiences during the learning process of developers.
    Keywords: individual learning; individual mental model; software development organizations.

  • The Effects of a Problem-Based Learning Intervention on Primary Students Performance on Greatest Common Factor and Least Common Multiple and on their Attitudes towards Mathematics   Order a copy of this article
    by Hui-Chuan Li, Tsung-Lung Tsai 
    Abstract: Greatest common factor (GCF) and least common multiple (LCM) have been two of the most difficult topics for primary students to grasp, especially when they are required to apply the concepts to solving real-life problems. Reported here is a quasi-experimental study of a comparison between a PBL approach and a traditional lecture method. The study recruited 55 Taiwanese sixth-grade students (ages 1112), and examined the effects of PBL on their performance on GCF and LCM and on their attitudes towards mathematics. A comparison of the groups on pre- and post-tests showed that the treatment group had a higher mean score on the post-test than the control group. Results of the students responses to pre- and post-questionnaires indicated that there were statistically significant differences between the groups on the post-questionnaire, implying that PBL has a positive impact on students attitudes towards mathematics.
    Keywords: Greatest common factor (GCF); least common multiple (LCM); problem-based learning (PBL); primary students; attitudes towards mathematicsrn.

  • Factors Enabling Innovation Activities: Combining Perspectives of Personnel and Management of a Public University Hospital   Order a copy of this article
    by Pauliina Hyrkäs, Nina Lunkka, Jarmo Reponen, Marjo Suhonen 
    Abstract: Innovation activities are actions intended to generate innovations, and innovations are novel, implemented items or actions, that improve processes. The research on enabling innovation activities in public hospitals is limited. This study identified key factors that enable innovation activities by combining statements made by representatives from management (n=13) and personnel (n=9) at one Finnish public university hospital. The study used semi-structured interviews and content analysis. According to the results, unified and authorised practices are needed to counterbalance and organise the extreme complexity typical of public hospitals. Both, hospital personnel and management called for assistance with complementary expertise in innovation management.
    Keywords: innovation; innovation activities; innovation leadership; innovation management; healthcare; public hospital; university hospital; organisational learning; complexity; content analysis.

  • Importance-Performance Analysis Towards Sustainable Indigenous Tourism (A Lesson Learned from Indonesia)   Order a copy of this article
    by Theresia Saviera, Retno Kusumastuti, Nizar Hidayanto 
    Abstract: This study aims to explain the usage of importance-performance analysis through the study case of specific village tourism in Indonesia, Desa Wisata Nglanggeran, Kabupaten Gunungkidul, Daerah Istimewa. Using a uni-dimension of indigenous tourism initiatives towards sustainability with the theories and concepts of the indigenous community and competitive advantage to empower social entrepreneurship while creating consensus for each actor in the village tourism towards sustainability. Hence, sustainability measured by acknowledging the triple bottom line (environment, socio-cultural, and economy) and according to the context of tourism activities managed responsibly and continuously. Using a mixed-method, authors gather the qualitative data through in-depth interviews to collect the sustainability measurement as well. Finally, the problems related to the limitation of this research and the measurement method of indigenous tourism towards sustainability using importance-performance analysis with the recommendations for further research would be discussed.
    Keywords: importance-performance analysis; indigenous tourism; sustainable tourism; innovation.

  • Effect of the interactive whiteboard on mathematics word problems: Evidence from Kuwait   Order a copy of this article
    by Afrah Rashed Alazemi, Wun Thiam Yew 
    Abstract: This study evaluates pupils attitudes toward mathematics word problems, academic achievement, retention of attitude, and retention in pupils academic achievement when exposed to a digital technology intervention, Interactive Whiteboards. Pre and post-tests were conducted across grade-two pupils in Kuwait. Using paired sample t-test and ANCOVA on data of 46 pupils, findings reveal a significant difference in the intervention compared to the comparison group (conventional whiteboard). Results show that the Interactive Whiteboards intervention explains between 10.90 percent and 39.00 percent of post-attitude and post-academic achievement in mathematics word problems. Theoretically, it contributes to the theory of meaningful learning and retention through attitude and retention in achievement to improve and enhance students ability to learn, recall and solve mathematics word problems
    Keywords: Interactive whiteboard; mathematics word problem; ANCOVA; Kuwait.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2022.10038181
  • Assessing models of research utilization for emergency management practice   Order a copy of this article
    by Christine Owen, Noreen Krusel, Loriana Bethune 
    Abstract: In Australian and New Zealand emergency management organizations, using research to inform practice has been increasing. However, models to inform utilization remain untested. This paper assesses two models of research utilization to inform the practice of emergency managers. These are the science-push/demand-pull model and a socially interactive organizational model. The paper discusses findings from a 2018 survey that was used to investigate the perceived effectiveness of research utilization. The findings show that both models are positively associated with implementation of research utilization and perceived organizational learning. However, the socially interactive organizational model was a better fit to predict these indicators. Of the social interaction variables, conversations and communities-of-practice were positively associated with utilization. The findings show that more work is needed to understand the organizational conditions that facilitate successful implementation of research outcomes.
    Keywords: research utilization/utilization; learning; emergency services organizations; evidence-informed practice; socially interactive organizational model; communities-of-practice.

