Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems

International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems (IJHVS)

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International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems (50 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Development of an integrated active yaw controller on soft terrain   Order a copy of this article
    by Hossam Ragheb 
    Abstract: Off-road vehicle maneuverability on soft terrain is strongly affected by the tyre-soil interaction characteristics. Remarkable enhancements in active vehicle safety systems depend on different control systems aiming to enhance off-road vehicle mobility. In this paper, an integrated active yaw control system, Anti-Lock Braking System (ABS) and Traction Control System (TCS), for an (8x8) multi-wheeled combat vehicle operating on soft terrain is developed. A TruckSim-MATLAB/Simulink vehicle model was developed to verify the developed integrated control system on soft soil. The presented integrated control system revealed an enhancement in vehicle directional stability and traction performance. Besides, it should be mentioned that the soil type has a great effect on controller efficiency as it is limiting the applied torque by the developed controller.
    Keywords: off-road; mobility; active yaw control; anti-lock braking system; traction control system; TruckSim; MATLAB/Simulink; multi-wheeled vehicles; soft soil.

  • Study on super-wheelbase preview controller/algorithm for internet of vehicles suspension system used in a heavy vehicle fleet   Order a copy of this article
    by Ce Yuan, Jiang Liu, Xilong Zhang, Bilong Liu, Yushun Wang 
    Abstract: Most truck fleet transportations show typical repetitive features in vehicle models, routes and cargos. So the Internet of Vehicles (IoV) theory could be easily introduced into the active control for truck suspensions. We establish a communication network structure in which paired vehicles are basic elements, and the geographic information system is treated as a detection auxiliary. The new design reduces the overall communication demand for suspension control data. Based on this simplified IoV system, a new super-wheelbase preview control method is proposed. The optimal vehicle distance between paired trucks is calculated by the particle swarm optimisation. The traditional wheelbase preview algorithm is improved by using two equivalent parameters. The rear truck shows better comprehensive suspension performances than the front one. Finally, we perform a simple objective optimisation in the truck pairs sequence. The convergence results show that, with the help of the IoV suspension system, the sixth and after trucks can get the minimised body acceleration in the fleet's first loop.
    Keywords: suspension; IoV; super-wheelbase preview; particle swarm optimisation.

  • Dynamic stability analysis of a high speed diesel engine turbocharger subjected to aerodynamic loads and engine-induced vibration   Order a copy of this article
    by Ali Alsaeed, Salem Bashmal 
    Abstract: The dynamic behaviour of a high-speed turbocharger supported on floating-ring bearings is investigated under the effect of engine-induced vibrations and aerodynamic loads. A finite-element model is developed for the turbocharger to predict the nonlinear transient response while engine excitations are simulated as time-varying force functions on the rotor bearings. Damping and stiffness parameters of the floating-ring bearings are estimated by solving the 2-D Reynolds equation. The engine-induced excitations are combined with compressor radial aerodynamic forces to obtain the total response numerically. Modified non-circular volute theory is used to calculate radial thrust loads due to aerodynamic effects. The numerical predictions agree with the experimental observations of a fully-loaded turbocharger that show no significant second harmonic frequency amplitudes of the engine frequency. However, the engine frequencies are at comparable amplitudes with the Sub High and 1X amplitudes at higher speeds, where the radial aerodynamic loads are not significant (no-load). The results of the present work indicate that, in the subsynchronous region, some amplitudes at the engine-excitation frequency are also observed at the second harmonic for high speeds. Moreover, the dynamic stability of the turbocharger is significantly influenced by the variation in the magnitude of the engine-induced vibration. The numerical predictions are consistent with the previous experimental tests for a typical turbocharger.
    Keywords: turbocharger; stability; transient response; aerodynamic forces; vibrations.

  • Phase-based evaluation of whole-body vibration exposure for hydraulic excavator operators   Order a copy of this article
    by Tugba Dogan, Bülent Erdem, Zekeriya Duran 
    Abstract: the whole-body vibration exposure of hydraulic excavator operators was studied with the guidelines set by several approaches. The most jolty and quiet phases were FORWARD and WAIT, respectively. Vibration magnitudes were inversely proportional to bucket capacity. Excavator service year and vibration exposure were positively correlated. Younger operators were exposed to higher levels of vibration. Vibration acceleration was negatively correlated to operator experience. Handling of large-sized rocks resulted in more vibration than soil-like material. The most conservative method in estimating the hazard potential was the ISO 2631-1 vector sum, while the probability of an adverse health effect was generally low according to the ISO 2631-5.
    Keywords: A(8); BS 6841; exposure action value; exposure limit value; EU 2002/EC/44; eVDV; hypothesis testing; ISO 2631-1; ISO 2631-5; VDV(8).

  • Energy management strategy design and fuel consumption analysis for a parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle   Order a copy of this article
    by Shilei Zhou, Paul Walker, Weiwei Yang, Cong Thanh Nguyen, Nong Zhang 
    Abstract: In this paper, the energy-saving benefits of a parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle (PHHV) are investigated. The vehicle powertrain components such as engine, hydraulic pump/motor (HPM) and accumulator are modelled to demonstrate the PHHV powertrain working principle. The optimal fuel economy of the PHHV is obtained by dynamic programming (DP) optimisation. Based on the DP optimisation results, a practical rule-based energy management strategy (EMS) is designed with which the PHHV fuel economy in real application is investigated, including gear shift schedule and regenerative braking control strategy. Through simulation under a selected urban driving condition, PHHV achieves fuel consumption reduction by 27.5% compared with the conventional engine driven vehicle, which proves that the PHHV achieves significant energy saving benefits. PHHV consumes only 1.5% more fuel with the rule-based EMS than with the DP optimisation, indicating the effectiveness and practicality of the rule-based EMS in urban driving conditions.
    Keywords: hydraulic hybrid vehicle; energy management strategy; regenerative braking; fuel economy analysis; dynamic programming.

  • Hardware-in-the-loop simulation of active roll control for a single-trailer truck using a steerable wheel at the middle axle   Order a copy of this article
    by Muhammad Nadwi Hakimi Adnan, Zulkiffli Abd Kadir, Khisbullah Hudha, Noor Hafizah Amer, Mohd Sabirin Rahmat, Mohamad Hafiz Harun, Vimal Rau Aparow 
    Abstract: Normally, a single-trailer truck will lose its manoeuvrability when driving at a high speed during cornering or sudden lane-changing manoeuvres. In order to improve the manoeuvrability and to avoid rollover accidents, this study proposes an active roll control using a steerable-wheel system at the middle axle for a single-trailer truck. The system is developed to reject the unwanted yaw, lateral and roll motions based on trailer responses. The control structure of the active roll control system is developed on a verified 18-DOF model of a single-trailer truck. A PID controller as the trailers roll angle feedback control is applied in the control structure and additional roll moment cancellation control using a skyhook controller. From the experimental results using hardware-in-the-loop simulation, a good similarity between simulation and experiment is observed for yaw rate, roll angle and lateral acceleration responses. It also shows that the developed steerable-wheel system has reduced the unwanted lateral, yaw and roll motions.
    Keywords: middle axle steerable wheel; truck-trailer; active roll control; HiLS; PID-Skyhook.

