Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Innovation and Learning

International Journal of Innovation and Learning (IJIL)

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International Journal of Innovation and Learning (38 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • The Effects of Personalized Mathematic Instruction Supported by an Intelligent Tutoring System During the COVID-19 Epidemic and the Post-epidemic Era   Order a copy of this article
    by Jiyou Jia, Shanshan Li, Yanying Miao, JInxia Li 
    Abstract: It is hard to find empirical study to examine the online learning or blended learning’s effect on school pupils’ regular exam performance during the COVID-19 epidemic and afterwards. This study attempts to fill in this research gap. An intelligent tutoring system (ITS) was utilised in mathematics online instruction in many elementary and middle schools in China. It supports individualised teaching and learning and has positive effect on students’ learning. Two case studies are introduced to illustrate the system’s functions and effects on students’ mathematics learning performance. In the first case, a mathematics teacher in a junior high school provided the students with differentiated assignments during the epidemic. In the second case, a teacher in a primary school utilised the ITS to implement blended learning after the epidemic. Quasi-experiments were conducted and the regular examination’s data analysis result shows that the treatment group outperformed the control group.
    Keywords: online learning; personalised learning; blended learning; intelligent tutoring system; ITS; epidemic; mathematics instruction.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10046080
  • Perceptions and the New Paradigm of Thai Vocational Education   Order a copy of this article
    by Nongluck Manowaluilou, Prachyanun Nilsook, Prompilai Buasuwan 
    Abstract: The objectives were to: 1) assess and analyse students perceptions toward vocational education; 2) propose a new paradigm and alternative pathways to change students perceptions about vocational education. The use of mixed methods in this study developed a better understanding of secondary students decisions towards vocational education. The results obtained from different methods have enriched the understanding of vocational education issues and advanced research in vocational education. A five-point Likert scale questionnaire was used to analyse the perceptions of 802 secondary students from six Thai regions toward vocational education. In-depth interviews with 18 students in grades 712 were analysed using a content analysis. Secondary students who had completed or were enrolled in vocational education influenced secondary students views on vocational education. A new paradigm is required for new vocational education images, which may modify the image of vocational education and contribute to a new paradigm shift in vocational education.
    Keywords: vocational education innovation; new paradigm in vocational education; perceptions of vocational education; vocational learning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10046426
  • Inclusion of Academic Self-Efficacy, Motivation, and Engagement with The Pre-University Cognitive Ability To Predict Students’ University GPA   Order a copy of this article
    by Ahmed Aldarmahi, Ismail Fasfous, Nada Abuarab, Asma Alkusayer, Mohamed Ahmed 
    Abstract: In recent years, much attention is given by education researchers and accrediting bodies to the role of non-cognitive ability on academic success and potential employment. This research paper aimed to explore the combined influence of non-cognitive and cognitive predictors in forecasting the academic performance of students, measured by university grade point average (GPA), at the end of the second year in university in Saudi Arabia. Results indicate that the key predictors of university GPA were academic achievement test/general aptitude test (AAT/GAT) scores and High School GPA (HSGPA). Pre-university cognitive abilities (AAT, GAT, and HSGPA) were collected from 1,121 participant students. Academic self-efficacy (AS), achievement motivation (AM), academic engagement (AE), and social engagement (SE) of students as key non-cognitive abilities for academic performance were determined. A moderate positive correlation between cognitive factors and AS and AM was found. On the contrary, a weak negative correlation was found with the AE and SA. Using the stepwise regression analysis, AS, AM, and AE together significantly predicted the university GPA over and above AAT, GAT, and HSGPA. A binary logistic regression analysis model was able to predict college of medicine students with a percentage of 68.4% without prior knowledge of university GPA.
    Keywords: academic performance; self-efficacy; social engagement; motivation; cognitive factors; university GPA; higher education.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10046428
  • A Data Mining Approach to Classifying E-learning Satisfaction of Higher Education Students: A Philippine Case   Order a copy of this article
    by MARIVEL GO, Rodolfo Jr. Golbin, Severina Velos, Johnry Dayupay, Feliciana Cababat, Jeem Clyde Baird, Hazna Quiñanola 
    Abstract: E-learning has become increasingly important for higher education institutions. It offers an alternative mode of learning for educational institutions during critical situations such as the COVID-19 pandemic. While e-learning has gained growing attention in the current literature, a significant gap is left unaddressed for emerging economies, particularly the Philippines. In this paper, the factors of e-learning in a higher education institution in the Philippines are analysed. A data mining approach is used to predict the satisfaction of higher education students given eleven features of the subjects. Four classifiers: 1) logistic regression; 2) support vector machine; 3) multilayer perceptron; 4) decision tree, are used to develop the predictive models. The findings reveal that the features considered in this paper can be used to accurately predict the student satisfaction towards e-learning of higher education students in the Philippines.
    Keywords: e-learning; machine learning; data mining for e-learning; e-learning in the Philippines.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10046430
  • The productivity of technological networks in the Amazon innovation system: an analysis about the Triple Helix system in the state of Par   Order a copy of this article
    by Phelipe André Matos Cruz, Márcia Jucá Teixeira Diniz, Jorge O. Moreno 
    Abstract: One of the biggest challenges for the economic science is understanding sustainable practices of innovation. In this sense, we analysed factors contributing to the improvement and continuity of partnerships between university, government, and industry. For this, we observed institutional partnerships in Para (Amazon region) according to the structure of the Triple Helix model. We applied the data envelopment analysis (DEA) to measure their technological productivity and the social network analysis (SNA) to illustrate their connections. We found that the insufficiency of the Transformation Industry may have limited the entrepreneurial potential of universities and the development of the Innovation System in that region. This way, our experiment contributes to the Amazon innovation system (AIS) knowledge and attends to recent calls to adapt traditional models to present different realities of technological collaboration.
