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International Journal of Indian Culture and Business Management

International Journal of Indian Culture and Business Management (IJICBM)

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International Journal of Indian Culture and Business Management (99 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Link between Company Characteristics, Board Structure and HR Disclosure Level in Software Sector in Indian context: Perception or Reality   Order a copy of this article
    by Dr. Kirti Aggarwal  
    Abstract: The aim of the study is to investigates the link between company characteristics, board structure and Human Resource (HR) disclosure level in software sector in Indian context. The study conducted on 16 software sector companies listed on NSE-500 Index for the time span of starting from F.Y. 2012-13 to 2019-2020. The outcomes of Two-way Least Square Dummy Variable (LSDV) regression model depicted that there is significant positive effect of net sales, board size, board meeting, listing status, pages of an annual report and significant negative of age, net fixed assets, debt-equity ratio, CEO duality on the level of HR disclosure of software sector companies in India. The study helps to The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI) and other regulatory bodies to take the steps on the basis of Human Resource Disclosure Index (HRDI) constructed in the study to make the HR disclosure practices mandatory in nature in India.
    Keywords: company characteristics; board structure; human resource disclosure; LSDV regression model; software sector; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10042901
  • Do Exogenous Factors matter in the Productivity Growth Trajectory of Indian Manufacturing   Order a copy of this article
    by Abhijeet Bag, Sarbapriya Ray 
    Abstract: The study tries to present total factor productivity growth in Indian manufacturing sector to identify the exogenous factors that led to the growth of productivity in manufacturing sector during 1996 to 1997 to 2016 to 2017. Using GMM estimation, the study reveals that FDI inflow, political stability, initial education, research and development expenditure are found to be positively impacted productivity growth in Indian manufacturing. Trade openness yields adverse impact on TFPG. Female participation and initial investment unexpectedly cause negative impact on TFPG. Negative impact of per capita GDP on TFPG, although insignificant, suggests that economic growth in India is mainly input accumulated rather than productivity driven. Sectoral composition having insignificant negative impact indicates that predominance of agricultural sector would lower productivity growth in manufacturing sector of India. Being input accumulated growth prevalent in India, improving TFPG is urgent need to reduce dependence on physical inputs as well to become a productivity driven economy.
    Keywords: productivity; growth; India; exogenous factors; manufacturing; sector.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10043088
  • Does the utilitarian value of gamified virtual currency affect its usage intention in the context of e-commerce?   Order a copy of this article
    by Anoop George, Manu Joy, Muhammed N, Muhammed S 
    Abstract: Gamification is the application of game mechanics to a serious situation in order to motivate consumers to purchase products or services. Gamification has been utilised in e-commerce communication to strengthen intent to use. The research utilises an extended technology acceptance model to evaluate the usage intention of gamified virtual currency, with an emphasis on its utilitarian value characteristics. An online survey was conducted to collect data from appropriate virtual currency consumers in an e-tail setting. In this study, PLS-SEM is used to analyse data with a sample size of 310 active virtual currency users. The incremental impact of the virtual currency’s utilitarian value on the intention to utilise it is demonstrated in this empirical study. Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and attitude appear to be major mediating variables. This research also includes discussions, limitations, and suggestions for further studies.
    Keywords: utilitarian value; gamification; extended TAM; virtual currency; intention to use; e-commerce; PLS-SEM; e-tail.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10043655
  • Reading Habits of Students of Higher Learning Institutions During Covid-19 Lockdown Period.   Order a copy of this article
    by M. Vasan, Yoganandan G 
    Abstract: This research aims to examine the leisure reading habits of students during the COVID-19 lockdown period (N = 156). The study identified that most of the students have the habit of reading newspapers, and they preferred to read literary works in the areas of novel, story and poem. The majority of students enjoy reading books. Students are regularly reading books for updating themselves, and they have a regular habit of reading books other than textbooks. Moreover, the study result proves that doing a part time job, time spent in the SNS, and playing mobile/online games are substantially curtailed the students’ reading habits.
    Keywords: COVID-19; pandemic; higher learning institutions reading habit; students; young learners.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10043972
  • Supply Chain Mapping for Supply Chain Visualization: Muga Silk Industry in Assam   Order a copy of this article
    by Arshad Hussain, Pratim Barua, Tridib Ranjan Sarma 
    Abstract: Development efforts in the Muga silk industry have underperformed due to lack of supply chain visualisation. There exists a wide knowledge gap on supply chain perspectives that can be reliably referred upon, for planning industry development. Supply chain mapping has gained importance as a feasible approach for the problem of visualisation. Strategic supply chain mapping approach professed by Gardner and Cooper (2003) matches the industry focus of this study. Process mapping and relationship mapping have been used as sub-approaches to acquire systematic information on our descriptive modelling objective. The study has effectively delivered a comprehensive supply chain map covering information on entities, SC processes and sub-processes, material flow, product categories, process interactions and industry administration horizons. A separate spatial map was also produced. This is an original research application of supply chain mapping approach for achieving visualisation in the Muga silk supply chain.
    Keywords: strategic supply chain mapping; process mapping; relationship mapping; Muga silk; supply chain visualisation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10043980
  • IS CREDIT DEFAULT SWAP SPREAD A LEADING INDICATOR OF BANK DEFAULT RISK : Evidence of Indian banks during the COVID -19 Pandemic   Order a copy of this article
    by Vikas Srivastava 
    Abstract: The paper investigates whether credit default swaps (CDSs) spread of Indian banks is a leading indicator for bank default risk. The paper uses Merton-type models to estimate theoretical CDS spread of the sample of Indian banks and then compares it to their balance sheet ratios. Though theoretically, higher CDS spreads indicate higher default risk, the paper finds that in times of shocks, like the present COVID crisis, it becomes difficult to isolate the spread movements due to true default risk versus those based on panic and speculation. The paper then correlates equity premiums and CDS premiums and finds negative correlation. The equity market returns lead the CDS market returns in capturing default risk. As default risk is priced better in equity markets, it is preferable for institutional investors to trade default risk of Indian banks in the stock markets rather than the CDS markets.
    Keywords: credit default swaps; CDSs; default risk; credit risk; Indian banks; COVID-19 pandemic; structural models of default; equity premiums; CDS premiums.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10044001
  • Mediating effect of organizational learning and organizational innovation between transformational leadership and organizational performance in the Indian manufacturing industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Sunayana Kumar, Anam Aslam, Aamir Aslam 
    Abstract: The present study examines the mediating effect of organisational learning (OL) and organisational innovation (OI) between transformational leadership (TL) and organisational performance (OP) in Indian manufacturing companies. This paper also examines the relationships among TL, OL, OI and OP. The data comprise 362 managers from various manufacturing companies listed on the National Stock Exchange (NSE) of India. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was applied to examine the suggested hypothesised relationship. The results indicate that TL directly affects OL, OI, and OP and has a more substantial direct impact on OI than OL. Additionally, OI has a positive and significant effect on OP. Moreover, OL and OI significantly mediate the relationship between TL and OP. This study also tests TL with two mediating variables OL and OI with OP that have not been examined previously in theory and analysed empirically in an Indian context.
    Keywords: transformational leadership; organisational learning; organisational innovation; organisational performance; India; structural equation modelling; SEM; mediation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10044014
  • Interactive approach of Individual and Organizational Spirituality and Managing Organizational Misbehavior: A Proposed Theoretical Model   Order a copy of this article
    by Richa Chauhan, Nidhi Maheshwari 
    Abstract: Organisational misbehaviour has grave concern for organisations, especially when the instances of misconduct and unethical acts have become more frequent than ever. The present study proposed a conceptual framework to manage organisational misbehaviour through workplace spirituality. The findings of the research endeavour suggested that individual and corporate spirituality level varies. With the help of the interview method, variations present in personal and organisational spirituality levels were recognised, and interactions were categorised into Satvik-enabling, Tamsik-directing, Tamsik-enabling, and Satvik-directing. Further, based on unity among individual-organisation spiritual values, an individual’s inclination towards misbehaviour in each category of interaction is discussed. An attempt is also to explore organisational culture and leadership’s role in instrumenting workplace spirituality to reduce corporate wrongdoing. To illustrate the practical implementation of the present study’s findings, the human resource department practices for handling misconduct via workplace spirituality are incorporated.
    Keywords: workplace spirituality; individual spirituality; Satvik-enabling; Tamsik-directing; Tamsik-enabling; Satvik-directing; organisational spirituality; misbehaviour.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10044046
  • Macroeconomic Variables & Financial Performance: A bibliometric Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Prasanta Kumar, Dasarathi Sahu, Biswajit Prasad Chhatoi 
    Abstract: The field of macroeconomic variables and financial performance is ever-evolving, and a wide array of research has illuminated this field for the last three decades. The present study explores the avenues of research dimensions in the macroeconomic variables and financial performance domain by synthesising the contributions of pioneering journals, authors, institutions, and countries. The authors have deployed bibliometric and network visualisation tools such as VoSViewer for analysing the bibliometric information obtained from the Scopus database. Analysis of 323 numbers documents found in the dataset, published in 268 journals, revealed ten highly cited research articles, four clusters of keywords that substantiated the research field. The VoSviewer network visualisation has been depicted for each parameter. The study found that macroeconomic variables and financial performance, human literacy, education, and retirement constitute matured yet potential research areas to be undertaken by scholars of macroeconomic variables and financial performance.
    Keywords: macroeconomic variables; financial performance; bibliometric analysis; gross domestic product; GDP; VosViewer; cluster analysis; intellectual structure.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10044132
  • Ishq - The Sufi way of leadership   Order a copy of this article
    by Amit Gupta 
    Abstract: This paper studies three types of leadership theories
    Keywords: Sufism; blended leadership; indigenous leadership; non-western leadership; COVID-19; culture; heritage; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10044428
  • Assessing synergies and challenges between CSR and SDG with evidence from India   Order a copy of this article
    by Vikrant Kulkarni, Ashish Aggarwal 
    Abstract: Sustainable development goals (SDG), which aim to tackle all the critical global issues by 2030, face fundamental resource challenges. This paper seeks to analyse if the funds available from CSR can act as an instrument for companies to contribute to SDG needs. The study of 60 Indian companies compares prescribed vs. actual CSR expenditure, the geographical and thematic spread of activities, and compliance towards specific provisions of the companies act. Our critical findings in the paper are that the business awareness of SDG has increased, and the pool of CSR funds has increased post-2014. There is a narrow focus on four thematic areas of education, healthcare, hunger, and poverty alleviation. The geographical spread of fund expenditure is limited to a few key states in India. And, while the reporting quality on CSR and sustainability efforts has improved, there is a long way to go to comply with the Act.
    Keywords: CSR; SDG; sustainable development goals; mandatory CSR; companies act; India; CSR reporting.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10044727
  • Management of Saving and Investment Pattern of Private Sector Employees of Assam and effect of Covid-19 on it- An Analytical Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Ramjanul Haque, Viveka Gupta 
    Abstract: When the nation is facing a great downfall of economic activities leading to many disturbances in daily life of people, savings and investment plan can hold the hands of employees belonging to private sector from financial fall down. The present study exposes the savings and investment preferences of private sector employees due to the effect of COVID-19 pandemic. As information shows that salary reduction and job termination have become common events in private sector due to the present pandemic, it becomes necessary to understand how far the pandemic has influenced their savings and investment. Likert scale and Garret ranking are two statistical tools used in the study to analyse major influencing factors of COVID-19 pandemic and the mostly preferred factor by the private sector employees. The study concludes that this pandemic has a significant influence leading to deregulating existing plans as well as decline in proportion of savings and investments.
