Forthcoming articles

International Journal of Innovation and Learning

International Journal of Innovation and Learning (IJIL)

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International Journal of Innovation and Learning (58 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Innovativeness in Brazilian Startups: the effect of the absorptive capacity and environmental dynamism   Order a copy of this article
    by Carlos Eduardo Carvalho, Carlos Ricardo Rossetto, Andrezza Aparecida Saraiva Piekas 
    Abstract: Considering the importance of the innovativeness for the success of the startups, we examined the relationship between absorptive capacity (ACAP), innovativeness and environmental dynamism, with a sample of 104 Brazilian startups surveyed at incubators. Structural equation modeling found several results. I) Dynamic external environments positively influence the innovativeness of startups. II) Dynamic environments influence firms to absorb external knowledge. III) ACAP influence innovativeness, so greater the ACAP, greater the firm's innovativeness. IV) ACAP mediates the relationship between dynamic environments and innovativeness. The findings contribute to innovation approaches by analyzing the impact of environmental dynamics, and especially by demonstrate the mediate role of the ACAP. In addition to theoretical advancement, we offer practical contributions to managers interested in intensifying their innovative practices.
    Keywords: Absorptive capacity; Innovativeness; Environmental dynamism; Innovation practices; Startups; Incubators; Technology incubators; Mediation effect; Technology-based entrepreneurship; Technology-based new firms.

  • The Impact of Management Method on IT Projects Success   Order a copy of this article
    by Sigal Kordova, Moti Zwilling, Omer Rozen 
    Abstract: The current study examined the relationship between the extent to which project management is carried out according to the PMBOK guide and project success in 70 IT projects. The study presented prediction tools that assisted in predicting project success. Results exhibit a positive, strong, and significant relationship between managing projects based on the PMBOK guidelines and project success. In addition, a significant difference in the success score measure was found between projects managed using the Waterfall and Scrum methods. The current studys implications may be useful for technological organizations that utilize the PMBOK guidelines for their project management needs.
    Keywords: Project Management; Critical Success Factors; Linear Methodology; Iterative Methodology; Agile Methodology; The Waterfall Model; Innovativeness.

  • Human Resource Development and Spiritual Intelligence: An investigation amongst Management students in Delhi NCR   Order a copy of this article
    by Navneet Gera, Walter Vesperi, Davide Di Fatta, Ajay Sahni, Anjali Arora 
    Abstract: The study seeks to investigate the relationship between spiritual intelligence and its relative impact on students' academic performance. Several studies link SI with intellectual development.rnThis study aims to analyse the phenomenon of Spiritual Intelligence (SI) within the framework of human resource development (HRD) research. Qualitative and quantitative data were analysed. The study was conducted among management students residing in Delhi NCR. The findings confirm that spiritual quotient factors are applicable in the Indian context. In addition, the study reveals that the spiritual quotient is significantly correlated with academic performance. The study uses the scale developed by King (2008) to measure spiritual intelligence through SISRI (Spiritual Intelligence Self Report Inventory) which includes 24 statements. From the available constructs of the spiritual quotient, the CET (Critical existential thinking) and the PMP (Personal meeting production) have a positive relationship with academic performance. The academic performance is explained by 19% using CET and PMP. Therefore, management institutions must also instil the culture of spiritualism within the institute to improve the performance of management students. The study tries to cover part of the gap in the HRM literature on the SI topic
    Keywords: Spiritual Intelligence; Academic Performance; Emotional Intelligence; HumanrnResource Development; HRM; Higher Education.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2021.10026330
  • Determinants of Innovative Development and Their Importance for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises in Poland   Order a copy of this article
    by Robert Stanislawski 
    Abstract: Poland is a country poorly developed in terms of its innovativeness. It belongs to the penultimate group of countries according to the innovation level (moderate innovators). Despite its overall innovative development, a sharp decline (retardation) of innovative activity has been noted in the case of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the last year. Hence, the need for analyzing determinants (factors) of their innovative de-velopment. In the framework of this article, three groups of factors were taken into account: SMEs' strategy, resources and willingness to cooperate with the environment (open innovation). The analysis of their signifi-cance was made on the basis of the research carried out in 2016 on a group of 819 entities. It covered only those SMEs which had conducted innovative activity in the past three years, had headquarters in one of six voivod-ships in Poland and primarily conducted manufacturing activities. As part of the study, researchers answered the questions regarding the strength and significance of as well as the reasons for the impact of these determinants on SMEs' innovative development. The main aim of the article is to provide a multi-threaded overview of the issues of innovative development of SMEs and to conduct an analysis of determinants in this field.
    Keywords: Innovative development; innovativeness; innovations; determinants of innovative development; small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs); open innovation.

  • Group Learning: An Analysis of Individuals in Software Development Teams Who Perform Interdependent Tasks   Order a copy of this article
    by Letícia Rodrigues Da Fonseca, Marcelo Ribeiro Silva, Sheldon William Silva, Guilherme Marques Pereira 
    Abstract: This paper aims to understand how group learning occurs within Software Development Organizations (SDOs). The specific objectives are (i) understand and describe the learning process in teams that perform interdependent tasks according to the addressed theoretical perspective and, (ii) understand and describe how developers apply the resources and infrastructures available in these organizations for their learning. Qualitative research of a multiple case study was conducted in four SDOs applying semi-structured interviews. The subjects interviewed were involved in the software development process. The analyses were performed with the qualitative data analysis software Weft_QDA. The results show that group learning does occur in SDOs through information and communication technologies, which allow developers to interact and share their knowledge. There is an asset repository that stores the knowledge acquired during the projects, equivalent to a Transactive Memory System (TMS).
    Keywords: Group learning; Interdependent tasks; Software Development Organizations.

  • Is Teaming Possible for Enhancing a Teaching Style towards Developing Thai Undergraduates Learning and Performance Behaviour?   Order a copy of this article
    by Pichaphob Panphae, Ravee Phoewhawm 
    Abstract: One of the most important aspects of economic growth is the constant development of higher education preparing future graduates to become competent and capable in contributing their skills and abilities to their industries. The academic instructors and undergraduate students who will have to change their paradigm and procedures in teaching and learning to make the aptitude of future graduates become strong candidates for institutions. The aim is to see the possibility of teaming amongst academic instructors and Thai undergraduates to enhance a teaching style that can improve the latters way of gaining knowledge and accomplishing things. A sample group of 200 students were asked about their viewpoints on the factors leading to avoidance in learning and performance, and an open-ended question conducted with 208 instructors with their feedback were utilized for analysis. Teaming is possible as long as the factors making students avoid mastery and performance are taken into consideration.
    Keywords: Fear; Image; Learning; Mastery; Performance; Procrastination; Teaching; Teaming.

  • Active learning effects on students performance: a methodological proposal combining cooperative approaches towards improving hard and soft skills   Order a copy of this article
    by Adriano Bressane, Vivian Silveira Dos Santos Bardini, Marianne Spalding 
    Abstract: Despite some consensus about benefits of the cooperative learning, empirical evidence of its effects at the higher education is still limited. In the present paper, cooperative learning is addressed as a pedagogic strategy in engineering education, in order to verify the hypothesis of improvement in students performance. For that, firstly the Fast-300 based learning is introduced, as a methodological proposal combining cooperative approaches. From a case study, an analysis of variance was carried out comparing the average of scores obtained in tests, before and after the application of Fast-300 method. Moreover, students' perception with regard the effect on theoretical understanding, communication, logical reasoning, and leadership, were collected using a questionnaire with Likert 5-point scale. Then, an index was generated to measure the active learning effect based on this perception. As a result, the analysis of variance showed that the students performance in the tests after the application of cooperative approach had a statistically significant improvement. In addition, the students perception also indicated improvement of the skills evaluated. In conclusion, the Fast-300 proposal combining cooperative approaches can be considered a promising alternative for improving both hard and soft-skills. Future studies may evaluate the effects of this methodology on cognitive permanence, emotional effects, among other skills.
    Keywords: student skill; educational research; student-centered learning.

    by Srecko Natek, Dušan Lesjak 
    Abstract: Knowledge management explores knowledge through two distinctive approaches: personal (tacit) knowledge and codified (explicit) knowledge. Knowledge management systems (KMS) are defined as software solutions using various information technologies (IT) for developing knowledge management applications. The role of IT in supporting explicit knowledge codification is well explored and advocated, while the role of IT in supporting tacit knowledge or even substituting it is not. The paper reviews literature from a perspective of knowledge workers cognitive activities through two research questions: How tacit knowledge should be supported or even substituted by KMS and how should guidelines be developed to distinguish IT support for explicit and also tacit knowledge. The result is suitable to understand how tacit knowledge can be supported by KMS and guide knowledge workers and managers to distinguish IT support for tacit knowledge, thus helping them to choose the appropriate IT to develop usable merged explicit and tacit knowledge management solutions.
    Keywords: tacit knowledge; explicit knowledge; knowledge management system; knowledge management; information technology; innovation; learning.

