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International Journal of Indian Culture and Business Management

International Journal of Indian Culture and Business Management (IJICBM)

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International Journal of Indian Culture and Business Management (91 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Perception study of customers of a global fast food restaurant in India and U.S.A   Order a copy of this article
    by Rajesh Srivastava, Manimoy Paul, Sandeep Bhanot 
    Abstract: The purpose of the research is to find out about differences in the US, and Indian customers based on awareness, popularity, value for money, amenities, services, and lifestyles moderated by demographic about McDonalds a global fast-food restaurant in two, distinct culture. The study has been conducted, where primary data has been collected by means of interview method through the intercept technique in India, and in the USA through interviews after taking permission. There is a significant difference between Indian customers and US customers about perception of value for money, amenities, lifestyle, service, and classiness of a global fast-food restaurant McDonalds. An application of two theories-Consumer culture theory, and social exchange theory gave an insight to the customer perception towards a global brand-McDonalds.
    Keywords: perception; country culture; fast food restaurants; McDonald restaurants; brand communication; consumer culture theory; CCT; social exchange theory.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10040211
  • The role of socio-demographic characteristics in shaping willingness to accept electric cars   Order a copy of this article
    by Saurabh Kumar, Syeedun Nisa 
    Abstract: As the best solution to the currently raging environmental problems, the number of electric cars (ECs) and their users is increasing rapidly, yet they constitute a small share of the total Indian auto market. The present study aimed to analyse the effect of socio-demographic factors of Indian people on their willingness to accept ECs. The characteristics and geographic locations of the people of the Delhi-NCR region were charted, and 514 samples were obtained for final analysis through purposive and convenient sampling. Subsequently, the effect of their socio-demographic characteristics was analysed on their willingness to accept ECs. The findings revealed a significant effect of gender, education and annual household income, and an insignificant effect of age, occupation, and the number of cars in the household on people’s willingness to accept ECs. The study’s findings will benefit the prospective car consumer, policymakers, car manufacturers and marketers.
    Keywords: electric cars; socio-demographic factors; willingness to accept; WTA .
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10040228
  • Industrial Infrastructure Development of Cottage Industries for Inclusive Economic Growth in Sustainable Manner: Case Study of Urban Growth Centre Bishnupur, West Bengal, India   Order a copy of this article
    by Aditi Nag 
    Abstract: Cottage industrial sector has been both a concern and of importance over the years, however, significant intervention has not been seen towards its inclusive development facilitation over several decades. India, ranked 68 in 141 on GCI, is one of those countries which have numerous cottage enterprises and SSI but lacks resources, policies and practices to support their growth and development. The SDGs have formed the baseline for development but has a long way to go from acceptance to implementation. Cottage industries form the backbone of rural areas and have optimal opportunities for job creation; locally sourcing SSI has probable advantage for sustainable development over raw material importing SSI and cottage enterprises. Major obstacle areas include financial development, infrastructural growth and inclusion, technological innovation and integrated development facilitation. The paper explores past and recent developments in policies specialising in cottage industries and forms a stepping stone for further research and development.
    Keywords: cottage industry; policy framework; sustainability assessment; socio-economic impact; SDG 9; industrial infrastructure; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10040261
    by Sunayana Kumar, Rakhshanda Parveen 
    Abstract: To achieve sustainable development, SMEs must strive towards growth. Studies have proved that strategic planning is one of the tools which can effectively escalate the performance of SMEs. This study attempts to understand the scenario of the strategic planning process in the small firms located in Delhi/NCR using an interpretive approach. Descriptive analysis is used to know the manager’s perception towards the planning process and the barriers they face while adopting strategic planning. Data was collected through a structured interview with the 47 owners/managers. The investigation of the result shows that despite having a positive notion towards strategic planning, the managers lack the knowledge of proper implementation of the process.
    Keywords: Delhi/NCR; descriptive approach; planning tools; SMEs; strategic planning; entrepreneurship.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10040291
  • Modeling and Prediction of COVID-19 to Measure the Impact of Lockdown on Organization in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Pushpa Singh, Rajeev Agrawal 
    Abstract: This paper attempts to model and prediction of the outbreak of COVID-19 through the susceptible-infectious-removed (SIR) epidemic model with a specific focus on India. The impact of lockdown on transmission rate has been exponentially decaying the transmission rate that is very significant in order to control the spread of the disease. The proposed model can approximately predict the newly infected cases and recovered cases of COVID-19. This paper is based on the SIR based mathematical model designed to predict the newly infected cases and recovered cases of COVID-19. Transmission rate and recovery rate parameter has studied with the impact of a lockdown situation. The simulation result predicts that the epidemic grows AugustOctober 2020, and after that, it started to shrink with the assumed constrained scenario. This study measures the impact of lockdown on various organisations such as the health sector, e-commerce, IT sector, etc. in India.
    Keywords: COVID-19; transmission rate; recovery rate; SIR model; lockdown; organisation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10040358
  • Determining the relationship between job satisfaction and job burnout of the faculties of business school in Delhi   Order a copy of this article
    by Gautam Srivastava, Deepa Gupta 
    Abstract: The faculties are the architects of the future of a country as they shape human beings. So, it becomes very necessary that the faculties must be satisfied with their job, only then they can give their full performance. But unfortunately, it has been found that some of the faculties are facing the problem of job burnout. The aim of this study is classified into two parts. Firstly, the study determines the correlation of job satisfaction and factors of job burnout among faculties of business school in Delhi. After that, determine the association of factors of job burnout and organisational factors has been determined. Fifty faculties of business school in Delhi participated in the survey. The study concludes that faculties have a high degree of job satisfaction and a low degree of job burnout. The study also confirmed the association of job satisfaction, internal factors of organisation and job burnout.
    Keywords: job satisfaction; job burnout; role clarity; role conflict; role ambiguity.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10040540
  • Analytical Study of Effect of Agnihotra on AQI and its Psycho-Social Impacts: A Perspective amidst Second Wave of Pandemic Challenges in National Capital Region of Indian Subcontinents   Order a copy of this article
    by Rohit Rastogi, Neeti Tandon, SHEELU SAGAR, Bhavna Singh, T. Rajeshwari, Mukund Rastogi, Priyanshi Garg, Madhulika Singh, Luv Dhamija 
    Abstract: This research paper is a step towards the study to see how Vedic Homa Therapy is an effective natural approach for treatment of any pollution, heavy PM 2.5 and PM 10 particles and the use of Mango and Cow dung wood in the cure of ailment, depression, pollution control by just focusing on its lyrics, sound, diction when done continuously. By performing Yagya, two energies are produced. Heat energy from fire of Yagya and the Sound energy from vibration of the Vedic Mantras, both the energies combine to give self-healing results on any disease and its ionisation produces a vital role in curbing polluting particles. The Study has done comparative analysis on emission of gaseous particles after Yagya post second wave of Covid’19 and also through ML algorithms and statistical analysis; it demonstrates the auto correlation and high correlation on different parameters responsible for pollution measurement and for AQI.
    Keywords: Healthcare 4.0; AI; machine learning; sensor and IoT; Vedic science; Homa therapy; Yajna and mantra; sensors.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10040589
  • Comparison of E-Service Quality of Indian E-Commerce Websites   Order a copy of this article
    by Sanjay Dhingra, Shelly Gupta, Ruchi Bhatt 
    Abstract: Service quality has been recognised as an essential tool to achieve a competitive advantage in this technological era. By providing high-quality services to its consumers, a marketer can distinguish itself from other online service providers. This research explores the determinants of e-service quality and then compares three e-commerce websites based on these factors. The five e-service quality factors, reliability, personalisation, trust, website design, and responsiveness, have been identified from the literature. The responses of 285 users were analysed using the ANOVA test to evaluate the e-service quality of Amazon, Flipkart, and Snapdeal. The results indicated that the e-service quality of Snapdeal on all five factors was perceived significantly less than Amazon and Flipkart. Also, there was no statistical difference between the e-service quality of Amazon and Flipkart.
    Keywords: electronic commerce; electronic service quality; ANOVA.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10040626
  • Statistical Analysis of Air Quality by Emission of Different Woods: Facing the Threats of Global Pandemic with Healthcare 4.0   Order a copy of this article
    by Rohit Rastogi, SHEELU SAGAR, Bhavna Singh, Neeti Tandon, T. Rajeshwari, Priyanshi Garg, Madhulika Singh, Komal Singh, Luv Dhamija, Mayank Sharma 
    Abstract: Earths atmosphere is mainly made up of two gases nitrogen and oxygen, which together comprise of 99% of gases therein. The other gases comprise of remaining 1% of atmosphere. Amongst these are the five major air pollutants viz., ground level ozone, airborne particles or aerosols, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. Excess of these pollutants in the atmosphere is risky to human health. They are the main ingredients of smog air quality is measured with the air quality index. An AQI under 50 is considered as good air quality however as the AQI number increases, it becomes a concern for human health. In order to find a non-conventional solution to air pollution problem, it has been proposed to do Yagya, a fire process with three different samidhas namely mango wood, bargad wood and dry cow dung sticks and study their relative emissions and ability to reduce the aerosols PM2.5, and PM10. In this paper, researcher has measured the PM levels (PM2.5 and PM10) and carbon dioxide CO2 along with AQI and temperature, humidity and parameters continuously on different woods in a fixed size room and constrained environment to establish that Yagya is a reliable source to reduce environment pollution.
    Keywords: PM level; emission; machine learning; sensor and IoT; pollution; Yajna and mantra; sensors; Yagya; Yajna; hawan; agnihotra.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10040692
  • Employee engagement: A study of university teachers   Order a copy of this article
    by Bhawna Rajput, Urvashi Sharma 
    Abstract: The paper aims to examine the potential antecedents and consequences of work engagement among the sample of university teachers. Key antecedents of employee engagement considered in the study are rewarding co-worker relations, perceived supervisory support, compensation, and opportunities for development; while key behavioural consequences are in-role job performance, organisational citizenship behaviour and innovative work behaviour. A structural equation model is developed and tested on a sample of 282 university teachers in India. The results of the study found that the two major factors that predict the engagement of university teachers are opportunities for development and rewarding co-worker relations. The study further revealed that work engagement had a significant impact on all three consequences, i.e., in-role job performance, organisational citizenship behaviour and innovative work behaviour.
    Keywords: innovative work behaviour; in-role job performance; organisational citizenship behaviour; work engagement.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10040970
  • Crisis Management and Strategies for the Future: Evidences from the Pandemic hit Indian Hotel Sector   Order a copy of this article
    by Raju Majumdar 
    Abstract: The Covid-19 pandemic has had a lasting impact on economies and businesses across the globe. The purpose of this paper is to have a closer look at the measures adopted by the Indian hotel industry in order to tide over the challenges and disruptions posed by pandemic and measures adopted for future growth. The research is based on primary data obtained through a survey study and uses exploratory factor analysis. Our findings suggest that the sector focussed majorly on price cuts and cost cutting measures in order to tide over the Covid-19 pandemic. Other measures adopted include marketing of safe tourism, revenue enhancement and resource conservation measures. With regard to the future, our findings suggest renewed focus towards attracting domestic tourists through the increasing use of technology and workforce restructuring are major thrust areas.
