Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Innovation and Learning

International Journal of Innovation and Learning (IJIL)

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International Journal of Innovation and Learning (34 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Does marketing capabilities explain the indirect nexus between learning orientation and firm performance?   Order a copy of this article
    by Kassimu Issau 
    Abstract: This research examines whether marketing capabilities explain the indirect nexus between learning orientation and small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) performance. The study employed a quantitative research approach and explanatory research design in finding answers to the set objectives of the study through the use of a structured research questionnaire. This study established that learning orientation-marketing capabilities and marketing capabilities-firm performance linkages are substantial whilst learning orientation-firm performance nexus is weak. Accordingly, marketing capabilities have a partial mediating effect on the relationship between learning orientation and firm performance. Thus, SME managers are entreated to adopt a proactive management philosophy that is typified by a learning orientation posture that supports marketing capabilities initiatives in order to improve performance. Through learning, SME managers would be able to determine the kind of products, price and promotion strategies that resonate well with the target market and hence help improve performance.
    Keywords: resource-based view; RBV; learning orientation; marketing capabilities; firm performance; PLS-SEM.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2024.10057195
  • Perceived integration of academic accreditation in the development of human resources capabilities   Order a copy of this article
    by NIZAR RAISSI, Bander Alrebeay 
    Abstract: The study seeks to understand the role played by accreditation in determining the employees’ behaviour and to analyse the relationship between accreditation criteria and human resources (HR) capabilities. To respond to this problematic, the research has been based on investigation and it used a sample of 4 public universities presented by 203 employees. Data is collected from multiple sources of evidence, including survey, a focus group, and semi-structured interviews. Thus, the methodology adopted was the analytical approach through modelling relationships of multiples variables based on structural equation model (PLS-SEM). The findings approved that exist an indirect relationship between staff and faculty determinants and HR capabilities. Furthermore, the professional development and evaluation as accreditation criteria influence the determinants of HR capabilities through the decrypting of engagement of people which ensure equilibrium between the intention of employees and their confidence level to promote their skills and behaviour.
    Keywords: accreditation; engagement of people; human capabilities; intention; involvement.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2024.10057422
  • Innovation in microenterprises in the 21st century: a systematic literature review   Order a copy of this article
    by Anneli Bäck, Matti Muhos, Peetu Virkkala 
    Abstract: This study presents a systematic literature review of innovation in microenterprises between 2000 and 2022. Despite their potential for economic growth and even though the number of studies on microenterprise innovation has recently grown microenterprises remain an under-researched topic. Therefore, an overall analysis of what has already been found by earlier studies on the innovation in microenterprises could benefit the field. The study summarises the findings of 105 articles meeting the inclusion criteria. The 14 themes found by the thematic analysis are integrated into a framework which links the antecedents, external resources and internal processes of innovation together with capabilities and innovation outcomes. The study points out measures for enhancing innovation and sustainable growth of microenterprises. In addition, it suggests policy recommendations and directions for future research.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship; innovation; microenterprises; owner-manager; systematic literature review.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2024.10058298
  • A Study on Employees’ Knowledge-Sharing Behavior Evidence from Logistics Firms in Vietnam   Order a copy of this article
    by Hoang Phung Nguyen Bach, Quang Dung Truong, Nam Tien Duong 
    Abstract: Knowledge sharing (KS) has been an essential part of logistics systems. Besides, the advancement of mobile devices and virtual communities has changed how information and working behaviours are processed and promoted KS activities in logistic firms. Therefore, with the integration of three theories, including social influence, technology acceptance model, and social cognition, this study aims to explore the antecedents of mobilised KS intention and behaviour and to make a more comprehensive framework for mobilised KS. A structured questionnaire investigated 377 employees in 31 units in logistics firms. The study found that social influence factors were positively related to the mobilised KS intention, and KS intention was also positively associated with KS behaviour. However, technology trust has a moderating effect on the relationship between mobilised KS intention and behaviour. This study’s novelty is integrating the antecedents of mobilised KS intention and behaviour into three theories.
