Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems

International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems (IJHVS)

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International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems (56 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Introducing wheel-rail adhesion control into longitudinal train dynamics   Order a copy of this article
    by Qing Wu, Maksym Spiryagin, Colin Cole, Yan Sun 
    Abstract: Conventional Longitudinal Train Dynamics (LTD) simulations apply a number of assumptions regarding wheel-rail adhesion, and wheel-rail adhesion control has not previously been considered. This paper introduces locomotive wheel-rail adhesion control into LTD using co-simulation and parallel computing techniques. An in-house LTD simulator was connected to a commercial MBS dynamics simulator using the TCP/IP protocol. A heavy haul train with the configuration of three locomotives and 150 wagons was modelled. The wagons were modelled in the LTD simulator while the locomotives were modelled in the MBS simulator. The locomotive models were three-dimensional models that included wheel-rail contact models and adhesion control models. Simulations of locomotives were processed in parallel using three computer cores. Co-simulations with and without the consideration of curve lubrication were conducted and compared with a conventional LTD simulation. Computing times with and without parallel computing were also compared. The results show that, when compared with conventional LTD simulations, wheel-rail adhesion control generates evident differences for maximum traction forces, average train speeds, maximum in-train forces and force patterns. With three computer cores, parallel computing reduced the computing time by about 46% from about 3.7 hours to about 2.0 hours.
    Keywords: longitudinal train dynamics; wheel-rail contact; adhesion control; traction modelling; parallel computing;co-simulation.

  • Ground-watching navigation for trailer-steering control   Order a copy of this article
    by Qiheng Miao, David Cebon 
    Abstract: This paper discusses two ground-watching navigation strategies for path-following control of a steered trailer at low speeds. Such systems provide navigation information by processing the features of the road surface in successive images. Theoretical performance of the systems was initially investigated in simulation. Field testing was conducted for three manoeuvres: a straight line, a lane change and a 90
    Keywords: heavy goods vehicles; active trailer steering; ground-watching navigation; off-highway;.

  • Torsional vibrations in heavy-duty truck powertrains with dual mass flywheels   Order a copy of this article
    by Lina Wramner 
    Abstract: Many of the measures taken to improve combustion engine efficiency lead to higher torsional vibrations. For heavy-duty commercial vehicles it is foreseen that the conventional flywheel and clutch will not be able to sufficiently reduce those increased engine torsional vibrations to the driveline. In this paper, the steady-state torsional vibrations in a heavy-duty truck powertrain are studied. The focus is engine excited vibrations at high load within operating speed range. Vibration phenomena in a conventional heavy-duty powertrain and in powertrains equipped with dual mass flywheels are studied. It is shown how the use of a dual mass flywheel can enable down-speeding and increased engine torque with maintained or reduced levels of torsional vibrations.
    Keywords: torsional vibrations; powertrain; driveline; heavy-duty truck; dual mass flywheel; DMF; resonances; simulation.

  • Determination of tyre-ground interaction parameters through image processing in Matlab   Order a copy of this article
    by Petru Rosca, Marius-Ionut Marmureanu, Tudor-Viorel Tiganescu, Catalin-Mihai Pirvulescu, Irina-Maria Bindac, Calin Doru 
    Abstract: The tyre-ground interaction represents a topic highly debated but still many aspects are to be further studied and analysed. In this context, one representative parameter is the wheel ground pressure its influence is associated with the design of rigid pavements, with the restraints imposed by the aircraft cargo capacity and with the vehicle off-road capabilities, at least. In fact, the wheel ground pressure represents the ratio between wheel load and contact patch area. If the weight of a vehicle and its distribution on wheels can be easily measured, the contact patch area quantification requires either sophisticated and expensive to determine, or the compromise of obtaining inaccurate results by using more or less adequate predictive formulas. This paper presents a modern and efficient method, through image processing in Matlab, which can be used in order to accurately determine the contact area and other related parameter such as mobility area, the maximum contact length, and the maximum contact width. It also proposes new prediction equations for the contact area and for the mobility area based on experimental data related to Continental 14.00 R20 tyre type. The applicability on the tyre-ground interaction should be seen as a particular case, at least for the image processing method, its helpfulness being noted in many areas, as well topography, tribology, and medicine.
    Keywords: tyre; pressure; area; image; Matlab.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2021.10037338
  • Investigation and analysis of hydraulic cylinder cushioning of excavator   Order a copy of this article
    by Govindarajalu Venkatesan, Sadagopan Palaniswamy 
    Abstract: Hydraulic cylinders are the linear actuators used in applications such as industrial, agricultural and construction equipment like excavators. The backhoe of an excavator can dig with enormous force and its movements are carried out by the hydraulic system. The piston movement, from rear to front end, swings the backhoe in seconds and if it is not slowed down at the end, the swing stops suddenly resulting in metal to metal contact causing jerk, vibration and bounce due to inertia effect. This phenomenon leads to failure of seals and other components causing higher maintenance cost. The size and profile of the cushion nose plays an important role in slowing down the piston movement. Hence in this work, an attempt is made to investigate the cushioning effect by changing the size and profiles of the cushion nose based on DFMA and to analyse the pressure variation with respect to piston movement using CFD and the results are presented. In addition, from the results, analysis is carried out using DOE to find the most significant factor that affect the back pressure and smooth transition of pressure. It is found that the cushion nose with curved internal profile produced better results than the existing taper design cushion nose profile and other profile variations.
    Keywords: hydraulic cylinder; cushioning; excavator; backhoe; cylinder cushion; cushion nose profile; deceleration; actuator; computational fluid dynamics; DFMA; DOE.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2021.10031586
  • A review of fuel cell technology for commercial vehicle applications   Order a copy of this article
    by Tommi Jokela, Bo Gao, Bill Kim, Matthias Wellers, Jun Peng 
    Abstract: Commercial vehicles contribute a significant and increasing portion of road transport greenhouse gases, which is leading to regulators introducing CO2 limits for these vehicles. The demanding energy storage requirements of many commercial vehicle applications are extremely difficult to meet for pure battery electric vehicles due to the limited energy density of batteries whereas hybrid commercial vehicles that include combustion engines can only provide limited amounts of emission reductions. Fuel cells appear to be the only viable propulsion technology that is able to meet commercial vehicle application requirements with zero local greenhouse gas emissions. The particular strength of fuel cell vehicles compared to battery electric vehicles is their high energy density, making them particularly suitable for commercial vehicle applications that often require long driving ranges. Since almost all fuel cell vehicles also contain a high voltage battery, some additional complexity is introduced since the hybrid energy storage system must be sized and controlled appropriately. An understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of each system is therefore essential in fuel cell vehicle design. The aim of this technology review is thus to provide an overview of fuel cell technologies in commercial vehicle applications including assessments of alternative powertrain and fuel cell types, advantages and disadvantages of fuel cell and battery systems and the implications of these on the powertrain sizing as well as control considerations of fuel cell vehicles.
    Keywords: fuel cell; commercial vehicles; powertrain; energy management strategy.

  • Development of an integrated active yaw controller on soft terrain   Order a copy of this article
    by Hossam Ragheb 
    Abstract: Off-road vehicle maneuverability on soft terrain is strongly affected by the tyre-soil interaction characteristics. Remarkable enhancements in active vehicle safety systems depend on different control systems aiming to enhance off-road vehicle mobility. In this paper, an integrated active yaw control system, Anti-Lock Braking System (ABS) and Traction Control System (TCS), for an (8x8) multi-wheeled combat vehicle operating on soft terrain is developed. A TruckSim-MATLAB/Simulink vehicle model was developed to verify the developed integrated control system on soft soil. The presented integrated control system revealed an enhancement in vehicle directional stability and traction performance. Besides, it should be mentioned that the soil type has a great effect on controller efficiency as it is limiting the applied torque by the developed controller.
    Keywords: off-road; mobility; active yaw control; anti-lock braking system; traction control system; TruckSim; MATLAB/Simulink; multi-wheeled vehicles; soft soil.