    Keywords: hospitality sector; hotel industry; India; Covid-19; pandemic; survey study; exploratory factor analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10040974
  • Traditional Knowledge of Ethno-Medicinal Practices and Its Management: A Case Study of Khoyrasole Block in Birbhum District of West Bengal   Order a copy of this article
    by Atreya Paul, AMARTYA PANI, Arup Bhandary 
    Abstract: The ethno-medicine is sometimes used as a synonym for traditional medicine. The present study deals with the traditional knowledge of the ethno-medicinal uses of plants practiced by the rural tribal people in selected villages of Khoyrasole block in Birbhum district of West Bengal. An ethnomedicinal survey (EMS) consisting of 200 households in five villages was carried out to collect information regarding the various uses of 30 medicinal plants and their products generally. Moreover, the focal aim of this study is to discuss the possible threats and future prospects of ethno-medicinal practices in the northern part of Birbhum district, West Bengal, through participatory rural appraisal (PRA). The paper concludes that there is an urgent need for the development of conservation strategies in the region that will take into account local needs, approaches, and inclusive economic development opportunities with the help of the knowledge, beliefs, practices, and institutional (KBPI) arrangements framework of sustainable natural resource management.
    Keywords: ethno-medicine; traditional knowledge; tribal people; ethnomedicinal survey; EMS; participatory rural appraisal; PRA; KPBI framework; Birbhum; West Bengal.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10040975
  • Dimensions of Flow Experience in Information and Communication Technology-Based Learning   Order a copy of this article
    by Poonam Patel, Radha Krishan Lodhwal 
    Abstract: Technology, nowadays playing a significant role in all aspects of life. Working with information and communication technology (ICT) may be associated with flow experience at work. This paper is an attempt to check the multidimensionality structure of flow experience and to answer the question of whether three factor-structure model of flow experience or the hypothesised four-factor structure model fits better in information and communication technology-based learning in higher education. For this, a sample of 156 students of Banaras Hindu University participated in the study. Two methods were applied, first exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted to extract the factor structure in spss 22 version and the fit of this has been then tested using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in Amos 21. Findings indicate that a two-factor second order model better fits the dataset than the three-factor first-order model. This confirms the multidimensionality of flow construct, being absorption is the core dimension.
    Keywords: technology; information and communication technology; ICT; e-learning; flow experience; dimensions; higher education.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10040976
  • Determinants of Customer Satisfaction in the Indian Telecommunication Industry: Study in West Bengal and Assam Region   Order a copy of this article
    by Nirmal Chandra Roy  
    Abstract: In this article, an effort has been made to unveil the level of customer satisfaction and then to identify various factors in the telecommunication sector in West Bengal and Assam. For the purpose of this study, sample respondents have been chosen through stratified random sampling technique. A survey has been conducted on 377 sample respondents in West Bengal and Assam with the help of the structured questionnaire. The gathered primary data has been analysed with the help of SPSS and Smart PLS 3.2.3 technique. The study found that out of 377 sample respondents, 21 are very satisfied and 210 are satisfied only. Further, the study revealed that service of the organisation and price range of the organisation has positive impact on the customer satisfaction. Organisational competency and organisational efficiency of the organisation has no effect on customer satisfaction it in the telecommunication sector in West Bengal and Assam.
    Keywords: service quality; organisational efficiency; customer satisfaction; organisational competency; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10040978
  • Linking Employee engagement, job stress and perceived organizational support to organizational commitment   Order a copy of this article
    by Dr. Manisha Sharma  
    Abstract: The term organisational commitment has been studied by the researchers’ number of times in the recent past as it has a high practical relevance and importance in the organisational setup. Previous researches show that organisational commitment has an important role as it has a direct relation to employee performance, employee loyalty, employee turnover, competitive advantage, etc. This paper evaluates the impact of the factors such as employee engagement, job stress and perceived organisational support on organisational commitment in the Indian context. For this purpose, the data was collected through an online survey. 200 questionnaires were received back from the professionals and executives working in various corporate engaged in HR consultancies and services in Noida NCR. The collected data were analysed through SPSS 22 and SEM was used through Amos version 22. The findings suggest that the work engagement has a significant positive effect on organisational commitment. As expected, job stress has a significant negative effect on organisational commitment. Whereas, perceived organisational support has a significant positive effect on organisational commitment. This study provides an insight to develop policies in order to create and retain competent and committed workforce in the various corporations of India.
    Keywords: employee engagement; job stress; perceived organisational support; POS; organisational commitment.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10041206
  • Understanding attitude-behavior gap in mobile phones purchasing   Order a copy of this article
    by Seemant Yadav, VIVEK AGRAWAL 
    Abstract: The relationship between attitude and purchase behaviour is the most explored area of marketing research. Many studies have shown a link between environmental attitude and mobile phone purchasing intentions. Today the mobile phones are becoming a medium to express identity and desire like clothing and ornaments. The changing styles of mobile phones based on contemporary trends lead to their perishability which may adversely affect the environment. Now the question arises, whether consumers who care about the environment can take more responsibility for the environment and conduct environmentally friendly mobile phone shopping behaviour, or whether their environmental attitudes are incompatible with their consumer behaviours. The discrepancy between the consumers attitudes and actual purchase of eco-friendly products is attributed to the existence of the attitude-behaviour gap. The gap is however being understood poorly and to date no equivocal consent is available. This study examines the role of demographic factors responsible for the emergence of the attitude-behaviour gap with special reference to the young consumers, as they are the segment with adequate purchasing capacity.
    Keywords: attitude behaviour gap; young consumers; environmental concern.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10041207
  • Corporate reputation under crisis and the framing of the environment at Lanjigarh, Odisha   Order a copy of this article
    by Amarendra Kumar Dash  
    Abstract: Lanjigarh, a constellation of rural and tribal villages in Western Odisha has been a contested terrain of multiple interest groups because of the clash of ideologies regarding growth versus environment. The arch-rivals, Vedanta Aluminium Limited (VAL) and the international NGOs, remain split between the paradoxical ambitions of social development and institutionalised agendas. Framing of the environment has become an elite practice for the promotion of ideology, power, and influences. While VALs framing of the environment has remained a defensive strategy to protect its investments, the NGOs remain complicit in blame-corporate environmental framing through their relentless shaming of VAL in terms of lawsuits, media campaigns, and concerted public demonstrations. Integrating Hallahans (1999) seven types of framing with van Dijks (1993) critical discourse analysis, this study deconstructs the ideological underpinnings of environmental framing at Lanjigarh and the material conditions and anxieties that shaped them.
    Keywords: ideology; environmental framing; CSR; PR campaigns; Vedanta Aluminum Limited; aluminium refinery; Niyamgiri Hills; Lanjigarh; Odisha; critical discourse analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10041364
  • Antecedents of customers’ attitude and intention towards online shopping of apparel in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Pardeep Ahlawat, Pankaj Kumar, Parveen Kumar 
    Abstract: This study examines the foremost antecedents of customers’ attitude and intention towards online shopping of apparel in Delhi and Gurugram (previously known as Gurgaon), Haryana, India. Using convenience sampling technique, 223 self-administrated survey questionnaires were collected (197 considered usable) from the customers who had experienced online shopping of apparel and tested performing partial least squares-structural equation modelling. The results revealed that shopping convenience followed by product usefulness, trust, and price positively and significantly impact customers’ attitudes towards online shopping. Most notably, customers’ intention towards online apparel shopping is significantly affected by convenience and customers’ attitude, whereas trust has no significant impact on customers’ intention to shop online apparel. The findings will facilitate e-retailers to understand the prominent antecedents of customers’ attitude and intention towards online apparel shopping and plan out the customers-oriented marketing strategies for improving online shoppers’ positive attitudes and intentions.
    Keywords: India; online shopping; apparel; customers’ attitude; intention.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10041518
  • Lead-Lag Association between Foreign Flows and Economic Growth in Selected Emerging Economies   Order a copy of this article
    by RAVINDER Verma, Vijender Pal Saini 
    Abstract: The paper examines the ties between foreign inflows and economic growth in emerging economies, namely Brazil, China, Russia and India over the period of 19922019. Vector error correction method (VECM) and Granger causality test are used to understand the long and short dynamics between foreign inflows (FDI) and economic growth. The empirical findings illustrate that both the variables are co-moving in long run for India and China while there is no cointegration existing in Brazil and Russia. The results of VECM disclose that there is bidirectional causality between FDI and economic growth in India while unidirectional causality in China. However, in short run, there is unidirectional causality in India, China and Brazil and there is no connection existing amid foreign direct inflows and economic growth in Russia. The present research paper will be enormously helpful to the regulators and policy makers of selected emerging economies in planning their foreign inflows procedures.
    Keywords: emerging economies; foreign direct investment; FDI; economic growth; causal relationship.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10041534
  • Do Analysts Become Better Forecasters Over Time: Evidence from India   Order a copy of this article
    by Arit Chaudhury, Seshadev Sahoo 
    Abstract: There are conflicting studies in literature about how the analyst forecast bias, which can be driven by various factors, have trended over time. In this context, we study analyst forecasts in India over the past two decades (19982018), as well as before and after the global financial crisis (GFC) in 20082009, to find out whether the forecasts have actually become less biased and more accurate over time as the stock coverage and market liquidity has improved. In our initial tests, we find that analyst forecast accuracy has indeed improved over time/after GFC in India, as expected, as the markets have become more mature and efficient. However, when we control for the market turnover, representing the information environment as an additional factor, we find that the underlying bias has actually increased over time. Our results show that the improvement in forecast accuracy of analysts in India over the past two decades is mainly due to the improved information environment.
    Keywords: analyst forecasts; forecast accuracy; global financial crisis; GFC.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10041535
  • Neutralizing Covid-19 Induced Inhibitors of Vacationing Intention: An Indian Perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Debankur Saha, Anirban Chakraborty 
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has adversely impacted the tourism industry. Tourists are refraining from going on vacation. Getting their patrons back is one of the biggest challenges of the tourism industry. This study explores the factors affecting the vacationing intention of Indian tourists in the COVID-19 period. It also studies the moderating effect of perceived risk on the willingness to pay a price premium for perceived safety measures. The findings of this study will enable the practitioners to understand the drivers of the travelling intention of Indian tourists and thereby devise a suitable strategy to encourage footfalls.
    Keywords: COVID-19; attitude; perceived risk; willingness to pay; vacationing intention.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10041637
  • Reindeer Apparels: The Growth and Evolution of a Micro-Enterprise   Order a copy of this article
    by Ramachandran Natarajan, Manini Gurjar 
    Abstract: This case study describes the founding, growth, and evolution of Reindeer Apparels, a micro-enterprise in Pune, India. The following characteristics make this company worthy of study by students and scholars of entrepreneurship and innovation: 1) it was founded by a woman and being managed by women; 2) it is an example of innovative rather than replicative entrepreneurship; 3) it is an example of how skill-intensive entrepreneurship in the non-technology space can succeed with the right strategy and business model; 4) it illustrates how a micro-enterprise can succeed commercially and also have social goals. The various challenges faced by the company, its strengths, and vulnerabilities are discussed. The critical success factors of this micro-enterprise are identified and analysed.