    Keywords: knowledge sharing; logistics; behaviours; intentions; technology; Vietnam.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2024.10058534
  • Research Trends and Directions in Learning Spaces: A Scientometric Analysis Based on CiteSpace and VOSviewer   Order a copy of this article
    by Baiyu Jiang, Jestin Nordin, Najib Salleh 
    Abstract: Using scientometric visualisation tools (i.e., CiteSpace and VOSviewer), this study analyses Scopus database publications on learning space research to illustrate trends and identify potential directions in this multidisciplinary field. The findings demonstrate a three-stage development and emphasise the interaction of spatial and non-spatial elements. The study encourages an in-depth comprehension of learning spaces and their influence on instructional strategies and student results. It highlights the requirement for a multidisciplinary approach that includes paedagogy, social science, information science, and architecture for cutting-edge research paradigms. The study also highlights research frontiers, including the connection between learning spaces and online learning, COVID-19, and creativity. This study contributes to a nuanced understanding of learning spaces and their role in fostering effective teaching and learning experiences in the 21st century by offering insightful information that can be used as a reference by education authorities, school planning and construction departments, and information technology departments.
    Keywords: learning space; scientometric; research trend; research direction; CiteSpace; VOSviewer.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2024.10058578
  • A Study on Organizational Support Policies, HRM Practices and Organizational Performance: Evidence from logistics firms in Vietnam   Order a copy of this article
    by Thuy Dung Pham Thi  
    Abstract: The study aims to explore the relationship between HRM practices, knowledge sharing (KS), organisational performance (OP), and organisational support policies (OSP) based on the social exchange theory. The logistics managers who were willing to assist distributed 799 questionnaires to employees with at least one year of working experience. The survey yielded 610 valid responses, with a 76% response rate. According to research findings: 1) employees engaged in KS more frequently when logistics firms had better HRM practices; 2) logistics firms that have better HRM systems become more innovative organisations with high performance; 3) HRM practices were strengthened by employees’ OSP. A strategic approach to HRM can be derived from research results. Through team interactions and sharing, knowledge can be developed, and employees can become more innovative. In addition, employees’ KS can be reinforced by OSP.
    Keywords: support policy; HRM; practices; organisation; performance; logistics; Vietnam.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2024.10058911
    by Joseph Awali Sebuwufu, Binod Timilsina 
    Abstract: The existing literature provides limited evidence on “how small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) grow, develop, and sustain their operations in the long-run” within the scope of this question, this conceptual paper suggests a holistic hypothetical construct of a dynamic business model (DBM). The DBM strives for strategic value capturing towards agility for enhancing SMEs competitiveness and resilience. Management by values (MBVs), analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and sand cone model (SCM) provides the theoretical foundation to the suggested DBM. The study extends the literature on SMEs, business model innovation, and suggests a fundamental lean plan for balancing efficiency and flexibility, as a managerial implication.
    Keywords: business model; innovation; strategic management; dynamic capabilities; small and medium-sized enterprises; SMEs; resilience.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2024.10058962
  • Acceleration as an Ecosystem’s Unique Mechanism: A Systematic Literature Review and Ecosystem Acceleration Model   Order a copy of this article
    by Rovian Dill Zuquetto, Bibiana Martins, Mateus Santini, Paola Schaeffer, Kadígia Faccin 
    Abstract: Accelerators can go beyond the direct impact on the startups’ performance. They constitute a recent field of research that grew significantly in 2016. We conducted a systematic literature review with bibliometric and content analysis to understand how it developed. We propose some questions: Does an ecosystem need an accelerator, and if so, need a specific kind of accelerator? We also explore the prospects and opportunities for research related to ecosystems and acceleration. We identified that ecosystems need acceleration programs aligned with the actors involved and propose some paths to avoid pitfalls. We present six research streams to explore in this field: more variety of methods, comparison between models and practices, evaluation of different programs and impact on the ecosystems, more diversity of contexts, focus on specific sectors, and the role of innovation intermediaries in ecosystems. Finally, we added the networking component to the acceleration definition.
    Keywords: business accelerator; acceleration; ecosystem; open innovation; bibliometric analysis; content analysis; startups; venture capital; business ecosystem; entrepreneurial ecosystem.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2024.10059149
  • A Systematic Literature Review of The Implementation of Open Education: In the Indonesian Context   Order a copy of this article
    by Naufal Ishartono, Siti Hajar Halili, Rafiza Razak 
    Abstract: Many systematic literature reviews have examined open education. However, Indonesia’s open education implementation has been barely studied. This study used the systematic literature review method to examine the implementation of open education in Indonesia. The study was conducted through a rigorous article selection using PRISMA and PICO frameworks. As many as 26 of 64 studies gained from the Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases and published from 2013 to 2022 were analysed and synthesised. This analysis found 34% of articles published in 2020 and 61% employed qualitative approaches. Technology analysis and application were the most researched topics, followed by institutional policy analysis. Finally, open education has numerous benefits and drawbacks, particularly in learning support facilities. This study also discusses whether Indonesia should continue using open education and recommends research. The findings can be a reference for researchers and stakeholders worldwide about the benefits and constraints of implementing open learning.