    Keywords: triple helix model; Amazonian innovation system; productivity; social network analysis; SNA; data envelopment analysis; DEA.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10046903
  • Cognitive Styles and Informal Learning Strategies in the Workplace: The Mediating Role of Intrinsic Motivation   Order a copy of this article
    by Sergio Santoro  
    Abstract: This study analyses the relationship between cognitive styles and managers’ informal learning strategies. Intrinsic motivation is considered to be a mediating variable between these two constructs. Structural equation modelling was used to evaluate the relations in the research model. The hypotheses proposed in our research model were tested on a sample of 244 bank managers from all Brazilian regions. Results show that, from the three-dimensional model of cognitive styles, knowing cognitive style has a positive effect on both cognitive and behavioural learning strategies, whereas planning and creating cognitive styles have positive effects on behavioural learning strategies but they have non-significant effects on informal cognitive learning strategies. Intrinsic motivation mediates the relation between cognitive styles and informal learning strategies.
    Keywords: psychological trait; cognitive styles; workplace informal learning strategies; intrinsic motivation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10047233
  • A Study on assessing innovation management capacity based on ISO 56002 for enterprises in Vietnam   Order a copy of this article
    by Van Thanh Nguyen, Minh Hiep Ha 
    Abstract: The survival of enterprises depends heavily on their ability to innovate. As the world becomes increasingly global and the development of new technologies is accelerating, the ability to innovate effectively may be even more important in the future. However, innovation management can be difficult and many managers feel frustrated that there is no clear method for doing it. The purpose of this study is to investigate the current state of innovation management of some enterprises in Vietnam and identify the main factors that affect innovation management in Vietnam’s businesses. The reality of innovation management was analysed by a survey on innovation management of businesses in Vietnam based on dimensions specified in the innovation management standard ISO 560002. The survey result shows that many of the innovation elements in ISO 56002 are found in the practices of leading enterprises in Vietnam and that in Vietnam, larger-sized firms tend to struggle to apply the requirements of ISO 56002.
    Keywords: productivity measurement; SMEs performance analysis; innovation management; innovation; best practices for innovation management; innovation practices; ISO 56002; Vietnam.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10047347
  • A Comparative Analysis of Instructional Delivery Methods in a Higher Education Institution in the United Arab Emirates.   Order a copy of this article
    by Lisa J. Brashear 
    Abstract: This comparative quantitative study aims at investigating whether instructional delivery methods, such as online, hybrid, blended learning and face to face delivery methods, had an effect on students’ grades when teaching mathematics to English language learners in a higher education Institution in the United Arab Emirates. Final course grades, in GPA format, of 574 students were collected over the course of three academic years. Assumptions of analysis of variance (ANOVA), Post hoc tests, effect sizes Cohen’s d were examined. The statistically significant difference across four different instructional delivery methods showed effect sizes that grew from medium to large to very large when increasing the amount of online instruction. These findings surpass other studies and suggest a high practical significance. The consequences of COVID?19 on instructional delivery methods had a favourable effect on students’ grades. Higher education Institutions in the UAE may use these findings for future planning, even beyond the pandemic. Recommendations are made for further research to include more variables and other disciplines.
    Keywords: comparative study; instructional delivery method; instruction; mode; higher education; UAE; quantitative study; group difference; ANOVA; post hoc test; effect size.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10048177
  • Student Emotions and Online Class Engagement in the Time of Pandemic   Order a copy of this article
    by Fayrene Chieng, Fidella Tiew, Wendy Law, Yew Hua Ling 
    Abstract: In response to COVID-19 pandemic, universities around the world have been forced to shift to online study. The abrupt shift towards online learning compounded by social isolation and reduced interactions with teachers and peers may have taken a toll on students’ emotions affecting their engagement. This study examined how positive and negative emotions influence online student engagement (OSE) in the time of pandemic. Quantitative research was conducted using an online survey that was administered to undergraduate students at a private university in East Malaysia, of which 207 have responded. The findings revealed that enjoyment and frustration influenced significantly and positively online student engagement. Conversely, anxiety and boredom are negatively related to online student engagement. This study improves understanding of students’ academic emotions and their online engagement. It helps higher education administrators and policymakers to explore the influential effects of students’ emotions on facilitating students’ online engagement.