  • Understanding the Role of Social Media in Informal Learning by Researchers in Malaysian Higher Education   Order a copy of this article
    by MOHMED Y. MOHMED AL-SABAAWI, Halina Mohamed Dahlan, Ali Abdulfattah Alshaher, Hafiz Muhammad Faisal Shehzad 
    Abstract: Social media is progressing rapidly, and it holds great potentials for everyday lives, including for educational purposes. These potentials can be harnessed in improving the acceptance of social media in informal learning. Informal learning has broken the barriers inherent in the old order of formal learning. However, there is a lack of research in social media acceptance relating to informal learning for academic researchers. This research aims to develop an acceptance model of social media for informal learning from an academic researchers perspective. To achieve this aim, this research integrates two theories as to the foundation for the development of the model: Technology Acceptance Model 3 and Theory of Constructivism. The proposed model was evaluated using the quantitative approach with social media users. The proposed model includes key technological, individual, and interactive factors. The findings of this study provide an understanding of the interaction of social media and informal learning.
    Keywords: Higher Education; TAM3; Social media; Constructivism; Informal learning.

  • Prescriptive Pedagogy for Design Studios: A Conceptual Framework and Congruent Actions   Order a copy of this article
    by Dave Knowlton 
    Abstract: Design studios are becoming more common as a classroom environment within higher education. Because design studios serve to help students learn nebulous and iterative design practices, teaching design studio courses is extremely demanding; yet, existing academic literature offers no prescriptive pedagogical guidance for supervising and managing design studios. The major contribution of this article is the explication of a prescriptive design studio pedagogy that can be used across all design disciplines. This explication comes through the construction of a conceptual model and the population of that model with practical guidance. The guidance will be illustrated with examples from the field of Instructional Design and Technology. This article concludes with implications for additional related scholarship.
    Keywords: Instructional Design; Instructional Technology; Pedagogy; Design Studios; Design Projects; Design Education; Course Design; Prescriptive Pedagogy.

  • Motivational learning in the progression of colourful animated graphics   Order a copy of this article
    by Sina Shokoohyar, Nazanin Sadat Seyedrazi, Vahid Ghomi 
    Abstract: User interface is the point of interaction between the user and the websites. In learning websites, most of the students are required to know how to interact with the websites interface. The UI designer could increase students motivation by designing user-friendly and attractive learning websites. Gamification is a well-known method in designing attractive UI, which can also influence peoples behavior. One of the best models in Gamification for assessment of the learning strength is ARCS model. However, despite many studies about the UI design, there has been little research on the perspectives of both UI design and attractive learning by using the Gamification method. This paper is among the first researches in which UI and ARCS motivational model have been studied simultaneously in the context of learning mathematics. It was also aimed to compare the effect of graphical learning websites on the students increase in learning abilities.
    Keywords: E-learning; User Interface; ARCS model; Gamification.

  • Discovering Effective Requirements Elicitation Techniques using a Multivocal Ethnographic Framework   Order a copy of this article
    by Diane Lending, Jeffrey May, Jeremy Ezell, Thomas Dillon 
    Abstract: Effective requirements elicitation (RE) interviews are vital to the success of information systems development. Unfortunately, the factors that lead to effective RE interviews are often vaguely and contentiously delineated. In this paper, we describe our development and use of a multivocal, ethnographic framework employed to discover a rich set of critical success factors for effective RE interviews. Our interpretive framework emphasizes performance ethnography along with other ethnographic techniques that are rigorously described and used to yield practical results. We then discuss and elaborate on our relevant findings that include eight critical success factors and a multitude of methodological and practical lessons learned. We close with a discussion of our work and its place within the larger context of RE research in the information systems field.
    Keywords: Requirements Elicitation; Multivocal Interpretivism; Performance Ethnography; Qualitative Research.