    Keywords: case studies in entrepreneurship; women entrepreneurship; innovative entrepreneurship; women entrepreneurs in India; micro-enterprises in India; social entrepreneurship; women empowerment.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10041643
  • Importance of Integrated Reporting from the Perspective of Stakeholders in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Puja Kaura  
    Abstract: Integrated reporting (IR) hailed as a milestone in the development of corporate reporting. However, it is essential to contemplate whether stakeholders perceive IR to be imperative in their decisions. This paper aimed to assess the stakeholders’ perceptions regarding the importance of IR in their decision making. The research was a cross-sectional quantitative study. Data were collected using structured questionnaires, and the Kruskal Wallis H test was used to test the hypothesis constructed to find whether any significant difference exists between the perceptions of different stakeholders. The study confirmed that all stakeholders perceive that information disclosed in IR is crucial for them in their decision making as no significant difference exists between their perceptions. Further, considering the Indian economic environment, the study’s findings suggested some critical aspects that all companies should consider while disclosing their information through IR, which will benefit both companies and their stakeholders.
    Keywords: integrated reporting; stakeholders’ perception; Kruskal Wallis H test; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10041691
  • Understanding Brand Pride in Urban Indian consumers: implications for theory and practice   Order a copy of this article
    by Subarna Nandy, Neena Sondhi 
    Abstract: In an evolving young demography like India, consumers seek meaningful emotional connections with brands. This exploratory study adopts a qualitative methodology to comprehend a hitherto unexplored emotion of brand pride. Store observations and semi-structured interviews with experts and urban Indian consumers were conducted to arrive at a comprehensive definition of brand pride. The study also differentiates brand pride from brand love and proposes a 2X2 matrix with the intensity of the relationship on one axis and Emotions on the other. These emotional expressions significantly impact both brand engagement and behaviour, through differences in brand loyalty, advocacy, evangelism, and oppositional brand loyalty.
    Keywords: consumer-brand relationships; brand pride; qualitative methods; Indian consumers; branding theory.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10041727
  • Relevance of Small Businesses in Protecting a Wildlife Sanctuary and Meeting Sustainable Development Goals   Order a copy of this article
    by Anupam Saxena, Sugandha Shanker 
    Abstract: The role of sustainable development goals (SDGs) in improving socio-economic and environmental problems of a highly biodiverse and culturally rich wildlife sanctuary in North India needs investigation. This area faces a severe ecological crisis due to heavy anthropogenic pressures. This sanctuary is located in Indias three lowest-ranked aspirational districts, making it vulnerable. In order to understand the areas problems and potential of developing local-centric businesses for reducing dependency on the sanctuary, a literature review and field investigation was carried out through semi-structured interviews. These interviews were analysed using the qualitative software ATLAS.ti 9.0. Observations from field investigation, literature review and analysis of interviews revealed that the area could develop small businesses if proper support systems are provided. The work has identified four small businesses that are successful in reducing the pressure and conserving similar areas. These businesses can be replicated as alternative sources of income and meet all 17 SDGs.
    Keywords: sustainable development goals; SDGs; wildlife sanctuary; small businesses; skill development.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10041833
    by Sarika Jain, Samta Jain, Ankush Upadhayay 
    Abstract: In a time of increased competition, increased scrutiny from multiple stakeholders and the pandemic which engulfed the whole world, logistics industry is becoming mindful of the vital role that employees play. It is crucial to retain talent using multiple motivational tools like involving them, giving them liberty to take decisions and most importantly engaging them. In this context, this study attempted to understand the processes followed by Team Global Logistics Pvt Limited to keep their employees engaged. It contributed in the area of employee engagement in logistics industry in India. The present study used a mixed method approach. Structured interviews were conducted with members of HR team to explore employee engagement practices. Further regression analysis was conducted to understand the impact of employee empowerment on employee engagement. Results confirmed the role of employee empowerment in enhancing employee engagement.
    Keywords: employee engagement; employee empowerment; case study; India; logistics.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10041840
  • Influence of Organisational Citizenship Behaviour on the Individual Work Performance of IT and ITES employees   Order a copy of this article
    by Martina A, Nagarajan PS 
    Abstract: Survival of any business is dependent on the performance of the organisation which is a collective measure of individual work performance of the employees which has been a major challenge for the IT and ITES sector where the performance management system is continuously evolving and many employees are on job cuts and in benches due to poor performance. Organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) is a concept where the employee tries to contribute to the organisation without expecting high rewards for the extra role behaviours at work. This empirical study tries to establish the relation between the OCB and individual work performance (IWP) of the employees in IT and ITES sector. The data was collected from 500 employees and nonprobability, convenient sampling technique was adopted. Regression analysis was conducted to find out the relationship between OCB, OCB-O, OCB-I and IWP. The results of the analysis revealed a significant relationship among the variables.
    Keywords: organisational citizenship behaviour; OCB; individual work performance; IWP; IT and ITES sector; task performance; organisational performance; performance management systems; counter productive work behaviour.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10041946
  • Antecedents and Outcomes of Brand Love in Indian Context: A Systematic Literature Review   Order a copy of this article
    by THALHATH P 
    Abstract: The long-lasting relationship with customers is the only way for continuing the existence of brands in the market, as the world is changing rapidly. Researchers across the world try to recognise factors that would help to create and maintain customer relationship. Brand love has emerged as a recent marketing concept in the area of consumer-brand relationships which has received great attention from researchers over the past years. The main aim of this paper is to systematically review the research that studied the antecedents and outcomes of brand love in the Indian context. Through this paper, we have analysed nineteen articles in the study area, which have been selected systematically from various scientific journals. The research articles were analysed on the basis of methodology used, analysis approach, products or services under study and the major antecedents and outcomes of brand love that are considered.
    Keywords: brand love; antecedents and outcomes; systematic literature review.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10041947
  • A socioemotional wealth perspective on innovation in family firms: Review and theoretical extension   Order a copy of this article
    by Sandeep Yadav 
    Abstract: This study conceptualises the heterogeneous relationship between different dimensions of the socioemotional wealth of family firms and innovation. Based on the comprehensive review of the empirical literature using the socioemotional wealth perspective (SEW), the author identifies four main themes as strategic decision-making, dynastic succession, internationalisation behaviour, and earnings management studied using SEW. Based on the gap in the existing literature, the author proposes a conceptual model on family firm’s innovation using SEW perspective. The author argues that various dimensions of SEW have a heterogeneous impact on family firm innovation. Finally, the author proposes future search directions based on the gaps in the existing literature.
    Keywords: family firms; innovation; socioemotional wealth perspective; SEW; family ownership; family control; family succession; family social ties; emerging markets.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10042000
  • Analysis of Market Reaction to Bonus Issue Announcement in Indian Stock Market   Order a copy of this article
    by Anu Jajoo, Indra Nirmal 
    Abstract: Companies capitalise on the accumulated profit by issuing the bonus share to shareholders. The information content of the bonus issue is perceived to be positive. This paper is an attempt to study the market behaviour pertaining to the bonus announcement by making inferences on the variation in price around announcement day. Using the standard event study methodology, the paper investigates the market reaction on bonus of the companies, which are included in the Nifty 200 index, for the period 2000 to 2019. Total 171 bonus events announcement was studied for 61 days event window (30 to +30). The result revealed the existence of a significant difference in abnormal return between pre and post-event window and concludes that the Indian market exhibits a semi-strong form of efficiency. The pattern of abnormal return observed around announcement day strives as evidence for the findings that bonus issue in Indian capital market is anticipated prior to the announcement and leaves no scope for exploitable inefficiencies.
    Keywords: bonus issue announcements; event study methodology; semi-strong form of efficiency; abnormal returns; market reactions; Indian capital market; exploitable inefficiencies.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10042028
  • Spiritual Intelligence lessons from Bhagavad Gita and Bible: Implications for Organizational Behavior   Order a copy of this article
    by Richa Kathuria, Richa Awasthy 
    Abstract: Spiritual intelligence (SI) has been looked at as a possible solution to alleviate the suffering of the world from problems like stress, anxiety and depression. Organisations also incur huge losses due to these. Several attempts have been made to develop the construct of SI by academics around the world. This study fills the gap of limited efforts to conceptualise SI from the scriptures perspective, rooting in two popular religious philosophies: Hinduism and Christianity. This exploratory study is based on qualitative research methods. Data sources used are Bhagavad Gita and Bible. Seven SI themes emerged via inductive content analysis purpose of human life, self, nature, faith, worship, transcendence and interpersonal relations. Study proposes a SI model and its relation to three layers of OB. Article ends with the suggestions for future research avenues in SI. This study contributes to the holistic conceptualisation of SI and its usability in organisations.
    Keywords: Bhagavad Gita; Bible; spiritual intelligence; SI model; organisational behaviour.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10042030
  • Indian firms' internationalization research 2000-2020: Research fronts and potential pathways   Order a copy of this article
    by Omdeep Gupta, Krishna Balodi, Mohd Afaq Khan 
    Abstract: Emerging market firms (EMF) internationalisation has become an increasingly important field of study. While studies on firms’ internationalisation and related reviews for some economies are available, the literature synthesising internationalising Indian firms (IIF) research is scant. The purpose of this study is to explore the growth and trend in the IIF literature, identify undercurrents, explore major research fronts and the unique aspects, and suggest potential pathways. A combination of bibliometric analysis and an in-depth literature review on research published between 2000 and 2020 is employed. The study identifies significant contributors and influencers in articles, journals, organisations, and four dominant IIF research fronts. By combining the bibliometric analysis with literature review, this paper aids the IIF researchers by providing them with a bird’s eye view of the phenomenon and highlighting the seminal works, prominent authors, dominant research fronts, and the progress therein, and the potential pathways ahead.
    Keywords: internationalisation; Indian firms; bibliometric analysis; citation analysis; content analysis; emerging markets; emerging market firms; EMF; internationalising Indian firms; IIF.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10042133
  • Paradoxical Thinking and Entrepreneurial Resilience; A Study Against the Backdrop of COVID-19 Disruption   Order a copy of this article
    by Bhabani Shankar Padhy, R. KUMAR BHASKAR 
    Abstract: Entrepreneurial resilience’ acquires seminal significance especially during a crisis situation. With COVID-19 pandemic rendering unprecedented disruption over the worldwide socio-economic landscape, entrepreneurs and business managers necessitate resilience for mitigating various emerging challenges. Modern enterprises often face competing demands and contradictory expectations from its diverse stakeholder groups. Entrepreneur’s ability to relentlessly acclimatise and thrive particularly during adversities, while balancing competing needs is a crucial characteristic that bolsters organisational performance. This investigation examines the potential relation between stakeholder engagement, paradoxical thinking/paradox mind-set and entrepreneurial resilience. The entrepreneurs’ propensity to integrate conflicting organisational and normative obligations is likely to improve her/his resilience. Contemporary organisations innately embody many contradictory tensions. Paradoxical thinking embraces these tensions and may also help the entrepreneurs to respond with enhanced resilience. This quantitative study involving social entrepreneurs in India against the backdrop of COVID-19 pandemic indicates that stakeholder engagement is positively associated with resilience. This relation is mediated by the entrepreneur’s paradoxical mind-set.