    Keywords: saving; investment; pattern; effect; COVID-19; private sector; salary reduction; job termination; pandemic; employees.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10044765
  • The Relevance of Satvik Management Model from the Bhagavad Gita for Business Sustainability   Order a copy of this article
    by Hardik BHADESHIYA, Parag Shukla, Balakrishnan Muniapan 
    Abstract: Satvik management is a consciousness-based management approach, which presents a spiritual perspective of management that can shape managerial ethical values and moral decision-making, which is critical for business sustainability during the current pandemic and in a world full of uncertainty. The Bhagavad Gita is a part of the Great Mahabharata, and it presents the essence of Vedic (Indian) spirituality. This is a first paper written on Satvik management in the management literature, and the authors employed hermeneutics, a qualitative methodology for interpreting texts. This paper contributes to the theory of personality (Satvik) and the organisational implication of Satvik management. The Bhagavad Gita suggests a Satvik spiritual management model with an intrinsic perspective or inside-out rather than an outside-in management practice. This paper is expected to provide a spiritual and philosophical perspective of management thought and wisdom in confronting and dealing with current management challenges for business sustainability in a turbulent business environment.
    Keywords: Satvik management; Bhagavad Gita; management philosophy; spirituality in management; business sustainability.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10044766
  • Brexit impact on Pound as well as Euro with reference to Indian Rupee   Order a copy of this article
    by Priyanka Rani, Karam Pal Narwal 
    Abstract: The present study attempts to examine the effect of Brexit on foreign exchange rate volatility in India by taking the currency pair EUR/INR and GBP/INR. The daily spot price data of GBP/INR and EUR/INR are collected from RBI and FBIL for the period of 1st March 2011 to 23rd March 2020. To examine the impact, the sample of the study has been divided into two parts before and after Brexit. After testing the data for stationarity by applying the augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) test, GARCH (1, 1) model has been applied for examining volatility of exchange rate return series of pre and post Brexit. The result of the GARCH (1, 1) shows the presence of highly volatile market after Brexit compared to the pre-Brexit period. The currency pair of Great Britain Pound slopes downwards suddenly after news related to Brexit happens, even this slope continues for a longer period.
    Keywords: Brexit; exchange rate volatility; currencies; GARCH analysis; Indian Rupee.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10044940
  • Divergence between economic growth and stock market performance in India: Implications for investor education and financial wellbeing.   Order a copy of this article
    by Kamakhya Singh, Gaurav Misra 
    Abstract: Amidst declining trends of Indian macroeconomic indicators during COVID-19 period, certain indicators, which can be takes as proxies of investors’ behaviour, sentiments and biases, were discerned in Indian securities markets. The study provides significant insight into sentiments and biases of a particular segment of retail investors trading in uncertain times of COVID-19, whose investment behaviour may have serious impact on their financial well-being in the long-term. This exploratory-descriptive study uses data collected by various regulators and government sources in India and abroad to evaluate the behaviour of investors in the backdrop of macroeconomic trends during COVID-19. After analysing the trends of investor participation, trading behaviour and general sentiment in the Indian capital markets and evaluating the implications of these investor-related behaviour on the financial well-being of individual investors, a comprehensive and segmented approach of financial literacy has been recommended to safeguard financial well-being of investors.
    Keywords: investor biases; financial literacy; COVID-19; macroeconomic indicators; financial well-being; policy recommendations; financial education; financial inclusion; financial behaviour.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10044984
  • How do the Sectoral Indices react to Covid-19? Evidence from an emerging economy   Order a copy of this article
    by Vineeta Kumari, Pradipta Banerjee, Dharen Pandey 
    Abstract: The study empirically examines the impact of the COVID-19 on different sectoral indices of the National Stock Exchange (India) using the event study method and a generalised autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) model. We provide evidence of positive impacts on the auto, oil and gas, healthcare, and pharma sectors. While the bank, financial services, and private bank sectors are the most adversely impacted sectors, the PSU bank, media, and reality sectors are the least impacted, and the rest are moderately impacted sectors. The overall impact of COVID-19 was negative until the implementation of nationwide lockdowns and the announcement of stimulus packages. The GARCH results exhibit more substantial evidence for the negative impact of the pandemic on the FMCG, IT, metal, oil and gas, and PSU bank sectors. We also find a more favourable impact on FMCG, pharma, and healthcare sectors in India.
    Keywords: COVID-19; event study; GARCH; second wave; NIFTY; sectoral indices; pandemic; abnormal returns.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10045016
  • Ambidextrous Employees and Sustainable Innovation Practices- Empirical validation of Structural Linkage   Order a copy of this article
    by Nikita Singh, Vinay Singh, Manoj Patwardhan, Yogesh Upadhyay 
    Abstract: Present study: 1) focuses on establishing the structural relationship between exploratory and exploitative behaviour of ambidextrous employees working in innovation-based organisations in India; 2) attempts to link the ambidextrous behaviour of employees with sustainable innovative practices of these organisations. A theoretical model was proposed and for its empirical verification, primary data was collected from 200 innovative organisations across India. The data were analysed using statistical methods namely, EFA, CFA, and structured equation model (SEM). As all the proposed hypotheses show significant statistical support, and thus it is concluded that the organisational and technological sustainable innovative practices are positively influenced by employees’ ambidextrous behaviour. The study contributes to a novel set of theories on the interdependence of employees’ ambidextrous behaviour fostering sustainable innovation practices of the organisations, in their unique way.
    Keywords: sustainability; sustainable innovation practices; exploratory behaviour; exploitative behaviour; employees’ ambidexterity.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10045255
  • A study on Entrepreneurial Intention: S-O-R approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Chidambaram Alagappan, Nagarajan PS 
    Abstract: This research is centrally focused to identify the impact of perceived usefulness and hedonic motivation on entrepreneurial intention. Stimulus-organism-response (S-O-R) framework was used by combining the variables like perceived usefulness from the theory of planned behaviour and hedonic motivation from the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology. The research attempts to investigate the direct and indirect effect of perceived usefulness and hedonic motivation on entrepreneurial intention. Similarly, the moderating effect of age and domicile were identified. The final outcome of this research signifies that perceived usefulness did not show indirect effect on entrepreneurial intention however hedonic motivation positively influences entrepreneurial intention through entrepreneurial education.
    Keywords: entrepreneurial intention; entrepreneurial education; perceived usefulness; hedonic motivation; entrepreneurial intention.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.10045327
  • Corporate Social Responsibility and Women Empowerment: Evidence from India   Order a copy of this article
    by Priyanka Chhaparia, Munmun Jha 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to explore the extent of the inclusion of women in the corporate social responsibility (CSR) efforts in the Indian context under the framework of women empowerment and gender equality. The paper problematises the concept of the term women empowerment as understood and promoted by companies under their CSR strategy. The study is qualitative in nature, based on the CSR foundations of two pharmaceutical companies. The data has been collected from four locations
    Keywords: corporate social responsibility; CSR; women empowerment; India CSR; pharmaceutical companies; CSR foundations; CSR and women; Indian CSR; CSR and pharmaceuticals.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10045474
  • Power Distance Orientation as a Moderator of Psychological Ownership-Constructive Voice to Supervisor Relationships in IT Services Organisations of India   Order a copy of this article
    by K.H. Pavitra, Lovy Sarikwal 
    Abstract: Employee constructive voice may enable IT services organisations to grow and develop competitive advantage through innovations. To promote employee constructive voice to supervisor, we examined if psychological ownership for job or organisation predict constructive voice to supervisor. As culture of an individual affects workplace behaviour, we also investigated if Indian culture in the form of power distance orientation affects voice to supervisor. Using a cross-sectional research design, we surveyed 349 lower and middle-level employees of IT services organisations in India through a questionnaire. Findings showed that psychological ownership predicts constructive voice to supervisor, and this relationship is moderated by power distance orientation such that low power distance employees express more constructive voice to their supervisors than high power distance employees. This will help organisations understand how to encourage employee constructive voice conveyed to the supervisor, and understand the key role of culture in employee constructive voice expressed to supervisor.
    Keywords: power distance orientation; PDO; psychological ownership; constructive voice to supervisor; employee voice; information technology services; Indian culture.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10045747
  • Econometric perspective of Agricultural Exports and Economic Growth relationship: With reference to India and China   Order a copy of this article
    by Shabnam Kumari, Deepti Kakar 
    Abstract: The present study is entitled to disseminate the relationship between agricultural exports and economic growth of India and China for the period of 1990 to 2020. And, the findings evince that the co-integration has been found in terms of both the country’s economic growth (GDP) and other macroeconomic variables: consumer price index, gross fixed capital, labour force, and exports of fresh fruits, fresh vegetables and whole cow milk. Later on, the vector error correction model confirms the existence of long-term causality in the log series of China but not in India, and the results of forecasted error variance decomposition (FEVD) and impulse response function exhibit that one fourth of the variation in GDP returns of India and China has been caused by the inflation in their respective country. The results of the present study are of immense use to agricultural exporters, government institutions, and policymakers of the Indian and Chinese economies.
    Keywords: India; China; gross domestic product; GDP; co-integration; causality; agricultural exports; economic growth.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10045953
  • Assessing Asset Quality Using Bank Specific and Macro Linkages of Non-Performing Assets: Case of Public Sector Banks in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Padmasai Arora, NEHA SAINI, A. Jiran Meitei, Hitesh Arora, Anju Goswami 
    Abstract: The aim of the study is to explore determinants of non-performing assets (NPAs) of public sector banks (PSBs) in India. Using balanced panel for the period 2004
    Keywords: non-performing assets; NPAs; persistence; consolidation; Indian banking sector; generalised methods of moments; GMM.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10045957
  • Impacts of pandemic-related stimulus packages on the stock market: Evidence from India and the United States   Order a copy of this article
    by Vineeta Kumari, Varun Kumar Rai, Dharen Pandey 
    Abstract: We examine the impacts of the pandemic-related stimulus packages on the stock market during the COVID-19 period and the association between returns, volatilities, and fatality rates in the two markets. We use the event study method, vector auto regression, and correlation on a sample of 947 firms, including 452 firms from BSE500 and 495 firms from S&P500. We find a significant positive impact of the stimulus packages announced by the two governments, though with a different reaction time. The volatility index is negatively associated with the market returns in both markets. However, the market returns in both nations are not correlated with the fatality rates in these nations. We also provide evidence of similar pre-COVID period returns in both markets. More negative impacts during the COVID period are noticed in India than in the US. The market recovery period is marked with higher recovery rates in India than in the US.
    Keywords: COVID-19; event study; India; market returns; USA; vector auto regression; VAR; global pandemic.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10046291
  • The New era of Online Education   Order a copy of this article
    by Amulya Bharadwaj 
    Abstract: The educational scene in India covers various angles and perspectives from pre-school to advanced education and has been created to guarantee full improvement of the human character through a predefined organised system to building learning, aptitudes, capacities and frames of mind essential for the new economy. The sudden strike of the pandemic shook the education stakeholders and the parents were one of those stakeholders who were affected by the sudden shift to online education. The research on digital supported learning as envisioned in the national education policy 2020 is marked by large gaps, while its sudden implementation was struggling to accept. This paper aims to capture the perceptions of parents of school children. However, the students, teachers and institutions’ perceptions are relevantly significant for the overall scope of the research, so as to obtain a holistic stakeholder perspective on the digital learning support.