    Keywords: academic emotions; online student engagement; OSE; higher education; pandemic; Sarawak.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10048199
  • Business School Strategies for Successful Research Commercialization Process in Thailand   Order a copy of this article
    by Sasivimol Meeampol, Bordin Rassameethes 
    Abstract: This study is empirical research that investigates how a business school in Thailand extended its resources for commercializing university research assets. We fed the process of the university's business school in terms of its commercialization strategy and the need for different research outputs. The research aimed to explore the role of the business school beyond the university Technology Transfer Office as part of empirical research. Data was gathered on alternative products, life span, market size, entry barriers, potential long-run growth rate, trend and taste of potential customers, and total market potential. In our project, the business team analyzed the research outputs of more than 100 products using three techniques Technology Readiness Levels, General Electric/McKinsey Matrix concept and consulting. The team worked closely with researchers, business school professors, business students, experienced entrepreneurs, and experts in different techniques to develop a strategy for bringing individual research-based products to the marketplace. The paper argues that the success of the research commercialization process relies on the development of appropriate assessment criteria, strategies, business attractiveness, competitive strength of research, and researchers' willingness to commercialize. The role of the business school is then to formulate business strategies appropriate for the circumstances. Finally, the intervention of the business school can create mutual trust between stakeholders and contribute significantly to a thriving research commercialization process, substantially lessening the likelihood of failure.
    Keywords: Consulting Approach; Commercialization; General Electric/McKinsey Matrix; Research Commercialization; Technology Readiness Levels (TRL); and Technology transfer.

  • Training Needs Analysis: The Impact of the Quality of Teaching on Student Learning, Staff Satisfaction, and Institute Business Performance   Order a copy of this article
    by Keai Lim 
    Abstract: This training needs analysis (TNA) study investigated and determined the influence of teaching quality on student learning, staff satisfaction, and institute business performance. Various data collection methodologies were adopted based on Tobey and McGoldrick (2016) BPLL structure which was then subjected to respective data analysis tools and yielded training and non-training issues and training recommendations. It was observed that the deployment of competent academic staff and assurance of high teaching quality was required to better understand the diverse international students as a means to increase student recruitment rate and boost the business performance. The TNA findings also revealed that it was critical to ensure the motivation and attitude of the academic staff towards reskilling and upskilling in areas that would improve their work performance. Accordingly, four training recommendations with respective learning outcomes and overviews, and two non-training recommendations were proposed to heighten academic staff’s global awareness and motivation at work.
    Keywords: BPLL framework; training needs analysis; TNA; quality teaching; student learning; staff satisfaction; business performance.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10048686
  • The effects of tablet PC-based instruction on junior high school students’ self-regulated learning and learning achievement   Order a copy of this article
    by Harrison Hao Yang, Ling Chen, Kexin Jia, Zhuo Qu, Yinghui Shi 
    Abstract: Tablet personal computers (PCs) are being widely used in K-12 education. The effectiveness of tablet PC-based instruction on student learning outcomes remains unclear. This quasi-experimental study examines the effects of tablet PC-based instruction on students’ self-regulated learning and learning achievement in Chinese language courses. Participants were 198 students from four junior high school classes in Northwest China. Two classes (n = 101) were set as the experimental group by employing a tablet PC-based instructional approach, while the other two classes (n = 97) were the control group, using a traditional approach without tablet PCs. The results showed students receiving tablet PC-based instruction had significantly higher learning achievement and self-regulated learning abilities than those receiving a traditional lecture-based approach without tablet PCs. In addition, this study found no significant differences in learning achievement among students with different learning styles. These results indicate that tablet PC-based instruction offers significant benefits for junior high school students.
    Keywords: tablet PC; junior high school student; self-regulated learning; SRL; learning achievement; learning styles.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10049055
  • Women on Boards and Firm Performance in Turkey: A Case Study of the ?stanbul Stock Exchange   Order a copy of this article
    by Özlem ATAY, Fatih Çetin, Elif Savaskan 
    Abstract: The aim of this study is to examine the relationship of women on board and firm performance. The research is based on the BIST-100 Index that consists of the 100 largest and most traded stocks from various sectors in Turkey. Data were collected from annual reports and company disclosures covering the 12-year period between 2010 to 2021. Using STATA software, we used a dynamic panel regression to test the effect of women on board via two different company performance indicators as return of assets (ROA) and return of equity (ROE). The results have indicated that there is not any significant relationship between board gender diversity and measured firm performance indicators. Also, the significant role of board diversity on the firm performance in terms of education and learning is examined. As a conclusion, possible theoretical and implicational explanations are provided.
    Keywords: gender diversity; gender inequality; innovation and learning; women on board; ?stanbul Stock Exchange; Turkey.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10049795
  • Tutorial Experience during Online Learning: A Topic Modelling Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Chioma Okoro, Peter Baur, Oliver Takawira 
    Abstract: The role of tutoring in teaching and learning cannot be overemphasised. However, limited studies exist on tutors’ strategies, tools, and techniques to assist in their role as teaching assistants. This study aimed to identify the strategies, tools, techniques, and challenges encountered during online tutoring during the lockdown periods necessitated by the COVID-19 pandemic. The study employed a quantitative approach to collect data among tutors within a faculty in a higher education institution. Short-text data were analysed to output themes using topic modelling in supervised machine learning. Findings indicated that technology and tutors were helpful and appreciated during the period under investigation. The challenges were primarily technical and social. Similarities between students’ and tutors’ perceptions were noted. The study’s findings are beneficial to higher education policymakers and authorities to better support tutors going forward. This is especially important as universities gradually reopen contact learning with blended/online approaches.