    Keywords: stakeholder engagement; entrepreneurial resilience; paradoxical thinking; paradox mind-set; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10042134
    by Rekha Rao-Nicholson, Luda Svystunova 
    Abstract: There is limited research on the role of institutional entrepreneurship in public organisations, especially in the context of institutional voids. The public sector entrepreneurs’ engagement with regulatory, normative, and cultural-cognitive institutional voids in a developing economy is, therefore, examined using institutional work. Through an in-depth longitudinal case study of Delhi Metro Rail Corporation in India, institutional creation and disruption processes are identified as interrelated means to address voids in this context. The boundary work supported promising entrepreneurs in challenging settings, whereas legitimacy work helped to spread change outside organisational boundaries. Insights into public sector entrepreneurship in developing countries are offered.
    Keywords: public entrepreneurship; India; institutional work.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10042177
  • A Study of Residential Property Purchase Decisions in India: The Role of Behavioral Intention as a Mediating Factor   Order a copy of this article
    by Janhavi Chaudhary Abhang, V.V. Ravi Kumar 
    Abstract: This research paper focuses on exploring the multiple factors that result in a purchase decision of residential real estate in India. A conceptual framework has been developed based on previous research studies. This study has extracted the dimensions of consumer purchase decision and used them in the structural model and tested using path analysis method, to measure the extent and direction of the relationship. The findings strongly indicate the major predictors of purchase decision. This study also indicates the role of a comparative evaluation system in the purchase decision. The study aims to understand the mediating effect of the behavioural intention on purchase decision of a residential property. The study uniquely contributes to the body of academic knowledge with reference to the factors affecting consumer purchase decision in the residential property segment and the findings will help developers of residential real estate to better understand consumer preferences and target their market precisely.
    Keywords: property buying behaviour; real estate; behavioural intention; purchase decision; real estate marketing; real estate evaluation; property investment; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10042187
  • Entrepreneurial storytelling: using a consistent story to create and sustain a business: Case studies of two migrant entrepreneurs   Order a copy of this article
    by Helen Rana, Dan Knox, Guru Prabhakar 
    Abstract: This qualitative research uses case studies of two migrant entrepreneurs Karan Bilimoria and Levi Roots to explore the use of storytelling as a tool for establishing and sustaining a business. It proposes a conceptual framework which shows how storytelling is used to gain legitimacy, credibility and support. It finds that the two men use consistent themes and patterns in their stories, which are similar to each other and to conventional metanarratives around entrepreneurship, and require narrative plausibility more than objective truth. It identifies themes which both individuals repeatedly use in their business storytelling to demonstrate attributes of entrepreneurship.
    Keywords: storytelling; entrepreneurship; migrant; sense-making; meta-narrative.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10042270
  • Exploring influences on social entrepreneurial intentions among Indian students: The function of gender role orientation   Order a copy of this article
    by Mary Conway Dato-on, Sharmistha Banerjee, Proma Banerjee 
    Abstract: Societies are changing, including attitudes toward gender roles. This research uniquely considers the influence of individual’s gender role orientation (i.e., expressive and instrumental traits) on social entrepreneurial intentions (SEI) among Indian students at the nascent stage of learning about social entrepreneurship. Quantitative analysis results support and challenge previous research on SEI antecedents and suggest that measuring gender role orientation, rather than differences between men and women will enhance our understanding of the millennial and Gen Z aspirations to do well while doing good. Recommendations for public policy and business education are offered to strengthen previous findings that associate strong entrepreneurial ecosystems with economic and social growth.
    Keywords: social entrepreneurship; social enterprise; social entrepreneurial intentions; SEI; entrepreneurial self-efficacy; ESE; empathy; collective self-efficacy; CSE.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10042368
    Abstract: The present study focuses on analysing the impact of website quality and content on leisure traveller’s hotel selection. A structured questionnaire was developed and distributed to respondents through online platform using Google Forms. Chi square test has been used for checking the association between website quality, content and leisure travellers. The findings of the study revealed that out of ten identified features of websites quality; clear language, high resolution photographs, videos of hotel products and services, user friendly and easily accessible websites,
    Keywords: hotel industry; website quality; website content; leisure travellers; hotel selection.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10042603
  • Attitudinal and Behavioural Reaction of Employees towards CSR: A Review and Research Agenda   Order a copy of this article
    by Himani Sharma, Dimple Dhiman 
    Abstract: Presently, scholars are paying more attention to micro-level CSR and they have looked into how employees’ perceptions of CSR shapes employee outcomes. To advance this area of research, we aim to present a literature review on the attitudinal and behavioural reaction of employees in response to organisation’s CSR activities over the years. We reviewed the existing academic literature on these aspects, such as why, how, and when CSR initiatives could affect the employees. A systematic review of the literature is conducted, with 74 articles from top listed journals searching online databases such as Emerald Insight, JSTOR, Google Scholar, Science Direct and Routeledge Taylor and Francis Group. The study discloses a pattern of research in CSR over the years and makes recommendations for future research such as embracing the cross-national contexts and improving practical relevance has also been highlighted. This review adds value to management literature in understanding CSR at micro-level.
    Keywords: CSR; organisational commitment; job satisfaction and literature review; attitudinal reaction; behavioural reaction.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10042656
  • Study of Ramayana and Bhagavad Gita Technical and Managerial Intellects with Enlightening Lessons   Order a copy of this article
    by Saurabh Kumar Srivastava, Medha Srivastava, Anshul Pandey, Ajay Kumar Yadav, Ashwani Gupta 
    Abstract: Ramayana and Bhagvad Gita are predominantly perennial source of ancient Indian texts that evolved simultaneously with Indian society. Ramayan contains seven chapters that starts with Baalakand and ends upon Uttarkanda. Similarly, Bhagavad Gita’s eighteen chapters begin with Visada Yoga and end with Moksha Opadesa Yoga. These scriptures carry lessons based on philosophical, spiritual, managerial, technical, cultural, and moral values. This paper discussed various managerial skills and explored the different management lessons learned from Bhagwat Gita and Ramayana for enhancing managerial effectiveness. This paper explores various aspects of management practice like human values, trust, information technology, leadership, motivation, and moral values extracted from Ramayana and Bhagavad Gita. Further, it identifies the impact of these attributes on managerial knowledge-sharing behavior. The study establishes the relationship among all four variables and proposes a Knowledge sharing based conceptual model.
    Keywords: leadership; motivation; technology usage; managerial effectiveness; managerial knowledge sharing behaviour.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10042659
  • Behavioural Intention of HR professionals to use HR Analytics in the Indian context: An Analysis Using the UTAUT model   Order a copy of this article
    by Anam ., M.Israrul Haque 
    Abstract: Despite the need for innovation in HRM, HR professionals are still lagging in analytics, and various factors hinder the adoption of HR analytics. Its lower adoption rate is creating issues for developing countries such as India to achieve their full potential. This research aims to determine the factors impacting the behavioural intention in using HR analytics among the HR professionals from the perspective of the unified theory of acceptance and the use of technology (UTAUT) in the Indian context. A structured close-ended questionnaire is used to collect the data from different HR professionals in India. It is revealed that performance expectancy and effort expectancy significantly predict the behavioural intention of using HR analytics. However, social influence and facilitating conditions are not significant variables to influence behavioural intention and use behaviour, respectively, while behavioural intention is discovered as a direct factor of use behaviour.
    Keywords: barriers; innovation; HR analytics; UTAUT model; behavioural intention.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10042825
  • Is m-shopping a reasoned action? Evaluating the role of intention and perceived risk in Indian m-shopping behaviour   Order a copy of this article
    by Anoop Kumar Gupta  
    Abstract: This study attempts to explain m-shopping behaviour of Indian consumer durable1 customers through the theoretical lens of consumer perceived risk and reasoned action. For deeper understanding of the role of perceived risk in m-shopping behaviour, the study evaluates whether attitude and intention fully mediate the effect of risk on behaviour. A representative dataset of 485 respondents was analysed through multi-analytic techniques of structural equation modelling and neural network analysis for examining the contribution of the determinants of m-shopping behaviour. The perceived risk was found to have direct effect on m-purchasing action, besides having indirect effect through attitude and intention. This research offers new insights into the role played by perceived risk during check-out from mobile shopping cart and contributes in explaining the gap between intention and actual buying action.
    Keywords: reasoned action; mobile shopping; perceived risk; neural network; structural equation modelling; SEM; intention: attitude: perceived norm; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10042859
  • Link between Company Characteristics, Board Structure and HR Disclosure Level in Software Sector in Indian context: Perception or Reality   Order a copy of this article
    by Dr. Kirti Aggarwal  
    Abstract: The aim of the study is to investigates the link between company characteristics, board structure and Human Resource (HR) disclosure level in software sector in Indian context. The study conducted on 16 software sector companies listed on NSE-500 Index for the time span of starting from F.Y. 2012-13 to 2019-2020. The outcomes of Two-way Least Square Dummy Variable (LSDV) regression model depicted that there is significant positive effect of net sales, board size, board meeting, listing status, pages of an annual report and significant negative of age, net fixed assets, debt-equity ratio, CEO duality on the level of HR disclosure of software sector companies in India. The study helps to The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI) and other regulatory bodies to take the steps on the basis of Human Resource Disclosure Index (HRDI) constructed in the study to make the HR disclosure practices mandatory in nature in India.
    Keywords: company characteristics; board structure; human resource disclosure; LSDV regression model; software sector; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10042901
    by Nanjaraje Urs, Vivek Rajapadmanabhan, Manunath S 
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic was a worldwide emergency, seen unrivalled rapid growth and has affected the numerous business areas. It has obligated numerous organisations to roll out revolutionary vicissitudes to the work-environment just as to their work-force, which made uncommon disturbances to their employees both personally and professionally. Researcher state that with the help of emotional quotient (EQ) as a central component, organisational behaviour subtleties can be understood and addressed to enhance employee engagement (EE). On the other hand, spiritual quotient (SQ) reinforces human consolidative impression of completeness and has ability to think beyond materialistic life, which thrust individuals to spiritual path and furthermore assist them to adapt to agonising conditions of life. This study revealed that the EQ and SQ are important aspects in service industries like IT and ITES in enhancing the EE during pandemic times, and correlation analysis showed a positive relationship among them.