    Keywords: open education; Massive Open Online Courses; MOOCs; distance education; PRISMA; PICO.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2024.10059404
  • Smartphone-Based Learning and Academic Performance in Higher Education Institutions: Extending Task-Technology-Fit with Technology Readiness Constructs   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohannad Ayyash, Maan A. A. Alkhateeb, Rania A. M. Abdalla 
    Abstract: The task-technology fit (TTF) framework emphasises the congruence between learning tasks, technological capabilities, and learners’ requirements in smartphone-based learning. It has the potential to improve academic performance, but a review of existing literature indicates a lack of agreement on the relationship between mobile devices and the academic performance of students. In addition, the original TTF was introduced to predict firm performance and technology adoption without considering individual characteristics. Therefore, the aim of this research was to investigate how smartphone-based learning in TTF and related technology readiness index (TRI) constructs (including personal innovativeness and optimism) affect university students’ academic performance. A total of 163 valid responses were collected and used in data analysis. The results indicated that task characteristics, personal innovativeness, and optimism have a significant positive influence on TTF, while technology characteristics are not significant. In addition, TTF shows a direct positive and significant influence on students’ academic performance.
    Keywords: task-technology fit; TTF; technology readiness; smartphone-based learning; academic performance; task characteristics; technology characteristics; personal innovativeness; optimism.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2024.10059639
  • The Role of Psychological Empowerment Dimensions in Promoting Innovative Work Behaviors via Creative Self-efficacy in the Indian Automobile Industry: An Empirical Investigation Using PLS-SEM and IPMA   Order a copy of this article
    by M. Jyothi Sheeba, Prabu Christopher B 
    Abstract: Although there is an extensive amount of literature on innovative work behaviour (IWB), there is a paucity of studies that focus on IWB in Indian automakers. In addition, there is a dearth of studies looking at how psychological empowerment dimensions influence IWBs like creativity and innovation capability. A quantitative study with questionnaire was used to survey 500 research and development (R&D) staff. Data was analysed using PLS-SEM. Only the competence and self-determination components of psychological empowerment significantly affect employees’ creativity, although all four dimensions positively affect innovative capability. Impact alone has little effect on creative self-efficacy. Creative self-efficacy mediates between psychological empowerment dimensions (except impact dimension) and innovative work behaviours. This study uses the importance-performance matrix analysis (IPMA) methodology to identify the important constructs to prioritise managerial actions. Employees view self-determination and meaning as the most significant factors for creativity and innovation capability respectively, according to IPMA.
    Keywords: creativity; innovation capability; psychological empowerment; innovative behaviours; importance-performance matrix analysis; IPMA; innovative work behaviour; IWB.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2024.10059703
  • Predicting Mathematics Teachers’ TPACK Using Technology Access, Teacher Training, and Technology Use   Order a copy of this article
    by Joseph Njiku 
    Abstract: Technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) has been considered relevant and useful for effective technology integration in education, but it is also influenced by various factors worth investigating. This study examined the relationship between mathematics teachers’ TPACK and teacher training, technology access, and technology use. Participants were 125 mathematics teachers from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania who filled in the TPACK survey scale. Descriptive analysis showed that teachers with training, access, and use of technology had higher TPACK than those without. Regressions analysis showed that in-service and pre-service teacher training and the use of technology for administrative activities were significant predictors of TPACK. Surprisingly, instructional use of technology was not a significant predictor of TPACK just as was the case with access to technology. These findings suggest the need to address technology integration beyond the simple provision of hardware and software to include teacher training and actual use.
    Keywords: teacher training; technology access; technology integration; technology use; TPACK; mathematics teachers.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2024.10059915
  • Impacting factors and effects of college student learning satisfaction: a comparative study   Order a copy of this article
    by Wenjin Liu, Yi Yang, Shenli Peng 
    Abstract: This study conducted comparative analyses on impacting factors and effects of college student learning satisfaction between online and offline teaching mode. The results demonstrated that: 1) students’ learning satisfaction for offline teaching mode was significantly higher than that for online mode; 2) teacher-student interaction, student-student interaction, course content and teacher quality were significantly positively correlated with both online and offline learning satisfaction, respectively. Furthermore, teacher-student interaction and student-student interaction positively predict offline learning satisfaction, while student-student interaction and teacher quality positively predict online learning satisfaction; 3) offline learning satisfaction significantly affected students’ evaluation of learning outcomes as well as their preference of teaching mode. Specifically, the more satisfaction they had of offline teaching mode, the students were more likely to indicate the learning outcomes of offline courses was higher than that of online courses, and prefer to choose offline teaching mode as well as the blended teaching mode.