    Keywords: tutoring; students’ performance; higher education; topic modelling; sentiment analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10050123
  • A survey of smart learning practices: contexts, benefits, and challenges   Order a copy of this article
    by Billy Tak-Ming Wong, Kam Cheong Li, Thomas Hon Tung Chan 
    Abstract: Smart learning has emerged as a significant area of inquiry in both research and practice. However, related reviews of this area have given scant scholarly attention to its research contexts, benefits, and challenges. This paper seeks to extend the previous review studies to investigate smart learning in these areas. A total of 155 smart learning research papers published in 2011 to 2020 were collected from Web of Science, Scopus, and ProQuest for review. The findings reveal that most relevant studies were conducted in the computer science discipline with a particular focus on online and face-to-face smart learning at the university educational level. They also show the benefits of smart learning such as enhanced teaching and learning support and improved learning outcomes, as well as challenges such as integration with other systems and teachers competence and training. The findings serve to advance the understanding of smart learning and shed light on its future design and implementation.
    Keywords: smart learning; smart education; contexts; benefits; challenges.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10050402
  • Learning in a Hybrid Synchronous Mode: Experiences and Views of University Students   Order a copy of this article
    by Kam Cheong Li, Billy Tak-Ming Wong, Reggie Kwan, Manfred Wu 
    Abstract: This paper reports the results of an empirical study on students’ experiences and views of hybrid synchronous learning based on its institution-wide implementation in a university in Hong Kong. Data were collected from a questionnaire survey with 2,752 participants and a focus group discussion with 21 participants. The results reveal the students’ positive feedback on this learning mode such as enhancing motivation, willingness to ask questions, having a suitable environment to attend online lessons and understanding course contents. The positive views also cover instructors’ teaching in terms of paying attention to students, time management, teaching progress, maintaining student engagement, handling technical matters, as well as administration of assignments and assessments. However, issues and challenges were also found, such as students’ interactions with classmates and their relationships with them. The results provide relevant information for education institutions to design and offer effective hybrid synchronous education for students.
    Keywords: hybrid synchronous learning; face-to-face learning; COVID-19; pandemic; university students; Hong Kong.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10050534
  • To Boom and Bloom? Didactic Development in Online Distance Learning: Students   Order a copy of this article
    by Ivana Simonova, Ludmila Faltynkova, Katerina Kostolanyova, Slavomira Klimszova, Tereza Guziurova 
    Abstract: After a 18-month period of online distance instruction (ODI) during the COVID-19 pandemic, the question appears about the quality of the process. To answer the question, the main objective of the research is to compare the process of ODI in autumn 2020 and one year later, and to discover whether there is any development. In total, 500 respondents participated. Data were collected through two online questionnaires. Each respondent provided feedback on two courses first, on the course that they appreciated; second, on the course that they did not like. Four criteria were applied for evaluation of the courses: 1) the first contact and communication; 2) learning content acquisition; 3) learning content delivery and assessment; 4) students final feedback on online distance instruction. The findings discovered positive and negative features of the process. The findings served as a basis for didactic recommendations when designing and conducting online distance courses.
    Keywords: online distance instruction; COVID-19; upper secondary; higher education; didactic recommendations; students’ reflection; didactic development; didactic principles; TP(A)CK; SAMR model.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10050757
  • 4C-based learning model as an effective tool in language classrooms: The case of Kazakh schools   Order a copy of this article
    by Gulzat Berkinbayeva, Zhanat Dauletbekova, Perizat Yelubayeva, Zhanna Bugybayeva 
    Abstract: The 4C-based learning model aims to develop students’ communication, collaboration, critical thinking and creativity skills. These skills have been recognised by educators as essential elements in training successful professionals. However, a preliminary review of school curricula concluded that the 4C model is poorly applied, and the main focus is still on subject knowledge. For this reason, this study aims to develop and describe teaching strategies that could integrate the 4C model into a language learning process. As the main teaching method, cooperative learning was shown in teamwork, games, and case studies were selected for critical analysis. Hence, a fully visible gain in the 4C model development allows concluding that the resulting learning strategies were highly effective as didactic instrumentation. Practical implications are the didactic scenarios that could be used in foreign language teaching with the objective of both subject knowledge and universal competencies included in the 4C model.
    Keywords: 4C model; communication; critical thinking; collaboration; creativity; corporate learning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10050832
  • A Study on Employee Mindfulness and Organizational Citizenship Behavior? Job Satisfaction and In-role Behavior as Mediators   Order a copy of this article
    by Thuy Dung Pham Thi, Nam Tien Duong 
    Abstract: This study aimed to examine whether employees improve their job satisfaction and performance with mindfulness. A remote mediating model was used with mindfulness as an independent variable, job satisfaction (JS) and in-role behaviour (IRB) as mediating variables, and organisational citizenship behaviour individual (OCBI) and organisational citizenship behaviour organisation (OCBO) as dependent variables. Questionnaires were delivered to 381 employees in Vietnam. A path analysis was used with bootstrapping estimation for hypothesis testing. The findings showed that: 1) employee mindfulness could be a predictor of JS, IRB, OCBI and OCBO; 2) JS can be a predictor of IRB, OCBI and OCBO; 3) IRB can be a predictor of OCBI and OCBO; 4) with JS and IRB as mediating variables in sequence, mindfulness has a partial remote mediating effect on both OCBI and OCBO. The findings suggested that companies should pay attention to the mindfulness of interviewees when recruiting new employees.
