Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems

International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems (IJHVS)

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International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems (39 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Introducing wheel-rail adhesion control into longitudinal train dynamics   Order a copy of this article
    by Qing Wu, Maksym Spiryagin, Colin Cole, Yan Sun 
    Abstract: Conventional Longitudinal Train Dynamics (LTD) simulations apply a number of assumptions regarding wheel-rail adhesion, and wheel-rail adhesion control has not previously been considered. This paper introduces locomotive wheel-rail adhesion control into LTD using co-simulation and parallel computing techniques. An in-house LTD simulator was connected to a commercial MBS dynamics simulator using the TCP/IP protocol. A heavy haul train with the configuration of three locomotives and 150 wagons was modelled. The wagons were modelled in the LTD simulator while the locomotives were modelled in the MBS simulator. The locomotive models were three-dimensional models that included wheel-rail contact models and adhesion control models. Simulations of locomotives were processed in parallel using three computer cores. Co-simulations with and without the consideration of curve lubrication were conducted and compared with a conventional LTD simulation. Computing times with and without parallel computing were also compared. The results show that, when compared with conventional LTD simulations, wheel-rail adhesion control generates evident differences for maximum traction forces, average train speeds, maximum in-train forces and force patterns. With three computer cores, parallel computing reduced the computing time by about 46% from about 3.7 hours to about 2.0 hours.
    Keywords: longitudinal train dynamics; wheel-rail contact; adhesion control; traction modelling; parallel computing;co-simulation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2017.10060453
  • Dynamic stability analysis of a high speed diesel engine turbocharger subjected to aerodynamic loads and engine-induced vibration   Order a copy of this article
    by Ali Alsaeed, Salem Bashmal 
    Abstract: The dynamic behaviour of a high-speed turbocharger supported on floating-ring bearings is investigated under the effect of engine-induced vibrations and aerodynamic loads. A finite-element model is developed for the turbocharger to predict the nonlinear transient response while engine excitations are simulated as time-varying force functions on the rotor bearings. Damping and stiffness parameters of the floating-ring bearings are estimated by solving the 2-D Reynolds equation. The engine-induced excitations are combined with compressor radial aerodynamic forces to obtain the total response numerically. Modified non-circular volute theory is used to calculate radial thrust loads due to aerodynamic effects. The numerical predictions agree with the experimental observations of a fully-loaded turbocharger that show no significant second harmonic frequency amplitudes of the engine frequency. However, the engine frequencies are at comparable amplitudes with the Sub High and 1X amplitudes at higher speeds, where the radial aerodynamic loads are not significant (no-load). The results of the present work indicate that, in the subsynchronous region, some amplitudes at the engine-excitation frequency are also observed at the second harmonic for high speeds. Moreover, the dynamic stability of the turbocharger is significantly influenced by the variation in the magnitude of the engine-induced vibration. The numerical predictions are consistent with the previous experimental tests for a typical turbocharger.
    Keywords: turbocharger; stability; transient response; aerodynamic forces; vibrations.

  • Energy management strategy design and fuel consumption analysis for a parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle   Order a copy of this article
    by Shilei Zhou, Paul Walker, Weiwei Yang, Cong Thanh Nguyen, Nong Zhang 
    Abstract: In this paper, the energy-saving benefits of a parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle (PHHV) are investigated. The vehicle powertrain components such as engine, hydraulic pump/motor (HPM) and accumulator are modelled to demonstrate the PHHV powertrain working principle. The optimal fuel economy of the PHHV is obtained by dynamic programming (DP) optimisation. Based on the DP optimisation results, a practical rule-based energy management strategy (EMS) is designed with which the PHHV fuel economy in real application is investigated, including gear shift schedule and regenerative braking control strategy. Through simulation under a selected urban driving condition, PHHV achieves fuel consumption reduction by 27.5% compared with the conventional engine driven vehicle, which proves that the PHHV achieves significant energy saving benefits. PHHV consumes only 1.5% more fuel with the rule-based EMS than with the DP optimisation, indicating the effectiveness and practicality of the rule-based EMS in urban driving conditions.
    Keywords: hydraulic hybrid vehicle; energy management strategy; regenerative braking; fuel economy analysis; dynamic programming.