    Keywords: learning satisfaction; online teaching mode; offline teaching mode; impacting factors.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2024.10060086
    by WALTER VESPERI, Navneet Gera, Concetta L. Cristofaro, MARZIA VENTURA 
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has had profound consequences on the behaviour and habits of people in organisations. The objective of this study is to analyse the level of culture shock (CS) that university students have manifested after the period of distance learning (DL) and their physical return to university facilities. The Mumford (1998) questionnaire for the measurement of culture shock (CSQ) was implemented. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from 341 questionnaires. The survey sample consists of university students from 5 different Italian universities. The study offers an innovative application to CSQ questionnaire (1998). Results show that university students suffer from culture shock when they return to university facilities after distance learning. Women with an average age above 30, in large universities, is the category most affected by culture shock. The results can help universities introduce actions to aid students’ psychological and emotional well-being.
    Keywords: culture shock; CS; university student; COVID-19; questionnaire CSQ; academic culture; human resource development; HRD.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2024.10060136
  • Model of Active Innovation Resistance (AIR) in Automotive Industry of Iran   Order a copy of this article
    by Maryam Shabani, Frederic Marimon Viadiu, Juan Jose Tari 
    Abstract: The aim of this research is to provide a scale to measure the barriers of consumers towards the acquisition of passengers' vehicles equipped with innovations, and assess the mediation role of these innovations to achieve intention to buy. Data is collected by Delphi method via 13 questionnaires including 33 influencing factors on Innovation resistance are distributed among 13 participants who are selected by purposive sampling specifically by expert sampling type as the panel of experts of Iranian car manufacturing company. The model of active innovation resistance in automotive industry is introduced for the first time in Iran, moreover one factor influencing on active innovation resistance ‘after sales services’ is added to previous studies in this context so the final model of this research is rendered and examined in the Iranian automotive industry for purchasing passenger vehicles for the first time.
    Keywords: active innovation resistance; intention to buy; ITB; product innovation; automotive industry; Iran.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2024.10060296
  • Links between innovation and inclusive education: a qualitative analysis of teachers’ and leaders’ perceptions   Order a copy of this article
    by Cecilia Latorre-Cosculluela, Erika Sin-Torres, Silvia Anzano-Oto 
    Abstract: Educational innovation is considered an essential element for the achievement of quality inclusive education. This study, based on a qualitative methodological approach, analyses the perceptions of education professionals (nine teachers and ten leaders) about innovation processes from an inclusive paradigm. The results reveal the inexistence of a common framework that delimits educational innovation. Differences are observed based on the experiences of these professionals. Teachers claim the need to establish common innovation projects in schools so that they have sufficient information and training at their disposal to allow them to develop innovative processes. All this, considering the need to respond to the objective of sustainable development that defends an equitable and quality education for all.
    Keywords: educational innovation; attention to diversity; inclusion; perceptions; educational change; improvement.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2024.10060368
  • A measurement instrument for open innovation value co-creation in ICT start-ups: An emerging economic perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Nayanthara Samarasinghe, Thanuja Sandanayake, Dinesh Samarasinghe 
    Abstract: Open innovation has emerged as a crucial driver of startup growth and competitiveness in the ICT sector. However, measuring the effectiveness of open innovation value co-creation remains a challenge due to the dearth of studies, particularly in the context of Sri Lankan ICT startups. This paper aims to address this gap by developing a quantitative measurement instrument for open innovation value co-creation. The study explores the key dimensions of open innovation value co-creation and identifies relevant measures that can capture the performance of Sri Lankan ICT startups. The measurement instrument is based on a review of priori-based literature as well as empirical data collected from a representative sample. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were used on primary data collected from ICT startups. The developed measure was tested for reliability and validity and it consisted of two main dimensions, four sub-dimensions and 13 indicators.