    Keywords: online education; teaching-learning environment; perception of parents.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10046590
  • Interventions of Non-Governmental Organisations for Women Empowerment through Micro-entrepreneurship: Evidences from India   Order a copy of this article
    by Shefali Nandan, Anjali Kushwaha 
    Abstract: Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) play an important role in bringing transformations in society. This exploratory study aims to examine the way NGOs are affecting women empowerment in India. A qualitative multiple case study approach was adopted. It was found that the NGOs are playing a catalytic role in women empowerment, particularly in rural areas. They are focusing on making women financially independent by facilitating them to adopt micro-entrepreneurship, leading to their financial independence. NGOs are also generating awareness for self-development among women and providing a boost to their self-esteem. Their efforts have resulted into their enhanced role in family decision making and in community. The NGOs are thus enabling economic and social empowerment of women. The study identifies the four-step process adopted by NGOs for women empowerment.
    Keywords: women empowerment; economic empowerment; social empowerment; micro entrepreneurship; NGO; non-governmental organisations; skill development; multiple case study.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10046601
    by Chetna Rath, Malabika Deo 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine the pay-performance sensitivity in the case of socially responsible companies and test whether all the performance measures have a consistent impact across firms having different pay scales. Taking NSE Nifty 100 ESG Index as the data sample, a panel of 69 firms for 2014
    Keywords: executive compensation; firm performance; India; socially responsible companies; performance-pay sensitivity; ESG firms.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10046603
  • Total Reward Satisfaction Questionnaire: Scale Development and Validation using Confirmatory Composite Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Jeeta Sarkar 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to develop a valid and reliable measure of total rewards satisfaction (TRS) as a formative higher order construct. Different phases of quantitative validations vis. content validity (n = 13 experts), exploratory factor analysis (n = 180) for determining factorial structure of the scale (n = 215) and higher order analysis for further validation (n = 120) confirm a six-dimensional structure of 23-item TRS scale. The psychometric properties of the scale have also been reported. The scale demonstrates internal consistence, reliability, and construct validity.
    Keywords: total rewards satisfaction; TRS; reflective-formative second-order construct; PLS-SEM; repeated indicator approach; scale development.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10046629
  • The influence of Personality Traits on Decision Making Process and Destination Choice for Travel Planning   Order a copy of this article
    by Pratima Verma, Ajay Jha, Vimal Kumar, ANKESH MITTAL, Sung Chi Hsu 
    Abstract: The five-factor model has been applied to study and analyse the personality traits such as attitudes, perceptions and personal choices of individuals across multidisciplinary studies. This study examines the influence of personality features on the decision-making process and destination choice for travel planning. A questionnaire survey-based study was carried out based on 127 Indian respondents, and the collected data were analysed using correlation and multiple regression analysis. The results of this study let out the five-factor model of personality has a great influence on the decisions-making process and destination selection of travel planning. Five of the ten hypotheses are significantly and positively linked to the decision-making process and destination choice, while rest five hypotheses are partially supported. The outcomes of this study are not limited. There are numerous travel personalities: venturers, pioneers, voyagers, journeyers, sightseers, and traditional. Future research should be expanded with other variables as the result of different travel personalities. The human common personality influences the travel personality/travel behaviour and the personality type is defined as a better tool to analyse the individual’s choice for making a travel plan.
    Keywords: personality traits; five-factor model; travel behaviour; destination choice; decision-making process.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10046650
  • Patient Opinion on Servicescape in Selected Multispecialty Hospitals, Salem District, Tamil Nadu   Order a copy of this article
    by R. Alexzander R. Alexzander, A. Velavan 
    Abstract: Servicescape is one of the popular marketing strategies implemented by Booms and Bitner for accentuating the effects of the physical environment where the service plays a significant role. One such environment is the healthcare or medical industry, where patients seek good services that need improvement in their health. Patient happiness reflects the income and outgoing of more patients in the hospital. The growth of the hospital industries is based on service marketing, which can be obtained only from the existing patient opinion compared to the other industries. A new patient looks for opinions about primary operations, health check-ups, implanting body parts, etc. Thus, this paper proposed a supervised learning model to analyse the patient opinion collected from the patient directly and from social networks. Thus, this paper proposed a multi-class support vector machine as the learning model to learn, pre-process, feature extract, and classify the service categories of the hospital the collected at a multi-specialty hospital, Salem, Tamil Nadu, India used in the experiment. The experimental results show the classification accuracy, which is 8% higher than the existing model.
    Keywords: Data Analysis; Opinion Mining; Healthcare Data; Data Collection; Supervised Learning Model.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10047097
  • Assessing residential satisfaction parameters and its socio-economic characteristics of low-income group public housing in Lucknow city   Order a copy of this article
    by Supriya Kumari, Ajay Kumar, Ravish Kumar, Abdulla H. Fetais 
    Abstract: The study focuses on assessing socio-economic characteristics and various parameters of residential satisfaction of plotted and apartments low-income group public housing in Lucknow, India. This assessment will analyse the data using T-test, regression, and Pearson and Spearman’s correlation, which compares the data of two types plotted and apartment housing. T-test indicates that the residents’ satisfaction of the plotted and apartment houses varies in public facilities and neighbourhood facilities from one another significantly. T-test results show that four parameters (dwelling unit features, level of operation and maintenance, public facilities and neighbourhood facilities) were significant at 0.05 level, so equal variance was assumed. Multiple linear regression results represent a collective significant effect between all parameters and overall residential satisfaction, i.e., F = 20.713, P < 0.001, R2 = 0.673. Pearson’s correlation analysis revealed that age, marital status, and family monthly income correlate with all residential satisfaction parameters in both housing types.
    Keywords: residential satisfaction; socio-economic features; low-income group public housing; statistical analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10047101
  • Do Institutional Investors Care About ESG Performance: Evidence from India   Order a copy of this article
    by Kalyani Mulchandani, Ketan Mulchandani, Megha Jain 
    Abstract: Socially responsible investors (SRIs) evaluate ESG performance of firm and that is why firms have started disclosing ESG parameters in the annual reports. This study is focused on examining the impact of institutional ownership on the firm’s sustainability behaviour in the Indian context. Data is collected for eight years from 2013 to 2020 for non-banking and non-finance companies for which continuous relevant data are available for all the years. Total of 736 observations is considered for the purpose of analysis. After examining the data, it is found that institutional ownership affects ESG performance negatively and unlevered firms score better ESG ratings than their counterparts.
    Keywords: institutional ownership; ESG disclosures; socially responsible; panel data regression model; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10047157
  • Does age diversity matter? A study on Employee Value Proposition in Indian context   Order a copy of this article
    by Priyadharshini Vasudevan, Padmavathi T, L. Suganthi 
    Abstract: This paper aims to examine how age factor moderates the relationship between employee value proposition (EVP) attributes and measures of employee engagement such as organisational advocacy (OA) and intention to stay (IS). The study is cross-sectional in design, and an online survey was administered to collect data from 105 employees of an Indian non-banking finance company. Results show that extrinsic and intrinsic EVP attributes influence OA and IS measures of employee engagement significantly. Also, employees’ value preferences are dynamic, with intrinsic EVP significantly impacting engagement measures than extrinsic EVP as age increases. Research on EVP within Asian context is limited. Hence, by being one of the firsts to explore how age moderates the relationship between different conceptualisations of employee value proposition and employee attitudes among Indian employees, our study based on socio-emotional selectivity theory makes a significant contribution to EVP literature.
    Keywords: employee value proposition; EVP; organisational advocacy; intention to stay; age; socio-emotional selectivity theory; employee engagement.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10047185
  • Global financial crisis and variability in the stock price index in India: A vector error correction model approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Jagriti Srivastava, Sandeep Yadav 
    Abstract: We study the cointegration and causality between the various macroeconomic variables, global financial crisis (GFC) and the Indian economy [National Stock Exchange (NSE)] stock price index (SPI) from 1995
    Keywords: stock price index; SPI; exchange rate; gross domestic product; GDP; consumer price index; CPI; money supply; cointegration.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10047243
  • Text Mining Analysis of Monetary Policy Statements of RBI   Order a copy of this article
    by Pooja Misra 
    Abstract: Monetary policy is a principal tool by which a country’s Reserve Bank or financial regulatory authority influences the speed and direction of overall economic activity and general rate at which prices increase or decline. Post 2016, the official monetary policy is communicated through a statement issued by Reserve Bank of India, conveying the decision and current and future outlook of the Monetary Policy Committee. The current research aims to delve into assimilating available monetary policy statements of the Reserve Bank of India post the adoption of inflation targeting framework (2016
    Keywords: monetary policy statements; Reserve Bank of India; RBI; text mining; topic modelling; latent semantic analysis; LSA.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10047247
  • Myths & Mythology regarding Money, Wealth and Acquisition   Order a copy of this article
    by Shruti Mishra, Sujata Shahi 
    Abstract: The main aim of the paper is to understand myths, mythology and stories that exist in the Indian subcontinent and how it impacts are everyday decision-making skills. The findings from the study would give us an insight on the psyche behind consumer interaction with money. What money means to the common man and the cultural space that they operate from. The paper talks about myths and mythology that has been studied in the past. There are certain myths and folktales which are local and undocumented which have not been covered here. It is important to understand that the findings from such a study would give direction to decision makers and mangers of popular brands (both national and international/global brands), while designing, communicating and marketing products for the Indian market or the Indian consumers. Each culture is unique and hence it is important to understand the cultural truth that a particular society believes in, the paper helps in this regard.
    Keywords: myths; mythology; money; wealth; acquisition; psychology; psyche.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10047248
  • Poverty alleviation through the microfinance intervention: an empirical evidence from northern parts of India   Order a copy of this article
    by Aadil Rashid, P. Ashok Kumar 
    Abstract: Microfinance has drawn major attention after being successful in providing financial services to poor underprivileged people globally. Microfinance is an institute that provides financial services as well as business development training to its beneficiaries. This paper is an attempt to investigate the nature of the relationship between the amount of loan size provided by microfinance institutes and its effect on the standard of living, health and education of its beneficiaries. An ex-post-facto design was implemented to analyse whether the size of loan amount predicts the above three dimensions of poverty. Analysis of variance has been done to analyse the significance of the number of years joined the microfinance program. The findings revealed a positive impact on the above three dimensions of poverty. We believe our grassroot research can benefit different government policies of poverty alleviation, non-government organisations and pro-poor microfinance organisations.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship; education; health; microfinance; poverty; living standard; financial inclusion; SHG; poverty; microcredit; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10047479
  • A comprehensive model of leader moral courage - a study of Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr. using grounded theory approach   Order a copy of this article
    by C.S. Chandrahaas, Niranjan Narasimhan 
    Abstract: An individual's moral judgment only weakly predicts their moral behaviour and moral courage is a critical factor that reduces this disparity. However, research on moral courage and its antecedents has been sparse and studies have been largely conducted in contexts where the social costs for morally courageous actions are low. This study explores the antecedents of leader moral courage by investigating the lives of two renowned socio-political leaders - Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr. Eleven autobiographies and biographies of these leaders were studied and critical incidents from their lives that are relevant to this study were identified. A comprehensive model of leader moral courage has been developed by using grounded-theory-based theoretical sampling, coding and constant comparison techniques on these critical incidents. Three novel antecedents to leader moral courage have also been identified. The findings of this study have implications for both business ethics research and practice.