    Keywords: Mindfulness; Job satisfaction; Job performance; In-role behavior; Organizational Citizenship Behavior - Individual; Organizational Citizenship Behavior - Organization; Learning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10051145
  • Utilizing PPM model to explore the satisfaction and word-of-mouth marketing of students studying abroad   Order a copy of this article
    by Shu-Ching Chang, Shih-Hao Liu, Jin-Long Wang 
    Abstract: The number of mainland China students studying abroad has grown substantially in the past ten years, and it has become the main source of students from abroad. This study aims to explore the influencing factors and satisfaction of the Chinese mainland students studying abroad and to further explore the effect of word-of-mouth marketing for international students. In this study, Push-Pull-Mooring model was used to construct the research model and the partial least square method of the structural equation model was used for analysis. The results indicate that schooling motivation and the experience will positively affect learning satisfaction. The impact of experience on learning satisfaction is greater than the schooling motivation on learning satisfaction, and schooling motivation has a positive impact on the experience. In addition, learning satisfaction has a positive and significant impact on word of mouth. Finally, this research puts forward specific suggestions on the school’s enrolment strategy.
    Keywords: Push-Pull-Mooring model; PPM; schooling motivation; learning satisfaction; experience; word-of-mouth marketing; WOM.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10051146
  • Observing Cognitive Load During Online Learning with Various Task Complexities: An Eye Tracking Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Prabaria Vesca Yulianandra, Suatmi Murnani, Paulus Insap Santosa, Sunu Wibirama 
    Abstract: E-learning has been used to support distance education during COVID-19 pandemic. Unfortunately, little attention has been paid on the relationship between design complexity of an e-learning system, task complexity, and users’ cognitive load. Here we conducted a novel investigation to observe effects of design complexity and task complexity towards users’ cognitive load. Each group of participants was exposed to different interfaces of e-learning: low, medium, and high design complexity. Participants were asked to perform both simple and complex tasks. We used four instruments: eye tracking, cognitive load questionnaire, system usability scale (SUS), and user experience questionnaire (UEQ). Experimental results show that task complexity and design complexity significantly affect the eye tracking metrics (p < 0.05) and scores of cognitive load questionnaire (p < 0.05). Based on experimental results, we recommend an e-learning system with medium complexity to achieve minimum cognitive burden in online learning during COVID-19 pandemic.
    Keywords: user experience; e-learning; design complexity; task complexity; cognitive load; eye tracking.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10051446
  • A Response to the Educational Roadblock Due to the Pandemic: How Can a University Virtual Tour Experience Affect Enrollment Intentions   Order a copy of this article
    by Hugo Nathanael Yuwono, Widia Resti Fitriani, Achmad Nizar Hidayanto, Sherah Kurnia 
    Abstract: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, most countries have prohibited physical and social gatherings. The same applies in the education sector, where open houses are forbidden. To help solve the issue, we decided to investigate the impact of virtual tour experiences on enrolment intentions. The virtual tour is a simulation experience incorporating various media device. The experiences felt by the participants were compiled via a survey participated by 325 high school students in Indonesia, where results were evaluated by PLS-SEM. The results show that enrolment intention is affected by four difference experiences. The sensory and behavioural experiences involve the physical actions related to the experience. The emotional and intellectual experiences involve the relationship between the participant’s psychology and the university’s image. This is one the earliest studies on the impact of virtual tours on enrolment intentions. It can be effective methods through its ability to give first-hand experience around the university.
    Keywords: virtual tour; university image; enrolment intentions; COVID-19 pandemic; experiences; innovation; learning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10051447
  • The key factors of SMEs' resilience based on organisational behaviour theory   Order a copy of this article
    by Joseph Awali Sebuwufu, Binod Timilsina 
    Abstract: The global economic crisis and COVID-19 pandemic has increased turbulence and uncertainties in business environment, as a result small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are facing more challenges. However, there remain open questions, how SMEs cope, survive and develop strategies that orchestrate resilience during these times. Using a sample of 3,355 SMEs management configuration systems from European Union, the study explores how SMEs resiliently prevailed during 2008 financial crisis and decade onwards. The study, considered return on equity (ROE) ratio as a measure of resilience, explore the association of SMEs’ dynamic managerial capabilities, test the significance of management configurations, and propose an innovative framework that aims to improve competitiveness. The research demonstrated that top management configurations coupled with human resource management (HRM) could promote resilient performance during crisis and uncertain business environment. In addition, the study offers choices on management configuration to decision makers, highlights the research limitations and future studies.
    Keywords: dynamic capabilities; DCs; small and medium enterprise; SME; resilience; human resource management; HRM; organisational behaviour; OB; innovation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10051540
  • Urban University Students in Latin America's Perceptions of Covid-19 Imprisonment   Order a copy of this article
    by Edwin Hernan Ramirez-Asis, Martha Guerra-Muñoz, Roger Norabuena-Figueroa, Laura Nivin-Vargas, Juan Villanueva-Calderón, Eva Zarzosa-Marquez 
    Abstract: The coronavirus pandemic generates serious difficulties for the educational systems of Latin America, and the efforts to contain the contagion caused the unscheduled closure of universities; research explores the effects of the COVID-19 and the barriers to adequate classes not face-to-face in higher education in universities in Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. The data was collected through online questionnaires to 856 students. The data were analysed using SPSS V26 software through factor analysis. The findings point to unfavourable effects, such as the fact that it impairs appropriate learning, extends the amount of time spent studying, creates debt for parents, and restricts pre-professional practises. On the other hand, to ensure that students can participate in non-contact classes during the pandemic, it will be necessary to overcome obstacles such as low levels of digital literacy, limited levels of connectivity, limited availability of shared computer equipment with family members, and insufficient instructional methods.