    Keywords: open innovation; value creation; value capture; ICT startups; value co-creation; quantitative measurement instrument; emerging markets.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2024.10060757
  • Brazilian female entrepreneurship in the food service segment: fear and entrepreneurial learning in the context of crisis.   Order a copy of this article
    by Mariane Lemos Lourenco, Mara Rosalia Ribeiro Silva, Lady Day Pereira De Souza, Michele Estarnecks Peixoto 
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyse fear in learning among women entrepreneurs during the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil. Basic qualitative research was conducted through online interviews with women entrepreneurs in Brazil who are micro enterprise owners pertaining to the food service segment. Learning experiences of the women entrepreneurs were identified, taking into account their experiences and fears: learning how to use new technologies as a means of communication with the client; and, learning to organise the business in terms of care, facing the context of crisis. This paper contributes by adding fear as an intrinsic emotion of the exploitation and exploration processes, so that the transformation between entrepreneurial experiences into entrepreneurial knowledge is experienced with the different fears that permeate entrepreneurial practice.
    Keywords: entrepreneurial learning; female entrepreneurs; micro entrepreneurs; fear.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2024.10060922
  • Innovating English language learning programs for Thai EFL grade 6 students: A closer look at program description and learning outcome   Order a copy of this article
    by Jirada Wudthayagorn, Chatraporn Piamsai, Pan-Ngarm Chairaksak 
    Abstract: In Thailand, the current policy has been aimed at lowering the age to start learning the English language in compliance with the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR). It has been mandated that English is taught every day from grade 1 onwards, one hour per day, five days a week, and by the end of grade 6, students should achieve the CEFR A1. This research investigated the current policy implemented at a primary school where two different English language learning programs, non-English program (non-EP) and English program (EP), were innovated. At the end of the school year, 108 grade 6 students took the Cambridge Young Learners English Test (A1 Mover). The results showed that, CEFR A1 for Thai EFL grade 6 students is attainable. Almost all showed great potential to progress to the next CEFR level; a few might need extra help in a particular skill like listening.
    Keywords: young learners; English language; learning programs; learning outcome; CEFR.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2024.10061054
    by Saroj Kumar Sahoo, Sandhyarani Sahoo, LAXMIKANT PATTNAIK 
    Abstract: This study is undertaken having the main purpose of testing the structural relationship of consumers’ learning, satisfaction, and attitude with ‘purchase intention’ after confirming their constructs. This study followed experimental research design along sample size of 589. After confirming the constructs of learning, satisfaction, and attitude through CFA, their structural relationship with ‘purchase intention’ as target construct is tested by SEM. Major findings of this study refer that shoppers’ purchase intention is the ultimate consequence of their learning having satisfaction, and attitude of shoppers as the serial mediators. The novelty of this study refers to the simultaneous and serial effects of learning, satisfaction, and attitude on the purchase intention with the moderation of demographic variables. Implications of this study say that the retailers can make the target consumers learn in the way of their satisfaction, positive attitude and intention towards the brands and services.
    Keywords: learning; satisfaction; attitude; intention; retail; mediation; moderation; SEM.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2024.10061193
  • Digital capabilities and SMEs’ performance under technological uncertainty: empirical evidence from an emerging market   Order a copy of this article
    by Huong Pham, Hoang Dinh, Kieu Minh Tran, Hien Nguyen 
    Abstract: The paper aims to clarify the effect of digital capabilities on firm performance in the context of technological uncertainty, considering the effects of digital innovation and digital leadership based on the theoretical foundation of dynamic capabilities. The research employed a simple random sampling with the survey participation of 213 small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) from various fields in Vietnam and then used partial least squares-structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) as an analysis technique. The findings indicate that there is a positive and statistically significant relationship between digital capabilities and firm performance; with a mediating effect of digital innovation on this relation. Digital leadership as a dynamic capability facilitates SMEs in developing digital capabilities and digital innovation and positively affects firm performance. Technological uncertainty has a direct impact on digital capabilities and digital innovation and has an indirect effect on firm performance. This research makes both theoretical and practical contributions.