  • Using Moodle and MS Teams in higher education a comparative study   Order a copy of this article
    by Viktorija Florjancic, Lukasz Wiechetek 
    Abstract: The purpose of the paper is to show how the Moodle and Microsoft Teams platforms could be used to support university e-learning. Based on the experiences of two universities from Poland and Slovenia, the authors characterise four cases of using Moodle and MS Teams in higher education. The authors present the examples of online courses and analyse how to combine the explored systems' features to generate synergetic effects and improve course outcomes. The performed analysis indicates that Moodle is a great, complex tool but a complicated platform. In contrast, MS Teams is a new, contemporary designed and relatively simple tool. It offers simplicity, real-time communication, and Office 365 integration. Those features can be useful in business and education, particularly when the case method is preferred. Moodle and MS Teams can be integrated to get double benefits: a highly structured and administrated course (Moodle) plus extended collaboration and communication possibilities (MS Teams).
    Keywords: E-learning; Moodle; MS Teams; Poland; Slovenia; Higher education; Comparative analysis.

  • Mobile Media Multitaskers in a University Class. Self-Regulation Enhances Learning Performance.   Order a copy of this article
    by Magdalena Mazurek 
    Abstract: Media multitasking has been proven to distract university students, impairing their academic performance. However, the mobile media generation, raised with instant access to mobile Internet, used to dividing their attention between online and offline activities, could be expected to multitask productively. This is why a sample of 46 students, homogenous in terms of age, cultural background and field of study, was subject to an experiment. Given the opportunity, a majority of participants engaged in distractive online activities during a traditional university class. Electronics usage appeared to affect their overall data retention as well as memory for two out of three specific types of information. Nevertheless, self-regulated technology use (for class-related purposes only) correlated with high learning results. Low mean electronics usage throughout the experiment, both self-reported and actual, combined with participants' written comments on consequences of media multitasking, indicates that students are aware of the detrimental impact of media distraction on academic performance. The findings demonstrate that the best academic results could be achieved by incorporating class-related online activities into the learning process.
    Keywords: Media multitasking; Self-regulation; Mobile media generation; Internet skills.

  • Perception of ICT use by residents of smart cities   Order a copy of this article
    by Benjamin Lesjak, Iztok Pšenica 
    Abstract: A smart city integrates two very complex systems ICT and the city. A six-dimensional model defines it as: smart people, smart economy, smart governance, smart mobility, smart environment, and smart living. Smart cities have developed a number of solutions for a better quality of life, using a wide range of ICTs, often interconnected into an integrated platform, which was researched in the article. Surveying the urban population of Slovenia shows preference for use of smart city ICT solutions, especially with perceived improvement of quality of life, connected to growing simultaneously with the city size. Interest in the use of smart city ICT services increases with ICT skills but is not affected by age and education level.
    Keywords: smart city; ICT; ICT skills; smart devices; city services; adopting technologies.

  • The Effects of Gender and Age on Factors That Influence Purchase Intentions and Behaviours of E-commerce Consumers in Indonesia   Order a copy of this article
    by Farah Alfanur, Yasuo Kadono 
    Abstract: This study aims to provide new learning from consumer behaviour viewpoints by understanding the effects of gender and age on consumer purchase intentions and purchase behaviours, specifically in the context of e-commerce in Indonesia, by developing a hypothetical structural model that comprises nine motivational factors: convenience, perceived website quality, social influence, facilitating conditions, hedonic motivation, economic reasons, security, variety and delivery. The results of statistical analysis of data collected from 400 e-commerce consumers using structural equation modelling indicate that males are affected by perceived website quality and convenience, while females are affected by security, economic reasons, convenience and social influence. Furthermore, consumers under 30 years old are affected by convenience and perceived website quality, while consumers who were 30 years old and above are affected by facilitating conditions, economic reasons, security and social influence. Thus, the associations of social influence, economic reasons and security with purchase intention are moderated by gender and age. These findings are beneficial for e-commerce research and businesses from the viewpoint of Indonesian consumers motivations categorised according to gender and age.
    Keywords: e-commerce; learning; purchase intentions; purchase behaviours; gender; age; Indonesia.