    Keywords: moral courage; grounded theory; moral intention; moral action; leadership; Gandhi; Martin Luther King; ethical challenges; antecedents; spirituality.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10047501
  • Prognostication of financial health of tourism and hospitality subsector in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Puja Kaura 
    Abstract: Covid-19 has an inconceivable negative impact on almost whole world but tourism and hospitality subsector have been affected the most Therefore, it becomes imperative to predict future of tourism and hospitality subsector Financial health is one way of determining future of any sector There are various models for predicting the financial distress; however, one of the most reliable models under the multivariate analysis category is Altman’s z-score model, with an accuracy rate ranging between 75 and 90% Current study has been done to predict the financial distress of tourism and hospitality subsector in India, using the Altman Z Score model Study’s findings revealed that tourism and hospitality sub-sector is financially sound and will not face any financial distress in the near future as it has a higher Z score for period 2018-21, than the standard (2 99) The findings of study will be valuable for all stakeholders in their decisions.
    Keywords: financial distress; tourism and hospitality subsector; multivariate analysis; Altman Z-score model; pandemic COVID-19; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10047595
  • User-generated content in Web 2.0 and Desti-'Nation' brand perceptions: an empirical analysis of Incredible India branding   Order a copy of this article
    by N.A. Jojomon, C. Manu 
    Abstract: Although destination management and marketing has received increased research attention over the past few years, limited research till date have examined the impact of Web 2.0 interactions on the destination perceptions of tourists, particularly in the context of emerging destinations. The current research aims to fill this gap by empirically exploring how user-generated content in social media influence the destination brand perceptions of potential tourists. The study was conducted in the backdrop of the Incredible India campaign, which was a venture for nation branding by the Ministry of Tourism and Culture of Government of India. Results of a structural equation modelling using 280 samples collected using an online questionnaire through Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) revealed that UGC had a positive significant effect on the destination brand perceptions of potential visitors. The study also provides theoretical and practical implications which can aid in better tourism management of emerging destinations.
    Keywords: destination management; destination branding; Incredible India; user-generated content; UGC; Web 2.0; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10047596
  • Post Regulatory impact of CSR on firm value and stock volatility in India: An Empirical Evidence   Order a copy of this article
    by Keerat Bhurjee, Ankur Paliwal 
    Abstract: We study the consequences of an exogenous regulation in 2013 making it mandatory for firms to contribute towards corporate social responsibility (CSR). Using a data set of 190 companies contributing mandatorily towards CSR, we empirically investigate the relationship between CSR, firm performance and volatility in an emerging market such as India. We also examine the moderating effects of firm size and industry in explaining the above relationship. We document a positive impact on short-and long-term firm profitability following the regulation. We do not find compelling evidence for the impact of CSR on the firms’ volatility although the firm age and size plays a positive moderating role in explaining the volatility at the firm level. Finally, we also find that manufacturing firms are more socially responsible in terms of their CSR activities as compared to service sector firms. Our overall results provide empirical support for the potential benefits accruing to the CSR activities.
    Keywords: corporate social responsibility; CSR; firm performance; firm size; firm age; volatility of stock returns; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10047701
  • Company Characteristics and Human Resource Disclosures: A Story about Corporate Transparency from India   Order a copy of this article
    by Dr. Kirti Aggarwal  
    Abstract: The objective of the study is to examine the effect of company characteristics on human resource disclosure index in manufacturing sector companies in India using the time span from the years FY 2012
    Keywords: company characteristics; human resource disclosure index; HRDI; manufacturing sector; LSDV regression model; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10047811
    by Nidhi Tandon, Jayender Verma 
    Abstract: The consumer-based correlates seem to the most prominent determinants of their preference towards private label and manufacturer brands in organized packaged food retailing. The literature on determinants of consumer preference towards private label and manufacturer brands in organized packaged food retailing identifies consumer mindsets and “considerations sets” as being influenced by of changes in consumer’s perceptions of product attributes, on account of changes in pre held consumer inclinations , or on account of changes in perceptions with regard to category management across stores based shelves and perceptions of prior loyalties. The theoretical contributions of the study lies in the benefits that the grocery retailers seem to realize and the integration of the scattered pieces of theory and literature that could be of vital help for leveraging the power of customer psychographics in facilitating the shift from national brands to store promoted retailer brands in food retailing.
    Keywords: private label behaviour; packaged food; retailing determinants; factor analysis; SEM.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10048369
  • Theories of Leadership in Business: Thirukkural Perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Jayendira Sankar 
    Abstract: The study presents Thirukkural’s perspective on the aspects of leadership theories in business. Leadership theories in business may be recognised as a method of managing various company tasks, including great man and trait theory, behavioural theory, contingent and situational theory, and transactional and transformational theory. Organisations throughout the globe have been using leadership ideas for decades. Thirukkural is one of the purest and noblest representations of human thinking; Thiruvalluvar is one of the world’s great genii. To comprehend which disclosures about reading texts, the essay uses a scale called hermeneutics, research, and theory. Thirukkural promotes a cognisance and leadership-based strategy to corporate organisations, according to this article. This article highlights the Thirukkural perspective of leadership theories in business. Future studies should look at other areas such as stress management, time management and human resource management.
    Keywords: leadership; great man and trait theory; behavioural theory; contingent and situational theory; transactional and transformational theory; Thirukkural; Thiruvalluvar.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10048489
  • Industrial Infrastructure and Economic Platform Development for Social and Sustainable Enterprise Encouragement of Cottage Industries: Case Study of Bishnupur West Bengal   Order a copy of this article
    by Aditi Nag 
    Abstract: Indian rural cottage industries have been a significant income source for non-farming populace but have faced numerous problems related to collaboration of the State and Business to pursue SDGs, including lack of facilitation of pro-active contribution of MSMEs towards sustainability through capacity building and strengthening of sustainability element to reach various possibilities of growth and management. Conceptualizing the need for infrastructure development in the sector for involvement of both supply chain and community level through stakeholder identification is lacking. Bishnupur is encountering similar circumstances and thus losing artisans to urbanisation and negligible profit. They’re not only economically dependent but also infrastructurally indigent. The research aims at analysis of economic involvement scale and sustainability of Bishnupur municipality's cottage industries through socio-economic impact assessment outlining problems, their covariance and regression to business principles as well as difference using ANOVA analysis; helping generate framework of policy and understand applicable ways to achieve SDGs.
    Keywords: Cottage industries; Socio-economic impact; Urban sustainability criteria; Industrial development; SDG incorporation; Economic growth.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10048579
  • What makes Employee Happy? A Hybrid Approach through Extensive Literature Review with an Evidence from Education Industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Rajwinder Kaur, Gagandeep Kaur 
    Abstract: The main purpose of the study is to explore the factors of employee happiness through an extensive literature survey. The study has used a review-based descriptive method and it has scrutinised approximately 100 research papers to find the prominent factors of employee happiness. In order to get more accurate results, focused group interviews (FGD’s) and semi-structured interviews are conducted in the education industry to validate the obtained results. The results of the study reveal several factors that influence employee happiness and are critical for both employees and organisations. The findings indicate factors such as work environment, work-life balance, leadership, reward and recognition, etc. are the top factors that influence employee happiness. Further, the study also explains the managerial implications of these factors. Organisations can utilise these factors to make their employees happy and satisfied that may eventually enhance their stay in the organisation.
    Keywords: employees; engagement; happiness; performance; productivity; satisfaction.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10048932
    by Sudarshan Maity, Tarak Nath Sahu, ANUSRI MALLIK 
    Abstract: The present study investigates factors which disappoint investment decisions in mutual funds (MFs). To analyse, a total of 12 questionnaires including demographic factors have been asked to the 436 respondents from West Bengal, India. The researchers analysed the data by applying a four-point Likert scale. After establishing reliability with the help of Cronbach’s coefficient alpha, principal components analysis has been used to analyse the respondents’ perception of investing in MFs. The study concludes that there are two major perceptual factors, i.e., risk-return and knowledge-awareness that impede investment in MFs. To take several marketing strategies it is essential to know the views of various investors. This study will help investors an overall guide in investing in MFs and also will help the mutual fund industry to take a decision in their marketing strategy to enhance the business which ultimately fastens necessary reforms in the global perspective.
    Keywords: investment; perception; principal components analysis; mutual fund.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10048993
  • Impact of employability perception on job satisfaction of new managers in information technology industry: mediating role of initial compensation   Order a copy of this article
    by Ruchika Gupta, Dr.Amirul Ansari 
    Abstract: The study aims to analyse the employability perception of new managers that may enhance their propensity to gain better initial compensation and increased job satisfaction. Moreover, the study investigates whether initial compensation drives these managers to be satisfied in their new jobs. PLS-SEM path analysis technique was used to evaluate a dataset of 250 newly employed managers in the information technology industry. Results indicate that external employability perception towards university brand, course credibility and market demand positively affects initial compensation. However, internal employability perception of self-confidence and self-awareness positively affects job satisfaction. Interestingly, findings suggest that mediation of initial compensation would lead new managers who perceive themselves as worthy in the external job market to experience reduced job satisfaction. The study prompts industry practitioners to capitalise on the managerial psychology of new managers to drive sustainability at a time of speedy technological advancement.
    Keywords: internal employability perception; external employability perception; information technology; initial compensation; job satisfaction; job outcomes; new managers.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10049211
  • Awareness among employees towards investment products   Order a copy of this article
    by Khujan Singh, Aarti Devi, Pooja Muwal 
    Abstract: The study aims to explore the awareness of various investment products and evaluate the effect of demographic and socio-economic factors on the awareness of investment products among government employees in Haryana, India. Primary data have been collected from 394 government employees with the help of a self-structured questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis has been used to extract the dimensions of investment product awareness. One-way ANOVA and t-test have been used to identify the influence of demographic and socio-economic factors on investment product awareness. Exploratory factor analysis extracted eight dimensions of investment product awareness. The result showed that age significantly influences the awareness of all investment products except for balance growth products. However, education has a significant effect only on the awareness of risk-averse products. The awareness level of employees covered under different pension schemes is significantly different in risk-averse products, specific purpose products, and NPS.
    Keywords: awareness; investment; investment products; employees; new pension scheme; NPS; old pension scheme; OPS; Haryana; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10049215
  • Improved Friendly Relations, Bilateral Trade and Stock Markets: A Causal Relationship Study of India and Israel   Order a copy of this article
    by Vandana Arya, SHVETA SINGH 
    Abstract: The study aims to analyse India and Israel’s bilateral trade ties and the dynamic relationship between both countries’ equity markets following bilateral trade. The trade intensity index is utilised to examine the bilateral trade between the two countries, while the daily stock prices of NSE NIFTY of India and TA-125 of Israel for January 2000-December 2020 are used to analyse the association amid the bourse. The results of the two-step Engle-Granger co-integration test and the Granger causality test indicate that bilateral trade is an exogenous variable and the stock prices of these countries are co-integrated in the long run. Further, India is the net exporter, contributing approximately 5% to Israel’s overall trade. Both countries have demonstrated effective financial and trade interdependency amid a slow development in their bilateral political depth.
    Keywords: Indo-Israel; stock market; India; Israel; bilateral trade; Engle-Granger cointegration; Granger causality; diplomatic relation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10049305
  • High-performance human resource practices contributing to organizational outcomes in service industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Charu Goyal, Manoj Patwardhan 
    Abstract: Innovation and employee retention are the two important factors that organisations try to lay hold of. High-performance human resource practices (HPHRP) are one such solution to achieve these organisational outcomes. The paper examines the contribution of HPHRP and perceived organisational support (POS) towards employee service innovative behaviour (ESIB), and intention to remain (IR). The study includes 405 participants from Indian service sector. Confirmatory factor analysis was done to test the measurement model. Structural equation modelling is used to test the hypothesis. The significant positive impact of HPHRP on POS, ESIB, and IR can be seen. Also, POS acts as an important mediator between HPHRP and ESIB, and HPHRP and IR. The results help the managers to understand the importance of HPHRP in building POS and increasing the employee’s innovative behaviour and retaining them. Earlier studies have assessed the impact of HPHRP on POS, ESIB, and IR, but not in India.