  • Deep learning based neuro-PI for yaw disturbance rejection control: hardware-in-the-loop simulation using scaled armoured vehicle platform   Order a copy of this article
    by Vimal Rau Aparow, Khisbullah Hudha, Hishamuddin Jamaluddin, Zulkiffli Abd. Kadir 
    Abstract: This study is focused on improving the behaviour of the armoured vehicle in terms of handling responses during firing by enhancing the performance of yaw disturbance rejection control. A yaw disturbance rejection control is designed to overcome external disturbance using a deep learning based neuro-PI controller to optimise the variables of the neural network. Moreover, cost-effective approaches are required to evaluate the capability of the controller to enhance the lateral dynamic response of the armoured vehicle. Thus, hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation testing has been adopted in this study to analyse the response of the yaw disturbance rejection control. The HIL simulation testing was performed using Cronos Compact data acquisition box developed by Integrated Measurement and Control (IMC) and integrated with Matlab Simulink. The percentage of error between HIL and software-in-the-loop simulation testing using deep learning based neuro PI of yaw disturbance rejection control is less than 7% for overall simulation testing.
    Keywords: yaw disturbance rejection control; hardware-in-the-loop simulation; integrated measurement and control; deep learning based neuro-PI controller; armoured vehicle.

  • Stress analysis of an air tube bracket on a heavy duty commercial vehicles chassis   Order a copy of this article
    by Pasa Yayla, Burak Ates, Ozan Berke Yabar 
    Abstract: This study is performed on the air tube bracket system of a heavy-duty commercial truck oscillating at its natural frequency under dynamic load exposed from all along its route. The dynamic analysis of the bracket with the entire commercial vehicle is made based on the data from rough road conditions. In all studies, the finite element models are created with the Medina software, and the solving process is performed with the Permas software. The results provide not only the optimum geometry of the air tube bracket system of the heavy-duty truck but also its ideal dimensions. The analysis also revealed that, in addition to the geometry, the straps wideness and their locations are of paramount importance in their overall performance.
    Keywords: finite element analysis; air tube bracket; heavy duty commercial vehicle; stress analysis; simulation.

  • Study and failure analysis of non-drive automotive rear axle of a heavy commercial vehicle   Order a copy of this article
    by Aakarsh Ranjan, RAJASEKHARA REDDY Mutra, Yash Kirty, J. Srinivas, Muhamad Norhisham, D. Mallikarjuna Reddy 
    Abstract: The non-drive automotive rear axle beam of a heavy commercial vehicle, 35T Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW), 8X2 Truck, is undergoing bending failure on the field (failed axle beam). The failure is primarily due to the overloading of the vehicle by the customer. This paper analyses the failed rear axle shaft of the vehicle, and highlights the regions of failure in the axle cross-section and its impact on performance and life. A three-dimensional (3D) Computer-Aided Design (CAD) engineering model of the failed axle beam is modelled in Solid Works software. The 3D model is imported into finite element analysis (FEA) software, Altair Hyper Works, to create a finite element model, carry out linear static, modal and fatigue analysis and study the stress/strain induced in the failed axle beam. Based on the results obtained from the three analyses, the axle beam will undergo cross-sectional and material changes to eliminate the failure and improve product quality and life
    Keywords: non-drive automotive rear axle; bending failure; finite element model; fatigue analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2021.10054695
  • Ride comfort assessment and improvement in high-speed railway vehicle   Order a copy of this article
    by Vivek Kumar, Vikas Rastogi, Pushparaj Mani Pathak 
    Abstract: Railway transport has achieved significant improvement in terms of speed and safety in the last few decades. Compared with other means of transportation, trains are found to be environmentally friendly, faster, safer, and cheaper. In all the merits, speed is one of the most critical aspects of train operations. Therefore, the research for increasing the operational speed of trains has never been ended. However, higher speed could negatively affect the performance of a train. The suspension of the vehicle should be modified to compensate for the reduced performance. However, enhancement potentials through passive systems are limited. Consequently, active technology comes as an alternative for improving the vehicle's dynamic performance. The active technology to enhance comfort/stability has been implemented in railway coaches during the past few decades. But, the operational and initial cost of active technology is still very high. Thus, it has yet not attained a decisive, convincing breakthrough in real operations except for a few service implementations. Therefore, the present work is planned to enhance the ride comfort of the high-speed train by using semi-active lateral secondary suspension control. Three different control strategies have been incorporated in secondary lateral suspension for improvement of ride comfort, and it has been found that the use of a semi-active system improves the vibration isolation levels to a significant degree.
    Keywords: railway vehicle; ride comfort; vibration; bond graph; Sperling index.

  • An integrated approach for scheduling electric vehicles and distributed generators in a smart distribution system   Order a copy of this article
    by Velamuri Suresh, Suresh Kumar Sudabattula, N. Prabaharan, R. Sitharthan, M. Rajesh 
    Abstract: An increase in the use of electric vehicles (EVs) and their irregular patterns of usage create a greater impact on the performance electric distribution systems. In this article, an effective method of scheduling EVs, optimal location, and sizing of distributed generators is implemented. A novel smart charging method is proposed and implemented for scheduling the EVs, in both Grid to Vehicle (G2V) and Vehicle to Grid (V2G) modes in this work. Also, a combined approach of Voltage Stability Index (VSI) and the Grasshopper Optimisation Algorithm (GOA) method is implemented on the IEEE 33 bus system in the presence of EVs. The results are carried for three different cases with and without considering EVs in both V2G and G2V modes. The proposed smart charging method provides a better solution in managing the system peak demand, thereby reducing the power loss of the overall network and improving the voltage profile.
    Keywords: electric vehicle; smart charging; grasshopper optimisation; power loss; distributed generation.

  • Strength analysis of energy absorbing protective structure for excavator   Order a copy of this article
    by Yong-Jae Park, Kwang-Hee Lee, Chul-Hee Lee 
    Abstract: The excavator needs a device that can protect the operator from the overturning of the excavator on the slope. The rollover protective structure is a system of structural members that protects a seat belt operator when the excavator is rolled over. A load test is performed for rollover protective structure (ROPS) system certification according to ISO 12117-2 requirements. Unlike the machines covered by ISO 3471, hydraulic excavators feature attachments that affect the required performance capability of the ROPS. Numerical analysis is carried out using the nonlinear finite element solver ABAQUS to evaluate the safety according to the ISO standard. Finite element analysis can reduce time and cost by minimising the number of tests. Structural strength analysis of a hydraulic excavator rollover protective structure has convergence problems owing to nonlinear contact, buckling, and large deformation, and is solved through quasi-static analysis and penalty method. Lateral load, longitudinal load, and vertical load measurements are performed, confirming the good correlation between FEA results and bench test results. The validity of the FEA methodology for the hydraulic excavator rollover protective structure is verified. This paper provides the methodology for performing strength tests on protective structures using numerical analysis methods.
    Keywords: hydraulic excavator; rollover protection; energy absorption; finite element technique.