    Keywords: digital capabilities; digital innovation; firm performance; small and medium-sized enterprises; SMEs; technological uncertainty.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2024.10061360
  • Analysis of consumer purchasing behaviour factors in the process of deciding to buy dark chocolate   Order a copy of this article
    by Aleksandra Grofelnik, Tina Vukasovic 
    Abstract: The shopping behaviour of consumers has become increasingly complex. Understanding the consumer’s behaviour is potentially the key to creating increasingly effective marketing strategies. Consumer purchasing behaviour is a mental and behavioural process influenced by various factors, depending on the product type and the need the consumer wants to satisfy. Master’s thesis research has determined the multiple factors that come into play when purchasing dark chocolate and consumers’ views of the studied product. Dark chocolate consumers primarily purchase it because of its taste but place great importance on the cocoa content. Positive health benefits are considered necessary, while the product’s brand, habit or packaging has no visible influence over the purchase. Consumers place a lot of importance on the information provided on the product’s packaging. It is believed that the dark chocolate maker guarantees the quality and safety of the product by providing additional information.
    Keywords: consumer behaviour; purchasing decision; brand; innovation; knowledge management; dark chocolate; cocoa.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2024.10061448
  • Educational Games for Property and Construction: Insights from Bibliometric and Content Analyses   Order a copy of this article
    by Chioma Okoro, Abejide Ade-Ibijola, Oluwatobi Owojori 
    Abstract: Gamified learning uses innovative educational technologies to transform learning environments, revolutionising traditional teaching approaches. The application of educational games in the built environment (property, building, and construction) is scarcely explored. This study adopted bibliometric and content analyses to explore integrating educational games into the property and built environment teaching and learning process. It is part of a pilot project for creating a property game for students in higher education, which will improve their learning and modelling of real-world events. Findings showed that educational games were more explored in the global north and social science, computer science, and engineering science. Gaming also effectively enhanced students’ motivation, learning attitudes, participation, and academic achievement. Further research in property and built environment-related courses is required especially in developing countries. The findings could engender more discussions on implementing educational games in built-environment curricula to facilitate students’ learning.
    Keywords: higher education; students; gamified learning; educational games; built environment; property games.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2024.10061591
  • Managing innovation activities in a public university hospital: staff perceptions   Order a copy of this article
    by Pauliina Hyrkäs, Jarmo Reponen, Outi Kanste 
    Abstract: Managing innovation activities effectively is essential for public hospitals to adapt and thrive. It involves planning, coordination and oversight while introducing and implementing new ideas, processes, products or methods. However, knowledge in this field is lacking. This qualitative case study (2018-2023) aims to contribute to the understanding of managing innovation activities in a public university hospital by examining staff perceptions at one Finnish public university hospital. The primary data comprised semi-structured interviews with staff representatives (n = 13) from various professional groups. Data were analysed using content analysis. The findings indicated three main categories for describing management of innovation activities: 1) unifies and transparently justifies innovation activities; 2) enables participation in innovation activities; 3) ensures expertise, development and maintenance of innovation activities. Various skills, with an emphasis on effective communication, considering the contexts unique characteristics and being prepared to reform traditional structures are required to manage innovation activities.
    Keywords: innovation; innovation activities; managing innovation activities; public hospital; university hospital; staff perceptions; case study; content analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2025.10061651
  • How does Entrepreneurial Orientation Influence Organisational Ambidexterity Moderating Effect of Organisational Unlearning   Order a copy of this article
    by Andrey Andoko Rahardjo, Eva Wei-Lee Lim, Garry Wei-Han Tan 
    Abstract: The turbulent business environment caused by digital technology has impacted businesses, particularly traditional media (print, radio and television). Many entrepreneurial incumbent firms are unable to transform into digital businesses despite having slack resources. This study aims to find the influence of organisational unlearning (OU) on digital transformation by drawing the multidimensional entrepreneurial orientation (EO) (innovativeness, proactiveness and risk-taking) and organisational ambidexterity (OA) (exploitation-exploration) relationship model. The survey was undertaken at the firm level, and 161 samples were collected from traditional media firms and were analysed using SmartPLS4 software. The result reveals that Innovativeness is an essential factor in pursuing digital transformation. As each dimension is distinctive, EO and OA are better studied with a multidimensional approach. This study also confirms the influence of OU in the EO and OA relationship.