    Keywords: high-performance human resource practices; HPHRP; employee service innovative behaviour; ESIB; India; intention to remain; perceived organisational support; POS; service sector.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10049373
  • Examining the antecedents of effectiveness of training through virtual learning environment.   Order a copy of this article
    by Swati Mathur, Rushabh Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar Shukla, Pinaki Nandan Pattnaik 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to identify the antecedents of effectiveness of training through virtual learning environment. For this study, technology acceptance model (TAM1 and TAM2) and the theory of reasoned action (TRA) were used to relate training efficiency among users through virtual learning environment (VLE). The relationships between behavioural intention (BI), subjective norm (SN), perceived ease of use (PEU) and perceived use (PU) with learning effectiveness (LE) were evaluated. The cross-sectional descriptive research design has been used for answering the research questions. Partial least square-structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) technique was used for data analysis using SMARTPLS 3.3.1 software. There was a significant positive association between LE by training through VLE and all the constructs adapted from TAM and TRA model. Implications for future research and practices are discussed.
    Keywords: training; virtual learning environment; VLE; technology acceptance model; TAM; behavioural intention; subjective norm; perceived usefulness; perceived ease of use; learning effectiveness.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10049374
  • The aftermath of Covid19: Exploring Workplace Expectations among GenZ in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Karuna Prakash, Prakash Tiwari 
    Abstract: This research paper aims to explore the workplace expectations of GenZ employees from their employers during the course of the COVID-19 pandemic in India. A qualitative approach has been adopted for this study. Telephonic interviews and digital focus groups were conducted among GenZ. These interviews have proved vital in gathering authentic and accurate insights into the expectations of these generations. The findings of the study, reveals that the younger generations in the workforce are highly inclined towards a proper work-life balance. These younger employees expect their leaders and managers to talk and work more towards improving mental health of employees along with creating a community feeling of support and encouragement especially during the rough phases of the pandemic. The challenges of working from home, the after effects of self-isolation and the ever increasing pressure to perform in the midst of the pandemic have greatly influenced the expectations of young employees. The conceptualisation of the expectations of GenZ in this paper is vital for managers and leaders to foster better strategies and plans to optimise output and maintain retention.
    Keywords: COVID-19; workplace expectations; GenZ; psychological contract; generations; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10049392
  • A Framework for identification of sustainability objectives of sustainable supply chain management in Indian scenario: an integrated ISM and SEM approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Abhishek Kumar Saroj, Manish Gupta, Venkateswara Rao Komma 
    Abstract: In this study, an investigation of the sustainability objectives related to the Indian scenario is presented. Identification of sustainable objectives helps the Indian industries for setting up long-term goals and sustainably manages their resources and responsibilities. In this study, firstly, identification of sustainability objectives was carried out with the help of a literature survey, and relationships among them were established through expert opinion for Indian industries. Further, the relationships of the sustainability objectives were transformed using interpretive structural modelling. The developed ISM model has been validated with the help of the structural equation modelling technique. This study reveals that competitive advantage has the topmost priority of the organisation. For gaining a competitive advantage, enhanced customer services and international business certification play a vital role. In this study, it is identified that removing stakeholder pressure on organisations plays an important role in obtaining a competitive advantage.
    Keywords: sustainable supply chain; sustainability objectives; interpretive structural modelling; ISM; structural equation modelling; SEM.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10049398
  • Promoters’ Control and R&D Investments: Evidence from the Indian Pharmaceutical Industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Shweta Sharda 
    Abstract: Promoters play a crucial role in corporate innovation, they may encourage innovation for the long-term growth of the company or may reduce it to avoid risk. Based on conflicting perspectives of stewardship theory and principal-principal agency theory, the study aims to examine the impact of promoter ownership on R&D investments in a company and whether a high ownership stake or management position(s) held by promoters influences the said relationship. The paper empirically tests the hypothesis in a strongly balanced panel data set of 41 R&D-intensive Indian listed pharmaceutical companies over 10 years from 2011 to 2020 using the fixed-effect regression model and sub-sample regressions. The results indicate a stronger negative effect of promoter controlling stake on R&D investments in high promoter controlled firms, especially when the promoter holds the position of CEO and Chairman. It suggests that R&D-intensive pharmaceutical companies reduce promoters control in management to enhance monitoring of strategic decisions.
    Keywords: promoter; CEO; chairman; board; ownership; R&D investment; innovation; risk; performance; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10049429
  • A Multivariate Analysis of Workplace Ostracism and Employee Engagement: The Role of Psychological Distress and Mindfulness   Order a copy of this article
    by Eti Jain, Manisha Agarwal, S.K. Sharma, Arvind Kumar 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of workplace ostracism on employee engagement. It further examines the moderating role of mindfulness and mediating role of psychological distress. The data was collected from 150 corporate employees from India and analysed using descriptive statistics and PLS-SEM. Workplace ostracism has a significant effect on employee engagement. The presence of mindfulness has a considerable impact whereas mediating analysis revealed an insignificant mediating role in psychological distress. The study focuses on full time employees in private businesses. Part time employees were subjected to more ostracism. HR experts may need to develop guidelines to safeguard employees from ostracism to keep them engaged. Extensive research work has been done in the context of WOS and EE. The study is a novel attempt to test the effects of workplace ostracism on employee engagement among corporate employees.
    Keywords: workplace ostracism; WOS; job engagement; organisational engagement; mindfulness; psychological distress; employee engagement; EE.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10049512
  • Performance Analysis of Microfinance Institutions: An Empirical Evidence from MFIs of West Bengal   Order a copy of this article
    by Prasid Gurung, Soumitra Sarkar 
    Abstract: This paper aims to study the structural break in the microfinance industry caused by
    Keywords: microfinance; microfinance institutions; MFIs; Hausman test; portfolio quality; financial and operational efficiency.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10049513
  • Organizational response to COVID- 19 Crisis through Socially Impactful Business Actions: A Case Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Tanushri Banerjee, Pramod Paliwal 
    Abstract: This paper attempts to address the pertinent question about how much prepared can the organisations be, for unprecedented, once in centuries crises like COVID-19? Can CSR help them avoid crises like this? In times when companies are having to deal with the serious effects of COVID-19 pandemic, the authors have tried to determine ways in which companies have dealt with this emerging situation. Among other measures, have socially impactful activities, including corporate social responsibility (CSR) been leveraged for competitiveness and creating goodwill. The authors have attempted to address such questions by undertaking an analysis of Indian companies’ efforts in general, while specifically focusing on a non-pharmaceutical manufacturing conglomerate, towards combating COVID-19 through socially impactful actions. The case study has been written by undertaking relevant literature review to formulate a conceptual framework and deriving objectives of the study.
    Keywords: corporate social responsibility; organisation performance; social change; automobile sector; Mahindra Group; COVID-19; crisis management; creativity; business-innovation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10049520
  • Pricing mechanisms of petroleum products implemented during the post APM period in India : An Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Pallakshi Bordoloi  
    Abstract: Several structural changes have been taken place in pricing system of major petroleum products in Indian petroleum industry since its origin. The administered pricing mechanism (APM) was a remarkable change that has taken place in the history of Indian petroleum industry for determining petroleum product prices. The development and economic condition of this industry is an important matter of national interest. Rapid globalisation and fast changing economic environment brought enormous opportunities for the oil companies in India to prosper and spread out their operations globally. The objective of this paper is to critically discuss the pricing mechanisms followed during pre and post APM period and to find out the logic of implementing import parity pricing (IPP), export parity pricing (EPP) and trade parity pricing (TPP) mechanisms during post APM period.
    Keywords: pricing; petroleum products; administered pricing mechanism; APM; import parity pricing; IPP; export parity pricing; EPP.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10049758
  • Country of Origin of Manufacture - Perceived Image and its Competitive Advantage with a Focus on Indian Apparel Sector   Order a copy of this article
    by Aastha Garg, Sibichan Mathew 
    Abstract: Globalisation has paved way for many apparel brands to seize the opportunities of selling their goods not only to worldwide consumers but also reap in the competitive advantage of manufacturing globally. Disclosure of country of origin (country where apparel is manufactured/where substantial part of manufacturing takes place) information has now become mandate in majority of the prominent retail markets. COO thus becomes a visible cue and fundamental in explaining the consumer’s behaviour in a globalised marketplace. COO acts as a surrogate of mark of quality, which would then influence the consumer’s predisposition towards these products. The study offers theoretical and managerial implications, as apparel brands can gauge in better understanding of consumer preferences for apparels manufactured in different countries based on consumer’s perceived country images. Using this study, brands can develop their strategy based on the differentiating factors and use them as a leverage to enter the Indian market.
    Keywords: country of origin; manufacturing country image; apparel; Indian consumer.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10049766
  • Bibliometric review of research in mergers and acquisitions in business finance.   Order a copy of this article
    by Harshika Jain, Reena Nayyar 
    Abstract: This study aimed at highlighting the progress of research in the field of mergers and acquisitions (M&As), especially in the area of business finance. In this study, bibliometric analysis was conducted on 442 articles in the field of M&As in business finance area from 1968 to 2020 by employing bibliometric and citation network analysis. Previous studies have focused comprehensively on areas such as organisation and strategic management. This study was the first to focus on business finance and also focused on the history of M&As research and country-wise studies in the field of M&As. The evolution of M&As research in different countries, co-citation, bibliographic coupling between different works and countries highlighting the progress of research in M&As. It was found that the topics of research evolved over period of time and research trend was gaining pace in developing countries, which also lead to emergence of new topics for research.
    Keywords: bibliometric analysis; mergers and acquisitions; M&As; target; acquirer; review; bidder.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10049791
  • The Perception of Employees on Remote Working and Work Outcomes during the COVID-19 Pandemic   Order a copy of this article
    by Chinna Muthu Balu, Tabitha Durai 
    Abstract: The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has led to disruptions throughout the global community. The information technology (IT) industry has however managed business delivery by adopting remote working as its mode of operation. In this situation, it becomes imperative to comprehend the employees’ work outcomes as a result of remote work. Therefore, this research work intends to study the impact of remote work on work outcomes like productivity, performance and engagement. Data has been collected from 324 IT and ITeS employees working across Indian cities through a structured questionnaire. The statistical analysis revealed that preference for the workplace significantly influenced employee outcomes. The structural equation modelling (SEM) portrayed a positive relationship between the remote working factors and work outcomes. The study recommends that organisations should capitalise on remote working as a strategy to sustain profitable operations during this pandemic.
    Keywords: COVID-19; remote work; work outcomes; productivity; performance; employee engagement.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10049793
  • Examining the Satisfaction Level of Insurance Policy Holders at Subsistence Marketplaces: The Bottom-up Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by PREETI DEVI, Tejinder Sharma 
    Abstract: At present times, satisfaction cannot be a figment even at subsistence marketplaces. If any of manufacturer or service providers think so, then their long-term survival is questionable. As satisfaction leads to a loyal customer base, which in turn, ensures profitable and sustainable long-term survival. The present study aims to examine the satisfaction level of insurance policy holders belonging to subsistence marketplaces in Haryana State of India. Initially a qualitative survey was conducted and the primary data was collected via a structured questionnaire on a five-point likert scale from 294 respondents. The statistical tools such as percentage, mean, standard deviation and Kruskal Wallis H test are employed to test the hypothesis of the study. The findings reflect that the insurance policy holders at subsistence marketplaces are satisfied with insurance products and related aspects. Further, the overall satisfaction level of insurance policyholders at subsistence marketplaces does not vary significantly across residential status and monthly family saving, whereas, it differs significantly across education level and occupation.