  • Transfer path analysis of a railway vehicle based on global transfer direct transfer   Order a copy of this article
    by Li Yingli, Wang Yong, Juliana Wada 
    Abstract: To overcome the shortcomings of the classical transfer path analysis (TPA) and operation transfer path analysis (OTPA), the Global Transfer Direct Transfer (GTDT) method is adopted. This method does not require force determination, and direct transfer functions can be used to identify problematic subsystems, which are calculated and used to determine the cause of the total displacements on the car body. When studying the contribution of each component of the bogie to the car body displacements, the effect of different mechanical property parameters is analysed to find the problematic subsystem that causes the highest displacement for improvement. It is creative that mathematical mechanical modelling of a railway vehicle with 6 and 11 degrees of freedom is developed for GTDT analysis. Experimental results show that the GTDT method is a promising method for studying the vibration transmission path of complex practical rail vehicle systems. It can diminish the vibration efficiently.
    Keywords: transmission path analysis; global transfer matrix; direct transfer matrix.

  • 3D simulation to evaluate MTU4000 heavy-duty diesel engine power enhancement considering performance limitations and combustion improvement by reducing lean regions   Order a copy of this article
    by Saleh Talesh Amiri, Rouzbeh Shafaghat, Mostafa Mohebbi 
    Abstract: The possibility of MTU4000 R43L diesel engine power enhancement has been numerically investigated by raising the fuel mass. In addition, some characteristics such as compression ratio (CR), start of injection (SOI), and piston bowl geometry have also been considered. In the results, the effect of fuel mass is first evaluated. Increasing the fuel mass by 7, 10, and 13%, increased, decreased, and then increased the indicated specific fuel consumption (ISFC), respectively. By increasing the fuel mass up to 10%, the maximum in-cylinder temperature increased, which could be controlled by reducing the CR. Decreasing the CR from 18 to 16 increased the ISFC by up to 3%. Also, the reduction of CR from 17 to 16.5 reduced the maximum slope of pressure change by 35%. The indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) increased by 1.05 bar. By changing the SOI from 6 to 9 degrees bTDC and then decreasing in 10 bTDC. Finally, three different piston bowl geometries have been evaluated.
    Keywords: heavy-duty diesel engine; power density; compression ratio; start of injection; piston bowl geometry.

  • Characteristic analysis with new liquid solid coupling dynamics model of high-clearance sprayer during liquid variation   Order a copy of this article
    by Mingming Xing 
    Abstract: The High Clearance Sprayer (HCS) plays an important role in agricultural production. Considering HCSs greater use and work environment, the characteristic analysis of HCS is studied. Therefore, a new whole simulation model of liquid solid coupling dynamics of HCS is built. In detail, the mathematical models of kinetic energy, potential energy and dissipated potential energy are built in the new whole vehicle mechanical model. Next, the differential equations of HCS nodes are set up. Then the node response curves of the HCS total system are simulated. Finally, the stability of liquid variation on HCS nodes is analysed. With simulation results, the liquid fluctuation of liquid storage device is influenced by primary motion of HCS. The influence of flow rate on the stability of HCS nodes is significantly different. The stability of HCS is the problem to be settled urgently when the velocity and flow rate are changed simultaneously.
    Keywords: high clearance sprayer; HCS nodes; liquid solid coupling; displacement amplitude; liquid variation.

  • Anti-rollover control of heavy-duty dump truck with distributed model predictive control.   Order a copy of this article
    by Zhongcheng Fu, Aihong Gong, Ziwen Liao, Mingmao Hu, Haoda Yu 
    Abstract: Heavy-duty dump trucks easily roll over under extreme steering conditions. To solve this problem, this paper proposes an anti-rollover controller to improve the driving stability of heavy-duty dump trucks. A nine-degree-freedom dynamic model of heavy-duty dump trucks was established. Considering the output constraint characteristics of the active suspension actuator, an active suspension control method based on Distributed Model Predictive Control (DMPC) was given. In this method, the high-dimensional vehicle system into multiple low-dimensional suspension control subsystems was split, and a separate model predictive controller for each subsystem was designed. With the improved lateral load-transfer rate as the rollover evaluation index, additional active suspension force was provided for the vehicle through active suspension control to improve driving stability. With the co-simulation of MATLAB/Simulink and Trucksim, the simulation verification was carried out under fishhook and J-turn conditions. The results show that the designed anti-rollover control method based on DMPC can effectively inhibit the vehicle rollover.
    Keywords: heavy-duty dump truck; anti-rollover; distributed model predictive control; active suspension control.

  • Dynamics stability oriented configuration optimisation of a tractor semi-trailer tank vehicle based on a coupling lateral vehicle dynamics model   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiangji Wu, Xiujian Yang, Shengbin Zhang, Tao Wu, Chuqi Feng 
    Abstract: This paper aims at the configuration optimisation of the tractor semi-trailer tank vehicle to improve the lateral dynamics stability of the whole vehicle. In the investigation, the optimisation is performed based on a complete coupling lateral dynamics model of the tractor semi-trailer tank vehicle established in our previous work. First, a group of candidate parameters for optimisation is determined depending on the evaluation of the effect of vehicle configuration parameters on vehicle dynamics. Then comprehensive measures relating configuration parameters to vehicle dynamics stability are obtained based on the multivariable nonlinear regression method. The optimisation is solved by the elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-?) method and evaluated based on the complete coupling lateral vehicle dynamics model. This study provides a powerful means for the optimising design of the tractor semi-trailer tank vehicle.
    Keywords: vehicle dynamics; tank vehicle; tractor semi-trailer vehicle; optimising design.

  • Gyroscopic suspension for a heavy vehicle   Order a copy of this article
    by Faruk Ünker 
    Abstract: In this study, an angular momentum generated by a flywheel gyroscope is used as a suspension to prevent vehicle vibration. The frequency equations are derived and the optimal flywheel speed is obtained for vibration attenuation of the sprung mass. It is observed that the control moment gyroscope (CMG) keeps the sprung mass in the upright position with a small vibration amplitude of a steady motion. The flywheel speed is in relation to the amplitude of gimbal motion and the frequency of the axles excitation. Besides, a simulation model of CAE software (RecurDyn) is built to validate the equations of motion.
    Keywords: absorber; control moment gyroscope; dynamic absorbers; damping; gyroscope; gyrostabilizer; inverted pendulum.