    Keywords: digital transformation; entrepreneurial orientation; organisational ambidexterity; organisational unlearning; traditional media; SmartPLS.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2024.10061704
  • Pencak Silat Combat: Dominant Technique in National Student Competition Based on Gender and Weight   Order a copy of this article
    by Nur Subekti, M. Furqon Hidayatullah, Rony Syaifullah, Noor Alis Setiyadi, Muhad Fatoni 
    Abstract: This research analyses the technical actions of student Pencak silat athletes in national competitions. A total of 180 student-athletes (114 male, 66 female) were observed using notation system analysis in 90 game video recordings (57 male, 33 female). Punches (PT), round-kicks (RK), front-kicks (FK), sidekicks (SK), back-kicks (BK), slams (SL), cuts (CUT), and sweeps (SW) are recorded compared by gender and the results. The most used technique was RK (9.89 ± 4.68), followed by PT (7.12 4.090), FK (4.30 ± 2.37), SK (3.31 ± 1.73), SL (2.09 ± 1.04), CUT (1.60 ± 1.53), SW (0.97 ± 0.83), and BK (0.15 ± 0.11). Female athletes were more likely to use CUT actions (1.60 ± 1.53) than male athletes (p < 0.05). Most technical measures had poor efficacy, and there were changes in PT, RK, FK, SK, BK, SL, CUT, and SW with moderate effect sizes (ES 0.10.8), resulting in a success: failure ratio technical action (1: 1.6). These findings suggest optimizing training techniques for accuracy, coordination, and technical skills because correct target contact will result in points.
    Keywords: technical action; Pencak silat; combat category; student-athlete.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2025.10062008
    by Vito Bobek, Jennifer Harrer, Tatjana Horvat 
    Abstract: Operational organisations, like a fire department, demonstrate exceptionally high levels of volunteer satisfaction. The study aims to determine if specific leadership styles used by fire department leaders contribute to these satisfaction levels. The study employs a comprehensive research approach, combining a literature review and quantitative research. A survey gathers empirical data on leadership styles, satisfaction levels, and demographics. Correlations between leadership styles and member satisfaction were weak but statistically significant. Democratic and transformational styles correlate positively, while authoritarian and laissez-faire styles negatively correlate with member satisfaction. The study acknowledges certain limitations, including the use of multiple-choice questions, the scope limited to the Styrian Volunteer Fire Department, and potential response biases.
    Keywords: leadership styles; satisfaction; learning; voluntary fire department.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2024.10062035
  • The Impact of Perceived Organizational Support on Organizational Commitment of Vocational College Teachers -The Mediating Effect of Career-related Continuous Learning   Order a copy of this article
    by Zhengnan Qi, Fang Han 
    Abstract: This study uses a sample of 220 questionnaires from vocational college teachers in China. It introduces dimensions of career-related continuous learning, including advantage analysis, disadvantage analysis, and focusing on scientific research, as mediating variables to construct a research model, and explores the impact of perceived organisational support on organisational commitment from the perspective of teacher perception. The findings are as follows: perceived organisational support has a significant positive effect on organisational commitment and each dimension of career-related continuous learning. The advantage analysis of career-related continuous learning has a significant positive effect on organisational commitment and acts as a mediator in the relationship between perceived organisational support and organisational commitment. The conclusions of this study provide important managerial implications for higher vocational colleges on how to promote teachers’ career-related continuous learning and enhance organisational commitment through organisational support.
    Keywords: vocational college teachers; perceived organisational support; organisational commitment; career-related continuous learning; mediating effect.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2025.10062182
  • Probiotic dairy platforms - consumer attitudes and purchasing habits   Order a copy of this article
    by Tina Vukasovic, Aleksandra Zajc, John Stanton 
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to better understand consumers’ attitudes, expectations and behaviour toward probiotic milk products in selected European country. The method used for data collection was a structured online questionnaire. The survey revealed an important functional correlation between consumers and probiotic dairy products in terms of their beneficial effects on digestion and overall health. In addition to the good taste that consumers recognised in probiotic dairy products, the quality and naturalness of the product, which is expressed in the attributes ‘natural aroma’ and ‘free of artificial colours’, are also important. The aforementioned attributes have proved to be crucial for the future communication strategy of probiotic dairy products. Consumer attitudes show that there is an opportunity to position probiotic around holistic health.
    Keywords: consumer behaviour; purchasing decision; innovation; knowledge management; yoghurts; probiotics; attributes.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2024.10062254
  • Factors influencing consumer purchase behaviour when buying an electric car   Order a copy of this article
    by Tina Vukasovic, Biljana Dragojevic, Lidija Weis 
    Abstract: The aim of research is to find out what factors motivate respondents to buy an electric car. The empirical part was conducted with the help of a quantitative research method, using the technique of an online survey questionnaire. The target group were users of electric cars, of different age groups, work status and different levels of education, and the target population will include both men and women from the Slovenian regions. The obtained research results showed that increasing the awareness of environmental pollution affects the decision of potential customers to buy an electric car. The most important factors influencing the purchase of an electric car are price, range and charging time. Based on the results, innovative strategies and valuable insights are presented to guide efforts in motivating consumers towards the adoption of electric cars.