  • Evaluation of Online Team-Based Game Development using SNS tools   Order a copy of this article
    by Akiko Teranishi, Minoru Nakayama, Theodor Wyeld, Mohamad Eid 
    Abstract: Online game development activity using multi-cultural Team-based Learning (TBL) was examined in order to identify contributing factors to learning activities by analysing the participants characteristics, communications, and reflections. In this study, 12 collaborating participants from two countries were divided into three teams. The main collaborative task was to develop a game and improve its usability for users. Participants characteristics and information literacy were measured as parameters for learning activity as well as developing a product for assessment. A learning reflection questionnaire was conducted to evaluate the participants efficacy, satisfaction and sense of achievement in learning, and any difficulties they experienced. Participants social media communications were classified into four categories: Proposal, Permission, Encouragement, and Acknowledgement, based on the participants type of communication activity. These relationships were analysed to summarise participants activities and to develop supporting procedures.
    Keywords: Team-Based Learning; Learning reflection; Social Media Interaction.

  • Towards Intelligent Organizations: An Empirical investigation of Learning Orientation's role in Technical Innovation   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohamed Alnuaimi, Haitham M. Alzoubi, Dana Ajelat, Ali A. Alzoubi 
    Abstract: The next era to build a robust and competitive performance undoubtedly rely on innovation ability in its essence. Intelligent organizations are the ones that can learn how to create and innovate. Also to improve the technical innovation ability in software companies, we propose a knowledge-based integration between intelligent organizations and learning orientation. The purpose of the study to examine whether intelligent organizations may enhance learning orientation and whether both of them may improve technical innovation. Additionally, the study aims to investigate the mediating role of learning orientation in the impact of intelligent organizations on technical Innovationhen in Jordanian Software Companies. The study followed the descriptive design, and the survey approach was used. The questionnaires were distributed to the top and middle management employees who working in Jordanian Software Companies. A (105) questionnaires were appropriate for analysis. Meanwhile, Path analysis, ANOVA, Regression and Correlation were used to test the hypotheses. The results indicate that intelligent organizations and learning orientation are good predictors to improve Technical Innovation. Findings support that intelligent organizations, and especially the ones that know how to learn and store the appropriate knowledge, would able to master the technical innovation. Moreover, developing collective intelligence and achieve purpose found to be essential to be intelligent, followed by a Mobilize Resources and Understanding environment. Practical implications urge organizations to adopt knowledge-based models and build up the collective individuals intelligence that leads to innovation.
    Keywords: Intelligent Organizations; Learning Organization; Technical Innovation; Software Companies.

  • Self-regulated Learning Skills as the Predictors for the Positive Perception of the Online Accelerated Instruction Learning Experiences   Order a copy of this article
    by Cherng-Jyh Yen, Chih-Hsiung Tu, E. Emre Ozkeskin, Laura Sujo-Montes 
    Abstract: Many institutions have adopted an online accelerated instruction model in which intensive classes are offered during the course of a normal semester to help students to complete classes. The goal of accelerated instructions is to offer students the advantage of completing classes in a shorter time span. Current research focused on comparing different instructional lengths, reporting mixed findings. Online accelerated instructions are not necessarily superior or inferior to traditional 16-week instructions. Research should focus on the preparation of students on how to succeed in accelerated online courses. This study examines how self-regulated learning skills may serve as predictors to successful learning experiences through online accelerated instructions. It concludes that all six self-regulated learning skills can predict online accelerated learning experience success and suggested that educators should identify and prepare students with relevant self-regulated learning skills prior to the accelerated instructions to prepare for positive learning.
    Keywords: Self-Regulated Learning; Online Learning; Instruction Lengths; Course Scheduling; Predictive Analytics.

  • Engineering educators perspectives on the feasibility of fostering sustainability through the Internet of Things   Order a copy of this article
    by Wisuit Sunthonkanokpong, Elizabeth Murphy 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to identify the feasibility of integrating the Internet of Things (IoT) in Engineering Education (EE) to promote environmental, social and economic sustainability. This purpose is explored through self-report surveys with 113 engineering educators in Thailand. Analysis relied on descriptive statistics and two-way ANOVA. Results revealed high feasibility of integration with less feasibility for social sustainability. There were no significant differences in relation to feasibility and demographic factors such as educators years of experience and type of EE. Respondents identified factors that can promote the integration. These were grouped into the following categories: Curricula and program; Instructor- and student -related factors; Administrative and policy factors and; Technology-related factors.
    Keywords: Innovation; Internet of Things; Engineering education; sustainability; problem-based learning; project-based learning.

  • Teaching Approach and Student Performance in E-learning   Order a copy of this article
    by Nancy Tsai 
    Abstract: Despite the various benefits generated from online teaching/learning, this approach always produces a high drop rate and a low passing rate resulting from some students lack of discipline, motivation, and guidance in an isolated learning environment. A crucial responsibility of an online instructor is to increase students learning engagements and their academic performances via a teaching motivation strategy and its implementation approach. This study examines and assesses impacts on students learning performances from one motivation strategy and two implementation approaches: teacher-motivated and teacher-guided. The substance of the motivation strategy is based on the ARCS motivation model and implementation approaches utilize two motivation principles of self-determination theory. Findings suggest that the implementation approach is just as important as the motivation strategy for improving students learning. The teacher-guided approach with active and constant virtual communication between instructor and students significantly increases students learning efforts and academic performances.
    Keywords: online learning; motivation; teaching approach.

    by Bogdan Sojkin, Magdalena Ankiel, Anna Gogolek 
    Abstract: The market of innovative aesthetic medicine services has been in recent years, one of the broadest segments of the medical services. Therefore, we state that the identification of the choice determinants of aesthetic medicine services is a promising yet still under-researched area of study. In this article, we present the results of an empirical study on the determinants of the purchase of innovative aesthetic medicine services in major cities in Poland. Our respondents included patients of aesthetic medicine clinics, whose sample was selected in a purposive sampling (N = 745). To analyze data, the factor analysis was performed that helped to identify key determinants of the purchase of aesthetic medicine services by patients in Poland. The key determinants of the selection and purchase of aesthetic medicine services include: the reputation of the clinic, the competence and skills of a specialist, providing comprehensive care, and the infrastructure of the clinic.
    Keywords: innovation; aesthetic medicine; purchase determinants; purchase decisions; innovative aesthetic medicine services; aesthetic medicine services in Poland; medical service; consumer behaviour; factor analysis; reputation.