  • Experimental assessment of a PID control solution for braking safety of transportation by agricultural tractor trailer combinations   Order a copy of this article
    by Eyub Canli, Kazim Carman, Serhat Soylu, Ergun Citil 
    Abstract: Vast numbers of agricultural tractor trailer combinations are used for transportation, many of which rely on over-run braking on trailers. On-road transportation by these combinations is being increased by increasing speed and mass capacities owing to market pressure. A significant braking safety issue during on-road transportation is dealt in this work. PID control is proposed as a transitional solution towards domination of new tech equipment. Conventional and proposed PID brake controls were compared experimentally by a loaded real world scale agricultural tractor trailer combination. A double axle (front and rear) trailer with 8 tons load was used for dry asphalt road conditions and 0.35 seconds lag time detected between manual and PID controlled braking. Loss of driving stability was reduced by 50% and deceleration increased by 21% with PID. Jack-knifing phenomenon is also evaluated. The proposed solution covers an important safety issue and improves braking performance.
    Keywords: deceleration; emergency braking; jack-knifing; over-run brake; transportation.

  • Modelling and verification of a 12-DOF tractor-semitrailer longitudinal model for load transfer analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Muhammad Zaidan Abdul Manaf, Khisbullah Hudha, Pakharuddin Mohd Samin, Saiful Anuar Abu Bakar 
    Abstract: The analysis of the longitudinal load transfer in a tractor-semitrailer could provide vital information on the magnitude of the loads that have been transferred between the tractor unit and the semitrailer unit. The purpose of this study is to develop a tractor-semitrailer longitudinal model for load transfer analysis. The longitudinal vehicle model is developed based on a two-axle tractor and a single-axle semitrailer connected through a fifth-wheel hitch system. The 12 degrees of freedom tractor-semitrailer model is simulated in the MATLAB Simulink software. The model is verified using qualitative and quantitative comparison methods between the simulation data and the TruckSim data. The verification is performed through the sudden acceleration test and the harsh braking test. The result of the study shows that the dynamic behaviour of the developed tractor-semitrailer model is in good agreement with the TruckSim dynamic behaviour with an acceptable RMS error of less than 5%. The analysis of the longitudinal load transfer found that the load transfer during the harsh braking test had higher magnitudes and a longer duration of existence compared with the sudden acceleration test.
    Keywords: tractor-semitrailer; longitudinal model; load transfer analysis; sudden acceleration test; harsh braking test; hitch joint modelling; vertical hitch force; longitudinal hitch force.

  • Investigation on oil centrifugal force balance of main and auxiliary cylinders in wet clutch of heavy-duty vehicle   Order a copy of this article
    by Ran Gong, Yuhang Liu, Huajun Che 
    Abstract: The high-speed rotation of the wet clutch in heavy-duty vehicles causes the oil in the cylinder to generate a large centrifugal force. In response to the above problem, a balanced structure of the cylinders in the wet clutch is proposed to offset the dynamic pressure generated by the centrifugal force. The correctness of the dynamic pressure model of the clutch cylinder is verified by a test of the oil pressure in the clutch cylinder. The effects of cylinder rotational speed, oil temperature and oil filling pressure on the total pressure and dynamic pressure in the main cylinder and auxiliary cylinder are discussed. Taking the impact degree as an evaluation index, the shift quality of the clutch with different cylinder sizes is studied. The size of the auxiliary cylinder with the best balanced effect on the dynamic pressure in the main cylinder is proposed in this paper.
    Keywords: wet clutch; balanced structure; dynamic pressure; moving mesh; shift quality; CFD.

  • Assessment of the dynamic stability of mine-rollers-equipped heavy vehicle   Order a copy of this article
    by Mostafa I. Yacoub, Mootaz E. Abo-Elnor, Ahmed M. Ali, Ibrahim A. Elsherif, Mohamed A. El-Latif, Alhossein Mostafa Sharaf 
    Abstract: One of the strategies to protect vehicle platoons against Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) is to use a mine-roller mounted at the front of the vehicle with a telescopic lever and fork ending with two sets of freely rotating solid tyres. However, rough vehicle handling or cornering in unstable conditions may be encountered particularly at high speeds. This paper presents a detailed investigation to ensure sufficient handling and stability of mine-rollers-equipped vehicle. In the design phase, both the kinematic and dynamic analyses are illustrated. The mathematical analysis of the dynamic stability problem is validated by in-field measurements of a real mine-rollers-equipped heavy vehicle. Results show that vehicle stability could be achieved using the pre-manufacturing mathematical analysis illustrated in this article. Furthermore, the analysis is extended to address the effect of some mine-rollers design parameters, such as increasing setup length and weight, which would certainly enhance the protection of the mobile platoon.
    Keywords: mine-rollers; heavy vehicle stability; handling performance; convoying security.

  • Parameter matching of composite power supply for mining vehicle oriented by maximizing braking energy recovery   Order a copy of this article
    by Yilin Wang, Weiwei Yang, Yaodong Yang, Wenmin Zhang 
    Abstract: Owing to the rugged driving conditions, the current of the mining dump truck changes violently during operation, and there is an instantaneous high current charge/discharge, which affects the feedback efficiency and battery life. Therefore, aiming at the demand of braking energy recovery of NTE150 hybrid electric mine vehicle, this paper studies the parameter matching problem of a type of mining truck with the power battery and supercapacitor as composite power supply. The composite power supply parameters are optimised using a multi-objective genetic algorithm with the load capacity and the power battery loss as evaluation indexes. Furthermore, based on the typical fixed, known working conditions, the simulation results under the Pareto solution set and rule-based calculation configuration scheme are compared and analysed. Compared with the rule-based configuration scheme, the optimised configuration scheme decreases the power battery loss by 5.28% and the total weight of the energy storage device by 30.92%.
    Keywords: mining truck; braking energy recovery; parameter matching; composite power; multi-objective optimisation.

  • Impact of super single truck tyres on tyre-terrain interaction characteristics   Order a copy of this article
    by Alfonse Ly, Zeinab El-Sayegh 
    Abstract: This paper focuses on the impact of tyre configuration on the tyre-terrain interaction characteristics. Two truck tyre models are developed using the Finite Element Method (FEM) and validated in static and dynamic response in a computational environment. The first model is the Regional Haul Drive with dimensions 315/80R22.5, which is used in the dual configuration for tractor semi-trailer applications. The second model is the super single X One XDA size 445/50R22.5, which is used in a super single configuration. The terrain models are developed using a smoothed-particle hydrodynamics technique and are validated using published data. Both tyres are tested under various operating conditions, including on-road and off-road operations, loading, and tyre speed. This study investigates the tyre-terrain characteristics of both tyres and the effect of the variation of moisture in the sandy loam soil.
    Keywords: finite element method; dual tyres; super single; smoothed-particle hydrodynamics; tyre-terrain interaction.

  • Three-point based truck mounted platform levelling mechanism   Order a copy of this article
    by Mootaz Aboelnor 
    Abstract: The design methodology of a moving platform levelling mechanism is introduced based on operational limitation of ground level within tilt and pitch angles referenced to horizontal plane. A three-point support platform levelling mechanism is designed. The proposed mechanism operates such that levelling is achieved by a sequential angular displacement of tilt link and pitch link. An analytical kinematics model based on loop-closure constraint equations is proposed, describing platform tilt-pitch due to ground topology status and corresponding tilt link and pitch link angular displacement to restore the top platform level. A 3D CAD model of the proposed levelling mechanism is constructed, and a numerical simulation of tilt and pitch links angular displacement to restore top platform level for different moving base orientations due to ground topology status is carried out to validate the proposed mechanism kinematics and analysis of mechanism behaviour while restoring top platform levelling.
    Keywords: platform levelling; loop-closure kinematics; tilt-pitch mechanism; roll-pitch mechanism.