  • Developing an analytical model for prediction of tyre rolling resistance on moist soils   Order a copy of this article
    by Fatemeh Gheshlaghi, Aref Mardani, Arash Mohebbi, Hamid Taghavifar 
    Abstract: This paper presents a Finite Element Analysis Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (FEA-SPH) technique to predict the rolling resistance of an agricultural tyre over moist soils. Firstly, dry clay-loam soil is modelled using hydrodynamic elastic-plastic materials and the water behaviour is captured using the Murnaghan equation of state. Then, to simulate moist soil, water layers are added to the dry soil surface. Soil calibration is performed based on experimental data using a bevameter and through the direct shear tests under similar operating conditions. A free-rolling Bias-ply tyre (size 8.25-16) employed for the experiments was modelled using the FEA method. The interface contact between tyre and soil is described based on a node-symmetric node-to-segment contact with edge treatment. The obtained simulation results for rolling resistance account for different levels of soil moisture, traffic and vertical load. Finally, the proposed model is validated using experimental data obtained from a single-wheel tester in the controlled test condition.
    Keywords: rolling resistance; smoothed-particle hydrodynamic; finite element analysis; moist soil; vertical load; soil bin.

  • Fractional order state feedback control for improved lateral stability for tractor-trailers in platooning   Order a copy of this article
    by Rasheed Abdulkader, Roy McCann 
    Abstract: This paper develops an improved tractor-trailer platooning operation for an evasive highway manoeuvre situation by implementing a fractional order state feedback control method. This increases the lateral stability of commercial heavy vehicle platoons and thereby improves energy savings and safety. The control method is developed based on a nonlinear model for a tractor-trailer in platooning formations. A method for analysing heavy vehicle dynamics is presented. To validate the proposed control algorithm, the complete nonlinear system is evaluated in MATLAB/Simulink to account for the interaction of truck dynamics during the platooning operation. Simulation results with varying the truck speed and the trailer load demonstrate the robustness of the proposed fractional order state feedback control scheme for an evasive manoeuvre scenario. Thus the proposed control scheme is compared with a professional driver for an emergency highway lane manoeuvre. Overall results confirm that the proposed controller improves tractor-trailer response time as compared with a professional truck driver along with increased energy savings and reduced fuel consumption during the platooning operation of the tractor-trailer.
    Keywords: lateral stability; active front steering; platooning; fractional order control; tractor-trailer dynamics.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2021.10037405
  • Liquid cargo effect on load transfer under orthogonal accelerations   Order a copy of this article
    by Jose A. Romero Navarrete, Frank Otremba, Alejandro A. Lozano-Guzman 
    Abstract: A methodology is proposed for the experimental analysis of the liquid cargo effect under combined orthogonal accelerations. When simultaneously subjecting the vehicle-cargo system to longitudinal and lateral accelerations, the vehicle is set obliquely on a tilt table. The experimental outputs suggest that there is a significant effect of the liquid cargo on the lateral load transfer ratio (LTR), of the order of 20%, which is attributable to the resulting shifting of the liquid cargo
    Keywords: sloshing; liquid cargo; cargo shifting; lateral load transfer; braking in a turn manoeuvre.

  • Study on super-wheelbase preview controller/algorithm for internet of vehicles suspension system used in a heavy vehicle fleet   Order a copy of this article
    by Ce Yuan, Jiang Liu, Xilong Zhang, Bilong Liu, Yushun Wang 
    Abstract: Most truck fleet transportations show typical repetitive features in vehicle models, routes and cargos. So the Internet of Vehicles (IoV) theory could be easily introduced into the active control for truck suspensions. We establish a communication network structure in which paired vehicles are basic elements, and the geographic information system is treated as a detection auxiliary. The new design reduces the overall communication demand for suspension control data. Based on this simplified IoV system, a new super-wheelbase preview control method is proposed. The optimal vehicle distance between paired trucks is calculated by the particle swarm optimisation. The traditional wheelbase preview algorithm is improved by using two equivalent parameters. The rear truck shows better comprehensive suspension performances than the front one. Finally, we perform a simple objective optimisation in the truck pairs sequence. The convergence results show that, with the help of the IoV suspension system, the sixth and after trucks can get the minimised body acceleration in the fleet's first loop.
    Keywords: suspension; IoV; super-wheelbase preview; particle swarm optimisation.

  • Dynamic stability analysis of a high speed diesel engine turbocharger subjected to aerodynamic loads and engine-induced vibration   Order a copy of this article
    by Ali Alsaeed, Salem Bashmal 
    Abstract: The dynamic behaviour of a high-speed turbocharger supported on floating-ring bearings is investigated under the effect of engine-induced vibrations and aerodynamic loads. A finite-element model is developed for the turbocharger to predict the nonlinear transient response while engine excitations are simulated as time-varying force functions on the rotor bearings. Damping and stiffness parameters of the floating-ring bearings are estimated by solving the 2-D Reynolds equation. The engine-induced excitations are combined with compressor radial aerodynamic forces to obtain the total response numerically. Modified non-circular volute theory is used to calculate radial thrust loads due to aerodynamic effects. The numerical predictions agree with the experimental observations of a fully-loaded turbocharger that show no significant second harmonic frequency amplitudes of the engine frequency. However, the engine frequencies are at comparable amplitudes with the Sub High and 1X amplitudes at higher speeds, where the radial aerodynamic loads are not significant (no-load). The results of the present work indicate that, in the subsynchronous region, some amplitudes at the engine-excitation frequency are also observed at the second harmonic for high speeds. Moreover, the dynamic stability of the turbocharger is significantly influenced by the variation in the magnitude of the engine-induced vibration. The numerical predictions are consistent with the previous experimental tests for a typical turbocharger.
    Keywords: turbocharger; stability; transient response; aerodynamic forces; vibrations.

  • Active boom stabiliser of wheel loaders using optimum fuzzy controller   Order a copy of this article
    by Abdulaziz Al-Fadhli, Emad Khorshid 
    Abstract: Wheel loaders are exposed to several disturbances while travelling from one location to another to carry loads. Low frequency disturbances are coming from crossing speed humps or travelling over rough terrain. Reducing the vibration disturbances on wheel loaders will increase the load-handling efficiency by the boom-bucket element, which increases productivity. Towards reducing the risk of load drooping and reducing boom oscillations, a novel active boom control system with an optimised fuzzy logic controller is presented in this paper. For cost-effective purposes, the fuzzy boom active controller uses the existing boom-lifting electro-hydraulic component to attenuate boom oscillation. Indeed, the designed fuzzy logic controller applies measurable and accessible system states as input variables, while its structure in terms of rule base and scaling factors is optimised using a particle swarming algorithm. Numerical results showed that the proposed method succeeded in effectively damping the boom oscillation under several types of road disturbance and different driving speeds.
    Keywords: wheel loaders; active damping; numerical simulation; fuzzy controller; design optimisations; mathematical modelling.

  • Studies on critical hunting speed and running safety of conventional railway vehicles moving on curved tracks   Order a copy of this article
    by R.K. Sajeev, Sujatha Chandramohan 
    Abstract: Critical Hunting Speed (CHS) and running safety are factors to be investigated for the study of the dynamic behaviour of a railway vehicle. In this paper, a numerical investigation of the nonlinear dynamic behaviour of a railway vehicle running on tracks of various radii is carried out using a mathematical model of the combined system. The computation of vehicle-track combined systems dynamic behaviour with single and two-point contact scenarios of wheel-rail are not reported in any literature. Using these contact scenarios, nonlinear CHS and safety of the vehicle are evaluated. The vehicle model consists of a 25-degrees-of-freedom (25-DOF) system with four wheel-sets, two truck frames, two bolsters and a carbody. Both wheel-axle sets and the truck frames have lateral displacement and yaw angular displacement; each bolster has yaw angular displacement and the carbody has lateral displacement, roll and yaw angular displacement. The track is idealised as a laterally flexible spring-mass-damper system. Wheel-rail geometry and its contact geometry for characterisation of frictional creep forces and the contact between truck frame and bolster as Coulomb friction element are the nonlinearities adopted in the model. Linear damping and stiffness are assumed for lateral and longitudinal primary and secondary suspensions. The model is solved using the Runge-Kutta fourth-order method. The transformed state space equations are solved in the time domain to obtain the dynamic response of a conventional railway vehicle. Limit cycle type oscillation is adopted to evaluate the nonlinear CHS. Furthermore, a parametric study is carried out to analyse the influence of wheel-rail geometric and material parameters on vehicle running safety, which is based on derailment quotient and offload factor.
    Keywords: critical hunting speed; running safety; single/two-point wheel-rail contact; nonlinear creep model; curved tracks.