  • Educators and academics in digital world. Comparative analysis of using ResearchGate by Slovenian and Polish business researchers   Order a copy of this article
    by Lukasz Wiechetek, Viktorija Florjancic 
    Abstract: Digital transformation is an irreversible process today. It affects all the sectors of the economy, also education and research. One of the fundamental tools of digital economy is the Internet and its social networks based on Web 2.0 tools. The purpose of the article is to compare the usage of one of the most popular academic social network ResearchGate by business researchers from Poland and Slovenia in order to know if the researchers are active in digital world and identify main differences between metrics presented in the profiles. The main part of the article is the comparative analysis of using ResearchGate platform by business researchers in order to find out if scientists frequently use the portal and how strong are their virtual scientific profiles. Authors collected and analyzed the RG profiles of academics employed in Slovenian and Polish business schools and universities (n=896). The descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, k-means clustering, and tests of significance were used. The analyses showed that ResearchGate portal is not frequently used by business researchers. The main differences relate to RG score and number of citations. The RG Score is strongly positive correlated with number of citations, published items and reads. The researchers from Slovenia have higher RG score metrics. Clustering procedure identified five groups of RG users that could be called balanced, appreciated, beginners, knocking and poets. The researchers should be more encouraged to use specialized social networking sites to promote not only their achievement but also the performance of the research teams or university units.
    Keywords: ResearchGate; digital literacy; digital transformation; Polish researchers; Slovenian researchers; comparative analysis; clustering; RG Score; social network.

  • Corporate entrepreneurship: internal factors of influence in educational institutions under the perception of generations X and Y   Order a copy of this article
    by Eliana Andréa Severo, Carolina Barbosa Montenegro, Juliana Carvalho De Souza [, Raniery Christiano De Queiroz Pimenta 
    Abstract: This study aims to analyze the influence of internal organizational dimensions on corporate entrepreneurship, as well as investigate the influences of generations X and Y in this process, by investigating 314 education professionals from different states of Brazil. This is a quantitative, descriptive survey, through Exploratory Factor Analysis and Multiple Linear Regression. The results show that the prominent dimension was that of management support, presenting a moderate result regarding the influence on the Corporate Entrepreneurship (CE). The other dimensions: work autonomy, rewards and motivations, time availability and organizational limits presented negligible results, which demonstrates a low power of influence over the CE. In addition, the findings revealed that generation X has a greater moderating power in the relationship between management support and the EC with a moderate power of influence, while also highlighting the organizational limits construct, however, with low moderating power. Generation Y overlaps in the aspects of Compensation/Motivation, Time Availability and Autonomy at Work, however, with low moderating power.
    Keywords: Corporate Entrepreneurship; Educational institutions; Generations X and Y.

  • The effect of knowledge appreciation and development of internal ideas on the competitiveness of service industry companies   Order a copy of this article
    by Marcin Soniewicki 
    Abstract: The aim of this article is to analyse the influence of two factors on competitiveness of various types of service industry companies: knowledge appreciation and development and implementation of new ideas. The article is based on quantitative data from a survey of 380 service industry companies. The responses were measured on a 5-grade Likert scale. The statistical significance of differences between various responses was examined using the Mann-Whitney U test and correspondence analysis. The results indicate that both factors influence the competitiveness of service industry companies. Moreover, firms with a low intensity of concentration on any of these factors were less competitive than their closest competitors. Another aspect analysed in the study was the competitiveness of service industry companies of different sizes with different levels of intensity of both factors. The results show that these factors are especially important for the competitiveness for micro and small companies.
    Keywords: service industry; knowledge; knowledge management; change; innovation; innovative behaviour; new ideas; competitiveness; competitive advantage; performance.

  • Ultrasound object detection using morphological region-based active contour: an application system   Order a copy of this article
    by Anan Nugroho, Risanuri Hidayat, Hanung Nugroho, Johan Debayle 
    Abstract: Ultrasound (US) is intensively employed as a screening tool for suspicious objects such as breast lesions and thyroid nodules. Avoiding the subjectivity radiologists and to overcome high variability of US interpretations among them, technological innovations in computer aided diagnosis or CAD are massively developed. Automation and accuracy in object detection and segmentation techniques as the core of CAD are becoming prestigious knowledge creations in the current industrial revolution 4.0. In this paper, an application system of morphological region-based active contour called MoRbAC is presented to automatically detect the suspicious US objects. Global segmentation for detecting all US objects is carried out by simplified region based active contour in the start of MoRbACs work. A series of morphological operations are then optimized to enhance erroneous global segmentation results due to inhomogeneity of noisy US images. The localization of targeted suspicious objects is finally obtained through comparative calculation of area similarity. The proposed MoRbAC application was validated by applying it to detect breast lesions and thyroid nodules on 20 real US images. Quantitative measurements based on overlapping area compared to referred ground truth achieve an average accuracy of up to 98.58
    Keywords: Ultrasound; CAD; morphology; active contour; MoRbAC.

  • Emotive Responses to the Language Learning Experience Across Contexts   Order a copy of this article
    by Andrew S. Ross, Punchalee Wasanasomsithi 
    Abstract: Over recent decades, research into motivational and cognitive aspects of language learning has been plentiful, providing valuable insights into the psychology and learning capacity of the language learner. However, the emotions of language learners have been the victim of significant neglect (D
    Keywords: emotions; language learning; ESL learners; EFL learners; Thailand; Australia.

  • Differences between Audio Media and Conventional methods regarding Students Academic Performance and the influence of audio media satisfaction on their Academic Scores at a Ugandan University   Order a copy of this article
    by Mark Kaahwa, Chang Zhu, Moses Muhumuza, Charles Karemera 
    Abstract: This study examined two hypotheses; 1. There is a difference between students scores in the conventional teaching approach and audio media instructional strategy and 2. Students satisfaction with audio media technology influences their academic scores. These two aspects have not been fully investigated in most of the previous studies. The data collected in this study came from 333 Distance Education University Students (DEUS). We carried out an experimental study involving two groups. The experimental group consisted of 166 students and were taught through audio media instructional strategy [radio instruction and podcasts]. The control group consisted of 167 students who were taught using the conventional approach [face-to-face and modules]. We also administered a questionnaire to assess the second hypothesis. At the end of the semester, both groups were subjected to the same assessment and academic scores were compared to establish the differences. To test the first and second hypotheses, we used independent T-test and multiple regression analysis test respectively. Findings indicate that there is no statistically significant difference in academic performance between the two instructional strategies. Furthermore, results showed that students satisfaction with audio media technology does not influence their academic scores. It can be concluded thus that although universities are accustomed to other computer-based teaching strategies, an audio media instructional strategy is one other effective teaching approach. Besides, based on the findings of this study, it can be concluded that students audio media satisfaction does not affect their academic scores.
    Keywords: audio media technology; conventional instructional strategies; podcast quality; podcast efficiency; podcast accessibility; audio media satisfaction; academic performance.

    by Malgorzata Cieciora, Piotr Pietrzak, Piotr Gago 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper was to present an attempt to build an innovative and comprehensive system of gathering and analyzing reliable, accurate and up-to-date feedback on employability of academic graduates in Poland. After a literature review on the nature of the mismatch between the labor market requirements and the knowledge and skills of higher education graduates, as well as challenges connected with obtaining feedback from graduates, a case study devoted to collecting and analyzing labor market stakeholders feedback undertaken by a small faculty of a non-public academy in Warsaw, Poland is presented. A sample of 31 opinions of the Facultys graduates was gathered and analyzed, in the form of an arithmetic mean, minimum and maximum values and cross-plot charts. The main conclusion of both the literature review and the case study is that the labor market highly values technical, especially IT skills and business-related soft skills, such as team-working. The two main challenges for the academic decision-makers are to develop curricula that would foster the development of the desired knowledge and skills and to build effective communication channels with all their stakeholders. A further, more comprehensive research into the matter will be worth conducting.
    Keywords: graduates’ employability; labor market; university stakeholders; competency gap; innovation.

  • The Design of an Active Learning Strategy to Promote Collaborative and Research-based Learning in Project Management Education   Order a copy of this article
    by Chekfoung Tan, Isabel Huet 
    Abstract: Project management (PM) is one of the most popular professions worldwide. Therefore, project management education (PME) has peaked due to its demand in industry. However, research shows that PME focuses too much on PM methodologies. Little has been done in training students in the critical thinking, research, and collaboration skills required by industry. Hence, this paper presents the design of an active learning intervention for PME, which aims at engaging students to learn collaboratively in a research-based learning environment. Following an action research methodology, the authors present the different stages of the study, which took place in a UK university with a group of PM postgraduate students with different levels of work experiences and backgrounds. The pedagogic intervention was evaluated in three stages: 1) non-participant observation, 2) informal feedback, and 3) evaluation survey. Descriptive analysis was adopted for analysing the data collected in stage one. Data collected in stage two and three was analysed by thematic analysis. This research contributes to informing the future design of PME that emphasises on developing students critical thinking, research and collaboration skills. These skills are crucial for any project management professional and highly sought by industry.
    Keywords: Active and collaborative learning; research-informed teaching and learning; project management education.