  • Measuring inductive reasoning in school contexts: A review of instruments and predictors   Order a copy of this article
    by De Van Vo, Beno Csapó 
    Abstract: Inductive reasoning is a cognitive process of drawing general conclusions from individual facts; it is one of the core components of fluid intelligence. This paper aims to explore characteristics of assessment instruments and trends in measuring inductive reasoning through a systematic review based on the PRISMA guidelines. The article reviews 38 empirical studies in educational contexts from 1997 to 2020. We found that the types of inductive reasoning tasks appeared unchanged over twenty-three years, but they grew more diverse and gradually evolved from paper-based to technology-based administration, in which non-verbal analogy problems have formed the most common subtest in evaluating inductive reasoning. The review findings also showed that inductive reasoning is closely related to numerous variables, such as age, discipline performance, scientific reasoning and problem-solving skills, while gender differences may depend on particular cultures. Correspondingly, the proposed focus was discussed to further assess this ability.
    Keywords: Inductive reasoning; non-verbal analogies; assessment of inductive reasoning; PRISMA; intelligence; assessment for learning; technology-based assessment.

  • Determining Smart Tourism Application Features Based on Pain Points of Tourism Stakeholders   Order a copy of this article
    by Widia Resti Fitriani, Fatimah Azzahro, Achmad Nizar Hidayanto, Sandika Prangga Putra, Gibran Gifari Soesman, Ika Chandra Hapsari 
    Abstract: Smart tourism contains the idea of making tourists comfortable and safe when they visit a tourist destination. Technological solutions can be used to make it easier for tourists to meet their needs. This study aims to analyze the features needed by tourists in the smart tourism application. The determination of these features is based on the user experience (UX) concepts. This research creates a mapping of pain points and opportunities felt by various tourism stakeholders in each tourism journey and then maps the important features to be implemented to solve the existing problems. From the 15 pain points and two opportunities identified, we determined 37 features for ICT-based solutions divided into 11 feature groups. The features that have been identified are then sorted using the entropy method. The ranking results indicate that the features of information search (such as destinations, attractions, transportation, and accommodation information), features that provide recommendations (such as amenities and itinerary recommendations), and travel plans simulation are the most important features for tourists.
    Keywords: smart tourism; smart tourism application; smart tourism feature; stakeholder pain points; learning; Indonesia.

  • Interorganizational Learning in a Network of Local Productive Arrangement Type   Order a copy of this article
    by Abimael Ouro, Maria Olave, Ikaro Barreto 
    Abstract: The aim of this study was to analyze the internal determinants of interorganizational learning in a Local Productive Arrangement (LPA) network. Specifically, it was studied the LPA of confections located in the city of Santa Cruz do Capibaribe, Pernambuco, formed mainly by small companies. For this, the survey method was used, analyzed through partial least squares structural equation modeling. The results had shown the interorganizational learning in this network is constituted by the intention of the small and medium companies (SMEs) to cooperate with the partners of the spaces known and made available by the network, called Ba; the importance of recognizing the value of the information made available in this network environment that is later acquired, transformed, and ultimately used or stored by these companies. The interorganizational learning model found in this productive arrangement demonstrates that companies do not absorb knowledge through assimilation, differently from other studies.
    Keywords: Interorganizational learning; Local productive arrangement; Small and medium business.

  • The effects of leader intellectual stimulation, perceived organizational support, and leader-member exchange on employee innovativeness   Order a copy of this article
    by Leonel Prieto, Md Farid Taludker 
    Abstract: Employee innovativeness is crucial for firm effectiveness, competitiveness, and success in an increasingly knowledge-based economy. We examine systemic relationships among employees perception of organisational support, the quality of leader-member exchanges, and leader intellectual stimulation on employee innovativeness. Findings from structural equation modeling show that the joint effects of a working environment perceived by employees as supportive, high-quality leader-subordinate relationships, and leaders intellectual stimulation efforts may generate synergetic effects on employee innovativeness. Importance-performance analysis affirms the centrality of perceived organisational support on employee innovativeness. Research results suggest the increasing importance of legacy and indirect leadership effects on employee innovativeness. Theoretical and managerial implications and directions for future research are discussed.
    Keywords: employee innovativeness; perceived organizational support; leader intellectual stimulation; leader-member exchange; direct and indirect effects; importance-performance analysis.