  • Dynamic characteristics analysis of tubular stand-off-layer sandwiched structure used in driving sprocket   Order a copy of this article
    by Bijuan Yan, Zekun Liu, Wenjun Zhang, Shizhong Liu 
    Abstract: In order to reduce the severe vibration of the driving sprocket of a crawler construction vehicle, a tubular stand-off-layer sandwiched structure (TSSS) is used, and its corresponding vibration model is established. The tensile test and MATLAB software are used to fit the material characteristic parameters of the damping layer and stand-off-layer. Under the common working conditions of bulldozers (bulldozing and cutting),the vibration characteristics and transient dynamic response of three different multi-layer damping structures (three-layer, five-layer tubular constrained damping structure, four-layer TSSS) are discussed using ANSYS software. During the dynamics analysis, the loads are divided into two cases, one is that the load changes with the rotation angle of the driving sprocket, and the other one taking time as the dependent variable. The results show that the damping vibration-reducing characteristics of the four-layer tubular stand-off-layer sandwiched structure are better than those of the three-layer and five-layer tubular constrained damping structure (TCDS), the dynamic response amplitude of the damping layer is half that of the other two structures, the acceleration response amplitude is far less than that of the three-layer TCDS, and the force transfer rate range is also the smallest, and there is a minimum value. It can be found that the existence of the stand-off-layer can not only increase the shear strain of the damping layer and make the structure consume more energy, but also improve the vibration isolation efficiency and reduce the vibration response of the structure. This research can lay a good foundation for the dynamic analysis of drive wheel vibration reduction and tubular damping structure and the optimisation of structural parameters in the future.
    Keywords: driving sprocket; tubular structure; stand-off-layer; damping vibration-reducing characteristics.

  • A thermal braking model of the entire heavy vehicle wheel assembly   Order a copy of this article
    by Joshua Subel, Frank Kienhofer 
    Abstract: Overheating of heavy vehicle brakes and surrounding components can have fatal consequences. The design specifications of the entire heavy vehicle wheel assembly, including the rim material and wheel configuration, impact the brake, axle, rim and tyre temperatures. Consequently, it is important to model the entire heavy vehicle wheel assembly. In this study, a thermal model to predict the temperatures of the brake, axle, rim and tyres is developed and validated using experimental braking results for single and dual wheels using steel and aluminium rims. The use of the model is illustrated by analysing the component temperature responses of a conceptual carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) rim to 2:5 kW of continuous braking. A CFRP rim would reduce the conduction of heat from the brakes into the tyres, resulting in a tyre temperature reduction of up to 35%. This positive benefit is at the expense of higher brake and rim temperatures.
    Keywords: brake overheating; tyre failure; bearing failure; lumped mass modelling; transient thermal analysis; carbon fibre reinforced polymer; rim materials.

  • Track gauge selection of medium-low speed maglev and its impact analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Dinggang Gao, Weihua Ma, Tie Li, Zhenhong Wang 
    Abstract: In view of the lack of a standard gauge for current medium-low speed maglev, the relationship between gauge and vehicle length, vehicle width and basic weight of the maglev vehicle is studied in this paper. The effects of increased gauge from 1700 mm to 2000 mm on levitation capacity, anti-rolling capacity, device suspension space and F-rail magnetic-pole-face height difference for curve negotiation are analysed. The result indicates that the size of gauge is generally independent of vehicle length and is positively related to vehicle width and vehicle weight, but the reasonable internal design and layout can effectively control the vehicle weight. With increasing gauge, the force of the levitation electromagnet vertical force to balance the rolling moment, the rolling angle and the maximum vertical height difference between the inner and outer magnetic pole faces of the F-rail all decrease. Overall, the vehicle levitation capacity and the anti-rolling ability are both improved. The maximum bending moment of the sleeper is increased, and the lateral dimension of device suspension space of motor and longitudinal beam is increased.
    Keywords: medium-low speed maglev; track gauge; curve negotiation; dynamics performance.

  • A novel heavy-duty truck reversing safety control based on pedestrian tracking using fisheye stereo vision   Order a copy of this article
    by Miankuan Zhu, Lei Han, Fujian Liang, Lei Wu, Chaoxing Xi, Zutao Zhang 
    Abstract: Heavy-duty trucks have caused many reversing accidents owing to the large blind area of the body, so the safety of reversing assistance has attracted more and more attention. In this paper, we present a novel heavy-duty truck safety approach for reversing based on pedestrian detection and tracking using fisheye stereo vision. Firstly, an elliptical plate is proposed to calibrate a fisheye camera, and a disparity map is computed using the binocular fisheye camera. Secondly, a pedestrian is detected after the fisheye images are corrected. Thirdly, an improved pedestrian tracking algorithm based on Consensus-based Tracking and Matching of Key-points for Object Tracking (CMT) algorithm combined is applied to track pedestrians. Finally, a heavy-duty truck reversing speed control method is proposed to avoid collisions and improve the safety of truck reversing. This system has been tested on a van truck. Experiments demonstrate the viability of the proposed heavy-duty truck reversing safety system.
    Keywords: heavy-duty truck; fisheye stereo vision; pedestrian detection and tracking; reversing safety control.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2021.10039447
  • Algorithm for inverse determination of derailment coefficient by using instrumented wheelsets   Order a copy of this article
    by Milan Bižić, Dragan Petrović 
    Abstract: The main indicator of the running safety of railway vehicles is ratio between lateral and vertical forces in the wheel-rail interaction, known as derailment coefficient. Its exact determination has a huge significance in the development and certification phases of railway vehicles. The most reliable determination of wheel-rail interaction forces is based on experimental testing, by using instrumented wheelsets, which is otherwise prescribed in appropriate international regulations. This paper presents a unique algorithm for inverse determination of wheel-rail interaction forces, i.e. derailment coefficient, based on the measurement signals obtained from instrumented wheelset. The blind signal separation (BSS) and method of independent component analysis (ICA) are applied. Verification is carried out on an example of a wheelset of a freight wagon, based on the wheels' FEM model. The obtained results confirm a high efficiency and accuracy of the developed algorithm, whereby the estimated error of inverse identification is less than 5%.
    Keywords: inverse determination; wheel-rail interaction forces; derailment coefficient; experimental testing; running safety; railway vehicles; instrumented wheelset.

  • Intelligent control strategy for a heavy vehicle compaction system DYNAPAC CC6200   Order a copy of this article
    by Hocine Chebi 
    Abstract: This paper proposes a GA-LOS-PI controller-based four-level control system that accurately evaluates pavement compaction effect of DYNAPAC CC6200 Autonomous Articulated Vehicle (AAV). In the evaluation layer, various performance indicators are evaluated, including stability, rapidity and accuracy when trajectory tracking, and the ratio of required compaction to actual compaction once and twice and compaction repeatability index when pavement compacting. In the decision and control layer, an incremental PI controller is used as the main control strategy, Line Of Sight (LOS) guidance is introduced to eliminate system control lag, and Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used for searching the best proportional and integral parameters of the incremental PI controller and the radius parameter of LOS guidance. In the sensor level, a simplified sensor configuration is used to reduce overall cost. The comparative simulation results of no controller, the traditional incremental PI controller, LOS-PI controller with Human Driving Experience Initial Control Parameters (HDEICP), GA-LOS-PI controller with Random Initial Control Parameters (RICP) and GA-LOS-PI controller with HDEICP manifest evidently that the proposed GA-LOS-PI controller with HDEICP has almost no steady-state error, no overshoot, and short settling time, that is, GA-LOS-PI controller-based four-level cost-effective pavement compaction system meets the project needs well.
    Keywords: pavement compaction; four-level system; autonomous articulated vehicle; genetic algorithm; PI controller; Line of sight guidance; trajectory tracking; DYNAPAC CC6200.