  • Effects of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning with Scripting on Students' Collective Efficacy in Science   Order a copy of this article
    by Hazel Joyce Ramirez, Sheryl Lyn Monterola 
    Abstract: Contextualized innovative approach is fast becoming a key instrument to enhance learning. One of emerging innovations in education is computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) which is a computer-mediated approach that promotes knowledge construction and social interaction among learners. However, limited research has examined how the conjoined effects of CSCL and scripting activity, facilitated the development of collective efficacy, an essential skill that affects group motivation and performance. Ergo, this research investigated the effects CSCL with scripting activity on students collective efficacy. This study involved three-group pre-test-post-test quasi-experimental design. Data analysis through Analysis of Variance revealed that CSCL with scripting significantly improved students collective efficacy, F(2, 114)= 2.877, p =.030. Additionally, the questions generated by the students were also analysed. Particularly, CSCL with scripting stimulated intellectual discussion and more importantly promoted inclusivity in learning by providing avenues to understand diverse ideas. Furthermore, this study offered beneficial implications in education.
    Keywords: computer-supported collaborative learning; collective efficacy; scripting activity; student-generated questions; 21st century competencies.

  • Culture and learning styles sensitive learning outcomes aid multicultural classrooms   Order a copy of this article
    by Anjum Razzaque, Hussain M. AlArayedh, Chris Moylan 
    Abstract: Past scholars have highlighted on learners dissatisfaction with multicultural-classrooms teachings. This represents a vital concern for investigation since ample students from different cultures enroll in western Higher Education (HE) Institutions (HEIs) despite the reported declining teaching-learning quality. This study investigates whether Learners Culture (LC) and Learning Style (LS) affect learner expectations through Learning Outcomes (LOs). Instructors can improve curriculums using complimentary LS and LOs. This study confirms that national culture and LS do govern LOs; thru an interdisciplinary model assessing the effect of Hofstedes national culture and Charlesworths learning-styles on learning outcomes. An adopted survey was distributed to undergraduates in a NY based HEI. Data analysis, mainly Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Structural Equation Modelling, confirmed that Individualism/Collectivism, Power-distance national culture, and activist and pragmatic learning-styles, empowers learning outcomes (i.e. learner expectations). Implications to theory and practice are also expressed.
    Keywords: Higher education; National culture; learning; learning outcomes; learning styles; multicultural classrooms.

  • A model and rubric to guide the creative design process with ICTs   Order a copy of this article
    by Patompong Youjamnong, Alisa Songsriwittaya 
    Abstract: In this study, the authors designed a five-stage model to support creativity in contexts of the design of artifacts using ICTs in educational settings. The model also includes a rubric that parallels the five stages. The goal in this study was to trial and test the model. Participants were pre-service teachers enrolled in a course on graphic design in a Bachelor of Computer Education program and divided into a control (n=30) and an experimental section (n=30). Three evaluators applied the rubric to judge the pre-service teachers engagement in the stages of creativity. Application of the Torrance Test of Creativity and of the rubric showed significantly higher levels of engagement in creativity for the experimental section.
    Keywords: innovation; design creativity; pre-service teachers; Torrance; rubric; ICTs; Model; teacher education.

  • Integrating Gamification in a Blended Learning Entrepreneurship Course: Discussing Student Learning and Achievement Motivation   Order a copy of this article
    by Nisaul Barokati 
    Abstract: Purpose: (1) test the comparison of learning outcomes between students utilizing gamification and students utilizing project-based learning, (2) assess the comparison of learning outcomes between students possessing high achievement motivation and low achievement motivation, and (3) examine the interaction between gamification, project-based learning and achievement motivation on student learning outcomes. Findings: (1) There is a significant difference in entrepreneurship course material understanding between groups of students utilizing gamification learning strategies compared to groups of students utilizing project-based learning strategies. (2) There is a significant difference in entrepreneurship course material understanding between groups of students possessing high achievement motivation and students possessing low achievement motivation. (3) There is an effect of interaction between gamification learning strategies and project-based learning strategies with high and low achievement motivation on entrepreneurship course material understanding.
    Keywords: Integrating Gamification; Blended Learning; Entrepreneurship.

  • Antecedents of Innovative Behaviour: Knowledge Sharing, Open Innovation Climate and Internal Communication   Order a copy of this article
    by Maria Eduarda Soares, Pilar Mosquera, Maria Cid 
    Abstract: Innovative behaviour is currently considered to be a key factor for the competitive advantage of organisations. In this study, we analyse the role of three antecedent variables of Innovative Behaviour - Knowledge Sharing, Open Innovation Climate, and Internal Communication. Three dimensions of Internal Communication are considered - Organisational Communication, Communication with Superiors, and Communication with Peers. We used a sample of 138 employees from a consulting firm to test a conceptual model with Partial Least Squares (PLS). The results indicate that only Knowledge Sharing is an antecedent of Innovative Behaviour in the organisation studied. Communication with Superiors and Communication with Peers are both antecedents of Knowledge Sharing, but not of Innovative behaviour. Furthermore, the results also indicate that Knowledge Sharing mediates between Communication with Superiors and Innovative Behaviour. Organisational Communication and Communication with Superiors are antecedents of Open Innovation Climate, but the latter does not have a significant relationship with Innovative Behaviour.
    Keywords: Innovative Behaviour; Knowledge Sharing; Open Innovation Climate; Internal Communication.

  • Analysis of the relationship between student profiles and the results obtained in a University course gamification study   Order a copy of this article
    by Milena Oliveira, Fabiano Leal, Alexandre Pinho, José Arnaldo Montevechi 
    Abstract: The objective of this study was to understand the ways that different personality traits of students affect their gamification experiences within the university educational context. The effectiveness of implemented gamification within the aforementioned context was also measured. A required class in the Industrial Engineering course was gamified in order to conduct this research. The effectiveness average of the gamification in engaging students was 83% and increased motivation among students in the classroom was also observed in the results. Cluster analysis verified that students with the best performance in the gamified course were those who exhibited medium high levels of personality traits linked with conscientiousness, extroversion, and openness to experiences. The results highlight the value of gamification and the need to move from the one-size-fits-all approach to more personalized applications. This study provides guidelines to designers who might seek to employ a personalized gamification approach to improve individual performance.
    Keywords: Gamification; Personality traits; Higher education; Human learning; Active learning; Design; Educational technology; Human behavior; Computers; Innovation; Engagement; Motivation.

  • Non-cognitive constructs measurement model development based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) in the context of the Academic Performance of engineering students.   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: This study is an application of Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1985, 1987) which is an extension of the theory of reasoned action (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980; Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975). As in the original theory of reasoned action, a vital factor in the theory of planned behavior is the individuals intention to perform a given behavior. In this paper, it is in contexts of the educational process. This confirmatory analysis is a factor analysis that is designed to predict and explain how student intention determines a students performance in academic achievements. The researchers are proposing a model based on Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) with six non-cognitive traits simultaneously. The model is to establish causal inferences between these traits with academic performance over a period of four years in the context of engineering studies. The scope and focus of this paper are to develop and validate the measurement model as a prerequisite towards model development based on the Theory of planned behavior.
    Keywords: Theory of Planned Behavior; Structural Equation Modeling; Non-cognitive traits; Measurement model; Construct validity; factor analysis; learning assessment; leaning behavior.