    Keywords: emotional quotient; spiritual quotient; information technology; employee engagement; information-technology enabled services (ITES); COVID-19; pandemic.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10043039
  • Do Exogenous Factors matter in the Productivity Growth Trajectory of Indian Manufacturing   Order a copy of this article
    by Abhijeet Bag, Sarbapriya Ray 
    Abstract: The study tries to present total factor productivity growth in Indian manufacturing sector to identify the exogenous factors that led to the growth of productivity in manufacturing sector during 1996 to 1997 to 2016 to 2017. Using GMM estimation, the study reveals that FDI inflow, political stability, initial education, research and development expenditure are found to be positively impacted productivity growth in Indian manufacturing. Trade openness yields adverse impact on TFPG. Female participation and initial investment unexpectedly cause negative impact on TFPG. Negative impact of per capita GDP on TFPG, although insignificant, suggests that economic growth in India is mainly input accumulated rather than productivity driven. Sectoral composition having insignificant negative impact indicates that predominance of agricultural sector would lower productivity growth in manufacturing sector of India. Being input accumulated growth prevalent in India, improving TFPG is urgent need to reduce dependence on physical inputs as well to become a productivity driven economy.
    Keywords: productivity; growth; India; exogenous factors; manufacturing; sector.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10043088
  • Need for Integrating Holistic Education in Management Studies: A Model curriculum based on Bhagavad Gita Perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by RUKMINI S 
    Abstract: Present-day, management education aims at gathering knowledge and honing skills side-lining attitude that develops one holistically to think and act wisely, leading one to balance work and life. Kurukshetra, the battlefield in the Mahabharata, symbolises the inner conflict that Man confronts every day in his day-to-day life, whether in education, workforce, or personal life. A plethora of literature exists on the application of principles of the Bhagavad Gita, a repository of all knowledge and wisdom, to soft skills, managerial skills and communication skills in management education; however, hardly any attempts have been made to integrate Gita into the management curriculum for holistic education. Given this background and the need for holistic education, the paper examines the workplace challenges and the need to integrate the application of the Bhagavad Gita principles to develop a holistic perspective of work and life. Keeping this in view, an attempt was made to provide a perspective for holistic education as well as to develop a model curriculum for the integration of holistic education in management studies.
    Keywords: management education; workforce; holistic education; management programmes; integration; soft skills; communication skills; managerial skills.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10043209
  • Literature Review on Socio-Cultural Dimensions of Mergers & Acquisitions: A Comprehensive Catalogue   Order a copy of this article
    by VIRENDER SINGH, Girish Chandra Maheshwari 
    Abstract: Mergers and acquisitions (M&A) have become an engine of growth for corporations and national economic system. The earlier studies on M&A have explored various aspects of restructuring including valuation, impact on macroeconomic variables, influences on financial markets without much focus on socio cultural aspects. The high importance of culture in any M&A has now been proved in various studies. The objective of this study is to organise and assess the present status of researches on the organisational socio-cultural aspects in M&As by reviewing the past work in a comprehensive manner to provide spontaneous access to the prospective researchers. 257 research papers from secondary sources like various journals and online databases for the time period from 1988 to 2020 have been shortlisted .There has been significant growth and potential in the research work associated with socio-cultural aspect of M&A in India as well as under developed countries.
    Keywords: mergers and acquisitions; M&A; socio-cultural dimensions; value creation; integration; cross border acquisitions.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10043421
  • Choice of International Diversification Strategies: Evidence from Indian Industries   Order a copy of this article
    by Aparna Bhatia, Meenu Khurana 
    Abstract: The study investigates and compares varied Indian industry groups with respect to their preferences for international diversification strategies. Jacquemin and Berry entropy (1979) approach is employed for calculating inter-region and intra-region diversification of companies in these industry groups.
    Keywords: international diversification strategy; intra-region diversification; inter-region diversification; industry groups; entropy approach; Games-Howell post hoc analysis; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10043562
  • Financial Knowledge, Attitude And Behaviour Components of Financial Literacy: A Study Of Indian Higher Education Students   Order a copy of this article
    by Vibhuti Shivam Dube, Pradeep Kumar Asthana 
    Abstract: The present study seeks to determine the financial literacy level of Indian higher education students on the components of financial knowledge, attitude and behaviour. The paper also makes an attempt to study the interdependencies in financial literacy component: financial knowledge, attitude and behaviour and to assess the impact of financial awareness on financial literacy. This study considers primary source of data. A total sample of 600 Indian higher education students from different governmental and private institutions of Kanpur, Prayagraj and Aligarh was chosen to determine the financial literacy level. The findings of the study showed that more than half of the students were found to be low financial literate. There is a strong interrelationship found between the financial literacy components: financial knowledge, attitude and behaviour. In the linear regression analysis significant relationship found between the independent variable financial awareness and dependent variable financial literacy. The empirical findings of the study helps to explain how the financial literacy components: financial knowledge, attitude and behaviour influence the financial literacy level among the Indian higher education students. The result clearly showed that there is a need of serious policy measures to be taken in the field of financial literacy/education.
    Keywords: financial literacy; financial knowledge; attitude; behaviour; financial awareness; Indian higher education students.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10043563
  • Self-esteem, normative influence, positive affect and variety seeking-An integrated framework   Order a copy of this article
    by Nirmalya Bandyopadhyay, Ritika Agarwal 
    Abstract: This paper attempts to investigate the relationship of variety seeking with self-esteem, normative influence, and positive affect by developing a conceptual framework. The study also attempts to develop a relationship of self-esteem with normative influence and positive affect. A survey research design was employed. An online survey of 254 respondents was conducted. Measures were taken to minimise the survey bias. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA), reliability testing, and structural equation modelling (SEM) was applied to analyse the survey data. The result confirms that there exists a positive relationship between variety seeking and normative influence. Positive affect is positively related to variety seeking behaviour. High self-esteem positively influences variety seeking. The study also confirms that self-esteem is related to normative influence and positive affect.
    Keywords: self-esteem; variety seeking; positive affect; normative influence.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10043569
  • Does the utilitarian value of gamified virtual currency affect its usage intention in the context of e-commerce?   Order a copy of this article
    by Anoop George, Manu Joy, Muhammed N, Muhammed S 
    Abstract: Gamification is the application of game mechanics to a serious situation in order to motivate consumers to purchase products or services. Gamification has been utilised in e-commerce communication to strengthen intent to use. The research utilises an extended technology acceptance model to evaluate the usage intention of gamified virtual currency, with an emphasis on its utilitarian value characteristics. An online survey was conducted to collect data from appropriate virtual currency consumers in an e-tail setting. In this study, PLS-SEM is used to analyse data with a sample size of 310 active virtual currency users. The incremental impact of the virtual currency’s utilitarian value on the intention to utilise it is demonstrated in this empirical study. Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and attitude appear to be major mediating variables. This research also includes discussions, limitations, and suggestions for further studies.
    Keywords: utilitarian value; gamification; extended TAM; virtual currency; intention to use; e-commerce; PLS-SEM; e-tail.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10043655
  • Reading Habits of Students of Higher Learning Institutions During Covid-19 Lockdown Period.   Order a copy of this article
    by M. Vasan, Yoganandan G 
    Abstract: This research aims to examine the leisure reading habits of students during the COVID-19 lockdown period (N = 156). The study identified that most of the students have the habit of reading newspapers, and they preferred to read literary works in the areas of novel, story and poem. The majority of students enjoy reading books. Students are regularly reading books for updating themselves, and they have a regular habit of reading books other than textbooks. Moreover, the study result proves that doing a part time job, time spent in the SNS, and playing mobile/online games are substantially curtailed the students’ reading habits.
    Keywords: COVID-19; pandemic; higher learning institutions reading habit; students; young learners.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10043972
  • Supply Chain Mapping for Supply Chain Visualization: Muga Silk Industry in Assam   Order a copy of this article
    by Arshad Hussain, Pratim Barua, Tridib Ranjan Sarma 
    Abstract: Development efforts in the Muga silk industry have underperformed due to lack of supply chain visualisation. There exists a wide knowledge gap on supply chain perspectives that can be reliably referred upon, for planning industry development. Supply chain mapping has gained importance as a feasible approach for the problem of visualisation. Strategic supply chain mapping approach professed by Gardner and Cooper (2003) matches the industry focus of this study. Process mapping and relationship mapping have been used as sub-approaches to acquire systematic information on our descriptive modelling objective. The study has effectively delivered a comprehensive supply chain map covering information on entities, SC processes and sub-processes, material flow, product categories, process interactions and industry administration horizons. A separate spatial map was also produced. This is an original research application of supply chain mapping approach for achieving visualisation in the Muga silk supply chain.
    Keywords: strategic supply chain mapping; process mapping; relationship mapping; Muga silk; supply chain visualisation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10043980
  • IS CREDIT DEFAULT SWAP SPREAD A LEADING INDICATOR OF BANK DEFAULT RISK : Evidence of Indian banks during the COVID -19 Pandemic   Order a copy of this article
    by Vikas Srivastava 
    Abstract: The paper investigates whether credit default swaps (CDSs) spread of Indian banks is a leading indicator for bank default risk. The paper uses Merton-type models to estimate theoretical CDS spread of the sample of Indian banks and then compares it to their balance sheet ratios. Though theoretically, higher CDS spreads indicate higher default risk, the paper finds that in times of shocks, like the present COVID crisis, it becomes difficult to isolate the spread movements due to true default risk versus those based on panic and speculation. The paper then correlates equity premiums and CDS premiums and finds negative correlation. The equity market returns lead the CDS market returns in capturing default risk. As default risk is priced better in equity markets, it is preferable for institutional investors to trade default risk of Indian banks in the stock markets rather than the CDS markets.
    Keywords: credit default swaps; CDSs; default risk; credit risk; Indian banks; COVID-19 pandemic; structural models of default; equity premiums; CDS premiums.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10044001
  • Mediating effect of organizational learning and organizational innovation between transformational leadership and organizational performance in the Indian manufacturing industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Sunayana Kumar, Anam Aslam, Aamir Aslam 
    Abstract: The present study examines the mediating effect of organisational learning (OL) and organisational innovation (OI) between transformational leadership (TL) and organisational performance (OP) in Indian manufacturing companies. This paper also examines the relationships among TL, OL, OI and OP. The data comprise 362 managers from various manufacturing companies listed on the National Stock Exchange (NSE) of India. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was applied to examine the suggested hypothesised relationship. The results indicate that TL directly affects OL, OI, and OP and has a more substantial direct impact on OI than OL. Additionally, OI has a positive and significant effect on OP. Moreover, OL and OI significantly mediate the relationship between TL and OP. This study also tests TL with two mediating variables OL and OI with OP that have not been examined previously in theory and analysed empirically in an Indian context.