  • Research on construction method of the prediction model for semi-trailer on-board weighing system   Order a copy of this article
    by Zhang Yu, Fu Hongxun, Zhao Qiang, Qiao Huanbo, Gang Xianyue 
    Abstract: Aiming at the problems of overloading and inconvenient weighing of semi-trailers, this paper designed a semi-trailer on-board weighing system based on the strain measurement of the frame, and built the weighing prediction model of the system. The three-dimensional model of the semi-trailer frame was established, and the strain-sensitive area of the frame was determined by using the finite element analysis method, and the suitable position was selected as the strain sensitive point. According to the load distribution of the semi-trailer frame, the strain and load of the traction pin and suspension components are fitted respectively, and the weighing prediction model of the system is established. Finally, by comparing the test load with the predicted load, it is found that the error of the predicted load is less than 1%, and the accuracy of the model meets the engineering requirements.
    Keywords: semi-trailer; on-board weighing system; finite element; strain; prediction model.

  • Vibration noise suppression algorithm of permanent magnet synchronous motor for new energy vehicles   Order a copy of this article
    by Zizhen Qiu, Yong Chen, Yuming Guan, Yang Kang 
    Abstract: Taking the permanent magnet synchronous motor for new energy vehicles as the research object, the causes and mechanisms of electromagnetic vibration noise of fractional-slot permanent magnet synchronous motor are analysed and summarised. The band-stop filter method is introduced to quantitatively analyse the influence of controller parameters on the control effect. By the research of harmonic voltage and electromagnetic force, the finite element method is used to study the relationship among the initial phase angle, frequency and amplitude of the electromagnetic force and the injected harmonic voltage of the stator, and optimise the control parameters. The analysis and experimental results show that the error rate curve of the proposed algorithm is closer to the curve without phase noise when the phase noise line width is small. The vibration and noise can be effectively reduced by injecting the corresponding harmonic voltage with the optimisation result.
    Keywords: new energy vehicle; permanent magnet synchronous motor; vibration noise suppression.

  • Phase-based evaluation of whole-body vibration exposure for hydraulic excavator operators   Order a copy of this article
    by Tugba Dogan, Bülent Erdem, Zekeriya Duran 
    Abstract: the whole-body vibration exposure of hydraulic excavator operators was studied with the guidelines set by several approaches. The most jolty and quiet phases were FORWARD and WAIT, respectively. Vibration magnitudes were inversely proportional to bucket capacity. Excavator service year and vibration exposure were positively correlated. Younger operators were exposed to higher levels of vibration. Vibration acceleration was negatively correlated to operator experience. Handling of large-sized rocks resulted in more vibration than soil-like material. The most conservative method in estimating the hazard potential was the ISO 2631-1 vector sum, while the probability of an adverse health effect was generally low according to the ISO 2631-5.
    Keywords: A(8); BS 6841; exposure action value; exposure limit value; EU 2002/EC/44; eVDV; hypothesis testing; ISO 2631-1; ISO 2631-5; VDV(8).

  • Adaptive cabin suspension systems of commercial vehicles: a review of the state-of-art and future trends   Order a copy of this article
    by Yukun Lu, Amir Khajepour, Yegang Liu, Ran Zhen 
    Abstract: This paper reviews past studies on active and semi-active cabin suspension systems of commercial vehicles and highlights future research potentials. The development history of the cabin suspension is firstly introduced. Then, the three standard configurations on the market of the cabin suspension are discussed and compared, known as front, rear, and full cabin suspension systems. After that, an overview of cabin suspension control strategies in the literature is presented. Specifically, skyhook control, various optimal control, road adaptive control, and their combined approaches are discussed and compared. After thoroughly summarising past studies, some research topics which deserve further investigation are introduced.
    Keywords: cabin suspension; adaptive suspension; skyhook control; optimal control; road adaptive control; cabin configuration.

  • Design optimisation of interference limits for cup-plug installation in high horsepower cylinder head   Order a copy of this article
    by Rajeev Verma, Jagjit Singh Randhawa, Durgaprasad Pitcha, Jawed Ali 
    Abstract: In applications to internal combustion (IC) engines, the interference fitted cup-plugs in cylinder head bores seals the water galleries. The strain developed because of the plastic deformation at the interface of two sections offers to ascend of contact force, whereas equivalent stress may lead to crack failure due to inappropriate interference fits. So, to comprehend the source of these high-pressure areas, an investigation of the cylinder head press-fitting was performed to propose the design intent to reconcile the cup-plug loosening issue during the service conditions. In the current research, an analytical method based on modified Lames equations was developed to calculate contact pressure and stress developed owing to interference fit in the holes of cylinder head bore and cup-plug areas. A new salvage method for Cummins ReCon plant for high horsepower (HHP) cylinder head of a water-cooled diesel engine has been introduced by developing a standard procedure for oversized stress calculation based on interference analysis. Experimentally validated results in reference to the finite element analysis (FEA) simulation were used to verify the accuracy of the proposed method, and good consistency has been observed. The analytically predicted contact pressure and push-out force considering maximum interference for baseline cylinder head and standard expansion plug assembly were found to be 225 MPa, 7.6 kN respectively, while that for the salvaged oversized assembly were 151 MPa, 7.27 kN; whereas, the complying range of interference fit for the corresponding push-out force was 170-350
    Keywords: interference fit analysis; cup-plug; cylinder head; push-out force; Lame's equations; finite element analysis.

  • Energy management strategy design and fuel consumption analysis for a parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle   Order a copy of this article
    by Shilei Zhou, Paul Walker, Weiwei Yang, Cong Thanh Nguyen, Nong Zhang 
    Abstract: In this paper, the energy-saving benefits of a parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle (PHHV) are investigated. The vehicle powertrain components such as engine, hydraulic pump/motor (HPM) and accumulator are modelled to demonstrate the PHHV powertrain working principle. The optimal fuel economy of the PHHV is obtained by dynamic programming (DP) optimisation. Based on the DP optimisation results, a practical rule-based energy management strategy (EMS) is designed with which the PHHV fuel economy in real application is investigated, including gear shift schedule and regenerative braking control strategy. Through simulation under a selected urban driving condition, PHHV achieves fuel consumption reduction by 27.5% compared with the conventional engine driven vehicle, which proves that the PHHV achieves significant energy saving benefits. PHHV consumes only 1.5% more fuel with the rule-based EMS than with the DP optimisation, indicating the effectiveness and practicality of the rule-based EMS in urban driving conditions.
    Keywords: hydraulic hybrid vehicle; energy management strategy; regenerative braking; fuel economy analysis; dynamic programming.

  • Design and implementation a novel algorithm to smart tachograph for detection and recognition of driving behaviour   Order a copy of this article
    by Cevat Altunkaya, Aslan Çoban, Ahmet Zengin 
    Abstract: Losses in accidents involving heavy vehicles such as buses and trucks, where the use of tachograph devices are mandatory, are higher than those involving other vehicles in terms of death, injury and cost. Existing tachographs do not provide any information on how to make turns and lane changes. Aggressive driver behaviour can cause a significant portion of traffic accidents and fuel consumption. In this study, a low-cost IMU sensor module is mounted to the tachograph to detect lateral manoeuvres. To detect manoeuvres such as right-left turns and lane changes with high accuracy, the edges of the events are firstly captured with Gyroscope-Z data and the start and end of the manoeuvres are detected. Then, a new algorithm is proposed that scores the turn manoeuvres by combining the averages of the Gyroscope-Z, Accelerometer-X and speed data in the manoeuvre. In practice, it has been observed that the algorithm approaches 100% accuracy in detecting turns and 88% accuracy in lane changes.
    Keywords: tachograph; driving manoeuvre detection; driving scoring; sensors.