  • Business Simulation Games as an Active Learning Teaching Methodology: Students Perceptions   Order a copy of this article
    by Marco Aurélio Butzke, Anete Alberton, Tatiani Schmitt, Sidnei Vieira Marinho 
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to present the results of an analysis of students perceptions on the use of business games as a teaching strategy and learning environment. The students perceptions of a business game based on simulation were analyzed for associations with their academic background, personal characteristics, and previous experiences. The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics, factor analysis, and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The main findings indicated that academic background and personal characteristics were associated with significant differences in perceptions of learning environment factors, while students professional experience and previous experience with business games were also associated with significant differences in their factors ratings that facilitate learning. The research results show that the processes of teaching and learning within management courses using business simulation games draws on innovative features to explore the complexity of decision-making processes and offers an effective and enjoyable learning environment. To minimize the simplification of causal relationships in the decision-making process when using business simulation games, further research is recommended with the inclusion of reverse logistics and sustainability processes, also routines from other areas to broaden students' perceptions regarding the complexity of the decision-making process.
    Keywords: Business Games; Active Learning; Teaching with Business Games and Simulations; Learning Assessment.

  • Analysing students engagement in higher education through transmedia and Learning Management Systems: a text mining approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Fernando José De Aires Angelino, Sandra Maria Correia Loureiro, Ricardo Godinho Bilro 
    Abstract: This research aims to explore how students engagement can be promoted through transmedia using a set of activities within the Moodle Learning Management System for a syllabus topic about innovation, during a full semester. The analysis of case studies, the writing of essays, or the participation in an online forum were among the performed activities by a group of eighty-one university students in their senior year. To perform the data analysis, we followed a mixed-method approach between descriptive statistics, data mining analysis based on the open-source software Orange and a final questionnaire. The results achieved reveal that students engagement tends to increase by participating in the online forum and by performing some of the proposed tasks which required extensive information search from various media sources.
    Keywords: Transmedia; Learning management systems; Moodle; Students’ engagement; Text mining; Orange software; Higher education;.

  • The right to an effective education: live legal clinic as an innovative teaching method   Order a copy of this article
    by Sabiha Shala, Dkagjin Leka 
    Abstract: The right to education is guaranteed by international conventions and state constitutions. Indeed, the right to an effective education is challenging many countries offering law education. This is a particular problem for law students in Kosovo and Montenegro. This article presents the current situation in these two countries with regard to providing clinical legal education as the most innovative and effective teaching method in this area, and recommends solutions based on the most appropriate international models. An analysis of the relevant official documents, scientific articles, and law study programs of many universities in Europe shows that live legal clinics are an integral part of law programs. Currently, there are no live legal clinics in Kosovo and Montenegro as part of law study programs, and this must be remedied if they are to provide an effective legal education. A combination of the Croatian and Polish models could be the solution. Thus, the key contribution of this paper is the proposal of a novel model for effective legal education for two countries under research.
    Keywords: right to education; live legal clinic; effective education; innovation; Kosovo; Montenegro.

  • A framework to promote Creative Ideation using ICTs   Order a copy of this article
    by Apiwat Meoupphakarn, Jariya Neanchaleay, Saranya Chuathong 
    Abstract: In this three-phase study, the researchers designed and implemented a framework to support learners Creative Ideation (CI). Phase 1 involved administration of self-report surveys with (N=364) undergraduate students in Thailand to identify the motivation-related factors most likely to predict CI. Results revealed that the factors were Intrinsic Motivation (IM) and Self-efficacy (SE). Phase 2 involved the design of the framework with strategies to foster IM and SE, a project-based learning approach, a design thinking process and use of the Social Networking Site, Facebook. In phase 3, the framework was implemented in an Educational Technology program in which students (N=40) collaborated, communicated and interacted in Facebook groups to design websites. Analysis of results of pre- and post-surveys revealed significantly higher self-reports for IM, SE and CI.
    Keywords: Creative ideation; Creativity; Intrinsic motivation; Self-efficacy; Facebook; Project-based learning; Design; Higher education; Framework; ICTs.

    by Leticia Rodrigues Da Fonseca, Marcelo Ribeiro Silva, Sheldon William Silva, Guilherme Marques Pereira 
    Abstract: This study aims to understand the role of individual mental models in the learning of software developers. Qualitative research of a multiple case study was conducted in four Software Development Organizations (SDOs) applying semi-structured interviews. The subjects interviewed were involved in the software development process. The analyses were performed by the qualitative data analysis software Weft_QDA, which allowed the identification and analysis of speeches related to the theoretical concept of this study. It was identified that the previous knowledge of software experts, the complexity of projects, the rotation of tasks, and the information and communication technologies employed in the work environment enhance individual mental models from their internal images worldviews, leading to an efficient process of software development in SDOs. The results show that individual mental models manage the acquisition, retention, use, and elimination of information and experiences during the learning process of developers.
    Keywords: individual learning; individual mental model; software development organizations.

  • Short video clip production on learning performance: evidence from university students   Order a copy of this article
    by Siew King Ting, Tze Wee Lai, Sze Wei Yong, Geetha Subramaniam, Brian Dollery 
    Abstract: University students learn economic concepts through textbooks and online sources that are typically very theoretically oriented. As a result, they have difficulties in linking their understanding of these concepts to real-world experience. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of using a short video clip production made by students themselves in explaining economic concepts. The respondents in this study consisted of 96 first semester undergraduate students (over September 2018 to January 2019) who took introductory economic courses at the Faculty of Business and Management at the Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) in Kota Samarahan, Sarawak. Our results exhibit positive responses on both the level of satisfaction and perceived learning performance by students with the overall mean scores of 3.79. From these results, we offer several recommendations on using digital learning in the academic curriculum.
    Keywords: economics education; short video; economic concepts; technology acceptance model; TAM; teaching and learning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2020.10032241
  • Lifelong learning among consumers and suppliers of complementary and alternative methods of healthcare: a descriptive study of motivational factors and learning sources   Order a copy of this article
    by Mateja Kržin, Nada Trunk Širca, Valerij Dermol, Katarina Babnik 
    Abstract: The complementary and alternative methods of healthcare (CAM) supply and demand and the learning opportunities in the field of CAM services have been rapidly increasing. The goals of the study were to determine motivational factors behind individuals' engagement in lifelong learning in the field of CAM services and differences in these factors between CAM services consumers and suppliers. Two focus groups and semi-structured interviews were performed. The thematic analysis approach was utilised and social network analysis for the graphical representation and quantification of identified motivational factors. The study identified five motivational factors explaining individuals' engagement into lifelong learning in the field of CAM services that are consistent with socio-behavioural models explaining the motivation for health behaviour modification. The results of this qualitative study form the basis for a further systematic study of the use and increased supply of CAM services.
    Keywords: lifelong learning; complementary and alternative services; consumers; suppliers; focus groups; semi-structured interviews; Slovenia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2020.10032178
  • Enhancing consensus building with mind maps and linked open data   Order a copy of this article
    by Kitipoom Vipahasna, Vilas Wuwongse 
    Abstract: In conventional consensus building, written discourse is a typical tool that helps a small group of students exchange concepts to pursue a consensual resolution. However, this tool is not sufficiently effective to foster student attempts to form a consensus. Moreover, referential information is needed as evidence during group discussions. To address these problems, we propose a new approach to comparing and merging mind maps produced individually by students in a group. The proposed system integrates linked open data (LOD) standard web technologies to facilitate consensus-building processes. It also employs the resource description framework (RDF) to uniformly represent mind maps, which enables computability and sharing of mind maps. A prototype is developed and evaluated in a group of 24 students. The results show that the proposed system outperforms the traditional method significantly, as it improves students' performance in discovering new knowledge, creativity, group collaboration, and consensus reaching.
    Keywords: consensus building; mind maps; visual discourse; computer supported collaborative learning; collaborative learning; collaborative mind mapping; consensual mind map formation; digital mind maps; linked open data; resource description framework data model; RDF.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2020.10032242
  • The relationship between contrastive lexical competence, willingness to communicate, and emotional intelligence: the case of Iranian EFL learners   Order a copy of this article
    by Forough Motorchi, Meisam Ziafar 
    Abstract: Significant arguments have been put forward concerning the significance of willingness to communicate (WTC) and emotional intelligence (EI) in language learning and teaching. Owing to the fact that both lexical chunks and translation seem to positively influence EFL learners' emotions by putting them at ease in dealing with psychological challenges, it may be wise to explore the prominence of contrastive lexical competence (CLC) in relation to WTC and EI among EFL learners. This study investigated the presence of possible relationships among CLC, WTC, and EI. In order to achieve the objectives of the study, 90 upper intermediate IELTS students (18 to 45 years old) were selected from two English institutions (Ariana and Amene) in Ahvaz and Khorramshahr respectively on the basis of their QPT scores. Regarding the purpose of this study, statistical Pearson correlation coefficient (r), multiple regression, and partial correlations were applied. The data analysis of the results revealed significant relationships among the three variables. It was also found that EFL learners' CLC scores are more accurately predicted by their EI scores than their WTC scores. The findings of this study may be quite telling to language learners and teachers in that they may better appreciate the crucial role of CLC in their educational practices.
    Keywords: contrastive lexical competence; CLC; willingness to communicate; WTC; emotional intelligence.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2020.10032243
  • E-learning adoption based on gender differences: insight from India   Order a copy of this article
    by P.S. Vanitha, Sreejith Alathur 
    Abstract: Aim of this study is to explore the adoption of e-learning across gender. This study identifies how the factors influence e-learning adoption based on gender. The theories pertinent to gender difference are reviewed. Using a quantitative questionnaire survey method, 425 responses were collected from various higher education institutions from southern India. Using this data set acceptance of the hypothesis on e-learning adopted among different gender was statistically reported. Partial least square-structure equation model (PLE-SEM) is carried out to find the similarities and dissimilarities among male and female users in e-learning adoption. The current research focused on two dimensions: learner and technology. Further research can focus on the economy, religion and other possible factors. Earlier studies less reported on influence on the e-learning adoption based on different genders in India. Therefore, the current study focus on gender-based e-learning adoption in the Indian context.
    Keywords: e-learning; gender-difference; attitude; behaviour; technology awareness; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2020.10032244