    Keywords: subsistence marketplaces; consumer satisfaction; insurance products; insurance policy holders; socio-demographic characteristics; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10049798
  • Stock Market Co-integration and Error-Correction of Global Capital Markets: A Study of ADR Issuing Asian Countries.   Order a copy of this article
    by Aditya Keshari, Amit Gautam 
    Abstract: The study examines the significance of cross-listing assets as an opportunity to diversify portfolios for retail investors from developing nations as a result of the global financial markets partial integration. Recently, the global stock markets experienced extreme volatility due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The importance of assessing the extent of interconnectedness across major global stock markets is emphasised by this fact. Investors are inclined to find the most exogenous stock market with the sole objective of maximising wealth through portfolio diversification. The Johansen co-integration test is being used to determine the degree of interdependence between the stock markets of selected countries. Furthermore, the VEC model is applied for examining the effect of one market on other and also shows the speed of adjustment among the stock market indices. The US market shows the better speed of adjustment and has statistical significance throughout the sample period.
    Keywords: Asian stock market; variance decomposition analysis; VECM; impulse response function; Johansen co-integration test.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10049804
    by Manasa Narayan, Richa Awasthy 
    Abstract: This phenomenological study seeks to explore the lived experiences of the participants to gain a holistic understanding of retirement transition in the urban Indian context. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 individuals within a period of five years of retirement. Seven emergent themes: 1) preparation preceding retirement; 2) retirement as a process; 3) significant changes; 4) role of family; 5) religion and spirituality; 6) gender variation in retirement; 7) opinions on retirement based on the adage 60-is-the-new-40. The unique contribution of this study lies in describing retirement as an opportunity to pursue a path of spirituality to achieve self-discovery largely by surrendering to God and discuss role of spirituality in resolving conflict in eighth stage of Erikson between ego integrity and despair. The study explained the significance of Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model to highlight the interactions between an individual and its environment in retirement experience.
    Keywords: retiree; retirement; aging; phenomenology; India; spirituality.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10049854
  • Mapping Determinants of Stakeholder Perceptions about Higher Education Institutions: An Indian Context   Order a copy of this article
    by Pramod Paliwal, Ritu Sharma 
    Abstract: Higher education institutions (HEIs) have long attempted to identify parameters that constitute perception among their significant stakeholders. Understanding stakeholder perceptions is vital for HEIs as, along with other factors, they contribute significantly to HEI reputation, and hence (stakeholder) perceptions are also used as an input for ranking HEI. This paper aims to revisit HEIs stakeholder groups (for an adequate identification of stakeholder groups whose perceptions are valuable) to identify the parameters that help determine these stakeholders’ perceptions and suggest a theoretical framework that helps Indian HEIs. Case study of an Indian HEI involving expert opinion and focus group discussion techniques is the research methodology used to attain the research objectives. The major findings are: 1) a comprehensive set of stakeholders that are particularly relevant for Indian HEIs; 2) an inventory of determinants in the context of each of these stakeholder groups on which these groups form a perception about HEIs; 3) a theoretical framework based on which concerned decision makers at Indian HEIs/universities can act upon to deal with HEIs stakeholders’ perceptions.
    Keywords: higher education institutions; HEIs; university ranking; students’ perception; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10049856
  • Employee’s Psychological Well-being in a Pandemic: A Case study during the peak of the COVID-19 wave in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Rohit Chauhan, Himanshu Jishtu, Alka Shaktan, Arun Kumar 
    Abstract: Subjective wellbeing (SWB) is associated with happiness and life satisfaction. Depression, anxiety and stress represent three different but relating concept to poor mental health. COVID-19 pandemic has negatively impacted the subjective well-being of employees during the lockdown, especially the employees relating to the tourism industry. Inter-industry and intra-industry comparison of tourism employees’ psychological wellbeing during the peak of the second wave of COVID across India was done. Socio-demographic variables were checked separately for psychological wellbeing. Stratified random sampling was used for data collection. Data was collected through an online questionnaire using the WHO-5 wellbeing index and DASS21 scale for depression anxiety and stress during the peak COVID-19 wave. A sample from 93 employees was collected, out of which 55 employees were from the tourism industry. The results indicated that tourism industry employees as a whole and the employees engaged in activities within tourism were having poor subjective wellbeing and were depressed and anxious. Depression and anxiety among tourism employees were impacted by gender and job experience Employers must use the WHO-5 wellbeing index and DASS-21 scale for keeping track of their employee’s happiness and life satisfaction and their poor mental health.
    Keywords: DASS21; WHO-5; COVID-19; employee subjective wellbeing; tourism employees.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10049925
  • Evaluation of early stage startups by business angels: Indian Evidence   Order a copy of this article
    by Raju Majumdar 
    Abstract: This study identifies the factor that business angels take into consideration in their investment evaluation process. The study is based on an analysis of primary data obtained from a survey study of 90 Indian angel investors engaged in the financing of early stage start-ups. Thirty one factors used in this study are classified under four broad considerations, including entrepreneurial consideration, product consideration, financial and market consideration. In the first part of the analysis, we identified the pecking order of importance of these factors. Following this the study analysed whether investment fit influenced angels’ preference for projects. The study also analysed the relative importance of the 31 factors in the process of investment appraisal before carrying out a disaggregated analysis of the data to identify the interaction between investment fit and the relative importance of the factors that influenced investment appraisal.
    Keywords: angel financing; India; investment evaluation; early stage financing.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10049977
  • Embedding Sustainability towards the Growth of the Developing Economy: A Study on Sustainable Management Practices of the Leading corporates   Order a copy of this article
    by Manpreet Kailay, Kamalpreet Kaur Paposa 
    Abstract: The purpose of this research work is to provide a comprehensive literature review on sustainable management practices of leading corporates. The unquestionable relevance of the concept
    Keywords: corporate social responsibility; environment performance index; EPI; leading corporates; sustainable management practices; SMP; sustainable strategies framework; SSF.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10049978
  • A QR Code based Traceability System for Dry Fish Supply Chain of Micro and Small Enterprises in India   Order a copy of this article
    by ARUN JOSE, Shanmugam Prasanna Venkatesan, Brijesh Kumar 
    Abstract: This research proposes a quick response (QR) code-based supply chain traceability system to control the quality and safety of Marine Dry Fish in India. Micro and small enterprises (MSEs) are the main stakeholders of the dry fish supply chain in India. These MSEs rely mainly on paper documentation for traceability, and technology adoption is still in an early stage due to poor affordability. The proposed QR code stores information such as source/origin, product/variety, location and time of processing, and packaging into a real-time database server. The proposed system was tested among dry fish supply chain stakeholders in Ernakulam, one of the marine districts of Kerala-India. The results showed significant benefits to dry fish value chain members and customers by integrating information collected along the supply chain and tracking the products from fisherman to the end consumer.
    Keywords: supply chain traceability; MSE; QR code; dry fish; quality and safety.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10050005
  • Regression model for residential satisfaction in low-income group public housing in Lucknow, India   Order a copy of this article
    by Supriya Kumari, Ajay Kumar, Ravish Kumar 
    Abstract: This paper aims to assess residential satisfaction of low-income group (LIG) public housing residents of Lucknow, India. This study mainly focuses on 38 sub-parameters grouped under six parameters, namely dwelling unit features (DUF), dwelling unit support services (DUSS), level of operation and maintenance (LOM), public facilities (PF), social environment (SE), and neighbourhood facilities (NF) of overall residential satisfaction (ORS). This study used data from a questionnaire survey. The results were gathered through descriptive and regression analysis. The results suggest that PPH and APH residents are satisfied with DUF, PF, SE, NF, and ORS, and that APH residents are additionally satisfied with DUSS and LOM. Pearson’s correlation analysis reveals that all sub-parameters are positively correlated, with few exceptions such as street maintenance, garbage disposal, and distance to school, public transport, and fire stations. A multiple linear regression model has been used to estimate the impacts of each parameter and sub-parameter of residential satisfaction. This is the first study on the residential satisfaction model for LIG public housing in Lucknow.
    Keywords: residential satisfaction; low-income group public housing; LIGPH; dwelling unit features; DUF; dwelling unit support services; DUSS; public facilities.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10050006
  • For-Profit MFIs and Indebtedness of Rural Manufacturing Households: Implications for India’s Covid-19 Crisis   Order a copy of this article
    by Bibhuti Bhusan Mohapatra, A. Jiran Meitei 
    Abstract: From social banking to for-profit MFIs, the rural economy in India has witnessed a sea change in public provisioning of credit. For-profit MFIs are now ubiquitous in rural landscapes, although they have been accused of unethical practices. The accusation appears to be loud as COVID-19 has exasperated the debt servicing woes of borrowers. From the State of Assam to Punjab, the concerns of for-profit MFI borrowers during the pandemic echo. Manufacturing is one of the significant non-farm economic activities in rural areas. Like others, the households engaged in manufacturing activity also borrow from for-profit MFIs by forming joint liability groups (JLGs). The present study has tried to assess their exposure to for-profit MFI credit, both from household and enterprise perspectives, on the basis of a sample survey. The study finds early signs of over-indebtedness and the existence of inverse relationships between debt exposure and household or enterprise incomes.
    Keywords: credit; for-profit; indebtedness; manufacturing; MFIs; rural; unorganised; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10050048
  • Challenges on achieving sustainable development goals: Poverty prediction in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Ruzhdie BICI 
    Abstract: Poverty is considered as multidimensional, reflected in different dimensions of households’ living condition and unable society to fulfil basic needs. There are different definitions and methodologies for poverty measurements. End of poverty in all its forms everywhere is the first goal of the 2030 agenda for sustainable development goals (SDGs). According to the World Bank, India accounts a high proportion of people living in extreme poverty. The data on poverty level is missing for the latest years, making difficult policy making. To fill the gap on data for missing years and having updated figures, we try to predict poverty using exponential statistical model. There are considered different lines of monetary poverty; people living with less than $1, $1.9, $2 or $3 per day. Despite the economic growth and poverty reduction in India, still achieving the SGDs, goal of poverty is a great challenge and needs several actions towards these worldwide objectives.
    Keywords: poverty; sustainable development goals; SDG; exponential regression; development; prediction.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10050051
  • Demystifying Samyak Agraga from the Women Characters of the Mahabharata: A Holistic Leadership Perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Hardik BHADESHIYA, Parag Shukla, Balakrishnan Muniapan 
    Abstract: When all nations worldwide face various societal issues such as violence, poverty, sickness, disability, and more, social entrepreneurship has lately been popular employment and career option appealing to many individuals. The current study proposes antecedents of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), perceived behavioural control and attitude toward behaviour to mediate the effect of awareness and university support on social entrepreneurial intentions. Three hundred thirty students from carefully chosen universities of North-west India were covered for this research using a structured questionnaire which was further analysed using Smart PLS 3.0. In the result, all the variables showed a significant and positive role in relation to social entrepreneurial intention except the subjective norm antecedent of TPB. This research highlights the importance of university support and role of awareness in framing the intentions of young generations towards social entrepreneurship. The findings provide important insights for academics and policymakers, as well as suggest implications for future study.