    Keywords: online education; coronavirus; virtual platform; lockdown; digital learning; special education; loss of resources; health concerns.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10051847
  • Alumni’s perspectives on the training program of the universities administered by the Vietnam Ministry of Transport: An EFA-based descriptive study on CDIO   Order a copy of this article
    by Thi Lan Anh Vu, Nguyen Thi Thu Hang, Nguyen Loc 
    Abstract: This article reports on a study of four universities run by the Vietnam Ministry of Transport. The study uses a 40-Likert-seven-point-item questionnaire and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to analyse 312 alumni's perceptions on the academic program. The current academic program fulfils 45.19% of alumni soft skill, work communication, and work skill needs. The six scales derived from the 12 CDIO standards that influence alumni attitudes are, from strongest to weakest: 1) teaching and learning methods; 2) design-build experiences; 3) integrated curriculum expected; 4) learning outcomes; 5) assessment and evaluation; 6) faculty teaching skills. The EFA results show a good correlation between the six components, with R values of 0.922 and R2 of 0.851. 85.10% of the six criteria explain the stakeholders' requirements. Sig. value 0.0005, from F (6, 305) = 289.788, shows that the regression model predicts alumni perspectives. The results provide clear evidence to the academic program designers of the four universities in the study when revising the academic program to approach the CDIO philosophy.
    Keywords: CDIO academic program; CDIO standards; alumni’ perspectives; change management; EFA-based descriptive.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10051964
  • The Innovation of Electronic Module Integrated Job Sheet (E-MIJS) Chassis Dynamometer Teaching Materials to Improve Machine Performance Practicum Competence   Order a copy of this article
    by Ahmad Mustamil Khoiron, Pardjono Pardjono, Istanto Wahyu Djatmiko 
    Abstract: The learning process in the Automotive Engineering Education Study Program's Machine Performance Testing course is still proving tough due to the lack of an independent study guide. The electronic module chassis dynamometer is one of the learning aids that allows students to improve their competency outcomes while also supporting student learning independence. The electronic module integrated job sheet (E-MIJS) chassis dynamometer is a digital teaching material designed to facilitate students in the independent learning process in achieving the expected competencies. The 4D model development process was employed, which consists of four stages of development: definition, design, development, and distribution. The results showed that E-MIJS was placed in the appropriate category by material and media specialists. The difference in learning outcomes between pre-test and post-test findings demonstrates that E-MIJS is an effective and efficient tool for improving student competence.
    Keywords: Electronic Module Integrated Job Sheet; Chassis Dynamometer; Practicum Learning for Machine Performance.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10052417
  • The Relation between Locus of Control and Creativity at Work: The Mediating Role of Workplace Informal Learning Strategies   Order a copy of this article
    by Sergio Santoro  
    Abstract: This study examines the effects of locus of control on creativity at work and whether workplace informal learning strategies mediate the relation between those two constructs. Structural equation modelling was used to evaluate the relationships in the research model. The hypotheses proposed in our research model were tested on a sample of 244 bank managers from all Brazilian regions. Results show that internal locus of control has a positive and significant effect on creativity at work; conversely, external locus of control has a non-significant effect on creativity at work. In addition, internal locus of control has a positive and significant effect on both cognitive and behavioural learning strategies. Cognitive learning strategies have a positive and significant effect on creativity at work, which indicates that workplace informal learning strategies partially mediate the relationship between locus of control and creativity at work.
    Keywords: locus of control; creativity at work; workplace informal learning strategies.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2024.10052520
  • Model Methodology for Shaping the Source Competence of Future History Teachers   Order a copy of this article
    by Altyngul Kaskabassova, Gulfira Otepova, Alma F. Dautova, Zamzagul A. Sabdanbekova, Aizhan Makisheva 
    Abstract: The current study sought to develop and evaluate a model for the formation of source analysis competence by future history teachers. Authors developed a methodological model for the formation of source competence of future history teachers based on the structuring method and assessed. Comparative analysis of the data of the diagnostic survey conducted based on the author’s questionnaire and the final control showed a significant increase in the level of formation of the source competence of the respondents in the experimental group. The current study suggests that modern history teachers are unprepared to use source analysis effectively during the educational process. The methodology developed by the authors to assess the level of formation of source competence may be useful in personnel competitions and professional hiring selection. The study opens prospects for new research in the field of professional development and effectiveness of history teachers.
    Keywords: professional training; innovation; source competence; learning; written sources; history teachers; methodology; methodological model.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2024.10052669
  • Accelerating Preservice Elementary School Teacher Students Problem Solving Skills through Online Case Study Discussion (OCSD)   Order a copy of this article
    by Ahmad Kamal Sudrajat, Hana Andriningrum, Supartinah Supartinah, Dita Purwinda Anggrella 
    Abstract: As part of adapting learning activities in universities during the pandemic, learning management using online discussions has begun to be in demand in distance education in Indonesia. Discussion helps students to acquire and share knowledge and skills in dealing with real teaching problems in the future. However, active participation among students and its implementation is still not optimal. Case studies were chosen to increase student participation in learning and problem solving skills. Forty-two preservice teacher students from the Elementary Education Department, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta participated in this study. Tasks are given as problem solving scenarios in group discussions with different topics for each meeting and group. This study used a mixed-method design. Problem solving skills are measured by problem solving tests and interviews with preservice teacher students. Our findings suggest that OCSD can improve problem solving skills. Using case studies trains student teacher candidates to face real problems in their classrooms.