Special Issue on: ICBL/ISET 2019 Technology-enabled Active and Personalised Learning

  • Experiential Learning for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder using Virtual Reality Headsets: A Preliminary Report   Order a copy of this article
    by Chen Li, Horace Ho Shing Ip, Po-Ke Ma 
    Abstract: Kolbs experiential learning model (ELM) is one of the most widely applied learning theories for virtual reality enabled learning because in the authentic and highly interactive virtual reality environment, learning activities could be designed to encourage learners actively experiment and to allow learners observe and reflect on instant feedback and results from the experiment. At the same time, the learning process requires educators to provide more facilitation and supports to the learners. Previously, although some of the studies showed that the model could also be applied for virtual reality enabled learning targeting at learners with special education needs, there is a lack of in-depth discussion on how to systematically design, engineer and evaluate virtual reality enabled experiential learning activities for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and/or other conditions (e.g., anxiety disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), etc.). In this paper, we expect to address two fundamental questions related to the applying of ELM for the design of social competence learning in the virtual reality environment for children with ASD; first, how the use of virtual reality headsets (a.k.a., Head-mounted Displays (HMDs)) could affect the design of the virtual reality learning scenarios comparing to other types of virtual reality environments such as the Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE); and second, how the virtual reality learning contents can be designed to facilitate experiential learning in an immersive virtual reality environment by considering the special education needs of children with ASD. Three children with the clinical diagnosis of ASD but diverse abilities on the spectrum were invited to try the virtual reality experiential learning contents designed by us using off-the-shelf virtual reality headsets. Observations show that children with ASD generally need more time to adapt to the headsets and often need facilitation during learning; providing in-VR facilitations and supports in the form of pre-programmed visual and voice instructions and feedbacks are critical to the success of their learning.
    Keywords: Experiential Learning; Virtual Reality; Autism Spectrum Disorder;.

  • Analysis and Evaluation of Digital Forms of Teaching at the University Results from the Literature and from a Survey   Order a copy of this article
    by Tobias Hirmer, Andreas Henrich 
    Abstract: Regarding the higher demand for flexibility in the learning process, universities need to adapt their way of teaching to survive in a digitized world (Scheer 2017, p.102). Digitalized forms of teaching like lecture recordings, the inverted-classroom (IC), and massive open online courses (MOOCs) may therefore offer decisive advantages. This paper presents an empirical study at the IS & ACS faculty of the [...] that aims to evaluate main requirements for a lecture recording system as well as to analyze the experiences of the lecturers with other digitized forms of teaching like the inverted-classroom and massive open online courses. The results have been summarized in a list of requirements for a lecture recording solution and a concluding recommendation for the [...].
    Keywords: Blended Learning; Lecture Recordings; Inverted-Classroom; MOOC; Requirements.

Special Issue on: ICTE 2019 Technological Innovations for Enhancing Effectiveness in Education

  • Factors Affecting Macau Undergraduate students Acceptance of hospitability English APP: Applicability of UTAUT Model   Order a copy of this article
    by Sha Fang, Xiaohong Wu, Ivan Ka Wai Lai 
    Abstract: This paper tests the acceptance of hospitality English app by undergraduate students in Macau. In order to supplement the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model, the study proposes six factors of smartphone hospitality English app using willingness: performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, facilitating condition, perceived entertainment and English self-efficacy. 392 valid data was collected in 3 universities of Macau, and partial least squares structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. Results showed that performance expectancy, social influence, perceived entertainment and English self-efficacy had positive influences to the intention of using hospitability English app for Macau undergraduate students. On the other hand, effort expectancy and facilitating condition were not significant predictors to Macau undergraduate students intention to use hospitability English app. According to the findings in this study, discussions and implications are also provided to related researchers and the hospitality English app developers.
    Keywords: Determining Factors; Technology Acceptance; English Learning; UTAUT; Macau.

  • K12 Teacher-Students Interaction Patterns in the Smart Classrooms   Order a copy of this article
    by Zehui Zhan, Qianyi Wu, Wenchang He, Shuyue Cheng, Jinyao Lu, Yining Han 
    Abstract: This paper examined the teacher and students interaction behaviors in Smart Classrooms (SC) and Traditional Multi-media Classrooms (TMC), in order to compare the features on interaction patterns between these two classroom settings, and visualize the existing problems of in-class teaching. Ten courses were recorded and analyzed. Five of them were carried out in SC and five were in TMC. A scene-based Teacher-Student Interaction behavior scheme was set up, and a total of 1874 pieces of behaviors were collected and coded sequentially. Then, the Lag Sequence Analysis (LSA) was adopted for visualizing the behavior pattern diagram. Results indicated that, in SC settings, significantly more teacher-student interactions took place, and the amount of time spent on group activities was increased. Besides, the Smart Classroom is helpful to improve teacher-student interaction with richer types and higher efficiency. The pedagogy has been changed from Q&A-based teaching in TMCs to inquiry- and group-based learning in SCs.
    Keywords: Smart Classroom; Traditional Multi-media Classroom; Teacher-Student Interaction; Behavior Coding; Lag Sequence Analysis.

  • Learning Engagement through Content Creation: A Case Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Angel Lu, Yan Keung Hui, Bo Mai, Lam For Kwok 
    Abstract: Engaged learners have higher learning motivation and positive behaviors which promote active learning. Although it is generally accepted that student engagement is an essential factor to help learners achieve academic successfulness and to become lifelong learners, barriers, like long preparation time and students expectation, have forced educators to reconsider the benefits of engaged learning. In this paper, we propose a practical content creation learning process through an online discussion forum to cultivate learners engagement and their activeness under a blended learning environment. The longitudinal study was carried out in two primary classes in Panyu, China, for two years. All data were collected and analyzed to provide quantitative results that students Chinese performances and participation enhanced because the design of the learning activity through content creation increased the engagement of students, which resulted in active learning among learners. This paper is an extended research based on an abridged paper submitted to ICTE 2019, to fill research gaps in both identifying the role of learning activity design in the process of cultivating learners engaged learning and active learning.
    Keywords: Learning engagement; Engaged Learning; Active Learning; Blended Learning; Learning Activity Design.