    Keywords: university support; awareness; India; Generation Z; theory of planned behaviour; TPB; social entrepreneurial intention; SEI; attitude toward behaviour.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10050134
  • The Curious Case of Global Branding: Investigating the link between Ethnic Identity and Consumer Attitude towards Global Brands   Order a copy of this article
    by Harsandal Deep Kaur, Pranay Moktan 
    Abstract: There is a lack of empirical research on the impact of ethnic identity and cultural values on consumer attitudes towards global brands. The current research develops an integrated framework to address this gap. Further, the mediating effect of masculinity and collectivism is also explored. Data were collected from 456 respondents, and structural equation modelling was run on the proposed model so to gain insights into the numerous pertinent relationships. The results revealed that ethnic identity significantly influenced masculinity and collectivism. Furthermore, masculinity and collectivism were positively associated with consumer attitudes toward global brands. Also, a partial mediating effect of collectivism and masculinity was found between the relationship of ethnic identity and consumer attitudes towards global brands. The current research will provide global brand managers with a novel perspective of considering both ethnic identity, and masculinity and collectivism, while strategising to create positive consumer attitudes towards global brands.
    Keywords: ethnic identity; collectivism; masculinity; consumer attitudes towards global brands; global brands.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10050208
  • Prioritizing factors of retention for information technology professionals: an application of multi-criteria decision-making technique   Order a copy of this article
    by ARTI GUPTA 
    Abstract: : Considering the higher turnover rate of information technology (IT) professionals and retention issues, the aim of this paper is to reveal employee’s perception on organisational, social and job-related factors affecting their decision to stay in the current job. This study not only asses the important factors but also priorities those factors which influence employee’s decision to remain associated with the organisation. A hierarchal structural framework (HSF) of employee’s decision-making regarding intention to stay on the job is proposed in this study. Additionally, it fulfils the gap and enriches the existing literature related to enhancing employee’s decision to remain in the organisation with reference to IT professionals. This study utilised AHP technique, which represents a novelty in the literature of employee retention. A hierarchy of employee’s decision framework (HSF) is developed based on their priority to the factor.
    Keywords: analytical hierarchy process; AHP; employee turnover; intention to stay; multi-criteria decision-making technique; software professionals.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10050231
  • Social entrepreneurial intentions among Generation Z: Understanding the role of University support and Awareness in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Hemantkumar P. Bulsara, Latika Sharma 
    Abstract: When all nations worldwide face various societal issues such as violence, poverty, sickness, disability, and more, social entrepreneurship has lately been popular employment and career option appealing to many individuals. The current study proposes antecedents of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), perceived behavioural control and attitude toward behaviour to mediate the effect of awareness and university support on social entrepreneurial intentions. Three hundred thirty students from carefully chosen universities of North-west India were covered for this research using a structured questionnaire which was further analysed using Smart PLS 3.0. In the result, all the variables showed a significant and positive role in relation to social entrepreneurial intention except the subjective norm antecedent of TPB. This research highlights the importance of university support and role of awareness in framing the intentions of young generations towards social entrepreneurship. The findings provide important insights for academics and policymakers, as well as suggest implications for future study.
    Keywords: university support; awareness; India; Generation Z; theory of planned behaviour; TPB; social entrepreneurial intention; SEI; attitude toward behaviour.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10050437
  • Impact of digital financial infrastructure in furthering financial inclusion in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Arindam Metia 
    Abstract: Information technology and digital infrastructure have ushered in India’s fourth industrial revolution. One of the most important aspects of providing digital services is digital identity, which has become possible after the implementation of biometric identification (Aadhaar). The goal of this study is to highlight the current state of the banking and mobile money industries. This article highlights India’s success in digital adoption as well as points out areas that need to be improved to realise the goals of financial inclusion. The study also compares the current state of India’s financial inclusion to that of other SAARC and high-income nations. Financial inclusion is being hampered by a number of factors, including digital fraud and the difference in digital services between rural and urban areas, the report said. Financial integration, as well as strong digital security and financial literacy programs, can improve India’s financial stability and long-term prosperity.
    Keywords: inclusion; digital finance; India; subscribers; financial access.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10050438
  • Determination of Satisfaction level of National Pension System in India: An Exploratory study   Order a copy of this article
    by Debasmita Panigrahi 
    Abstract: In this paper, we evaluate the implication of the national pension system since its inception relating to its acceptability and satisfaction level of its services towards investors. We take a sample of 297 respondents both from central and state government employees in the geographical region of Odisha and West Bengal in India. Using an exploratory factor analysis, we find that the features of the new pension scheme (NPS) can be grouped under three factors, i.e.,
    Keywords: awareness; new pension scheme; pension; return; social security; satisfaction; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10050484
  • The footprint of internal labour migration on the COVID-19 scenario of India: an analysis of structural break and growth rate   Order a copy of this article
    by Shrabanti Maity, Ummey Rummana Barlaskar, Anil Bhumali 
    Abstract: The common SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for the huge loss of human capital worldwide and India is not an exception. India witnessed inter-state labour migration during the lockdown and the celebration of devotional festivals during the unlock phase. The paper aimed to explore the footprint of inter-state labour migration and the aftermaths of the celebration of devotional festivals on the COVID-19 scenario in India. The empirical analysis of the paper was facilitated by the utilisation of the CUSUM of squares test and Poirier’s spline function approach. Based on the secondary data on per-day new COVID-19 cases and per-day new COVID-19 death cases in India, the study concluded although inter-state labour migration did not evident to have the permanent scar to COVID-19 scenario of India, the celebration of devotional festivals evidently had. The study ended with suitable policy prescriptions.
    Keywords: interstate labour migration; devotional festivals; COVID-19; CUSUM of squares test; Poirier’s spline function approach; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10050531
  • Determinants of India-ASEAN Trade: An Augmented Gravity Model Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohd Kashif 
    Abstract: Gravity model is a widely used method to describe the determinants of foreign trade between the countries. The basic gravity model can be augmented by using other variables. The article identifies the determinants of India’s trade with ASEAN countries by using the augmented gravity model so that India can formulate policies after considering all those factors which have a significant influence on India’s trade with ASEAN countries. It is found from the article that GDP of both India and ASEAN countries have a significant impact on India’s trade with ASEAN countries. Distance variable is also affecting India’s trade with ASEAN countries but negatively. India and ASEAN both have a common experience of colonial relationships and this variable has a significant impact on India’s trade with ASEAN. It is also found from the article that common border, common language and AIFTA are not influencing India’s trade with ASEAN countries.
    Keywords: augmented gravity model; India; Association of South-East Asian Nations; ASEAN; ASEAN-India Free Trade Agreement; AIFTA; COVID-19; trade.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10050611
  • GRI Aligned Disclosures of Indian Corporates: A Study on Environmentally Sensitive Industries   Order a copy of this article
    by Karishma Jain, P.S. Tripathi 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine the sustainability reports of the Indian companies belonging to environmentally sensitive industries (ESI) and listed in the Nifty 100 index. Four ESI were chosen, viz, cement and construction, oil and gas, metal and mining, and automobile. Content analysis was performed for calculating sustainability disclosure score based on the GRI sustainability reporting framework. Results indicate that four out of 21 companies have disclosure below 50%. Further, it was found that companies have majorly focused on the reporting of governance and stakeholder engagement aspect (80%) followed by the environment (78%), economic (62%), and social (60%). This indicates that ESI companies prioritises environmental issues over social issues. Results of hypothesis testing show that there is no significant variation among the disclosure of the four sectors. Further, the cement and construction sector has the highest disclosure while automobile sector has the least disclosure in all aspects.
    Keywords: ESG disclosures; sustainability reporting; Global Reporting Initiative; GRI; environmentally sensitive industries; content analysis; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10050612
    by Vipin Rathore, Sandeep Singh, Nidheesh Yadav 
    Abstract: The particular research paper is aimed at finding the ancient verses documented in the classical text related to nada yoga. The previous studies had widely revealed that stress plays an important role in the alteration of various physiological and psychological changes in the human being; diminishing immunity-related biological systems and various metabolic disorders. The particular research paper focuses on the various biological and psychological parameters related to immunity and metabolism against the use of ancient science for benefitting health at all levels of persona. It reveals the exploration to find the effectiveness of nada yoga as a tool for stress management. The research paper concludes with the annotations being nada yoga as an emerging therapeutic technique providing a preferment alternative and complementary mechanism to the alleviation of the stress-related issues and elevation in the immunity of the population at large. It suggests that nada yoga is an effective complementary module for stress-induced psycho-physiological disorders leading to a wide arena for future researches and study of its implications scientifically.
    Keywords: nada yoga; sound therapy; immunity; stress; stress management.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10050674
  • Determinants of Dividend Policy in Aluminium Industry listed in Bombay Stock Exchange   Order a copy of this article
    by Nandita Mohapatra, Devi Prasad Misra Misra, Suman Choudhary, Biswajit Prasad Chhatoi 
    Abstract: The prime objective of this study is to determine the effect of the growth rate of sales, liquidity, profitability, leverage, assets size and firm’s age on the dividend policy of aluminium companies in India. The financial data collected from 19 aluminium companies listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) have been put to analysis using fixed panel data and random effect regression model. The findings of the study infer that sales growth is the only significant determinant of the dividend policy. Besides, liquidity, asset size and firms’ age are insignificantly negatively associated with the dividend payout. Similarly, profitability and leverage are insignificantly positively related to the dividend payout. The implication of the study is that it can be taken as a base for such research in the field of dividend policy in the Indian companies as very limited studies have been conducted in this regard.
    Keywords: dividend policy; growth rate; profitability; aluminium industry; Bombay Stock Exchange; BSE.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10051237
  • SWOT and AHP analysis for Quality and Reliability culture in public design centers of India   Order a copy of this article
    by Manmeet Singh, Nilesh Ware 
    Abstract: Indian design centers have fixed a place for itself in little over seven decades for development of products ranging from space, defence, agriculture, medical and aerospace domains. This work is based on the study on Quality and Reliability management practices followed for systems in public design centers of India. A focus group study is carried out for SWOT and AHP analysis of Q&R culture in public Design centers of India. Weightage of each SWOT set and each SWOT factor is evaluated through pairwise comparison matrices using AHP. SWOT strategies are suggested by the focus group and are ranked based on AHP and relevance value. In SWOT Sets the maximum weightage of 0 4547 is for Strengths.
    Keywords: Quality and Reliability; R&D Management; engineering systems.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10051486
  • Evaluation of current level for Industry 4.0 adoption among Milk Plant using Industry 4.0 maturity Framework   Order a copy of this article
    by Paramjeet Singh, Sachit Vardhan, Sarabjeet Singh 
    Abstract: In the present research work, the current level for Industry 4.0 adoption among milk industry using an Industry 4.0 maturity framework has been evaluated. This will assist in the identification of readiness level of milk industry to embrace the Industry 4.0 implementation strategy. The overall maturity level of milk plants come out to be low, i.e., 1.19, which indicates that milk industry has to come further in the implementation of Industry 4.0. Moreover, distribution of level of maturity among our domains are smart factory, smart operation, smart product data driven services is almost same with data driven services be the least mature and smart operations being the most mature among other domains.
    Keywords: Industry 4.0; maturity level; milk plant.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10051585
  • Olfactory marketing as a technological innovation tool for the Indian Retail Industry - A Study of Shoppers Stop Retail Store in Kolkata, India   Order a copy of this article
    by Shuvam Chatterjee, Pawel Bryla 
    Abstract: Olfactory marketing is a phenomenon that is in the current trend of usage by marketing experts to ensure that consumers are more involved in the purchase decision-making process. Past studies have revealed that customers today look for more than the product and give a lot of importance to the atmosphere where the product or service is being consumed. The study surveyed 190 shoppers across a shopping mall in Kolkata, India. The study further uses the SPSS software program to test the regressions between different variables and build a new understanding of the impact of fragrance cues on consumer purchase decisions under the influence of control variables. This is the first study to demonstrate the effects of fragrance cues on retail shopping stores in Kolkata, India. The study would help managers to fathom the essence behind the importance of olfactory marketing in the retail marketing area.