    Keywords: case study; online discussion; preservice teacher; problem solving skills; PSS.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2024.10052843
  • Students’ engagement in online flipped Mandarin as a foreign language learning   Order a copy of this article
    by Wee Ling Kuan, Fitri Suraya Mohamad 
    Abstract: This study examines how students respond to online flipped Mandarin as a foreign language (MFL) learning regarding their behavioural, emotional, cognitive and agentic engagement. It also explores MFL students responses to language learning challenges provided via online flipped learning. This explanatory sequential mixed methods design study included 104 full-time undergraduate students participating in an elementary MFL course. The findings revealed that students were most involved in behavioural engagement and least in agentic engagement. The main code for language learning challenges was categorised into six themes: lack of self-efficacy, time management, social interaction issues, language elements, emotional problems, and physical environment constraints/technical difficulties. This study reveals that MFL students strived to adapt to the online flipped language learning approach compared to Mandarin language elements. Furthermore, it was observed that students had higher expectations of teacher being, which are affective aspects of being more involved in the learning context.
    Keywords: online flipped language learning; students’ engagement; Mandarin as a foreign language learning; Mandarin as a foreign language; MFL.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2024.10053036
  • Problem-Based Learning: Integrating Web-Quest and Case Study Strategies in Students with Hearing Impairments   Order a copy of this article
    by Perizat Parmankulova, Saule Zholdasbekova, Amangeldi Saipov, Dina Madieva, Kulzira Kassimbekova 
    Abstract: The study theoretically examines the practical implementation of web-quest and case-study strategies in teaching students with hearing impairments. Sixty students with hearing impairments from the Shymkent City Light Industry and Service College in Kazakhstan participated in web-quest interaction and case studies. Students provided information on three topics, which are general requirements for sewing, processing small finishing parts, and processing initial shelves and backs. The problem-based learning method was applied including task assignment, web research, teamwork, self-evaluation, and individual study. Participants presented their findings by print, PowerPoint, or video due to their hearing impairment. The web content was used in solving the case study tasks. By following the problem-based learning method, this study develops a training project for students with hearing impairments. The successful completion of the project reveals that integrating web-quest and case study strategies in training hearing-impaired students with practical skills is essential for their profession as fashion designers. An experiment has been conducted to prove the advantage and effectiveness of problem-based learning. Sixty students with hearing impairments took part in the experiment.
    Keywords: teaching students with hearing impairments; problem-based learning; method web-quest; method case-study; the advantage of problem-based learning; the effectiveness of problem-based learning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2024.10053099
  • The Intention of Social Media Users in Adopting Environmental Tourism Recommendations in Indonesia: Transactive Memory System Perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Dony Martinus Sihotang, Muhammad Faisar T.R, Rai I. Saraswati, Swastinika Naima M, Savira M. Santoso, Adhi Yuniarto, Achmad Nizar Hidayanto 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate how information content related to tourism in Indonesia can influence the intention of social media users to adopt recommendations related to environmental tourism destinations. This study adopts transactive memory systems (TMS), which are currently an important factor in information sharing. In social media, tourism information sharing activities occur, so social media can be said to be TMS. This paper discusses three measures used by TMS, namely specialisation, credibility, and coordination. This study uses an empirical analysis of 170 social media users. The data collected were analysed using the partial least square (PLS) method, a statistical analysis technique based on structural equation modelling (SEM). Our findings reveal that TMS credibility is positively related to community commitment and communication quality. Likewise, with TMS coordination. But not for TMS specialisation; it was not found to be related to communication commitment and communication quality. Other findings reveal a significant relationship between community commitment and communication quality on acceptance of recommendations from social media.
    Keywords: transactive memory system; TMS; social media; tourism recommendations.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2024.10053551
  • Elevating the organisational innovation and knowledge sharing capability through soft TQM practices   Order a copy of this article
    by Ai-Fen Lim 
    Abstract: The development of human capital skills and expertise is needed to transform the nation's manufacturing industry into one that is smart, innovative, and resilient. Developing a human capital strategy (soft TQM practices) that places a premium on knowledge sharing (KS) and organisational innovation (OI) is crucial for the manufacturing sector's digital transformation. The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive understanding of the significance and connections between soft TQM practices, KS, and OI among manufacturers. Two hundred twenty two valid responses from manufacturing firms were analysed, the study discovered a significant and positive relationship between these three-dimensional variables using partial least squares-structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM). Meanwhile, KS acts as a mediator between soft TQM practices and OI. By advancing theories of knowledge-based dynamic capabilities (KBDC), this research demonstrates the great influence of soft TQM practices on both KS and OI, which is important for manufacturing firms redesigned pivotal management strategy.