  • Humanism and Didactic Theorems from the Early Modern Era in the Knowledge Society   Order a copy of this article
    by Miloslava Cerna 
    Abstract: The paper is conceived as a debate on humanist values and educational theorems that are still favourable and topical at our era. These principles meet requirements on innovations coming from the development of technologies and economics with their consequences on society, culture and education. Blended learning is a flexible concept with the potential to reflect demands of society and market on education as well as is able to incorporate technology into the process of education. Didactic principles formulated nearly 400 years ago are permanent constituent of the design and management of teaching and learning in the virtual space as well as in in-class education. This paper shows how the didactic ideas go through the centuries, keep continuity and give a kind of order to the process of education. Examples of selected educational principles in the language e-courses are described in the practical part of the paper.
    Keywords: Humanism; reforms; didactic; Knowledge society; blended learning; e-course; content development; needs analysis; motivation; education.

  • An Evidence-based Model of Adaptive Blended Learning for Health Education Serving Families with a Parent or Child Who Has a Medical Problem   Order a copy of this article
    by Jayshiro Tashiro 
    Abstract: We describe a blended learning model that has been built into an educational platform to provide evidence-based health education and psychological support for families in which one or more members has a medical problem. The platform design evolved from studies of the leading causes of death in the United States, including chronic and acute medical issues as well as injuries typified by pathophysiological and psychological facets difficult for most adults and children to understand. We studied blended learning platforms suitable for providing all members of a family with evidence-based health education. During this process we found that few current web-based models for patient and family education are grounded in both theories of cognition and learning and also theories of health behavioural change. In this paper, we describe our current evidence-based health education platform for familiesSIGNAL-PATCH. This platform allows selection of preferred grounded theories but also assesses both parents and childrens prior knowledge and accuracy of such knowledge. The platform we developed also assesses parents and childrens readiness to engage in learning, readiness to shift behaviours in ways that will improve health, and monitors for possible psychological trauma in each family member.
    Keywords: Healthcare education; patient education; adaptive blended learning; evidence-based instruction; educational technology.

  • Latest advances in STEAM education research and practice: A review of the literature   Order a copy of this article
    by Reggie Kwan, Billy Tak-Ming Wong 
    Abstract: This paper presents a review of the characteristics of, and trends in, STEAM (sciences, technology, engineering, arts, and mathematics) education. It covers 63 articles involving empirical STEAM education practices in 2013 to 2018 which were collected from Scopus. The major findings show: (1) an increasing number of STEAM education practices over the years, particularly at the secondary and primary school levels; (2) a broader range of research purposes and objectives of practice in the recent literature, with emerging foci on enhancing the effectiveness of STEAM learning, broadening the diversity of STEAM education, and addressing teachers perceptions, development, and support; (3) arts, science and technology as being the most frequently covered discipline areas in the interdisciplinary STEAM practices; and (4) hands-on practice, problem-solving, project-based learning, and real-life scenarios as being the essential elements in the STEAM learning and teaching approaches, and the extensive use of educational technology as an emerging trend. The results suggest the areas for future work needed for the development of STEAM education, including the promotion and implementation of STEAM at the preschool level, the factors facilitating or hindering effective STEAM teaching, and the kinds of support desirable for teachers.
    Keywords: STEAM education; creativity; interdisciplinary; STEAM teaching; STEAM learning; STEM.

Special Issue on: EIC 2019 Knowledge Creation and Technological Innovation in the IR 4.0

  • Development of Hospital Virtual Tour with Virtual Reality-based Panorama   Order a copy of this article
    by Adhistya Erna Permanasari, Dian Anggriawan Hidayat, Sunu Wibirama, Intan Sulistyaningrum Sakkinah, Dayang Rohaya Awang Rambli 
    Abstract: Information technology has an important role as a mean of socializing the institution profile to the society, including hospitals as public services. Virtual reality technology, along with panoramic photo as a multimedia component, supports the need for visualization that can be made almost as real as the original. In this research, we utilized virtual reality to introduce hospital building and its rooms. The Multimedia Development Life Cycle method was used in this development. Our main focus was on analyzing the effect of text cueing in panoramic design. User can explore the hospital tour virtually. The User Experience Questionnaire (UEQ) was used to evaluate each application. A significance level of those comparisons was tested by using the Wilcoxon test. In general, both UEQ assessed both applications were in the range above average to excellent scores. The experimental results showed that the approach could enhance some user experience aspects. These elements were attractiveness, stimulation, and novelty. While perspicuity, dependability, and novelty, were not significant improved according to Wilcoxon result. This research implies that the use of text cueing improves user experience in virtual tour with panoramic virtual reality.
    Keywords: virtual reality; panoramic; text cueing; user experience questionnaire; Wilcoxon.

  • Study on the influencing factors of the flexibility of university IT management in education 4.0   Order a copy of this article
    by Wasilah Wasilah, Lukito Edi Nugroho, Paulus Insap Santosa, Shaymaa Sorour 
    Abstract: Education systems at all levels should embrace new technologies to comply with industry 4.0 developments. Universities need to adapt to these new changes. Flexibility is an essential factor, but studies that discuss the flexibility in service-based organizations are limited. The study of IT flexibility currently focuses on manufacturing organizations in aspects of IT infrastructure. IT infrastructure flexibility is not enough, because it is only one IT resource that is managed in IT management.The contribution of this study is to produce variables that significantly influence the flexibility of IT management in the university. T tests obtained that there are six variables that have a significant direct effect. The variables are data integration, modularity of an application, value drivers, human resource competence, human resource development and knowledge sharing. R square test shows that these variables also simultaneously influence the flexibility of IT management universities with a fairly high influence of 76%.
    Keywords: IT management; flexibility; higher education; education 4.0.

  • The Impact of Perceived Usability on Mobile Wallet Acceptance: A Case of Gopay Indonesia   Order a copy of this article
    by Ni Made Estiyanti, Delfa Agustia, Rafiqa Amini Mulia, Randa Alfarisyi, Restow Frandha, Achmad Nizar Hidayanto, Sherah Kurnia 
    Abstract: The rapid growth of mobile communication technology leads to the more frequently used mobile payments particularly the mobile wallet (m-wallet). This research aims to identify the factors that influence the use intention of mobile wallet in Indonesia, particularly from the perceived usability perspective, combined with the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). This research employs survey research by distributing an online questionnaire to users of Gopay, which is a leader of m-wallet providers in the Indonesian market. The data from 167 valid respondents were processed and analyzed using Partial Least Square (PLS) with the help of SmartPLS 2.0 software. Our findings showed that perceived usability affects users intention to adopt m-wallet through perceived usefulness and perceived enjoyment variables. This paper also discusses several recommendations for m-wallet providers and developers to increase m-wallet adoption in Indonesia.
    Keywords: Innovation; Mobile Wallet; Technology Acceptance Model; Perceived Usability; Indonesia; Learning.

  • Exploring the influencing factors of learning management systems continuance intention in a blended learning environment   Order a copy of this article
    by Zaenal Abidin, Fathur Rokhman, Anuradha Mathrani 
    Abstract: With the emergence of learning management systems (LMS), many higher education institutions have adopted a blended learning approach. LMS can be used as a tool to support blended learning activities to help learners achieve their learning outcomes. This study focuses on continuance use intention towards LMS in blended learning environments. Several relevant factors have been identified to examine users continuance intention to use LMS in a blended learning environment including educational quality, service quality, technical system quality, information quality, users confirmation, and satisfaction. Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was employed to validate the proposed model and hypothesis. This study has provided evidence that users satisfaction on services, technical system, and information quality directly impacts users decisions to continue using LMS. Therefore, for students satisfaction, higher education institutions may need to consider the influencing factors before implementing a blended learning environment with LMS.
    Keywords: blended learning; confirmation; continuance intention; learning management system; ; LMS quality; user satisfaction.