  • IoT and artificial intelligence enabled state of charge estimation for battery management system in hybrid electric vehicles   Order a copy of this article
    by Siripuri Kiran, Niranjan Polala, Phridviraj M S B, Venkatramulu S, Chintakindi Srinivas, V.Chandra Shekhar Rao 
    Abstract: In recent times the use of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) as dynamic electrical energy management systems in smart grids has shown several benefits while affecting the grid and HEV battery pack. Amongst several HEV technologies, an effective battery management system (BMS) remains a challenging problem, which is mainly used to indicate the battery state of charge (SOC). As over-charging and over-discharging lead to unavoidable damage to the batteries, precise SOC estimation needs to be offered by the BMS. Numerous SOC estimation approaches exist to determine the SOC of the battery cells. With this motivation, this study aims to design an effective IoT and artificial intelligence (AI) enabled SOC estimation model for battery management in HEVs. The presented model involves a black widow optimisation (BWO) based Deep Long Short Term (LSTM) based Stacked Autoencoder (LSTM-SAE).
    Keywords: battery management; hybrid electric vehicles; parameter tuning; deep learning; state of charge; artificial intelligence.

  • Rollover prevention control of the tank semi-trailer considering sloshing of the liquid   Order a copy of this article
    by Wencai Sun, Yang Liu, Shiwu Li, Fengru Wang, Weijian Li 
    Abstract: In this paper, the rollover prevention control of the tank semi-trailer considering liquid sloshing is studied, and a rollover prevention control strategy of the tank semi-trailer based on the LQR (linear quadratic regulator) method is proposed to prevent the rollover of tank semi-trailer with liquid goods. There are three main contributions in this paper. Firstly, the roll stability model of the whole vehicle is established, and the roll stability of the whole vehicle under different conditions is analysed in order to obtain the vehicle rollover threshold curve under different working conditions and different liquid filling ratios. Secondly, based on the kinematics analysis, a seven-degree-of-freedom model of the vehicle is established. Also, the key parameters related to the model are identified by the combination of genetic algorithm and optimisation function. Thirdly, a rollover prevention controller of the tank semi-trailer based on the LQR method is proposed. Considering the additional influence of liquid sloshing, the optimised weight coefficient of control is corrected, and the effectiveness of the control strategy is verified under fishhook conditions. The established control strategy can effectively prevent the tank semi-trailer from rollover, which lays a foundation for the follow-up vehicle anti-rollover integrated control technology.
    Keywords: tank semi-trailer; LQR control; liquid sloshing; anti-rollover.

  • Hardware-in-the-loop simulation of active roll control for a single-trailer truck using a steerable wheel at the middle axle   Order a copy of this article
    by Muhammad Nadwi Hakimi Adnan, Zulkiffli Abd Kadir, Khisbullah Hudha, Noor Hafizah Amer, Mohd Sabirin Rahmat, Mohamad Hafiz Harun, Vimal Rau Aparow 
    Abstract: Normally, a single-trailer truck will lose its manoeuvrability when driving at a high speed during cornering or sudden lane-changing manoeuvres. In order to improve the manoeuvrability and to avoid rollover accidents, this study proposes an active roll control using a steerable-wheel system at the middle axle for a single-trailer truck. The system is developed to reject the unwanted yaw, lateral and roll motions based on trailer responses. The control structure of the active roll control system is developed on a verified 18-DOF model of a single-trailer truck. A PID controller as the trailers roll angle feedback control is applied in the control structure and additional roll moment cancellation control using a skyhook controller. From the experimental results using hardware-in-the-loop simulation, a good similarity between simulation and experiment is observed for yaw rate, roll angle and lateral acceleration responses. It also shows that the developed steerable-wheel system has reduced the unwanted lateral, yaw and roll motions.
    Keywords: middle axle steerable wheel; truck-trailer; active roll control; HiLS; PID-Skyhook.

  • Design and implementation of hybrid energy sources with fuzzy neuro control for DC micro grid system used for electric vehicles   Order a copy of this article
    by Nallamilli P. G. Bhavani, R. Vani 
    Abstract: The management scheme of Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC) and Neural Network (NN) on the DC microgrid using hybrid renewable energy sources for electric vehicles is proposed in this paper. A solar PV array, wind source and PEMFC are included in the hybrid renewable source. The fuel cell employed here is primarily used for loads when there is a power outage in power generation. For increased load, a bi-directional converter connected to the battery controls the voltage that is sent to the load for fulfilling the load requirement. Using the bi-directional converter, charging and discharging are achieved. In contrast to traditional PI controllers, fuzzy logic governs complex mathematical modelling. In a short time interval, the fuzzy logic controller achieves less overshoot, lower oscillations and steady status. The neural network algorithm implements a simple high precision structure that achieves maximum performance efficiency, which, compared to FLC, also provides better control. Control techniques for artificial intelligence (FLC and ANN) include improved recognition of the optimum operating point. Simulation is done in the framework of MATLAB/Simulink.
    Keywords: fuzzy logic control; neural network; artificial neural network; PV panel; wind system; DC microgrid; electric vehicle.

  • Research on on-board dynamic weighting algorithm based on two-degree-of-freedom quarter-vehicle model   Order a copy of this article
    by Fu Hongxun, Zhang Yv, Gang Xianyue, Qiao Huanbo, Wang Yan, Ku Laiyun 
    Abstract: The moving vehicle will be disturbed in many aspects, resulting in the dynamic weighing accuracy of the airborne weighing system being significantly lower than the static accuracy. In order to improve the dynamic weighing accuracy of the system, this paper designs a dynamic weighing algorithm based on wavelet threshold denoising and BP neural network. Firstly, a two-degree-of-freedom quarter-vehicle model was built to obtain the vehicle dynamic distance data. Then, the wavelet threshold denoising algorithm was used to denoise the dynamic distance data. Finally, the BP neural network was constructed with the signal of vehicle speed, acceleration signal and denoised weight signal as the input layer to reduce the impact of the speed and acceleration on the weight signal. The results show that after the processing of dynamic weighing algorithm, the dynamic weighing error of vehicle is less than 2%, and the algorithm meets the accuracy requirements and has high universality.
    Keywords: on-board weighing system; two-degree-of-freedom quarter-vehicle model; dynamic weighing algorithm; wavelet threshold denoising algorithm; BP neural network.

  • Deep learning based neuro-PI for yaw disturbance rejection control: hardware-in-the-loop simulation using scaled armoured vehicle platform   Order a copy of this article
    by Vimal Rau Aparow, Khisbullah Hudha, Hishamuddin Jamaluddin, Zulkiffli Abd. Kadir 
    Abstract: This study is focused on improving the behaviour of the armoured vehicle in terms of handling responses during firing by enhancing the performance of yaw disturbance rejection control. A yaw disturbance rejection control is designed to overcome external disturbance using a deep learning based neuro-PI controller to optimise the variables of the neural network. Moreover, cost-effective approaches are required to evaluate the capability of the controller to enhance the lateral dynamic response of the armoured vehicle. Thus, hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation testing has been adopted in this study to analyse the response of the yaw disturbance rejection control. The HIL simulation testing was performed using Cronos Compact data acquisition box developed by Integrated Measurement and Control (IMC) and integrated with Matlab Simulink. The percentage of error between HIL and software-in-the-loop simulation testing using deep learning based neuro PI of yaw disturbance rejection control is less than 7% for overall simulation testing.
    Keywords: yaw disturbance rejection control; hardware-in-the-loop simulation; integrated measurement and control; deep learning based neuro-PI controller; armoured vehicle.

  • Combinatory method of ant colony optimisationartificial neural network in intelligent control systems for diesel engines to reduce the emissions and improve the performance, using laboratory experiments   Order a copy of this article
    by Abbas Zarenezhad Ashkezari, Elham Askari 
    Abstract: In the present work, by using ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm, analysing and optimization of NOx emissions, and fuel consumption in a direct injection diesel engine are done by applying controllable variables of engine speed, inlet air temperature, and fuel mass rate. For this purpose, by using experimental tests, the necessary requirements for modelling of the input variables and the output parameters were provided by using artificial neural network (ANN), then ACO algorithm was applied to reduce NOx and bsfc simultaneously. The results showed that the application of ACO algorithm to the modelling led to subsequent 28% and 5% decrease in NOx and bsfc, respectively. Moreover, owing to rapid convergence and significant optimisation of the output parameters, the combination of ACO-ANN can be used as an effective method in intelligent control systems for diesel engines in order to reduce emissions as well as fuel consumption.
    Keywords: artificial neural network; ant colony; NOx; bsfc; diesel engines.