    Keywords: consumer behaviour; electric car; innovation; purchase motive; Slovenia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2025.10062517
  • Predictive performance of higher education students: the role of tutor attributes   Order a copy of this article
    by Chioma Okoro, Jonathan Tembo 
    Abstract: Pedagogical approaches influence student performance. This study examines the extent to which student performance is impacted by aspects such as tutor work ethic, personality, and content delivery, which are yet to be fully theorised from an educational context. Data was collected from 114 first- and second-year students in the business faculty of a higher education institution in South Africa. An artificial neural network (ANN) was used to complement correlation analysis findings and examine the importance of specific tutor qualities and student experiences on overall student performance. Results showed that self-directed learning actions such as self-planning, self-regulation and self-evaluation were significant predictors of overall student performance. The study provided substantial evidence for improving the tutoring function to enhance students’ performance.
    Keywords: academic achievement; learning; neural networks; student performance; tertiary institutions; tutoring.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2025.10063359
  • Innovation on the margins of the external evaluation of Portuguese schools   Order a copy of this article
    by Lídia Serra, José Matias Alves, Diana Soares 
    Abstract: Accountability is a tool to support school cultures focused on continuous improvement and promoting education quality. This article presents a study developed in Portugal regarding the external evaluation of schools operated between 2018 and 2021. The study, supported by documentary analysis of 60 external evaluation reports, combines qualitative and quantitative methods to understand whether there is an effect between the strengths and improvement areas and the evaluation assigned by the Inspectorate. The results suggest that a robust strategic vision and mobilising leadership are transversal predictors of all the schools’ evaluation domains. Other predictors are academic outcomes, teaching and learning-focused self-assessment, deepening self-evaluation practices, active teaching and learning methodologies, and commitment to inclusion. Some correlations presented problematic levels of consistency. No relationships were found between school evaluation and the factors regarding innovation. Thus, innovation appears as a marginal dimension of the school’s reality with no relevant impact on the external review.
    Keywords: external evaluation; innovation; school improvement; accountability; leadership; school autonomy; school self-evaluation; trust evaluation; mobilising middle leadership; school vision.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2025.10062956
  • Peer collaboration in P5: students' perspective of project-based learning in multicultural school setting   Order a copy of this article
    by Aryati Prasetyarini, Sofyan Anif, Harsono Harsono, Sabar Narimo, Mohamad Setio Nugroho 
    Abstract: In response to the imperative of nurturing citizens capable of thriving in a multicultural society, the Indonesian Government has launched the 'strengthening the profile of Pancasila students' project (P5). This study employed a mixed-method design, utilising online surveys featuring closed and open-ended questions for data collection. Out of the 805 participants invited to complete the survey, 487 willingly participated. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics and thematic content analysis. The findings highlight that P5, as an innovation in project-based learning, can serve not only to enhance problem-solving skills but also to promote mutual understanding among students. This aligns with Indonesia's educational objectives, particularly those about the realisation of the Pancasila student profile, with a specific focus on fostering critical thinking and embracing global diversity. This research offers valuable insights into students' perspectives on collaborating with their peers. Schools implementing P5 should consider innovative approaches to its implementation.
    Keywords: project-based learning; PjBL; Pancasila profile; multicultural education; P5.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2025.10063019
  • Effect of reflection-based English language instruction on writing quality among secondary school students   Order a copy of this article
    by Pratheesh Abraham, Roshna Varghese 
    Abstract: Teaching English as a second language is a complex and challenging activity, especially in the school education context. Reflective practice encourages engagement and is a method of learning through and from experience. This study investigates the effect of reflective teaching on English writing quality among higher secondary students. This study proposes an instructional design - Reflection-based English language instruction to improve the writing quality of the students. The current study employed mixed methods approach to collect and analyse the data. The data was collected from two different divisions of a government-aided school in the state of Kerala, India. Results reveal that there is significant progress in the writing quality of students after the treatment with RELI. The proposed RELI model can be an effective instructional design to facilitate reflective learning process in the teaching of the English language. This research provides practical advice to teacher educators, English teachers, school administrators, and policymakers.
    Keywords: reflective practices; writing quality; mixed methods approach; English language instruction; reflective diaries; secondary school students; task completion; comprehensibility; fluency; coherence and cohesion; vocabulary; language control.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2025.10063088