  • Roma Students and Their Inclusion in Schools   Order a copy of this article
    by Plamen Mirazchiyski, Jožek Horvat Sandreli, Špela Javornik, Veli Kreci, Ana Rosser-Limiñana, Anica Novak Trunk 
    Abstract: The article discusses the role of education in Roma inclusion. Education is the basic right of all children. Diversity is seen as an advantage and opportunity to make schools more inclusive, but educational inequality is greatest among the Roma. Education has an important role, as schools work on integration processes. Research on teachers attitudes towards Roma children shows that their willingness to work with Roma students needs strengthening. First, we present the current situation in the inclusion of Roma in schools. Next, the we focus on analysis of the RoMigSc project data related to inclusion of Roma children at school. The analyses of showed that educators and volunteers do not see Roma students as well included in schools and the main obstacle for this is their low school attendance. Also, there is a low cooperation between non-Roma and Roma students and parents, and Roma parents and schools, despite schools efforts.
    Keywords: Roma children; social inclusion; school inclusion; integration; education; learning; parental cooperation; student cooperation; school enrolment; school attendance; RoMigSc project.

  • Connecting Secondary Education System with the Needs of Industry: The Case of Slovenia   Order a copy of this article
    by Ziga Cepar, Borut Likar, Petra Kunc 
    Abstract: This paper explores the issue of connecting secondary education and the needs of industry. The interrelationship of the two has a critical impact on the problem of unemployment among graduates of secondary vocational and technical education. First, using a least square multivariate regression analysis based on the sample of panel data on Slovenian municipalities by years from 2013 to 2016, we found that the existing connection between the needs of industry and secondary education system in Slovenia via corporate scholarships is not sufficient, which forms the basis for rejecting the hypothesis of the effects of that connection on youth unemployment. Therefore, measures that would encourage and improve the cohesion of economic and secondary education systems need to be introduced. The key result of further qualitative researchbased on the content analysis method applied to a data sample collected through semi-structured interviews (quota sampling)is a new model for achieving a sustainable dialogue between the secondary education system and the needs of economic sectors, with the aim of increasing the employability of young people and enhancing their innovativeness.
    Keywords: secondary education; needs of industry; linking education and needs of economy; innovativeness; unemployment; labour market; cohesion model; Slovenia.

  • Intellectual Capital and Challenges of Halal Industry in Malaysia   Order a copy of this article
    by Muhammad Khalique, Jamal Abdul Nassir Shaari 
    Abstract: Presently halal industry has secured overwhelming responses from business professionals as well as from researchers. In 2019, the global halal food market reached a value of US$ 1.8 trillion, it express that this industry has strong potential to grow in near future. The bakery industry is recognized as the main industry of the halal food market. This industry is certifiable under the Department of Islamic Development Malaysia (JAKIM), the sole authority for Halal in Malaysia. Despite Halal, certification is a strong marketing promotion tool. The main objective of this research was to test the impact of intellectual capital on the business performance of SMEs. Structured survey forms were used to gather the primary data from 185 respondents that were picked through the purposive sampling technique. Results showed that the proposed six hypotheses were supported. This research contributed to the Theory of Intellectual Capital and proposed recommendations for the policy makers and entrepreneurs.
    Keywords: Halal industry; intellectual capital; SMEs; business performance; Malaysia.

  • Triple Helix Collaborative Innovation and Value Co-creation in an Industry 4.0 Context   Order a copy of this article
    by Iqra Sadaf Khan, Osmo Kauppila, Bogdan Iancu, Marko Jurmu, Marko Jurvansuu, Susanna Pirttikangas, Johan Lilius, Mikko Koho, Erno Marjakangas, Jukka Majava 
    Abstract: Digitalization and Industry 4.0 promote a fundamental technological disruption that requires industry, research and government institutions to revisit their roles within the innovation ecosystems. Actors in this environment need to understand value co-creation during interaction and collaboration. The purpose of this study is to investigate the triple helix collaborative capabilities in an Industry 4.0 ecosystem context. The case under study is a Finnish national publicly funded research project involving five global manufacturers, three research institutions, and several small- and medium-size enterprises (SMEs). The results demonstrate that practices related to adaptivity, experience sharing, SME co-innovation and scale up can enable the ecosystem to be managed in a dynamic way. Yet, this type of operation requires the adoption of the ecosystem approach with mutual trust, intensive collaboration and the identification of common aims among the project participants. The presented co-innovation model can be used to design innovation ecosystem projects in the future.
    Keywords: Collaboration; capabilities; Industry 4.0; innovation ecosystem; triple helix; value co-creation.