  • Interpretation of the performance and emission characteristics of a CI engine running on ethanol-butanol diesel blends using an optimisation model   Order a copy of this article
    by S. Ajay, P. Somasundaram, N. Prasanna, T. Rajagopal 
    Abstract: Every nation is attempting to minimise pollution in a variety of ways as governments' upcoming laws and bills on emissions mitigation have speeded up engine development. This research's goal is to investigate alternative optimisation models for emission and performance to find the optimal ethanol-butanol diesel blends. This research looked at CO, CO2, NOx, and HC levels as emission parameters. Minor variations in the performance metrics, such as brake thermal efficiency, brake power, torque, and mechanical efficiency, were recorded. It was evident from the graphs that the performance characteristics were slightly higher than neat diesel and, except for the amount of unburned hydrocarbon, there has been a substantial improvement in emission characteristics. The goal of optimisation is to find the best alcohol diesel mix percentage that can be used in a diesel engine. The ideal mix is chosen based on the desirability value derived from the optimization data.
    Keywords: artificial neural network; ethanol-butanol blends; optimisation; emissions; performance.

  • Accuracy assessment of a GPS-based auto-guidance system in an agricultural vehicle using computational vision methods   Order a copy of this article
    by Rigoberto Castro Castro, Ricardo Yassushi Inamasu, Maira Martins Da Silva 
    Abstract: A real improvement in efficiency and productivity has been successfully achieved in precision agriculture using auto-guidance systems. The Global Positioning System (GPS) Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) system, which allows for centimetre accuracy, is one alternative for implementing such systems. However, geographic positioning errors, vehicle dynamics, agricultural devices, and field environment conditions may influence the performance of GPS-based autonomous agricultural vehicles. Measuring the vehicle position using cameras, lasers, odometers, and ultrasonic sensors can aid this influence assessment. This work aims to propose a methodology to assess the accuracy of auto-guidance systems under actual field conditions using computer vision methods. The pinhole camera method was used to map vehicle location by processing a checkerboard image in the field. The proposal is validated by performing several field tests. The use of computer vision methods can be an accurate alternative to evaluate auto-guidance systems if devices, procedures, and parameters are appropriately selected and calibrated.
    Keywords: computational vision; image processing; RTK GPS navigation; precision agriculture.

  • Linear-control vs ADRC for automatic management of the handling-comfort contradiction of a quarter-car system   Order a copy of this article
    by Muhammed Alhelou, Yazan Wassouf, Alexander Gavrilov 
    Abstract: This paper investigates managing the comfort-handling trade-off for a quarter car suspension system using linear and active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) laws. First, the linear sprung-mass feedback acceleration control law is investigated using a multi-objective genetic algorithm. Second, the non-linear Active Disturbance Rejection Controller (ADRC) is investigated to manage the trade-off manually. Third, an adaptive control law is built to manage the contradiction automatically depending on the ADRC parameters. Finally, the adaptive control law is tested for a nonlinear suspension system. Moreover, the performance of the proposed ADRC method is compared with that of the hybrid-hook. Furthermore, the effects of road disturbance amplitudes and road quality on the system performance were investigated. Simulation results showed the superiority of the adaptive control law on the other methods for different road surface qualities.
    Keywords: ADRC; handling; comfort; trade-off; quarter vehicle; adaptive control law.

  • Stress analysis of an air tube bracket on a heavy duty commercial vehicles chassis   Order a copy of this article
    by Pasa Yayla, Burak Ates, Ozan Berke Yabar 
    Abstract: This study is performed on the air tube bracket system of a heavy-duty commercial truck oscillating at its natural frequency under dynamic load exposed from all along its route. The dynamic analysis of the bracket with the entire commercial vehicle is made based on the data from rough road conditions. In all studies, the finite element models are created with the Medina software, and the solving process is performed with the Permas software. The results provide not only the optimum geometry of the air tube bracket system of the heavy-duty truck but also its ideal dimensions. The analysis also revealed that, in addition to the geometry, the straps wideness and their locations are of paramount importance in their overall performance.
    Keywords: finite element analysis; air tube bracket; heavy duty commercial vehicle; stress analysis; simulation.

  • Study and failure analysis of non-drive automotive rear axle of a heavy commercial vehicle   Order a copy of this article
    by Aakarsh Ranjan, RAJASEKHARA REDDY MUTRA, Yash Kirty, J. Srinivas, Muhamad Norhisham, D. Mallikarjuna Reddy 
    Abstract: The non-drive automotive rear axle beam of a heavy commercial vehicle, 35T Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW), 8X2 Truck, is undergoing bending failure on the field (failed axle beam). The failure is primarily due to the overloading of the vehicle by the customer. This paper analyses the failed rear axle shaft of the vehicle, and highlights the regions of failure in the axle cross-section and its impact on performance and life. A three-dimensional (3D) Computer-Aided Design (CAD) engineering model of the failed axle beam is modelled in Solid Works software. The 3D model is imported into finite element analysis (FEA) software, Altair Hyper Works, to create a finite element model, carry out linear static, modal and fatigue analysis and study the stress/strain induced in the failed axle beam. Based on the results obtained from the three analyses, the axle beam will undergo cross-sectional and material changes to eliminate the failure and improve product quality and life
    Keywords: non-drive automotive rear axle; bending failure; finite element model; fatigue analysis.

  • Ride comfort assessment and improvement in high-speed railway vehicle   Order a copy of this article
    by Vivek Kumar, Vikas Rastogi, Pushparaj Mani Pathak 
    Abstract: Railway transport has achieved significant improvement in terms of speed and safety in the last few decades. Compared with other means of transportation, trains are found to be environmentally friendly, faster, safer, and cheaper. In all the merits, speed is one of the most critical aspects of train operations. Therefore, the research for increasing the operational speed of trains has never been ended. However, higher speed could negatively affect the performance of a train. The suspension of the vehicle should be modified to compensate for the reduced performance. However, enhancement potentials through passive systems are limited. Consequently, active technology comes as an alternative for improving the vehicle's dynamic performance. The active technology to enhance comfort/stability has been implemented in railway coaches during the past few decades. But, the operational and initial cost of active technology is still very high. Thus, it has yet not attained a decisive, convincing breakthrough in real operations except for a few service implementations. Therefore, the present work is planned to enhance the ride comfort of the high-speed train by using semi-active lateral secondary suspension control. Three different control strategies have been incorporated in secondary lateral suspension for improvement of ride comfort, and it has been found that the use of a semi-active system improves the vibration isolation levels to a significant degree.
    Keywords: railway vehicle; ride comfort; vibration; bond graph; Sperling index.

  • An integrated approach for scheduling electric vehicles and distributed generators in a smart distribution system   Order a copy of this article
    by Velamuri Suresh, Suresh Kumar Sudabattula, N. Prabaharan, R. Sitharthan, M. Rajesh 
    Abstract: An increase in the use of electric vehicles (EVs) and their irregular patterns of usage create a greater impact on the performance electric distribution systems. In this article, an effective method of scheduling EVs, optimal location, and sizing of distributed generators is implemented. A novel smart charging method is proposed and implemented for scheduling the EVs, in both Grid to Vehicle (G2V) and Vehicle to Grid (V2G) modes in this work. Also, a combined approach of Voltage Stability Index (VSI) and the Grasshopper Optimisation Algorithm (GOA) method is implemented on the IEEE 33 bus system in the presence of EVs. The results are carried for three different cases with and without considering EVs in both V2G and G2V modes. The proposed smart charging method provides a better solution in managing the system peak demand, thereby reducing the power loss of the overall network and improving the voltage profile.
    Keywords: electric vehicle; smart charging; grasshopper optimisation; power loss; distributed generation.