  • Effect of truck tyre tread design on tyre-terrain interaction using advanced computational techniques   Order a copy of this article
    by Alfonse Ly, Zeinab El-Sayegh 
    Abstract: This paper investigates the effect of various tread design parameters on tyre-terrain interaction characteristics. The off-road terrain chosen for this study is varied moisture content sand. The sand terrain was modelled and designed using the Smoothed-Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) technique and was calibrated using measured terrain data. The truck tyre used has a size 315/80R22.5 that was designed and validated through Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The tread of the 3-grooves base model tyre is modified with 4-grooves, 5-grooves, half depth, and quarter depth to study the impact of the number of grooves and tread depth on the tyre-terrain interaction characteristics. To study this impact, variations of tyre loading and tyre speed were subjected to the simulation over different terrains. The tyre-terrain interaction characteristics included the rolling friction, tyre vertical displacement, and longitudinal slip.
    Keywords: tyre mechanics; soil dynamics; computational analysis; off-road vehicle operations.

  • A dynamic modelling of forklift hydraulic actuator internal leakage using bond graph method   Order a copy of this article
    by Rizki Susetyo Nugroho, Irfan Bahiuddin, Hafizh Arsa Prabakara, Ryandhi Rofifu Chazim, Zulkarnain Ali Leman, Mohd Hatta Mohammed Ariff 
    Abstract: This paper presents a first application of a bond graph approach to model hydraulic internal leakage in the elevating movement of a forklift. A mathematical model was built by considering the operation of the forklift during normal and faulty conditions. The modelled system consists of mechanical and hydraulic parts of the mechanism. The internal leakage is proposed to be added in the hydraulic system. Several parameters are tuned using constriction particle swarm optimisation (PSO) inspired by bird groups searching for food. The analysis was carried out by considering parameters of the leakage flow system in the forklift lifting hydraulic cylinder. The simulation results show that the greater the leakage flow parameter the smaller the efficiency, which is quite similar to the benchmark data from the previous study. A negative correlation between a constant representing leakage and the steady state velocities with value of -0.55 is found based on the simulation results.
    Keywords: bond graph; forklift; cylinder leakage; dynamic simulation; elevating mechanism?.

  • The effect of geometric location of semitrailer centre of gravity on stability   Order a copy of this article
    by Shahab Asadi, Ahmad Keshavarzi 
    Abstract: This study investigated a semitrailer's roll and stability. To this end, an O2 single-axle semitrailer, was used. The semitrailer's weight change, longitudinal shift of the centre of gravity (CG), and CG height change have a fundamental role in the stability of the vehicle and semitrailer on the road. This paper used analytical, experimental, and numerical analysis techniques to address this issue. To investigate the stability parameters, the DLC test (which is in compliance with ISO-3888) was used to compare the results obtained from the numerical and experimental models. The results indicated a 10% difference between the experimental and numerical methods and the longitudinal shift of CG had a greater effect than the CG height change on the vehicle's stability.
    Keywords: semitrailer; centre of gravity; numerical analysis; experimental analysis; roll.

  • Haar cascade-based deep learning model to predict in/out bound passenger flow and distance estimation for intelligent transport systems   Order a copy of this article
    by Vishnu Kumar Kaliappan, K.S. Gautam, M. Akila, K. Mohanasundaram 
    Abstract: Managing crowd density in the transportation industry is still a research issue. One of the components of a smart city's Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) is the improvement of traffic efficiency. The ITS improves traffic congestion control by collecting real-time data. A dependable system capable of counting the number of passengers on a carrier is required for effective traffic congestion control. In this work, we presented a unique approach named the Intelligent Centroid Tracker and Counter (ICTC) that could recognise, count, and compute the distances between people in a limited location. The proposed algorithm is vision-based, aiming to maximise congestion control inside passenger transportation systems. It supports many application cases, including intelligent transportation, buildings, and other demographics requiring social segregation. The ICTC algorithm generates metadata that provides the relevant operational or administrative head with a clear image of the current passenger count status and delivers visual indication with a bounding box. The algorithm collects data on population density in a public transit medium from commuters in each region, then delivers adequate transportation facilities to the general public. The study collects information on crowd density and offers commuters suggestions on available seats in the vehicle, which ultimately saves time, prevents boarding crowded vehicles, assures social distance, and standardizes public transportation systems, all of which have practical implications. According to experimental investigation, the proposed approach operates on VISOR, Kaggle, CALTECH, Penn-Fudan, Daimler Mono, and INRIA with accuracy values of 0.81, 0.83, 0.85, 0.88, 0.82, and 0.89, respectively.
    Keywords: deep learning; intelligent transportation system; Haar classifiers; passenger forecast; computer vision.

  • Design of unmanned ground vehicle path tracking controller based on reinforcement learning   Order a copy of this article
    by Islam Hassan, Tamer Attia, Hossam Ragheb, Alhossein Sharaf 
    Abstract: This paper presents a UGV path tracking controller based on Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL), where a Double Deep Q-Network (DDQN)algorithm is employed to train a Deep Neural Network (DNN) for controlling the UGV to follow the desired path. The advantage of DDQN over Deep Q-Network (DQN) is that the DDQN uses two Neural Networks (NNs), where one is working as a controller to generate actions for controlling the UGV, while the other is the target network to estimate the future rewards. The path tracking UGV kinematic is presented to determine the deviated distance and orientation between the UGVs pose and the desired path. White noise was added to the UGV wheels speed for evaluating the robustness of the proposed controller. The simulation results illustrate that the trained controller enables the UGV to follow the desired trajectory in the presence of noisy actuation with high accuracy.
    Keywords: UGV path tracking; deep reinforcement learning; double deep Q-network; deep neural network.

  • An investigation on the effectiveness of mandatory periodic truck safety inspection policy in China: a case study in Guangdong Province   Order a copy of this article
    by Wenxue Cai, Xiaoqi Hong, Shuyu Lin, Yimiao Gu, Hui Shan Loh 
    Abstract: The current warranty of fitness scheme in China is considered effective in reducing truck accident rates, but the expense of doing so seems too high. This study attempts to find appropriate inspection intervals for different truck types to reduce costs and maximise the effectiveness and efficiency of truck safety inspection scheme. Few studies have investigated policy of periodic vehicle inspections from the angle of truck performance, which has a direct impact on the transportation system. This study empirically evaluates the periodic truck safety inspection policy by investigating the cyclic variation of truck performance based on the inspection data classified by truck types in Guangdong Province of China from 2010 to 2017. First, the annual performance of different truck types is analysed and the cyclic variation of truck performance is evaluated over eight consecutive years. Second, the costs of the periodic inspection scheme and the advantages of prolonging the inspection intervals of small trucks and medium trucks are discussed. Quantitative data is also used to reveal the potential associations between the decay rate of truck performance and overweight. It has been found that it is appropriate to extend the inspection intervals from one year to four years for the first five years of light trucks and medium trucks. This study provides useful references for policy makers and relevant government departments to carry out effective and scientific truck safety inspection schemes in China and other countries.
    Keywords: truck inspection; inspection policy; truck performance; safety performance.