  • Exploring Students Anxiety Determinants in English Oriented Educational Programs   Order a copy of this article
    by Adel Alsamman 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate several determinants affecting the anxiety levels among the Business Administration Students enrolled in English oriented educational programs regarding the conduct of presentations and oral engagement in class, and to provide some recommendations to help them in overcoming this issue. The paper employs the explanatory approach to concentrate on the questions raised and identify the causal relationships among the study variables. A triangulation of data collection is used, in the form of survey, interviews and observation, on a sample of 52 enrolled students and educators to support the results reached from the data analysis with qualitative evidences. Findings reached demonstrate that among the different determinants, those related to the attitudes and evaluations of the audience play the most effective roles
    Keywords: Anxiety; Foreign Language; Class Participation; English; Learning;.

  • Leader-Member Exchange Theory and its Relationship to Teachers Intrapreneurial Behaviour, Teachers' Work Engagement and Entrepreneurial Orientation   Order a copy of this article
    by Galit Klein, Moti Zwilling 
    Abstract: The current study aimed to explore how the relationship between teachers and their principals (Leader-Member Exchange; LMX) promotes intrapreneurial behaviours (i.e., entrepreneurial and innovative activities within existing organisations). The hypotheses were tested using paper-based surveys and scales distributed to 105 teachers. Findings indicated that the relationship between teachers and school principals (LMX) was significantly positively associated with intrapreneurial activities. A high quality relationship was also connected to entrepreneurial orientation (EO) and mediated by the teachers' work engagement. In addition, EO mediated between LMX, work engagement and intrapreneurial activities. In addition, four different machine learning algorithms were used to evaluate the hypotheses by classifying the study data. Na
    Keywords: Intrapreneurial activities; Innovation; Entrepreneurial orientation (EO); School intrapreneurship; LMX; Work engagement.

  • Dimensional Approach to Assess the Benefits Of Video Lecture Capturing In Higher Education: A Case Study Of Qatar   Order a copy of this article
    by Habib Ullah Khan 
    Abstract: Education sectors have undergone many dynamic changes surpassing the age-old methodologies with contemporary digitalized ones. This journey of a couple of decades could witness many state-of-the-art pedagogy-related technologies, but the methods to assess the benefits of such technologies like video lecture capturing (VLC) are not specific. Mostly, the causal factors that influence the opinion about the benefits of VLC being subjective, the present research paper aims to explore such factors and assess the benefits of the VLC from the perspective of graduate students in Qatar. Thus, three benefit dimensions personality-related, course-related and learning-related- are considered, and the questionnaire is developed according to the students' opinions about these benefits gained from VLC. Due to the study constraints, only female students, spanning over two semesters (Sem1 & Sem2) and four courses (CC1, CC2, CC3 and CC4) of a reputed University in Qatar are considered for the study.
    Keywords: Video Lecture Capturing (VLC); Lecture Capturing(LC); Education Technology; Personality-related benefits; Course-related benefits; Learning-related benefits; Massively Open Online Courses (MOOCs);.

  • Instructional Model Development to Enhance the Ability to Create Nursing Innovation   Order a copy of this article
    by Chayaporn Ekthamasuth, Wichai Sawekngam, Gunyadar Prachusilpa 
    Abstract: The objectives of this study were to develop and implement an instructional model based on Design Thinking and Reflective Practice Approaches to enhance the capacity to create nursing innovation for nursing students. This research design involved two phases of research and development, and 16 fourth-year nursing students were selected by purposive sampling. The data collected were analysed with scoring rubrics, descriptive statistics and content analysis. The instructional model called the "DGR model"employed the following five steps:1)preparation and inspiration; 2)data discovery and problem identification; 3)information retrieval and verification solutions; 4)development and inspection of innovation prototypes and 5) dissemination and reflection on learning. The model for nursing innovation capacity of nursing students, which has been promoted to an average score of capacity to create nursing innovation at a good level, produced more than specific criteria with a statistically significant level of .05.
    Keywords: instructional model development; instructional model; nursing innovation.