    Keywords: transformational leadership; organisational learning; organisational innovation; organisational performance; India; structural equation modelling; SEM; mediation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10044014
  • Interactive approach of Individual and Organizational Spirituality and Managing Organizational Misbehavior: A Proposed Theoretical Model   Order a copy of this article
    by Richa Chauhan, Nidhi Maheshwari 
    Abstract: Organisational misbehaviour has grave concern for organisations, especially when the instances of misconduct and unethical acts have become more frequent than ever. The present study proposed a conceptual framework to manage organisational misbehaviour through workplace spirituality. The findings of the research endeavour suggested that individual and corporate spirituality level varies. With the help of the interview method, variations present in personal and organisational spirituality levels were recognised, and interactions were categorised into Satvik-enabling, Tamsik-directing, Tamsik-enabling, and Satvik-directing. Further, based on unity among individual-organisation spiritual values, an individual’s inclination towards misbehaviour in each category of interaction is discussed. An attempt is also to explore organisational culture and leadership’s role in instrumenting workplace spirituality to reduce corporate wrongdoing. To illustrate the practical implementation of the present study’s findings, the human resource department practices for handling misconduct via workplace spirituality are incorporated.
    Keywords: workplace spirituality; individual spirituality; Satvik-enabling; Tamsik-directing; Tamsik-enabling; Satvik-directing; organisational spirituality; misbehaviour.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10044046
  • Macroeconomic Variables & Financial Performance: A bibliometric Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Prasanta Kumar, Dasarathi Sahu, Biswajit Prasad Chhatoi 
    Abstract: The field of macroeconomic variables and financial performance is ever-evolving, and a wide array of research has illuminated this field for the last three decades. The present study explores the avenues of research dimensions in the macroeconomic variables and financial performance domain by synthesising the contributions of pioneering journals, authors, institutions, and countries. The authors have deployed bibliometric and network visualisation tools such as VoSViewer for analysing the bibliometric information obtained from the Scopus database. Analysis of 323 numbers documents found in the dataset, published in 268 journals, revealed ten highly cited research articles, four clusters of keywords that substantiated the research field. The VoSviewer network visualisation has been depicted for each parameter. The study found that macroeconomic variables and financial performance, human literacy, education, and retirement constitute matured yet potential research areas to be undertaken by scholars of macroeconomic variables and financial performance.
    Keywords: macroeconomic variables; financial performance; bibliometric analysis; gross domestic product; GDP; VosViewer; cluster analysis; intellectual structure.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10044132
  • Ishq - The Sufi way of leadership   Order a copy of this article
    by Amit Gupta 
    Abstract: This paper studies three types of leadership theories
    Keywords: Sufism; blended leadership; indigenous leadership; non-western leadership; COVID-19; culture; heritage; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10044428
  • “Graduation Hypothesis”: Does government social spending follow the pattern of Fiscal response?   Order a copy of this article
    by DEEPTI AHUJA, Deepak Pandit, Sri Beldona 
    Abstract: This paper provides evidence for the cyclical behaviour of public social spending in 65 industrial and developing countries during 1980 to 2010. In view of the recent economic crisis, we pay particular attention to whether government spending in the social sector has followed the pattern of fiscal response: whether the developing world could escape the procyclicality trap and behave countercyclically. The estimates based on correlation and panel regression analysis show that developing countries were able to graduate from procyclical to countercyclical social spending. The study further examines the factors that affect the way social spending is conducted in these countries. Given the current pandemic situation, it is believed that developing countries could address the health crisis by undertaking comprehensive reform programs to slow the spread of the pandemic and alleviate the economic damage.
    Keywords: COVID-19; social spending; institutional quality; procyclicality; debt-GDP ratio.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10044533
  • Assessing synergies and challenges between CSR and SDG with evidence from India   Order a copy of this article
    by Vikrant Kulkarni, Ashish Aggarwal 
    Abstract: Sustainable development goals (SDG), which aim to tackle all the critical global issues by 2030, face fundamental resource challenges. This paper seeks to analyse if the funds available from CSR can act as an instrument for companies to contribute to SDG needs. The study of 60 Indian companies compares prescribed vs. actual CSR expenditure, the geographical and thematic spread of activities, and compliance towards specific provisions of the companies act. Our critical findings in the paper are that the business awareness of SDG has increased, and the pool of CSR funds has increased post-2014. There is a narrow focus on four thematic areas of education, healthcare, hunger, and poverty alleviation. The geographical spread of fund expenditure is limited to a few key states in India. And, while the reporting quality on CSR and sustainability efforts has improved, there is a long way to go to comply with the Act.
    Keywords: CSR; SDG; sustainable development goals; mandatory CSR; companies act; India; CSR reporting.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10044727
  • Management of Saving and Investment Pattern of Private Sector Employees of Assam and effect of Covid-19 on it- An Analytical Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Ramjanul Haque, Viveka Gupta 
    Abstract: When the nation is facing a great downfall of economic activities leading to many disturbances in daily life of people, savings and investment plan can hold the hands of employees belonging to private sector from financial fall down. The present study exposes the savings and investment preferences of private sector employees due to the effect of COVID-19 pandemic. As information shows that salary reduction and job termination have become common events in private sector due to the present pandemic, it becomes necessary to understand how far the pandemic has influenced their savings and investment. Likert scale and Garret ranking are two statistical tools used in the study to analyse major influencing factors of COVID-19 pandemic and the mostly preferred factor by the private sector employees. The study concludes that this pandemic has a significant influence leading to deregulating existing plans as well as decline in proportion of savings and investments.
    Keywords: saving; investment; pattern; effect; COVID-19; private sector; salary reduction; job termination; pandemic; employees.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10044765
  • The Relevance of Satvik Management Model from the Bhagavad Gita for Business Sustainability   Order a copy of this article
    by Hardik BHADESHIYA, Parag Shukla, Balakrishnan Muniapan 
    Abstract: Satvik management is a consciousness-based management approach, which presents a spiritual perspective of management that can shape managerial ethical values and moral decision-making, which is critical for business sustainability during the current pandemic and in a world full of uncertainty. The Bhagavad Gita is a part of the Great Mahabharata, and it presents the essence of Vedic (Indian) spirituality. This is a first paper written on Satvik management in the management literature, and the authors employed hermeneutics, a qualitative methodology for interpreting texts. This paper contributes to the theory of personality (Satvik) and the organisational implication of Satvik management. The Bhagavad Gita suggests a Satvik spiritual management model with an intrinsic perspective or inside-out rather than an outside-in management practice. This paper is expected to provide a spiritual and philosophical perspective of management thought and wisdom in confronting and dealing with current management challenges for business sustainability in a turbulent business environment.
    Keywords: Satvik management; Bhagavad Gita; management philosophy; spirituality in management; business sustainability.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10044766
  • Brexit impact on Pound as well as Euro with reference to Indian Rupee   Order a copy of this article
    by Priyanka Rani, Karam Pal Narwal 
    Abstract: The present study attempts to examine the effect of Brexit on foreign exchange rate volatility in India by taking the currency pair EUR/INR and GBP/INR. The daily spot price data of GBP/INR and EUR/INR are collected from RBI and FBIL for the period of 1st March 2011 to 23rd March 2020. To examine the impact, the sample of the study has been divided into two parts before and after Brexit. After testing the data for stationarity by applying the augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) test, GARCH (1, 1) model has been applied for examining volatility of exchange rate return series of pre and post Brexit. The result of the GARCH (1, 1) shows the presence of highly volatile market after Brexit compared to the pre-Brexit period. The currency pair of Great Britain Pound slopes downwards suddenly after news related to Brexit happens, even this slope continues for a longer period.
    Keywords: Brexit; exchange rate volatility; currencies; GARCH analysis; Indian Rupee.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10044940
  • Divergence between economic growth and stock market performance in India: Implications for investor education and financial wellbeing.   Order a copy of this article
    by Kamakhya Singh, Gaurav Misra 
    Abstract: Amidst declining trends of Indian macroeconomic indicators during COVID-19 period, certain indicators, which can be takes as proxies of investors’ behaviour, sentiments and biases, were discerned in Indian securities markets. The study provides significant insight into sentiments and biases of a particular segment of retail investors trading in uncertain times of COVID-19, whose investment behaviour may have serious impact on their financial well-being in the long-term. This exploratory-descriptive study uses data collected by various regulators and government sources in India and abroad to evaluate the behaviour of investors in the backdrop of macroeconomic trends during COVID-19. After analysing the trends of investor participation, trading behaviour and general sentiment in the Indian capital markets and evaluating the implications of these investor-related behaviour on the financial well-being of individual investors, a comprehensive and segmented approach of financial literacy has been recommended to safeguard financial well-being of investors.
    Keywords: investor biases; financial literacy; COVID-19; macroeconomic indicators; financial well-being; policy recommendations; financial education; financial inclusion; financial behaviour.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10044984
  • How do the Sectoral Indices react to Covid-19? Evidence from an emerging economy   Order a copy of this article
    by Vineeta Kumari, Pradipta Banerjee, Dharen Pandey 
    Abstract: The study empirically examines the impact of the COVID-19 on different sectoral indices of the National Stock Exchange (India) using the event study method and a generalised autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) model. We provide evidence of positive impacts on the auto, oil and gas, healthcare, and pharma sectors. While the bank, financial services, and private bank sectors are the most adversely impacted sectors, the PSU bank, media, and reality sectors are the least impacted, and the rest are moderately impacted sectors. The overall impact of COVID-19 was negative until the implementation of nationwide lockdowns and the announcement of stimulus packages. The GARCH results exhibit more substantial evidence for the negative impact of the pandemic on the FMCG, IT, metal, oil and gas, and PSU bank sectors. We also find a more favourable impact on FMCG, pharma, and healthcare sectors in India.
    Keywords: COVID-19; event study; GARCH; second wave; NIFTY; sectoral indices; pandemic; abnormal returns.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10045016
  • An Analytical study of HDI among India and its adjoining nations with reference to the relationship of literacy rate   Order a copy of this article
    by Sugandha Agarwal, Deepa Gupta 
    Abstract: Economic growth is consistently a concern for any country. GDP Growth and per capita income is a vital indicator on economic growth. These pointers portray the increase or decrease in productivity and income of the economy. Humans are an important part of productivity, but human welfare, equity, and social justice are not recorded. Economic advancement cannot be measured through GDP contribution, as it overlooks the disparity of income, poverty, unemployment, and other issues in the economy. The concept of the Human development index proposed by Mahbub-ul-Haq and later refined by UNDP provides the correct parameter for evaluating economic development. This paper endeavours to comprehend the pattern of HDI among Indian and its adjoining nations and to check the contribution of each parameter in calculating the HDI of any country. The impact of the literacy rate on the HDI rate is also studied in the paper.
    Keywords: economic growth; GDP; economic development; literacy rate; HDI.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10045252
  • Ambidextrous Employees and Sustainable Innovation Practices- Empirical validation of Structural Linkage   Order a copy of this article
    by Nikita Singh, Vinay Singh, Manoj Patwardhan, Yogesh Upadhyay 
    Abstract: Present study: 1) focuses on establishing the structural relationship between exploratory and exploitative behaviour of ambidextrous employees working in innovation-based organisations in India; 2) attempts to link the ambidextrous behaviour of employees with sustainable innovative practices of these organisations. A theoretical model was proposed and for its empirical verification, primary data was collected from 200 innovative organisations across India. The data were analysed using statistical methods namely, EFA, CFA, and structured equation model (SEM). As all the proposed hypotheses show significant statistical support, and thus it is concluded that the organisational and technological sustainable innovative practices are positively influenced by employees’ ambidextrous behaviour. The study contributes to a novel set of theories on the interdependence of employees’ ambidextrous behaviour fostering sustainable innovation practices of the organisations, in their unique way.