  • Strength analysis of energy absorbing protective structure for excavator   Order a copy of this article
    by Yong-Jae Park, Kwang-Hee Lee, Chul-Hee Lee 
    Abstract: The excavator needs a device that can protect the operator from the overturning of the excavator on the slope. The rollover protective structure is a system of structural members that protects a seat belt operator when the excavator is rolled over. A load test is performed for rollover protective structure (ROPS) system certification according to ISO 12117-2 requirements. Unlike the machines covered by ISO 3471, hydraulic excavators feature attachments that affect the required performance capability of the ROPS. Numerical analysis is carried out using the nonlinear finite element solver ABAQUS to evaluate the safety according to the ISO standard. Finite element analysis can reduce time and cost by minimising the number of tests. Structural strength analysis of a hydraulic excavator rollover protective structure has convergence problems owing to nonlinear contact, buckling, and large deformation, and is solved through quasi-static analysis and penalty method. Lateral load, longitudinal load, and vertical load measurements are performed, confirming the good correlation between FEA results and bench test results. The validity of the FEA methodology for the hydraulic excavator rollover protective structure is verified. This paper provides the methodology for performing strength tests on protective structures using numerical analysis methods.
    Keywords: hydraulic excavator; rollover protection; energy absorption; finite element technique.

  • A novel non-isolated three-port bidirectional DC-DC converter for off-grid solar-powered charging for electric and hydrogen vehicles using STM32 microcontroller   Order a copy of this article
    by Hans John Dcruz, K. Baskaran 
    Abstract: The article devises an off-grid charging class for electric vehicles (EV) and hydrogen vehicles (HV). Electric and hydrogen vehicles are charged over a similar period. The outcome ability of the solar method is divided into two elements. Solar ability is employed to provide electrical charge requirement and remaining race water electrolyser and is transformed into hydrogen. Hydrogen is accumulated and it provides hydrogen load requirement. A fuel cell is used along with the charging power plant to deal with such uncertainty. A proposed multi-port DC/DC converter is examined with regard to operating rules and power flow. The voltage relationship between ports is also derived. The energy from all input sources is delivered independently. It can also be delivered in mixed form and in a single stage, which leads to greater efficiency. The efficiency and feasibility of the introduced system are shown using the outcome from simulation.
    Keywords: renewable energy resources; three-port converter; energy storage system; multi-port DC/DC converter.

  • Developing a novel method to reduce the steering force in heavy trucks   Order a copy of this article
    by Gokay Uymaz, Metin Aydogdu 
    Abstract: This study investigates the vibration control as a new method for reducing the steering forces and tyre-road friction which occurred on steering systems. The coefficient of friction between the tyre and road is taken into account as continuously dynamic, and the friction force decreases in the dynamic condition, with the help of controlled vibration. A new system has been designed to replace the so-called drag link in the steering mechanism of commercial vehicles. The draglink replacement part provides controlled vibration for various amplitude and frequency. The new designed system was experimentally verified and then by substituting the experimentally obtained results in the equations, the decrease in the friction coefficient was calculated. Hereby, it has been tried to determine the suitable values of the vibration frequency and amplitude to convert the coefficient of friction between the wheel and the road into the lowest dynamic coefficient of friction. According to the test results, a measurable and significant reduction in steering forces has been determined.
    Keywords: steering systems; tyre-road friction; vibration control; friction coefficient.

  • Transfer path analysis of a railway vehicle based on global transfer direct transfer   Order a copy of this article
    by Li Yingli, Wang Yong, Juliana Wada 
    Abstract: To overcome the shortcomings of the classical transfer path analysis (TPA) and operation transfer path analysis (OTPA), the Global Transfer Direct Transfer (GTDT) method is adopted. This method does not require force determination, and direct transfer functions can be used to identify problematic subsystems, which are calculated and used to determine the cause of the total displacements on the car body. When studying the contribution of each component of the bogie to the car body displacements, the effect of different mechanical property parameters is analysed to find the problematic subsystem that causes the highest displacement for improvement. It is creative that mathematical mechanical modelling of a railway vehicle with 6 and 11 degrees of freedom is developed for GTDT analysis. Experimental results show that the GTDT method is a promising method for studying the vibration transmission path of complex practical rail vehicle systems. It can diminish the vibration efficiently.
    Keywords: transmission path analysis; global transfer matrix; direct transfer matrix.

  • Semi-active lateral control simulation of a straddle-type monorail dynamic model with single-axle bogies   Order a copy of this article
    by Junchao Zhou, Zixue Du, Jilong Yin 
    Abstract: Lateral stability of straddle-type monorail (STM) vehicles with single-axle bogies, as a new type of bogie, has been paid more and more attention. To solve it, the lateral control method of a semi-active suspension system for STM dynamic model with single-axle bogies based on magnetorheological (MR) fluid damper is proposed. The full-scale dynamics model of 34 degrees of freedom MR damper is established. An adaptive fuzzy hybrid strategy for the STM dynamic model based on vehicle body acceleration and velocity feedback is designed. The inverse mechanical model of the MR damper is established to predict the control current. The dynamic characteristics of a semi-active suspension system based on the MR damper model are studied by numerical methods. The dynamic response of the STM model with a semi-active suspension system is analysed. The simulation results show that the proposed adaptive control strategy can improve the comfort of the vehicle and improve the stability of the operation.
    Keywords: straddle-type monorail vehicle; single-axle bogies; semi-active lateral control; dynamic model; magnetorheological fluid damper.

Special Issue on: Recent Advances in Active Safety Control Systems for Commercial Vehicles

  • Investigating the active suspension performance using 2/ robust controller combined with particle swarm optimisation   Order a copy of this article
    by Hamid Taghavifar, Leyla Tagahvifar, Aref Mardani 
    Abstract: A robust controller design technique for vehicle active suspension systems is investigated, which takes into consideration the road disturbance as the uncertainty of system parameters. The design of the robust controller is considered as a dynamic optimisation problem, and two artificial intelligence approaches of genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization are adopted to find the optimum amounts of weighted mixture of H∞/H2. The cost function of the robust controller is designed based on the norms of the weighted mixture of H∞/H2 for a plant with a definite feedback gain and coefficient of norm of infinity that varies in the range between 0 and 1 representing absolute H2 and H∞, respectively. Particle swarm optimisation showed a competitive convergence to the global minimum of 127 in the shortest time and was selected as the best performing technique. The adopted system improved the system response in terms of sprung mass acceleration, suspension deflection and unsprung mass displacement. The obtained results from the simulations further confirm the superiority of the proposed system relative to the classical passive suspension, and signify the robustness of the active controller design.
    Keywords: active suspension; robust control; suspension deflection; particle swarm optimisation.

Special Issue on: Emerging Technologies for Traffic and Transportation Science

  • Optimal design of die casting process parameters of A713 cast alloy with grain refinement by using a genetic algorithm approach for automobile industries   Order a copy of this article
    by Rosang Pongen, Anil Kumar Birru, Parthiban P 
    Abstract: Aluminium die castings cover a major domain in the field of production, which mainly involves automobile and aerospace areas, owing to its high strength to weight ratio and the high industrial demand for aluminium alloys. Aluminium die castings are associated with many casting defects, which are influenced by many process parameters and influence the final mechanical properties of the die cast aluminium alloy. The density, which gives an idea about the variation of porosity of the die cast parts, is considered to play a vital role in the quality of the alloy. Since die casting is governed by many process parameters and often results in castings with poor properties, it is necessary to know the nature of the output responses before manufacturing. A genetic algorithm (GA) optimal prediction model may help in predicting the optimal output responses before the actual production in die casting. In this present research, a GA approach for optimising the theoretical and experimental density of an A713 alloy with Al-3.5 Ti-1.5C and Al-3Cobalt as grain refiners is carried out. The selected die casting process parameters are molten metal temperature, Al-3.5, Ti-1.5C, and Al-3Cobalt (wt. %), die temperature and injection pressure. Theoretical and experimental densities are considered as outputs for the GA modelling. The GA was run for two cases, one case for theoretical density optimal prediction modelling and other case for experimental density optimal prediction modelling. The model for optimally predicting the theoretical and experimental density of A713 alloy with grain refiners has been established using the GA.
    Keywords: A713 alloy; die casting; optimisation; genetic algorithm; experimental density; theoretical density.