  • Implementation of semi-autonomous robot as solution to water pollution from floating trash   Order a copy of this article
    by Hirdy Othman, Mohammad Iskandar Petra, Liyanage Chandratilak De Silva, Wahyu Caesarendra, Sena Seneviratne, Adam Glowacz 
    Abstract: A vast and immense global production of plastics had burdened the world ever since the increasing demand for plastics consumption for the past five decades. These non-biodegradable plastics were then thrown away and became wastes. Some of these plastic wastes were re-processed without any proper environmental protection controls which eventually caused the rapid destruction of the Anthropocene. It was estimated that more than 19 million kilograms of plastic wastes were spotted in the ocean annually. The adoption of a small-scale research project; the floating trash collector robot as the means of cleaning the water bodies was proposed. The robot is a semi-autonomous vehicle and is equipped with integrated sensors with a centralised Computational Processing System (CPS). The unique architecture of the exoskeleton design enables this robot to collect floating plastic wastes. This system is highly suitable and applicable to be used for Brunei's historical floating water village. This technology could also be adopted for other places in the world where plastic pollutions required intervention using an innovative solution.
    Keywords: Plastic consumption; plastic waste; floating trash collector robot; innovative solution.

  • Factors Influencing the Spread of Cyberbullying Among Adolescents in Private Schools: Kuwait   Order a copy of this article
    by Eiman Tamah Al-Shammari 
    Abstract: Cyberbullying has risen at an extraordinary speed in the educational sector in recent years. There is a shortage of published research in various social-cultural settings in developing countries, with the majority of the literature coming from developed and/or western countries. In this context, this study aims to determine the prevalence of cyberbullying and investigate factors associated with cyberbullying in Kuwaiti private high schools, such as age, parental role, school role, educational level, and educational performance factors. The study was carried out on a sample of 700 students aged 14 to 18, and the results indicate that cyberbullying is common in Kuwaiti private schools and is age-related. Several students, however, indicated that cyberbullying had no impact on academic success. Furthermore, the study found that cyberbullying has a detrimental effect on cyberbullying victims' psychological well-being. Furthermore, positively engaged and considerate parents and schools contribute to the reduction of cyberbullying. According to the study's results, school-based counseling centers are required to deal with cyberbullying situations. Anti-bullying activities should be developed and implemented in these facilities. They should also raise students' awareness of prevention and coping strategies.
    Keywords: Cyberbullying; Bullying; Kuwait; Psychological; Technology.

  • The Quality Teaching and Learning Standard: Level of Understanding and Implementation by School Principals in Kosovo   Order a copy of this article
    by Fatjonë Bislimi, Osman Buleshkaj 
    Abstract: This study examines the second standard of principals professional practicethe Quality Teaching and Learning Standardby Kosovo school principals. The combined method of qualitative and quantitative research is meant to better reflect participants perspectives and reinforce scientific interaction. The samples for this study were 272 primary and secondary school teachers from 26 different Kosovo municipalities, as well as 10 primary and secondary school principals from 5 Kosovo municipalities. The results of this study show that school principals have a limited understanding of the Quality Teaching and Learning Standard. Findings show that school principals understand some of the qualities of effective teaching and learning, and they practice some leadership activities to foster implementation of the Quality Teaching and Learning Standard. The results of this study help identify the extent to which school principals in Kosovo are focused on the Quality Teaching and Learning Standard and serve as recommendations for improvement.
    Keywords: School principal; quality teaching; learning; leadership.

  • Promoting Perceived English Reading Self-efficacy of Underserved Students Using an Out-of-Class Extensive Reading Module   Order a copy of this article
    by Chanisara Tangkijmongkol, Punchalee Wasanasomsithi 
    Abstract: Perceived English reading self-efficacy is one of the essential factors that facilitate development of English language ability as it motivates learners to read and learn. This qualitative study explored the outcomes of the implementation of an out-of-class extensive reading module to enhance perceived English reading self-efficacy of lower secondary students in a slum area in Bangkok, Thailand. The pre- and post-perceived reading self-efficacy tests, reading logs, teacher observation notes, and interview protocols were used to collect data in the study. The findings revealed that out-of-class extensive reading activities could help promote students’ perceived reading self-efficacy as it suited the specific characteristics of underserved students and motivated them to read. Thus, the out-of-class extensive reading module could be utilised to enhance perceived reading self-efficacy, which, in turn, could help develop reading ability of underserved students.
    Keywords: perceived reading self-efficacy; extensive reading; out-of-class learning; underserved students.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2022.10041938

Special Issue on: ICBL/ISET 2020 Smart Learning Environment

  • The impact of thinking tools on the argumentation skills of pre-service science teachers in flipped learning   Order a copy of this article
    by Guo Su, Taotao Long, Zhiyan Wang, Qingcui Zeng, Xueping Wang 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to explore the impact of the use of thinking tools on the pre-service science teachers argumentation skills in flipped learning. A single-group repeated experiment involving 34 pre-service science teachers was conducted. Data about students argumentation skills and attitudes towards thinking tools was collected. This study found that the preservice teachers' argumentation skills ranked higher when they used an online collaborative text-based visual thinking tool, than when they used a diagrambased thinking tool. They also preferred to use the text-based visual thinking tool, although they recognized the online collaborative diagram-based thinking tools could better reflect their thinking processes.
    Keywords: argumentation; thinking tools; flipped classroom; pre-service science teachers.