    Keywords: sustainability; sustainable innovation practices; exploratory behaviour; exploitative behaviour; employees’ ambidexterity.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10045255
  • A study on Entrepreneurial Intention: S-O-R approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Chidambaram Alagappan, Nagarajan PS 
    Abstract: This research is centrally focused to identify the impact of perceived usefulness and hedonic motivation on entrepreneurial intention. Stimulus-organism-response (S-O-R) framework was used by combining the variables like perceived usefulness from the theory of planned behaviour and hedonic motivation from the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology. The research attempts to investigate the direct and indirect effect of perceived usefulness and hedonic motivation on entrepreneurial intention. Similarly, the moderating effect of age and domicile were identified. The final outcome of this research signifies that perceived usefulness did not show indirect effect on entrepreneurial intention however hedonic motivation positively influences entrepreneurial intention through entrepreneurial education.
    Keywords: entrepreneurial intention; entrepreneurial education; perceived usefulness; hedonic motivation; entrepreneurial intention.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10045327
  • Corporate Social Responsibility and Women Empowerment: Evidence from India   Order a copy of this article
    by Priyanka Chhaparia, Munmun Jha 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to explore the extent of the inclusion of women in the corporate social responsibility (CSR) efforts in the Indian context under the framework of women empowerment and gender equality. The paper problematises the concept of the term women empowerment as understood and promoted by companies under their CSR strategy. The study is qualitative in nature, based on the CSR foundations of two pharmaceutical companies. The data has been collected from four locations
    Keywords: corporate social responsibility; CSR; women empowerment; India CSR; pharmaceutical companies; CSR foundations; CSR and women; Indian CSR; CSR and pharmaceuticals.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10045474
  • Power Distance Orientation as a Moderator of Psychological Ownership-Constructive Voice to Supervisor Relationships in IT Services Organisations of India   Order a copy of this article
    by K.H. Pavitra, Lovy Sarikwal 
    Abstract: Employee constructive voice may enable IT services organisations to grow and develop competitive advantage through innovations. To promote employee constructive voice to supervisor, we examined if psychological ownership for job or organisation predict constructive voice to supervisor. As culture of an individual affects workplace behaviour, we also investigated if Indian culture in the form of power distance orientation affects voice to supervisor. Using a cross-sectional research design, we surveyed 349 lower and middle-level employees of IT services organisations in India through a questionnaire. Findings showed that psychological ownership predicts constructive voice to supervisor, and this relationship is moderated by power distance orientation such that low power distance employees express more constructive voice to their supervisors than high power distance employees. This will help organisations understand how to encourage employee constructive voice conveyed to the supervisor, and understand the key role of culture in employee constructive voice expressed to supervisor.
    Keywords: power distance orientation; PDO; psychological ownership; constructive voice to supervisor; employee voice; information technology services; Indian culture.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10045747
  • Econometric perspective of Agricultural Exports and Economic Growth relationship: With reference to India and China   Order a copy of this article
    by Shabnam Kumari, Deepti Kakar 
    Abstract: The present study is entitled to disseminate the relationship between agricultural exports and economic growth of India and China for the period of 1990 to 2020. And, the findings evince that the co-integration has been found in terms of both the country’s economic growth (GDP) and other macroeconomic variables: consumer price index, gross fixed capital, labour force, and exports of fresh fruits, fresh vegetables and whole cow milk. Later on, the vector error correction model confirms the existence of long-term causality in the log series of China but not in India, and the results of forecasted error variance decomposition (FEVD) and impulse response function exhibit that one fourth of the variation in GDP returns of India and China has been caused by the inflation in their respective country. The results of the present study are of immense use to agricultural exporters, government institutions, and policymakers of the Indian and Chinese economies.
    Keywords: India; China; gross domestic product; GDP; co-integration; causality; agricultural exports; economic growth.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10045953
  • Assessing Asset Quality Using Bank Specific and Macro Linkages of Non-Performing Assets: Case of Public Sector Banks in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Padmasai Arora, NEHA SAINI, A. Jiran Meitei, Hitesh Arora, Anju Goswami 
    Abstract: The aim of the study is to explore determinants of non-performing assets (NPAs) of public sector banks (PSBs) in India. Using balanced panel for the period 2004
    Keywords: non-performing assets; NPAs; persistence; consolidation; Indian banking sector; generalised methods of moments; GMM.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10045957
  • Impacts of pandemic-related stimulus packages on the stock market: Evidence from India and the United States   Order a copy of this article
    by Vineeta Kumari, Varun Kumar Rai, Dharen Pandey 
    Abstract: We examine the impacts of the pandemic-related stimulus packages on the stock market during the COVID-19 period and the association between returns, volatilities, and fatality rates in the two markets. We use the event study method, vector auto regression, and correlation on a sample of 947 firms, including 452 firms from BSE500 and 495 firms from S&P500. We find a significant positive impact of the stimulus packages announced by the two governments, though with a different reaction time. The volatility index is negatively associated with the market returns in both markets. However, the market returns in both nations are not correlated with the fatality rates in these nations. We also provide evidence of similar pre-COVID period returns in both markets. More negative impacts during the COVID period are noticed in India than in the US. The market recovery period is marked with higher recovery rates in India than in the US.
    Keywords: COVID-19; event study; India; market returns; USA; vector auto regression; VAR; global pandemic.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10046291
  • The New era of Online Education   Order a copy of this article
    by Amulya Bharadwaj 
    Abstract: The educational scene in India covers various angles and perspectives from pre-school to advanced education and has been created to guarantee full improvement of the human character through a predefined organised system to building learning, aptitudes, capacities and frames of mind essential for the new economy. The sudden strike of the pandemic shook the education stakeholders and the parents were one of those stakeholders who were affected by the sudden shift to online education. The research on digital supported learning as envisioned in the national education policy 2020 is marked by large gaps, while its sudden implementation was struggling to accept. This paper aims to capture the perceptions of parents of school children. However, the students, teachers and institutions’ perceptions are relevantly significant for the overall scope of the research, so as to obtain a holistic stakeholder perspective on the digital learning support.
    Keywords: online education; teaching-learning environment; perception of parents.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10046590
  • Interventions of Non-Governmental Organisations for Women Empowerment through Micro-entrepreneurship: Evidences from India   Order a copy of this article
    by Shefali Nandan, Anjali Kushwaha 
    Abstract: Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) play an important role in bringing transformations in society. This exploratory study aims to examine the way NGOs are affecting women empowerment in India. A qualitative multiple case study approach was adopted. It was found that the NGOs are playing a catalytic role in women empowerment, particularly in rural areas. They are focusing on making women financially independent by facilitating them to adopt micro-entrepreneurship, leading to their financial independence. NGOs are also generating awareness for self-development among women and providing a boost to their self-esteem. Their efforts have resulted into their enhanced role in family decision making and in community. The NGOs are thus enabling economic and social empowerment of women. The study identifies the four-step process adopted by NGOs for women empowerment.
    Keywords: women empowerment; economic empowerment; social empowerment; micro entrepreneurship; NGO; non-governmental organisations; skill development; multiple case study.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10046601
    by Chetna Rath, Malabika Deo 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine the pay-performance sensitivity in the case of socially responsible companies and test whether all the performance measures have a consistent impact across firms having different pay scales. Taking NSE Nifty 100 ESG Index as the data sample, a panel of 69 firms for 2014
    Keywords: executive compensation; firm performance; India; socially responsible companies; performance-pay sensitivity; ESG firms.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10046603
  • Total Reward Satisfaction Questionnaire: Scale Development and Validation using Confirmatory Composite Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Jeeta Sarkar 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to develop a valid and reliable measure of total rewards satisfaction (TRS) as a formative higher order construct. Different phases of quantitative validations vis. content validity (n = 13 experts), exploratory factor analysis (n = 180) for determining factorial structure of the scale (n = 215) and higher order analysis for further validation (n = 120) confirm a six-dimensional structure of 23-item TRS scale. The psychometric properties of the scale have also been reported. The scale demonstrates internal consistence, reliability, and construct validity.
    Keywords: total rewards satisfaction; TRS; reflective-formative second-order construct; PLS-SEM; repeated indicator approach; scale development.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10046629
  • The influence of Personality Traits on Decision Making Process and Destination Choice for Travel Planning   Order a copy of this article
    by Pratima Verma, Ajay Jha, Vimal Kumar, ANKESH MITTAL, Sung Chi Hsu 
    Abstract: The five-factor model has been applied to study and analyse the personality traits such as attitudes, perceptions and personal choices of individuals across multidisciplinary studies. This study examines the influence of personality features on the decision-making process and destination choice for travel planning. A questionnaire survey-based study was carried out based on 127 Indian respondents, and the collected data were analysed using correlation and multiple regression analysis. The results of this study let out the five-factor model of personality has a great influence on the decisions-making process and destination selection of travel planning. Five of the ten hypotheses are significantly and positively linked to the decision-making process and destination choice, while rest five hypotheses are partially supported. The outcomes of this study are not limited. There are numerous travel personalities: venturers, pioneers, voyagers, journeyers, sightseers, and traditional. Future research should be expanded with other variables as the result of different travel personalities. The human common personality influences the travel personality/travel behaviour and the personality type is defined as a better tool to analyse the individual’s choice for making a travel plan.
    Keywords: personality traits; five-factor model; travel behaviour; destination choice; decision-making process.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10046650
  • The Influence of eWOM Communications On Intended Online Purchases: A Literature Review Using TCCM Framework and Future Research Agenda   Order a copy of this article
    by Rishikesh Bhaiswar, Deepak Chawla, N. Meenakshi 
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to review the studies on eWOM communication adoption and consumer purchase intention. Past research studies in this domain have involved empirical analysis, meta-analysis, systematic literature reviews and conceptual studies. These studies mainly explored the intellectual structure, defining the several constructs and justifying their relationships. The present study reviews 84 such studies through the background of theory (T), context (C), characteristics (C) and methodology (M). By applying the TCCM analysis, this study understands the adapted theories in eWOM communication and adoption literature and exemplify macro-level analysis (i.e., analysing the influence of platforms, industries and countries), micro-level analysis (i.e., understanding the antecedents, consequences, mediators and moderators used in these studies) and methodological analysis (i.e., analysing specific research approaches applied to these studies).