Special Issue on: ITCVT 2020 Internet of Things-Empowered Smart Intelligent Transportation Systems for Electric Vehicles

  • Power management of bidirectional inter-allied converter community in hybrid AC/DC microgrid using localised distributed fuzzy logic controller   Order a copy of this article
    by Pabbuleti Bhavana, J. Somlal 
    Abstract: In the hybrid AC/DC microgrid, the Bidirectional Inter-Allied Converter (BIAC) plays a major role as a bridging unit and permits power interchange between the AC and DC subgrids. By the use of droop control methods, power sharing can be strongly achieved among the sources in the hybrid AC/DC microgrid. By extending the concept of power sharing to BIAC, a power management strategy is proposed for a BIAC community to avoid overstress instead of using a single BIAC. In this control strategy, each BIAC is allocated a well-devised Localized Distributed Fuzzy Logic Controller (LDFLC) to generate the appropriate power references for the BIAC. With the implementation of LDFLC, the BIAC community trade off information with one another in a distributed way. The allocation of power interactions among the subgrids depends on their rated capacity to indirectly improve its reliability and scalability in a significant manner. The power management strategy also includes the concepts of balanced power sharing, bidirectional power flow, and communication time delay, and its stability analysis is validated in the Matlab/Simulink platform. This paper suggests a power management controller structure using LDFLC and compares it with the proportional integral based localised distributed controller for improvement of efficiency in the hybrid distributed generation system.
    Keywords: hybrid AC/DC microgrid; bidirectional inter-allied converter; localised distributed fuzzy logic controller; power balance; system stability.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2022.10044351

Special Issue on: Embedded Architecture for Battery Cell Management Systems in Electric Vehicles

  • The solution of traffic flow organisation optimisation model based on adaptive genetic algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Ji Zhang, Hongxia Lv, Boer Deng, Wenxian Wang 
    Abstract: In order to reduce the workload of the stations along the way, the train flow in the loading area is rationally organised. By designing a vehicle flow organisation method that increases the turnover speed of trucks, it helps to better coordinate the flow of goods and trains. The organisation of the three trucks in the loading area and the time consumption index are analysed, and the optimisation model of the train route adjustment is constructed based on the results to reduce the time consumption of train transportation. In order to ensure the spatial feasibility of the designed model in the application process, based on the improved genetic algorithm, the complexity of the built model and related constraints are considered, and an algorithm that restricts the space search is established. This algorithm can realise adaptive adjustment. The case analysis of Huangdao loading area proves the effectiveness of this model.
    Keywords: car flow organisation in loading area; vehicle hour consumption; optimisation model; spatial search strategy; adaptive genetic algorithm.

  • Composite fault diagnosis method of EMU traction motor speed sensor considering harmonic interference   Order a copy of this article
    by Yanshu Li, Hua Li, Jiyou Fei, Chang Lu, Jie Ma 
    Abstract: In order to improve the accuracy of the fault diagnosis of the motor speed sensor and reduce the time consumed, this paper proposes a composite fault diagnosis method for the traction motor speed sensor of the EMU considering harmonic interference. This paper takes the traction system of the CRH2 EMU as the research object, calculates the multi-dimensional fuzzy harmonic closeness of the speed sensor fault signal and the normal signal, and extracts the harmonic interference characteristics. The D-S evidence theory is used to establish a collection of equipment failure types, and to judge irrelevant subsets in the collection. According to the Dempster combination rule, the confidence function corresponding to the fault diagnosis evidence of different types of equipment is merged to realise the fault diagnosis of the motor speed sensor. Experimental results show that the diagnostic accuracy of the proposed method is high, the time-consuming is stable below 150 ms, and the packet loss rate is stable at about 2%, which is significantly better than other comparable systems. The reliability of the proposed method is verified and is a research aid in related fields.
    Keywords: harmonic interference; EMU; traction system; motor speed; speed sensor; D-S evidence theory.

Special Issue on: Recent Trends and Advancements in Marine Transportation Electrification

  • Robust speed control of induction motor drive for electric traction application   Order a copy of this article
    by Usha Sengamalai, Geetha Anbazhagan, Thamizh Thentral T M, Boopathi C S 
    Abstract: The proposed system focuses on improving the speed performance of traction drive by implementing the robust fuzzy logic controller-based inverter fed parallel connected induction motors. The fuzzy controller is compared with a conventional controller. The performance of the modified induction motor drive for traction is analysed and improved under parameter variations to achieve robust speed control. The simulation and hardware results are realised for the proposed system and compared with the conventional system.
    Keywords: asynchronous motor; robust speed control; PI controller; Fuzzy controller; Parameter variations.

  • Stability modelling and control algorithm of electric vehicle power steering   Order a copy of this article
    by Jianwei Guo, Yongbo Lv, Han Zhang 
    Abstract: In the traditional PID power steering stability modelling and control algorithm, the road control process lacks auxiliary control, the real-time performance is poor, and the stability is low. In view of this situation, a stability modelling and control algorithm of the electric vehicle steering system is proposed. The simulation models of the steering system, motor system and frame system are established by using the simulation tools of MATLAB software. The test results show that the lateral acceleration control algorithm of electric vehicle is -0.4 to -0.72 g, -0.72 g to 17.5 degrees/s and 22 degrees/s respectively under the control of input angle of 3 degrees/s to 17.5 degrees/s, stability of 22 degrees/s, stability of 0.4 to -0.3 g and -0.33 to -0.72 g.
    Keywords: control algorithm; electric power steering; steering gear; auxiliary control.

  • Design of reliable video Image transmission system for an underwater vehicle   Order a copy of this article
    by Haijun Li, Hui Lv 
    Abstract: In order to improve the transmission performance of underwater vehicle motion video image, a reliable transmission system of underwater vehicle motion video image is designed. The hardware part of the system includes the design of the transmission server and the design of the transmission client; the software part of the system mainly includes two parts: compression processing and lossless transmission of the motion video image of the underwater vehicle, which completes the software design of the system and realises the design of the whole system. The test results show that the proposed transmission system has good transmission performance for the motion video image of the vehicle in shallow water.
    Keywords: shallow water; moving video image; reliable transmission; motion.

  • Modelling of coordinated development between marine agglomeration industry ecological industry chain and natural environment   Order a copy of this article
    by Liqun Zhang, Weibo Yang 
    Abstract: Although China's marine economy continues to grow, but relatively speaking, the lack of ecological industry chain, the existence of marine environmental pollution and marine economy is unsustainable. In order to avoid the disordered state that may appear in the development of the marine aggregation industry, and ensure the coordinated development of the marine ecological industry and environmental protection, it is particularly important to find a scheme conducive to the sustainable development of the marine economy. The research shows that the construction of marine agglomeration industry ecological chain in the selected provinces is not perfect, and the pressure on marine resources and environment is also increasing year by year. At the same time, it is concluded that the marine 'sustainability' of the selected provinces has an increasing trend year by year, which undoubtedly indicates that the sustainable development capacity of the province is improving year by year.
    Keywords: marine agglomeration industry; ecological industry chain; sustainable development; model analysis method.

  • Modular tri-port converter with switched reluctance motor based hybrid electric vehicles for fault tolerance   Order a copy of this article
    by Ramya Devasahayam, D. Godwin Immanuel 
    Abstract: Hybrid electrical vehicle (HEV) is safe from CO2 emissions. And a Switched reluctance motors (SRMs) are easily compatible with HEV. Generator, battery bank, and SRM form the energy components in series type HEV. A tri-port converter[1,2] combines the components. Modes of operation are generator to SRM, battery bank to SRM, generator and battery bank to SRM. Flow of energy from generator to battery bank and vice versa can be possible without using an additional converter[1,2]. In the proposed system, a single phase induction motor is replaced by an SRM to reduce switching losses of the converter circuit and to control each phase independently. An SRM is preferred for its high reliability, high power, high efficiency and economy. Fault tolerance in a hybrid electric vehicle is possible using the tri-port converter.
    Keywords: hybrid electric vehicle; switched reluctance motor; tri-port converter.