  • Measuring Service Quality in Telecommunication Industry from Customer Review using Sentiment Analysis: a case study in PT XL Axiata   Order a copy of this article
    by Budyono Saputro, Achmad Nizar Hidayanto, Zaenal Abidin, Naraphorn Paoprasert 
    Abstract: One of the challenges in the company is to understand the customer perceive provided by the company. Service quality is very important to be well maintained by the company. This situation will reflect on how excellent the company to serve customers. Well-maintained service quality is one of the success parameters to enhance customer satisfaction. In this paper, service quality level from customer review was measured by using sentiment analysis, by targeting the customers in twitter who mention XL Axiata (XL), one of the telecommunication companies in Indonesia. To determine the service quality level, Fast Large-Margin classification methodology and sentiment analysis were used to classify the reviews for seven following service quality dimensions in telecommunications industry; value-added services, billing system, convenience, pricing plans, network quality, employees competency, and customer service. The result showed that the network quality dimension was the most service quality dimension that obtained review and positive sentiment from the customer.
    Keywords: service quality; sentiment analysis; telecommunication; customer perceive; Fast Large-Margin; classification; evaluation; innovation.

Special Issue on: ICBL/ISET 2019 Technology-enabled Active and Personalised Learning

  • Project-based collaborative learning with an online evidence-based assessment system   Order a copy of this article
    by Jiemin Zhong, Di Zou, Wai Man Winnie Lam, Haoran Xie 
    Abstract: In this research, we developed an online assessment system to assist students' collaboration and quantify the collaborative learning process. We collected the learning behaviour data using this system, analysed the impact of group collaboration on students' learning performance, and explored the relationship between group collaboration and course difficulty. The results showed that the more advanced course induced more group collaboration, but group collaboration may not have significant effects on the academic achievements of the participants. Furthermore, cooperative learning had five basic elements, and face-to-face communication was essential for assessing collaborative group learning. To better measure the learning performance of the students, we improved the scoring criteria, established a more flexible assessment system, and analysed the effectiveness of collaborative learning of small groups from more dimensions.
    Keywords: project-based learning; learning performance; wiki; collaborative learning; online learning; assessment; online learning system; blended learning; learning behaviour; higher education.

  • iPads in special educational needs schools: categorization and individualization of learning from the view of Czech education   Order a copy of this article
    by Vojtech Gybas, Ivana Simonova, Katerina Kostolanyova 
    Abstract: The main objective of the article is to present results of research conducted in the field of special educational needs (SEN) education, particularly (1) to provide deeper insight in the SEN system of education in the Czech Republic, (2) to design the categorization of SEN learners reflecting their abilities to work with iPads, (3) to verify this design within the Czech educational system. Categorization is built on three levels of difficulty of task and four levels of learners
    Keywords: Special Educational Needs; SEN; iPad; categorization; individualization; difficulty; autonomy; framework educational programme; Czech Republic.

  • A Cross-Platform Game for Learning Computational Thinking with the Support of Collaborative Learning   Order a copy of this article
    by Lap-Kei Lee, Tsz-Kin Cheung, Lok-Tin Ho, Wai-Hang Yiu, Nga-In Wu 
    Abstract: Computational thinking (CT) has gained increasing attention from education researchers, practitioners and parents in the past decade. CT is not only related to coding or programming, but also a fundamental skill for everyone to solve problems effectively and efficiently with solutions that are reusable in different contexts. Mastering CT helps ones to improve the analytical ability on various tasks, which therefore attracts parents to arrange programming classes for their children. This paper presents the design of a cross-platform game for learning computational thinking anywhere and anytime using a computer or a smartphone with or without Internet connection. The game provides an easy-to-use visual programming environment for learners to instruct virtual 3D robot(s) to complete specific tasks. The 3D virtual robot environment enhances interactivity between the learners and our game. Our game levels are designed to cover the following five core elements of CT: reformulation, recursion, decomposition, abstraction and systematic testing. The game also supports collaborative learning for multiple learners, where learners find suitable solutions together in some game levels. Through collaborative learning, learners can make friends and share their ideas with others actively, which improves their communication skills and helps developing their leadership skills. A survey on twenty computer science major undergraduates confirmed that the above five core elements of CT have been incorporated into our game design, and our game is likely to be an attractive learning tool for junior learners like primary students. In another survey, twenty teenager and adult participants without prior programming knowledge also found our game an attractive and useful tool for CT learning.
    Keywords: computational thinking; gamification; collaborative learning; visual programming; cross platforms.

  • A review of the use of open educational resources: the benefits, challenges and good practices in higher education   Order a copy of this article
    by Kam-cheong Li, Billy Tak-Ming Wong 
    Abstract: This article reviews the use of open educational resources (OER) in higher education institutions, focusing on the benefits, challenges and good practices. It covers 59 case studies which reported OER use. The case studies were published during the period 20092018 and collected from Scopus and Google Scholar. The findings revealed that the major role of higher education institutions is as OER users rather than providers. The benefits of involvement in OER for the institutions included the improvement of students learning performance; easy access and use of learning resources; the cost reduction and dismantling of learning barriers; and the sharing of learning resources and collaboration. On the other hand, there were various challenges, namely the limitations of the technology infrastructure; the problems of intellectual property rights; the inadequacy of policy and support; the absence of learning objectives; and the language barriers. The good practices for successful use of OER as shown in the case studies were to customise the contents of resources, develop policy support, and facilitate close cooperation among the relevant units.
    Keywords: open educational resources; OER; OpenCourseWare; OCW; open textbook; higher education.

  • Enhance Students Engagement by Giving Ongoing Formative Feedbacks in a Blended Learning Setting   Order a copy of this article
    by Yan Keung Hui, Chen Li, Sheng Qian, Lam For Kwok 
    Abstract: Blended learning combines and gains the advantages of face-to-face and computer-based distributed learning. Teachers need to encourage students to engage more in the learning process and learning activities. Formative feedbacks (feedbacks) from stakeholders can encourage students to participate more in both online and classroom learning. However, three major challenges are being faced by researchers. Firstly, inconsistent results have been found from linear models on the number of feedbacks and academic performance. Secondly, feedbacks from different stakeholders have not been analyzed in an integrated way. Thirdly, the connection between feedbacks and performance have not been identified. We have started by proposing a logarithm transformation on the number of feedbacks to address the issues found in the linear models. Then, we have suggested an initial conceptual model on how academic performance is related to feedbacks from different stakeholders. Finally, the model has been verified and improved throughout the three longitudinal studies.
    Keywords: Formative Feedbacks; Blended Learning; Engaged Learning; Learning Analytics.

  • Investigating the four-level inquiry continuum on college students higher order thinking and peer interaction tendencies   Order a copy of this article
    by Kaili Lu, Harrison Yang 
    Abstract: Research positively associates inquiry-based learning (IBL) activities to the benefits of students higher order thinking, collaboration, and communication skill. However, few studies have examined the impact of IBL activities on higher order thinking skills (HOTS) and peer interaction at all levels of inquiry. This study examined 58 college students perceptions of their HOTS and peer interaction tendencies from the perspective of a four-level inquiry continuum process. Overall, the study found that as IBL activities moved from the first level of inquiry (confirmation inquiry) to the fourth level of inquiry (open inquiry), students HOTS and peer interaction tendencies strengthened. Further analysis showed that students' HOTS and peer interaction tendencies changed significantly at different levels of IBL activities. Highly student-centered IBL activities were significantly more effective than highly teacher-directed activities. In addition, there was a strong correlation between students HOTS and peer interaction tendencies in IBL activities. The findings of this study have practical implications for educators, indicating that they should design, develop, and implement IBL activities, considering all four levels of inquiry as a continuum. Educators should also find ways to leverage the relationship between students' higher HOTS and peer interaction.
    Keywords: higher order thinking skills; peer interaction; inquiry-based learning; levels of inquiry; confirmed inquiry; structured inquiry; guided inquiry; open inquiry.