    Keywords: electronic word of mouth; eWOM; information adoption; IA; consumer purchase intention; theory-context-characteristics-methodology; TCCM; systematic literature review.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10046652
  • Patient Opinion on Servicescape in Selected Multispecialty Hospitals, Salem District, Tamil Nadu   Order a copy of this article
    by R. Alexzander R. Alexzander, A. Velavan 
    Abstract: Servicescape is one of the popular marketing strategies implemented by Booms and Bitner for accentuating the effects of the physical environment where the service plays a significant role. One such environment is the healthcare or medical industry, where patients seek good services that need improvement in their health. Patient happiness reflects the income and outgoing of more patients in the hospital. The growth of the hospital industries is based on service marketing, which can be obtained only from the existing patient opinion compared to the other industries. A new patient looks for opinions about primary operations, health check-ups, implanting body parts, etc. Thus, this paper proposed a supervised learning model to analyse the patient opinion collected from the patient directly and from social networks. Thus, this paper proposed a multi-class support vector machine as the learning model to learn, pre-process, feature extract, and classify the service categories of the hospital the collected at a multi-specialty hospital, Salem, Tamil Nadu, India used in the experiment. The experimental results show the classification accuracy, which is 8% higher than the existing model.
    Keywords: Data Analysis; Opinion Mining; Healthcare Data; Data Collection; Supervised Learning Model.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10047097
  • Assessing residential satisfaction parameters and its socio-economic characteristics of low-income group public housing in Lucknow city   Order a copy of this article
    by Supriya Kumari, Ajay Kumar, Ravish Kumar, Abdulla H. Fetais 
    Abstract: The study focuses on assessing socio-economic characteristics and various parameters of residential satisfaction of plotted and apartments low-income group public housing in Lucknow, India. This assessment will analyse the data using T-test, regression, and Pearson and Spearman’s correlation, which compares the data of two types plotted and apartment housing. T-test indicates that the residents’ satisfaction of the plotted and apartment houses varies in public facilities and neighbourhood facilities from one another significantly. T-test results show that four parameters (dwelling unit features, level of operation and maintenance, public facilities and neighbourhood facilities) were significant at 0.05 level, so equal variance was assumed. Multiple linear regression results represent a collective significant effect between all parameters and overall residential satisfaction, i.e., F = 20.713, P < 0.001, R2 = 0.673. Pearson’s correlation analysis revealed that age, marital status, and family monthly income correlate with all residential satisfaction parameters in both housing types.
    Keywords: residential satisfaction; socio-economic features; low-income group public housing; statistical analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10047101
  • Do Institutional Investors Care About ESG Performance: Evidence from India   Order a copy of this article
    by Kalyani Mulchandani, Ketan Mulchandani, Megha Jain 
    Abstract: Socially responsible investors (SRIs) evaluate ESG performance of firm and that is why firms have started disclosing ESG parameters in the annual reports. This study is focused on examining the impact of institutional ownership on the firm’s sustainability behaviour in the Indian context. Data is collected for eight years from 2013 to 2020 for non-banking and non-finance companies for which continuous relevant data are available for all the years. Total of 736 observations is considered for the purpose of analysis. After examining the data, it is found that institutional ownership affects ESG performance negatively and unlevered firms score better ESG ratings than their counterparts.
    Keywords: institutional ownership; ESG disclosures; socially responsible; panel data regression model; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10047157
  • Does age diversity matter? A study on Employee Value Proposition in Indian context   Order a copy of this article
    by Priyadharshini Vasudevan, Padmavathi T, L. Suganthi 
    Abstract: This paper aims to examine how age factor moderates the relationship between employee value proposition (EVP) attributes and measures of employee engagement such as organisational advocacy (OA) and intention to stay (IS). The study is cross-sectional in design, and an online survey was administered to collect data from 105 employees of an Indian non-banking finance company. Results show that extrinsic and intrinsic EVP attributes influence OA and IS measures of employee engagement significantly. Also, employees’ value preferences are dynamic, with intrinsic EVP significantly impacting engagement measures than extrinsic EVP as age increases. Research on EVP within Asian context is limited. Hence, by being one of the firsts to explore how age moderates the relationship between different conceptualisations of employee value proposition and employee attitudes among Indian employees, our study based on socio-emotional selectivity theory makes a significant contribution to EVP literature.
    Keywords: employee value proposition; EVP; organisational advocacy; intention to stay; age; socio-emotional selectivity theory; employee engagement.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10047185
  • Global financial crisis and variability in the stock price index in India: A vector error correction model approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Jagriti Srivastava, Sandeep Yadav 
    Abstract: We study the cointegration and causality between the various macroeconomic variables, global financial crisis (GFC) and the Indian economy [National Stock Exchange (NSE)] stock price index (SPI) from 1995
    Keywords: stock price index; SPI; exchange rate; gross domestic product; GDP; consumer price index; CPI; money supply; cointegration.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10047243
  • Text Mining Analysis of Monetary Policy Statements of RBI   Order a copy of this article
    by Pooja Misra 
    Abstract: Monetary policy is a principal tool by which a country’s Reserve Bank or financial regulatory authority influences the speed and direction of overall economic activity and general rate at which prices increase or decline. Post 2016, the official monetary policy is communicated through a statement issued by Reserve Bank of India, conveying the decision and current and future outlook of the Monetary Policy Committee. The current research aims to delve into assimilating available monetary policy statements of the Reserve Bank of India post the adoption of inflation targeting framework (2016
    Keywords: monetary policy statements; Reserve Bank of India; RBI; text mining; topic modelling; latent semantic analysis; LSA.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10047247
  • Myths & Mythology regarding Money, Wealth and Acquisition   Order a copy of this article
    by Shruti Mishra, Sujata Shahi 
    Abstract: The main aim of the paper is to understand myths, mythology and stories that exist in the Indian subcontinent and how it impacts are everyday decision-making skills. The findings from the study would give us an insight on the psyche behind consumer interaction with money. What money means to the common man and the cultural space that they operate from. The paper talks about myths and mythology that has been studied in the past. There are certain myths and folktales which are local and undocumented which have not been covered here. It is important to understand that the findings from such a study would give direction to decision makers and mangers of popular brands (both national and international/global brands), while designing, communicating and marketing products for the Indian market or the Indian consumers. Each culture is unique and hence it is important to understand the cultural truth that a particular society believes in, the paper helps in this regard.
    Keywords: myths; mythology; money; wealth; acquisition; psychology; psyche.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10047248
  • Poverty alleviation through the microfinance intervention: an empirical evidence from northern parts of India   Order a copy of this article
    by Aadil Rashid, P. Ashok Kumar 
    Abstract: Microfinance has drawn major attention after being successful in providing financial services to poor underprivileged people globally. Microfinance is an institute that provides financial services as well as business development training to its beneficiaries. This paper is an attempt to investigate the nature of the relationship between the amount of loan size provided by microfinance institutes and its effect on the standard of living, health and education of its beneficiaries. An ex-post-facto design was implemented to analyse whether the size of loan amount predicts the above three dimensions of poverty. Analysis of variance has been done to analyse the significance of the number of years joined the microfinance program. The findings revealed a positive impact on the above three dimensions of poverty. We believe our grassroot research can benefit different government policies of poverty alleviation, non-government organisations and pro-poor microfinance organisations.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship; education; health; microfinance; poverty; living standard; financial inclusion; SHG; poverty; microcredit; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10047479
  • A comprehensive model of leader moral courage - a study of Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr. using grounded theory approach   Order a copy of this article
    by C.S. Chandrahaas, Niranjan Narasimhan 
    Abstract: An individual's moral judgment only weakly predicts their moral behaviour and moral courage is a critical factor that reduces this disparity. However, research on moral courage and its antecedents has been sparse and studies have been largely conducted in contexts where the social costs for morally courageous actions are low. This study explores the antecedents of leader moral courage by investigating the lives of two renowned socio-political leaders - Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr. Eleven autobiographies and biographies of these leaders were studied and critical incidents from their lives that are relevant to this study were identified. A comprehensive model of leader moral courage has been developed by using grounded-theory-based theoretical sampling, coding and constant comparison techniques on these critical incidents. Three novel antecedents to leader moral courage have also been identified. The findings of this study have implications for both business ethics research and practice.
    Keywords: moral courage; grounded theory; moral intention; moral action; leadership; Gandhi; Martin Luther King; ethical challenges; antecedents; spirituality.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10047501
  • Prognostication of financial health of tourism and hospitality subsector in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Puja Kaura 
    Abstract: Covid-19 has an inconceivable negative impact on almost whole world but tourism and hospitality subsector have been affected the most Therefore, it becomes imperative to predict future of tourism and hospitality subsector Financial health is one way of determining future of any sector There are various models for predicting the financial distress; however, one of the most reliable models under the multivariate analysis category is Altman’s z-score model, with an accuracy rate ranging between 75 and 90% Current study has been done to predict the financial distress of tourism and hospitality subsector in India, using the Altman Z Score model Study’s findings revealed that tourism and hospitality sub-sector is financially sound and will not face any financial distress in the near future as it has a higher Z score for period 2018-21, than the standard (2 99) The findings of study will be valuable for all stakeholders in their decisions.
    Keywords: financial distress; tourism and hospitality subsector; multivariate analysis; Altman Z-score model; pandemic COVID-19; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10047595
  • User-generated content in Web 2.0 and Desti-'Nation' brand perceptions: an empirical analysis of Incredible India branding   Order a copy of this article
    by N.A. Jojomon, C. Manu 
    Abstract: Although destination management and marketing has received increased research attention over the past few years, limited research till date have examined the impact of Web 2.0 interactions on the destination perceptions of tourists, particularly in the context of emerging destinations. The current research aims to fill this gap by empirically exploring how user-generated content in social media influence the destination brand perceptions of potential tourists. The study was conducted in the backdrop of the Incredible India campaign, which was a venture for nation branding by the Ministry of Tourism and Culture of Government of India. Results of a structural equation modelling using 280 samples collected using an online questionnaire through Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) revealed that UGC had a positive significant effect on the destination brand perceptions of potential visitors. The study also provides theoretical and practical implications which can aid in better tourism management of emerging destinations.
    Keywords: destination management; destination branding; Incredible India; user-generated content; UGC; Web 2.0; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10047596
  • Post Regulatory impact of CSR on firm value and stock volatility in India: An Empirical Evidence   Order a copy of this article
    by Keerat Bhurjee, Ankur Paliwal 
    Abstract: We study the consequences of an exogenous regulation in 2013 making it mandatory for firms to contribute towards corporate social responsibility (CSR). Using a data set of 190 companies contributing mandatorily towards CSR, we empirically investigate the relationship between CSR, firm performance and volatility in an emerging market such as India. We also examine the moderating effects of firm size and industry in explaining the above relationship. We document a positive impact on short-and long-term firm profitability following the regulation. We do not find compelling evidence for the impact of CSR on the firms’ volatility although the firm age and size plays a positive moderating role in explaining the volatility at the firm level. Finally, we also find that manufacturing firms are more socially responsible in terms of their CSR activities as compared to service sector firms. Our overall results provide empirical support for the potential benefits accruing to the CSR activities.
    Keywords: corporate social responsibility; CSR; firm performance; firm size; firm age; volatility of stock returns; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10047701