  • Promoting Collaborative Innovation and Disciplinary Integration in Maker Education through Augmented Reality: A Design-Based Research   Order a copy of this article
    by Xu Han, Yayun Liu, Hongzhu Li, Zhenying Fan, Heng Luo 
    Abstract: Maker education in Chinas K-12 schools is facing several problems such as disconnection between theory and practice, shallow application of the maker spirit, and shortage of educational resources. To address those problems, this study proposed an innovative instructional model for maker education, which was enabled by augmented reality technology and was informed by the theories of collaborative learning and disciplinary integration. After three iterations of design, evaluation, and revision, the study empirically refined the proposed model of maker education and validated a set of instructional design principles, including relevant task context, general inquiry sequence, diverse scaffolding, flexible collaboration strategies, and extended instruction time. The study results indicated that augmented reality (AR) can be used as a adhesive to integrate subject content from various disciplines, and thus can inspire creative thinking and collaborative inquiry for students. The study concluded with six validated instructional design principles for conducting AR-supported maker education in elementary school.
    Keywords: maker education; augmented reality; design-based research; disciplinary integration; collaborative inquiry.

  • A Study of Flipped Offline and Online Computer Programming Courses in a Japanese University   Order a copy of this article
    by Yoshihiro Hirata 
    Abstract: The aim of this study was to explore how Japanese university students enrolled in a computer programming course perceived the effectiveness of flipped learning. The study covers two school years, considering the impacts of students transition from in-person (offline) learning in 2019, to remote (online) classes in 2020. The findings indicate that there was a significant 34% increase in the number of students who described the online course as challenging in 2020 when compared to 2019. The majority of students indicated a preference for direct consultation between their peers and the instructors, in-person as opposed to online. Students opinions on the efficacy of pre-learning also varied widely from student to student according to their own preferences, interests, and objectives. The results may provide some useful insights for instructors developing their own flipped learning strategies in this rapidly evolving learning environment.
    Keywords: flipped classroom; Japanese students; blended learning; programming.

  • Creating a critical culture to cultivate students critical thinking: A case study of a media literacy course in Japan   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiaohong Zhang, Kenichi Kubota, Mayumi Kubota 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine whether students critically thought about media and how a critical culture influences students critical thinking in a media literacy course. This research used a media literacy course at a Japanese university as a case study. The authors collected data by Participant Observation. As a result, the authors found that (1) the cycle, of thinking activities in the classroom, discussion on LMS and reflection activities, created a critical culture in a blended learning environment during one semester, (2) students improved their critical thinking through extensive experiences of media analysis and production, and (3) five factors were important to cultivate students critical thinking in the critical culture.
    Keywords: critical thinking skill; critical thinking disposition; critical culture; active learning; media literacy; blended learning environment; higher education in Japan; course design; online discussion; case study; Participant Observation.

  • A case study exploring the negative emotions of teachers specializing in synchronous online classes   Order a copy of this article
    by Mingzhang Zuo, Lixiang Gao, Wei Wang, Shuang Wang, Heng Luo 
    Abstract: Synchronous online classrooms provide many advantages for students in remote areas by bringing qualified teachers to the classroom virtually. Nonetheless, such spaces also pose challenges for students as well as teachers. The present study is a qualitative inquiry into teachers negative emotions through class observation and in-depth interviews with 21 teachers teaching in synchronous online classrooms in rural China. The findings revealed that teachers emotional responses in synchronous online classrooms were highly relevant to teachers assessment of their perceptions and expectations of student behaviours and their coping with teaching problems. The study also offered insight into the impacts of online technology and culture on teacher roles, identity and teaching experience. The research findings can contribute to the theory of teacher emotions and can also inform school administrators and policymakers about the potential challenges facing teachers in synchronous online classrooms.
    Keywords: teacher emotion; appraisal theory; synchronous online classrooms; teacher anxiety; rural education.