    Keywords: fragrance marketing; impulse buying; consumer attitude; atmospheric cues; service innovation; Indian retail market; cognitive theory; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10051640
  • Green Training and Pro-Environmental Behaviour Enhancing Education Sustainable Development Goal in Higher Education Institutions: A Conceptual Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Hemaloshinee Vasudevan, Diego Rafael Roberto Cabrera Moya, Ravi Nagarathanam, Farhana Tahmida Newaz 
    Abstract: This paper aims to conceptualise on the GT and pro- environmental behaviour at HEIs due to be increased GT environmental awareness as one of the essential elements in the construction of the country’s capacity toward sustainable development. Education for sustainable development (ESD) is a space where people and their environment can grow and encourage awareness and deep knowledge toward environmental training and education that are constructed of a pro-environmentally friendly attitude and behaviour for employees who feel like they are a component of green success and are critical human resource management activities that assist the achievement of environmental objectives. The best way to address environmental problems and protection efforts are to change society’s daily attitudes and pro-environmental behaviour and practices by focusing on green training (GT). The lack of training on new green technologies was used to diagnose the problem of inadequate sustainability and limited at higher education institutions (HEIs).
    Keywords: educational sustainable development goal; green training; pro-environmental behaviour; higher education institutions; HEIs; education for sustainable development; ESD.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10051833
  • From Extrospection to Introspection: The Shrimad Bhagwad Gita Based Framework for Planetizens during VUCA times.   Order a copy of this article
    by Jitendra Kumar Sharma, Arun Kumar Agariya 
    Abstract: Scholarly literature is available on the utility of Shrimad Bhagwad Gita in leadership and managerial effectiveness. Workplace spirituality has also been addressed. However, there is a paucity of literature on Shrimad Bhagwad Gita as a source of knowledge to shift the focus from extrospection
    Keywords: Bhagwad Gita; introspection; extrospection; VUCA; ethics; business ethics; morality; values; leadership; self-awareness.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10051932
  • Perception and Level of Satisfaction of Small Tea Growers towards Institutional Role: A District Level Case Study   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: The present study has an aim to empirically identify the differences of perception and level of satisfaction among the small tea growers (STGs) with an acreage of 10.12 ha or below of Golaghat district of Assam. The STGs in Assam has contributed to the production of green leaves which is more than 50% of total green leaf output of the state. It has become pertinent for them to climb up to a strategic stage with a voice as the whole system is reaching maturity and they need to attain a vantage point to access the benefits from administration and increase financial inclusiveness. An analytical study was conducted with structured interviews among the STGs in the line of different dimensions. The results obtained shows a presence of a distinct gap in between perception and satisfaction level of STGs which affirms the scope of improvement.
    Keywords: administrative structure; communication; efficiency; financial inclusion; satisfaction; small tea growers; STGs; perception.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10052035
  • Comparative Bibliometric and Thematic Analysis of Microfinance and Women Empowerment: India Versus World   Order a copy of this article
    by Insha Wani, Megha Agarwal 
    Abstract: Keeping pace with the real-time developments in the field of research, this paper attempts to scientifically examine the research evolution in the domain of microfinance in relation to women-empowerment. The study focuses on the research trends and thematic breakthrough by conducting bibliometric analysis of the field from time-period of 1996
    Keywords: microfinance; women-empowerment; bibliometric analysis; systematic literature review; PRISMA; thematic mapping.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10052196
  • Work engagement and organisational citizenship behaviour: The mediating role of job crafting   Order a copy of this article
    by Mayuk Dasgupta, Ajoy Kumar Dey 
    Abstract: This study investigated the relationships between work engagement, organisational citizenship behaviour, and job crafting. This was further operationalised at the dimensional level of job crafting to probe if task, relational and cognitive crafting mediate this relationship. The research framework was tested on a sample of 551 entry-level full-time employees working in the information technology-enabled services (ITES) sector in India. The sample was collected using multi-stage cluster sampling followed by a quantitative cross-sectional survey and regression analysis with bootstrapping technique. The study found a strong association between work engagement and organisational citizenship behaviour. Moreover, the mediating effect of relational and cognitive job crafting was also significant and partially mediates the relationship. The study failed to detect any influence of task crafting on the relationship.
    Keywords: work engagement; organisational citizenship behaviour; job crafting; job demands-resources theory; JD-R; Indian ITES sector; information technology-enabled services.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10052495
    by Nabila Kayum, Pradeep Mamgain 
    Abstract: The digital revolution minimised the gap between agricultural operations and information and communication technology (ICT) in the previous decade. ICT is being used for information sharing, speeding up transactions, and improve farmer knowledge. Rational adoption of ICT in agriculture is the sense of research review. In this context, we propose a systematic literature review (SLR) that aims to synthesise all relevant research on ICT in agriculture. An electronic search was performed on selected databases, and 39 primary studies were retrieved after applying selection criteria. This review establishes a foundation for investigating the adoption of ICT by farmers for technological advancement and sustainability in agriculture. The analysis of primary studies reveals that mobile phones are frequently used to communicate agricultural information. Furthermore, it highlights that ICT adoption is obstructed by poor technological infrastructure, inadequate policies, and a lack of awareness among farmers. The findings also indicate the lack of an appropriate conceptual framework for driving ICT advancements.
    Keywords: agriculture; agricultural operations; agriculture in developing nations; evolution of ICT in agriculture; information and communication technology; ICT; systematic literature review; SLR.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10052535
  • Impact of Customer Engagement Strategies on Shopping in the Physical Environment: Retail stores and Online portals (in Delhi and Santa Clara County)   Order a copy of this article
    by ISHITA SACHDEVA, Sushma Goel 
    Abstract: The physical environment in retail store includes the store exterior, store interior, layout and design, point-of-purchase display, human variables, customer service features. The physical environment in online portal includes virtual atmospherics, virtual theatrics, virtual layout and design, virtual social presence, and functional features. Retailing that engages customers purposefully either offline, i.e., retail store or online, i.e., online shopping portal, creates a long-lasting impression on them. The present research is attempting to explore the physical elements of shopping environments that influence customers, engage them in several activities and enhance their experience in Delhi, India and Santa Clara County, USA.
    Keywords: retail stores; online portals; physical environment; customer engagement.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10052851
  • Placement of Hindu Auspicious Inlay Design Elements in the Mughal Monuments of Agra (India)   Order a copy of this article
    by Pooja Sharma 
    Abstract: The Mughal buildings were decorated with auspicious, floral, arabesques and geometrical designs
    Keywords: Mughal; inlay; design elements; placement; auspicious; Hindu; motifs; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10052853
  • The Contribution of HRM with AI for Customer Relationships Management during the COVID-19 Pandemic in the Corporate Sector   Order a copy of this article
    by V. Mahalakshmi  
    Abstract: As COVID-19 cases mount, many countries have enforced a lockdown. It worsens the global economic situation. International trade, supply networks, and the services industry have high unemployment. AI and technology assist their company restructure. AI builds a smart, innovative economy. AI decreases personal and professional worries. This study will examine HRM’s role in minimising COVID-19’s worker consequences. AI investment risks will also be examined. The literature review examines employee retention motivator ideas and the company’s intelligence prediction system. Firm strategy includes research to limit COVID-19’s influence. One hundred fifty non-probability respondents participated in correlation and descriptive statistics. The paper shows how HR can boost employee satisfaction. Profits and values can be boosted via workplace instructions, help, and information. AI can help small and medium-sized enterprises with COVID-19 manufacturing contact customers online, predict cash flow, and streamline HR. AI helps SMBs raise their dynamic capacities by employing technology to match creative demand methods, pivot quickly, increase efficiency, and reduce investment risk. Intelligence helps with data management. These strategies boost responsiveness, adaptability, and efficiency. Hybrid systems will grow.
    Keywords: human resource management; HRM; customer relationship; employee; corporate sector; statistical metrics; COVID-19’s influence; supply networks; SMEs.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10052917
  • Determinants of Dividend Policy-Evidence from an Emerging Market   Order a copy of this article
    by Arit Chaudhury, Varun Dawar 
    Abstract: The present study empirically investigates the determinants of dividend policy by focusing on the small-capitalisation firms in the context of emerging market of India. The study adds to relatively limited empirical literature on factors influencing dividend policy decisions in case of a set of small capitalisation firms in India and introduces extensive set of explanatory variables observed in previously related studies in developed and emerging markets. Our empirical results (derived through robust estimation techniques) support for dividend signalling, agency argument and transaction cost theory and identify leverage, growth and investment opportunities as the major determinants of dividend policy in case of small capitalisation firms. The results however fail to provide any evidence with respect to free cash flow hypothesis and tax clientele in Indian context. The results of this study would be helpful for analysts and investors in assessing the right valuation of small capitalisation companies through better understanding of their dividend determinants and behaviour.
    Keywords: dividends; emerging market; signalling; agency; tax clientele; transaction.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10053041
  • Human Resource Disclosure Practices in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Dr. Kirti Aggarwal, Anju Verma 
    Abstract: The aim of the present study is to examine the extent and trend of HR disclosure of Indian corporates. Further, the study also aimed to check the existence of significant variation in HR disclosure practices of Indian companies across the various industrial sectors. The findings of the study show that the highest amount of HR disclosure percentage comes from Human Resource Policy and Vision Component in the year 2017
    Keywords: human resource disclosure index; HRDI; content analysis; annual report; disclosure; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10053336
  • The Relevance of Mahabharata for the Development of a Spiritual Model of Good Governance Within the Indian Context   Order a copy of this article
    by Ravindra Shenoy. U, Balakrishnan Muniapan, Sudheendra Putty 
    Abstract: Good governance is essential for organisational sustainability in this VUCA world. Good governance has been explored from various dimensions by several scholars. Within the Indian context, good governance from the Ramayana has been analysed by numerous scholars. However, the Mahabharata (except for the Bhagavad Gita) has yet to be analysed in-depth within the context of governance. The authors therefore will explore the Mahabharata and present its relevance to good governance. This work not only fills a vacuum in the literature, but incorporates spirituality into the study of good governance. Hermeneutics, a qualitative methodology for interpreting texts, is used in this paper. The Mahabharata suggests a spiritual model of good governance with an intrinsic perspective of governance that extends from self-governance through corporate governance and eventually world or global governance. This paper is expected to offer an ancient philosophy, values-based philosophical, wisdom, and spiritual approach to good governance.
    Keywords: good governance; management spirituality; the Mahabharata; Indian culture and leadership.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2022.10053349
  • Customer Value Theory: Sensitivity to Price, Emotional Values, Social Relationship Supports, and Values Conscious Organic Products Purchase Intention   Order a copy of this article
    by Surbhi Sharma, Bijay Kushwaha 
    Abstract: This study aims to investigate the purchase intention of organic skin care products by using three variables of customer value theory, and its sub variables influencing purchase decision of consumer. Furthermore, how they improve brand reputation and commercial performance in the organic skin care industry. Total 511 participants’ responses were analysed and questions developed from the current literatures about the influence of customer value theory on purchase intention of organic skin care products used as survey instrument. The conceptual framework of this study visualises perceived consumer value theory, which contains three dimensions: functional value, social value and emotional value, wherein the findings demonstrated the significant impacts of both emotional and functional values. This study also focusses on the dimensions and sub variables of customer theory and these values examined in the context of organic skin care products which provides new model and future scopes.
    Keywords: customer value theory; purchase intention; organic skin care products; social relationship supports.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJICBM.2023.10053614