  • An innovative spatial mathematical modeling and vibration analysis of six wheeled truck without spades under an impulsive force   Order a copy of this article
    by Ibrahim Soleiman, Seyed Masoud Hashemi, Asghar Mahdian, Mostafa Nazemizadeh 
    Abstract: In recent years, the wheeled vehicles without spades are employed in modern military applications due to their enhanced mobility and manoeuvrability. In this work, the dynamic modelling and vibration analysis of six wheeled truck without spades and equipped with recoil mechanism under an impulsive force is studied. A novel spatial vehicle model is developed to describe vibration of the heavy wheeled truck. The governing equations of the system are derived and the obtained vibrational equations are solved and simulated. The simulation results show that the dynamic specifications of the recoil mechanism have prominent effects on the vibration behaviour. Moreover, choosing appropriate values of the system parameters prevents excessive vehicle vibration or lift-off. Finally, it should be emphasized that the novel spatial dynamic model of the wheeled truck with the recoil mechanism can be an innovative benchmark for the future studied
    Keywords: wheeled truck; without spades; dynamic modelling; recoil mechanism; firing force; vibration analysis.

  • Detailed review on multiple sources off-grid charging station of electric vehicles centred on converters   Order a copy of this article
    by Pankaj Badgaiyan, Sunil Kumar Gupta, Mukesh Pandey 
    Abstract: Electric vehicle (EV) off-grid (standalone mode) and hybrid (compatible with both stand-alone systems and grid-connected systems) charging stations have seen a rise in research attention in recent years. In order to expand EV adoption globally, the key motivation is to offer smooth charging stations in urban and rural locations. This article examines the cutting-edge off-board designs for charging stations based on various resources, such as wind, solar, fuel cell etc. Electric Vehicle Charging Stations (EV-CS) comprise AC-DC controller and DC-DC controllers, and we have classified them into two groups depending on standard and artificial intelligence (AI) technology-based devices. Additionally, every subsystem is thoroughly investigated to learn about its present condition. Eventually, conclusions illustrate the challenges confronting each type of controller in the EV charging station and demonstrate the researchers continuing attempts to improve the processes in a variety of areas. The paper provides in-depth study of the various controllers, their architecture, and controllers that can be used for enhancement in the EV-CS
    Keywords: electric vehicles; charging station; controllers; converters; DC-DC; DC-AC; off-grid; renewable energy sources; multiple sources; solar based; wind based EV; fuel cell EV.

  • Robust and optimal design of a railway vehicle system for derailment risk using efficient global optimisation method   Order a copy of this article
    by Yung-Chang Cheng, Cheng-Kang Lee, Chia-Ling Hsieh 
    Abstract: This paper presents an innovative optimisation procedure, combining uniform design (UD) and the efficient global optimisation (EGO) algorithm, to generate a set of robust suspension parameters in a railway vehicle model. Nonlinear dynamic analysis of a 31 degree-of-freedom (DOF) railway vehicle model was determined using Kalker's linear theory and heuristic nonlinear creep criterion. To increase running safety, optimisation design for suspension parameters is introduced to make the performance more robust and reduce the sensitivity to noise. Considering the noise factors, vehicle speed and rail irregularity, the dynamic response and derailment quotient are obtained by the Runge-Kutta method. By applying UD, kriging interpolation and EGO algorithm, the best signal-to-noise ratio of the derailment quotient is increased from 12.05 dB to 31.3 dB, or 160%. The numerical results indicate that the optimal and robust design of suspension parameters has been determined successfully by the novel optimisation process.
    Keywords: uniform design; efficient global optimisation algorithm; heuristic nonlinear creep model; rail irregularity; derailment quotient.

  • Operational charging methods for electric buses: a case study for BRT Istanbul   Order a copy of this article
    by Habib Kaymaz 
    Abstract: Buses still constitute an integral part of city and inter-city transportation, although exhaust emissions of buses with conventional internal combustion engines are to blame for one of the major sources of urban pollution that causes the greenhouse effect leading to global warming. One of the reasonable solutions for the issue nowadays is the electrification of city buses. However, the high weight and cost of the batteries, which have not reached technological maturity yet, and the charging requirement are still the most important barriers to the electrification of city buses. In this study, alternative charging methods for battery electric buses are introduced. After given information about operational and opportunity charging, possible charging solutions are evaluated for the Bus Rapid Transit (BRT), one of Istanbul's most important public transportation systems. Results show that charging considering operating conditions and driving characteristics can help to reduce initial investment and operative costs.
    Keywords: battery-powered electric bus; bus rapid transit; charging methods; city transportation; electric bus.

  • Simulation-based analysis of passenger ride comfort under different track conditions   Order a copy of this article
    by Yamika Patel, R.C. Singh, Wolfgang Borutzky, Vikas Rastogi 
    Abstract: The ride comfort of a passenger train is a fascinating research topic, continuously investigated and improved over the years, helping us to achieve unbelievable speeds. A rigid multibody system with 50 DOF, depicting the actual LHB coach with FIAT bogie, is created to carry out the dynamic analysis on the straight rail track. The mean comfort standard method has been used to assess passenger ride comfort at different rail-car floor locations. The American sixth grade track spectrum has been introduced on the left rail only, which acts as a random excitation to the vehicle. PSD of acceleration and mean comfort index (Nmv) have been compared at different car floor locations for a speed range of 200 to 350 kmph. The peak values of the Nmv index and PSD of acceleration have been observed at the left and right locations of the rail-car floor.
    Keywords: PSD; SIMPACK; ride comfort; track irregularity.

  • Study on integrated control of tripping anti-rollover for heavy dump trucks   Order a copy of this article
    by Zhong-cheng Fu, Ming-mao Hu, Qing-he Guo, Ai-hong Gong, Qing-shan Gong, Zhi-gang Jiang, Dong Guo, Zi-wen Liao 
    Abstract: In order to effectively solve the tripping rollover problem caused by heavy dump trucks on concave-convex roads, an integrated control method combining differential braking control and active suspension control is proposed. A nine-degree-freedom dynamic model for heavy dump trucks is established, and the lateral load transfer rate is used as the rollover evaluation index. The braking torque is provided for the four wheels by the method of differential braking control, and the active suspension control force is provided for the active suspension by the method of active suspension control to improve the roll stability and smoothness of the dump truck. The co-simulation of MATLAB / Simulink and Trucksim is carried out under the fishhook tripping condition and J-turn tripping condition. The simulation results show that, compared with differential braking control and active suspension control, the integrated control method proposed in this paper reduces the peak body roll angle by additional 4.505 deg and 0.182 deg under the fishhook tripping condition, and reduces the peak body roll angle by additional 2.21 deg and 0.077 deg under the J-turn tripping condition, which shows better rollover resistance. And the integrated control method reduces the pitch angular acceleration of the vehicle by additional 2.53 deg/s2 and 0.32 deg/s2 under the fishhook tripping condition, reduces the pitch angular acceleration of the vehicle by additional 0.73 deg/s2 and 0.30 deg/s2 under the J-turn tripping condition, which shows better ride comfort.
    Keywords: tripping rollover; integrated control; differential brake control; active suspension control; roll stability and smoothness.