    Keywords: total quality management; TQM; knowledge sharing; organisational innovation; knowledge-based dynamic capabilities; KBDC; partial least squares-structural equation modelling; PLS-SEM.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10045589
  • Undergraduate capstone projects in information technology course: bridging the gap between theory and practical skills   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Noman, Mohd Khairudin Kasiran 
    Abstract: This study was conducted in the School of Computing at a public university in Malaysia to identify the current issues in the existing undergraduate capstone project and to identify ways to improve the existing capstone project framework to make it more effective. Data was collected through in-depth, semi-structured interviews of faculty members and students who had recently completed the capstone project and focus group discussions. The findings reveal issues that could be categorised into: 1) lack of orientation; 2) role ambiguity between the supervisor and the lecturer; 3) misalignment between technical skills, project requirement, and support; 4) students' prior educational background. Formal orientation, clear role allotment for lecturers and supervisors, more projects for each major subject, project-based experiences during courses, and inculcation of soft skills among students were some of the suggestions identified through data. The implications for various stakeholders and the limitations of the study have been discussed.
    Keywords: capstone; project-based learning; computer education; Malaysia; undergraduate education.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10045889
  • Developing entrepreneurial intentions in emerging markets: a comprehensive review of educational factors   Order a copy of this article
    by Zainab Abdallah, Mohammad Hamdi Al Khasawneh, Amro Al-Madadha, Majd Abedrabbo 
    Abstract: This research investigates the effect of entrepreneurship education on graduates' entrepreneurial intentions in emerging markets. It examines the effect of student, teaching, and learning factors on graduates' entrepreneurship intentions in one integrated model. A quantitative approach using survey methodology was conducted in the emerging market of Jordan. In addition, structural equation modelling with 614 responses was carried out to assess the relationships hypothesised in this research. The findings indicate strong evidence for optimising entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial intentions. Furthermore, effectively motivating students to study entrepreneurship using modern teaching capabilities reduces risk-aversion attitude towards entrepreneurial activities and positively increases entrepreneurial intentions towards starting up a business. This research extends the existing literature by incorporating other perspectives beyond student factors, including teaching and learning environment factors, to conclude the significant factors that facilitate entrepreneurship education. Likewise, the paper examined the effect of entrepreneurial education in emerging markets, which remains under-researched.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship; entrepreneurship education; entrepreneurial intentions; emerging markets; Jordan.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10046429
  • Online education in COVID-19 scenario: challenges, mitigation strategies and exploring a case study in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Anindita Desarkar 
    Abstract: India is one of the largest nations with many geographical differences, which makes the learning process a difficult one in the present COVID-19 scenario. However, online mode offers big opportunity to reach out to students in remote locations though it has its own challenges too. This paper identifies a few such challenges and suggests mitigation strategies towards the same. In addition, an in-depth analysis is performed on a real COVID-19 student dataset to understand student overall behaviour in this pandemic situation as well as their experience in the online learning mode. Also, an automated framework of performing student feedback analysis is presented, which can be utilised to understand the quality of online classes by finding more useful insights from student responses. These measures will definitely support a vulnerable student population to overcome the uncertainties present in the period of extraordinary disruption.
    Keywords: student; pandemic; learning environment; online education; psychological challenges; feedback analysis tool; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10045959
  • European contexts of volunteering and inclusion of migrant children in schools   Order a copy of this article
    by Valerij Dermol, Špela Javornik, Susana De Juana-Espinosa, Plamen Vladkov Mirazchiyski, Aleš Trunk 
    Abstract: Volunteers are perceived as an important link in the inclusion of migrant students in schools, when institutions cannot take care of this on their own. For the theoretical part of the article systematic literature review, it was done by starting with 15,826 initial results, systematically reduced to 15 sources included in the theoretical part. The article discusses the role of volunteering in the inclusion of migrant students in schools and pay special attention on the results (reasons/need to volunteer) within the RoMigSc project. While the results show that volunteers expect personal benefit (e.g., career advancement), most of them are also internally (e.g., concerned for the disadvantaged ones) and externally (e.g., people close to them also volunteer) motivated. Future research and special practice shall consider recruiting internally motivated volunteers to work with migrant students. Although personal benefits can also increase volunteering, internal motivation is one of the leading factors.
    Keywords: volunteering; migrant students; motivation for volunteering; volunteering benefits; youth; RoMigSc project; school inclusion; migrant integration; language barrier; cultural diversity.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10050122
  • Metacognitive strategies use in fostering EFL learners' writing skill during remote learning   Order a copy of this article
    by Raja Muhammad Ishtiaq Khan, Tribhuwan Kumar 
    Abstract: Writing is a critical ability for efficient communication practiced extensively starting in primary school, yet individuals do not demonstrate appropriate writing competence in higher education. The closure of the offline classes has also impacted the learners' writing abilities. This quasi-experimental study aims to improve students' writing skills in the online classroom by boosting metacognitive practices. During online writing practice, learners were given instructions to use and gather information using metacognitive strategies. This study's respondents were 80 EFL students from PSAU's intermediate level. The data was acquired using a metacognitive survey and a writing task test. The Cambridge University rubrics were used to score the writing test. The metacognitive strategies employed by the teacher-researcher in writing paragraphs assigned during the writing instruction aided students' consciousness in developing their writing process. The results showed an increase in the participant's writing skills inconsistency and cohesion. It suggests that metacognitive strategies are essential in strengthening learners' critical thinking capacity and encouraging them to organise, develop, and plan writing into a meaningful narrative.
    Keywords: writing skill; metacognitive skill; writing practice; remote learning; teaching mobility; metacognitive survey; PSAU's intermediate level.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJIL.2023.10046081