  • Integrating machine learning with ITS for effective traffic management under road development conditions   Order a copy of this article
    by Kundan Meshram 
    Abstract: Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) have paved their way into modern day traffic management scenarios. These scenarios include but are not limited to diverting traffic, identifying routes, identifying accidents and propagating them over the network, etc. Owing to a large number of road-based maintenance and repair and new road building works, there is a disruption in traffic flow. Proper maintenance and effective communication among these traffic nodes is of utmost importance for smooth traffic flow. In this paper, different techniques are analysed for ITS communication that assists in maintaining optimum traffic flow under different road construction scenarios. The proposed algorithm devises a novel ITS workflow for organising traffic under different road development conditions. The machine learning algorithm uses extended drone-based imagery to identify best traffic routes for a given traffic area. The paper also extends the proposed algorithm and adds a machine learning layer to it to further optimise the performance of traffic flow.
    Keywords: ITS; machine learning; traffic flow; road works; big data; communication; vehicle management; drone image processing.

  • Parametric study of wheel flats effects on dynamic forces and derailment coefficient in turnouts   Order a copy of this article
    by Sajjad Sattari, Mohammad Saadat, Sayed Hasan Mirtalaie, Mehdi Salehi, Ali Soleimani 
    Abstract: Turnouts in railway tracks are considered one of the most important weak points of railway infrastructure due to their complex and discontinuous structure. Therefore, it is very important to evaluate and predict the possibility of derailment at the location of these devices from the point of view of operation and maintenance. In addition, wheel flat failure has always been documented as one of the sources of infrastructure damage due to the occurrence of severe impact forces. In this paper, the dynamic and safety studies of a freight train with a defected wheel (wheel flat) when passing through turnouts are investigated. After modelling and validation, the evaluation of the wheel-rail dynamic forces and derailment coefficient at turnout has been done using the multibody dynamic universal mechanism (UM) software, and the effect of the wheel flat depth on these items has been evaluated. The results indicate that the depth of the wheel flat, as well as the train speed, strongly affect the dynamic forces and derailment coefficient at the turnout. Excessive dynamic forces, with the creation and growth of wheel and rail defects, are the cause of derailment, accidents, and destruction, and must be continuously monitored.
    Keywords: railway vehicles; wheel flats; turnouts; wheel-rail dynamic forces; derailment coefficient.

  • Effect of training algorithms in accurate state of charge estimation of lithium ion batteries using NARX model   Order a copy of this article
    by Namrata Mohanty, Neeraj Kumar Goyal, V. N. Achutha Naikan 
    Abstract: Accurate state of charge (SOC) estimation is required to ensure the safe and reliable operation of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) in electric vehicles. Battery SOC has a similar function or operation as the fuel gauge in IC engine-driven vehicles, indicating the energy left inside the battery to power a vehicle. This paper proposes the use of the nonlinear autoregressive exogenous input (NARX) model for accurate SOC estimation of LIBs and studies the effect of two training algorithms, namely Levenberg-Marquardt and scaled conjugate gradient, on the accuracy of the proposed neural time series network model. Datasets including dynamic stress test (DST) profiles were extracted from the Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering (CALCE). Accuracy is evaluated in terms of mean squared error (MSE) and coefficient of determination (R-Square or R2). The Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm is better than the scaled conjugate gradient algorithm in providing better results for estimating SOC with a MSE of 4.61306
    Keywords: state of charge; lithium ion batteries; electric vehicles; NARX; machine learning; artificial neural network.

  • Effects of train speed, track irregularities, and wheel flat on wheel-rail dynamic force   Order a copy of this article
    by Sajjad Sattari, Mohammad Saadat, Sayed Hasan Mirtalaie, Mehdi Salehi, Ali Soleimani 
    Abstract: Today, the wheel-rail dynamic force (WRDF) is one of the criteria for reliable evaluation of running stability, track loading, and vibration behaviour of railway systems. Over-limit dynamic forces, with the creation and growth of wheel and rail defects, are the cause of the derailment, accidents, and damage, and must be constantly monitored. In the present paper, after modelling and validating a passenger rail system with UM, the effects of changes in train speed, track irregularities, and wheel flats on the WRDF, derailment coefficient, and wheel-rail dynamic impact factor are evaluated. One of the results showed that by changing the train speed in different track irregularities, the WRDF has changed significantly and the maximum force has increased with increasing speed. For example, in class 5 and class 6 of irregularity, by changing the train speed from 20 to 100 (km/h), the WRDF is increased about 32% and 27%, respectively.
    Keywords: wheel-rail dynamic force; track irregularities; wheel flat; dynamic impact factor; train speed.

  • Construction and experimental verification of on-board weighing prediction model based on three-level linear transfer   Order a copy of this article
    by Huanbo Qiao, Hongxun Fu, Senyu Bi, Laiyun Ku, Yan Wang 
    Abstract: In order to improve the accuracy of on-board weighing system, a construction method of on-board weighing prediction model based on three-level linear transfer is proposed. Through the finite element analysis of different types of leaf spring, the linear relationship between load and deformation in the vertical direction of leaf springs is verified. Based on the three-level linear transfer relationship of leaf spring, soft spring and parallel beam sensor, the relationship between bearing mass and output mass is established, the bearing mass of a single leaf spring is calculated, and then the whole vehicle weighing prediction model is constructed. The weighing prediction model is solved and verified through two different test schemes. The results show that the overall error of the on-board weighing prediction model based on the three-level linear transfer method can be controlled within 1%, which meets the requirement of on-board weighing error not higher than 3% in JT/T794-2019.
    Keywords: on-board weighing; finite element analysis; linear transfer; prediction model; test verification.

  • Review on electronic differential system for electric vehicles   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiaobin Fan, Hao Li 
    Abstract: Electronic differential control is very important for distributed drive electric vehicles. This paper analyses the characteristics of centralized and distributed drive structures of electric vehicle drive system. For centralized driving EVs, the research on differential driving mainly focuses on the structural transformation of the traditional differential and driving motor, while the research on the differential system of distributed driving EVs mainly lies in control strategies, control theories and control optimization algorithm. Finally, the advantages and deficiencies of various differential control technologies are summarized and analysed, and the future development trend is prospected. Adopting slip rate, yaw rate, and vehicle sideslip angle as indirect observations, the torque-controlled differential scheme that combines multi-theory joint control incorporating intelligent algorithms is the future development trend for EV differential control.
    Keywords: electric vehicle; differential control; dual-rotor motor; control theory; driving system.

  • Mounting position effect on hydraulic cylinder subjected to impulse force   Order a copy of this article
    by Ibrahim A. Elsherif, Mootaz E. Abo-Elnor 
    Abstract: Hydraulic cylinders are commonly used in mechanical systems to convert hydraulic energy into mechanical energy to realise linear motion where high forces and robust operation is required. They are used in truck mounted guns to support the outriggers or spades which transmitted the impulse forces resulting from firing to the ground to protect the truck suspension and chassis. The total stiffness of a hydraulic cylinder and the transmit stress waves are affected by its mounting direction. In this paper the effect of mounting position of cylinders subjected to impulse force from firing was studied. It was found that the direction of mounting plays a significant rule on stress waves effects acting on both cylinder rod and cylinder barrel when subjected to impulse force. Results show that mounting position of cylinder barrel load case is better than mounting position of rod load case to withstand the stress waves.
    Keywords: hydraulic cylinder; mobile artillery; impulse force; gun firing; recoil dynamics; stress wave.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2022.10054996
  • Analysis and verification of splash lubrication for electric vehicle gearbox   Order a copy of this article
    by Zhang Qingyong, Fan Zhen, Jiang Mingjun, Chen Shanyou 
    Abstract: In order to analyse the splash lubrication characteristics of electric vehicle gearbox, a numerical simulation model of the gearbox splash lubrication was established based on the computational fluid dynamics method, and the gear surface scaling method was proposed to process the gearbox gear. The heat flow field and oil churning loss of gear splash lubrication under different working conditions were obtained. The influence of gear speed and oil immersion depth on splash lubrication was studied. Finally, the temperature rise simulation results are compared with the test results. Results show that gear oil stirring power loss is positively correlated with speed and oil immersion depth; temperature rise is positively correlated with speed; the influence of speed on the heat flow field and oil stirring loss is much greater than the oil immersion depth; the maximum error between the simulation results and the theoretical and experimental results is only 8.51%.
    Keywords: splash lubrication; tooth surface scaling method; temperature field; flow field; churning loss; lubrication effect; gear transmission; volume fraction; dimensional analysis; CFD simulation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2022.10054995

Special Issue on: Recent Trends and Advancements in Marine Transportation Electrification

  • Robust speed control of induction motor drive for electric traction application   Order a copy of this article
    by Usha Sengamalai, Geetha Anbazhagan, Thamizh Thentral T M, Boopathi C S 
    Abstract: The proposed system focuses on improving the speed performance of traction drive by implementing the robust fuzzy logic controller-based inverter fed parallel connected induction motors. The fuzzy controller is compared with a conventional controller. The performance of the modified induction motor drive for traction is analysed and improved under parameter variations to achieve robust speed control. The simulation and hardware results are realised for the proposed system and compared with the conventional system.
    Keywords: asynchronous motor; robust speed control; PI controller; Fuzzy controller; Parameter variations.

  • Modular tri-port converter with switched reluctance motor based hybrid electrical vehicles for fault tolerance   Order a copy of this article
    by D. Ramya, D. Godwin Immanuel 
    Abstract: Energy utilisation and environmental protection concerns are the reason for the research towards hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). Major goals of electric motors in HEV are high efficiency, increased power density, high controllability, wide-speed operating range, and less maintenance under operating conditions. Hybrid electrical vehicle (HEV) is safe from CO2 emissions. Switched reluctance motors (SRMs) are easily compatible with HEV. Generator, battery bank, and SRM form the energy components in series type HEV. On comparison with other converters tri-port converter (Ramya et al., 2017, 2019) is more advantages in a wide aspect. It combines the components. Modes of operation are generator to SRM, battery bank to SRM, generator and battery bank to SRM. Flow of energy from generator to battery bank and vice versa can be possible without using an additional converter (Ramya et al., 2017, 2019). Fault tolerance in electric vehicles is possible using tri-port converter.
    Keywords: hybrid electric vehicle; switched reluctance motor; tri port converter; carbon dioxide; synchronous permanent magnet induction motor; battery; generator; motor; state of charge; switches; junctions.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2022.10044850
  • Modelling of coordinated development between marine agglomeration industry ecological industry chain and natural environment   Order a copy of this article
    by Liqun Zhang, Weibo Yang 
    Abstract: Although China's marine economy continues to grow, relatively speaking, the lack of ecological industry chain, the existence of marine environmental pollution and marine economy is unsustainable. In order to avoid the disordered state that may appear in the development of marine aggregation industry, and ensure the coordinated development of marine ecological industry and environmental protection, it is particularly important to find a scheme conducive to the sustainable development of marine economy. The research shows that the construction of marine agglomeration industry ecological chain in the selected provinces is not perfect, and the pressure on marine resources and environment is also increasing year by year. At the same time, it is concluded that the marine 'sustainability' of the selected provinces has an increasing trend year by year, which undoubtedly indicates that the sustainable development capacity of the province is improving year by year.
    Keywords: marine agglomeration industry; ecological industry chain; sustainable development; model analysis method; natural environment; marine environmental pollution; marine economy; sustainability; theoretical research; innovation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2022.10054991
  • Design of reliable video image transmission system for underwater vehicle   Order a copy of this article
    by Haijun Li, Hui Lv 
    Abstract: In order to improve the transmission performance of underwater vehicle motion video image, a reliable transmission system of underwater vehicle motion video image is designed. The hardware part of the system includes the design of the transmission server and the design of the transmission client; the software part of the system mainly includes two parts: compression processing and lossless transmission of the motion video image of the underwater vehicle, which completes the software design of the system and realises the design of the whole system. The test results show that the proposed transmission system has good transmission performance for the motion video image of the vehicle in shallow water.
    Keywords: shallow water; voyager; moving video image; reliable transmission; motion; underwater vehicle; transmission system; UDP; CRC.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2022.10054990
  • Stability modelling and control algorithm of electric vehicle power steering   Order a copy of this article
    by Jianwei Guo, Yongbo Lv, Han Zhang 
    Abstract: In the traditional proportion integral differential (PID) power steering stability modelling and control algorithm, the road control process lacks auxiliary control, the real-time performance is poor, and the stability is low. In view of this situation, a stability modelling and control algorithm of electric vehicle steering system is proposed. The simulation models of steering system, motor system and frame system are established by using the simulation tools of MATLAB software. The test results show that the lateral acceleration control algorithm of electric vehicle is -0.4 to -0.72 g, 17.5 degrees/s and 22 degrees/s respectively under the control of input angle of 3 degrees/s to 17.5 degrees/s, stability of 22 degrees/s, stability of 0.4 to -0.3 g and -0.33 to -0.72 g.
    Keywords: control algorithm; electric power steering; the steering gear; auxiliary control; PID; proportion integral differential; EPS; electric power steering; real-time performance.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2022.10053083