  • 3D simulation to evaluate MTU4000 heavy-duty diesel engine power enhancement considering performance limitations and combustion improvement by reducing lean regions   Order a copy of this article
    by Saleh Talesh Amiri, Rouzbeh Shafaghat, Mostafa Mohebbi 
    Abstract: The possibility of MTU4000 R43L diesel engine power enhancement has been numerically investigated by raising the fuel mass. In addition, some characteristics such as compression ratio (CR), start of injection (SOI), and piston bowl geometry have also been considered. In the results, the effect of fuel mass is first evaluated. Increasing the fuel mass by 7, 10, and 13%, increased, decreased, and then increased the indicated specific fuel consumption (ISFC), respectively. By increasing the fuel mass up to 10%, the maximum in-cylinder temperature increased, which could be controlled by reducing the CR. Decreasing the CR from 18 to 16 increased the ISFC by up to 3%. Also, the reduction of CR from 17 to 16.5 reduced the maximum slope of pressure change by 35%. The indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) increased by 1.05 bar. By changing the SOI from 6 to 9 degrees bTDC and then decreasing in 10 bTDC. Finally, three different piston bowl geometries have been evaluated.
    Keywords: heavy-duty diesel engine; power density; compression ratio; start of injection; piston bowl geometry.

  • Assessment of the dynamic stability of mine-rollers-equipped heavy vehicle   Order a copy of this article
    by Mostafa I. Yacoub, Mootaz E. Abo-Elnor, Ahmed M. Ali, Ibrahim A. Elsherif, Mohamed A. El-Latif, Alhossein Mostafa Sharaf 
    Abstract: One of the strategies to protect vehicle platoons against Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) is to use a mine-roller mounted at the front of the vehicle with a telescopic lever and fork ending with two sets of freely rotating solid tyres. However, rough vehicle handling or cornering in unstable conditions may be encountered particularly at high speeds. This paper presents a detailed investigation to ensure sufficient handling and stability of mine-rollers-equipped vehicle. In the design phase, both the kinematic and dynamic analyses are illustrated. The mathematical analysis of the dynamic stability problem is validated by in-field measurements of a real mine-rollers-equipped heavy vehicle. Results show that vehicle stability could be achieved using the pre-manufacturing mathematical analysis illustrated in this article. Furthermore, the analysis is extended to address the effect of some mine-rollers design parameters, such as increasing setup length and weight, which would certainly enhance the protection of the mobile platoon.
    Keywords: mine-rollers; heavy vehicle stability; handling performance; convoying security.

  • Three-point based truck mounted platform levelling mechanism   Order a copy of this article
    by Mootaz Aboelnor 
    Abstract: The design methodology of a moving platform levelling mechanism is introduced based on operational limitation of ground level within tilt and pitch angles referenced to horizontal plane. A three-point support platform levelling mechanism is designed. The proposed mechanism operates such that levelling is achieved by a sequential angular displacement of tilt link and pitch link. An analytical kinematics model based on loop-closure constraint equations is proposed, describing platform tilt-pitch due to ground topology status and corresponding tilt link and pitch link angular displacement to restore the top platform level. A 3D CAD model of the proposed levelling mechanism is constructed, and a numerical simulation of tilt and pitch links angular displacement to restore top platform level for different moving base orientations due to ground topology status is carried out to validate the proposed mechanism kinematics and analysis of mechanism behaviour while restoring top platform levelling.
    Keywords: platform levelling; loop-closure kinematics; tilt-pitch mechanism; roll-pitch mechanism.

  • The effect of geometric location of semitrailer centre of gravity on stability   Order a copy of this article
    by Shahab Asadi, Ahmad Keshavarzi 
    Abstract: This study investigated a semitrailer's roll and stability. To this end, an O2 single-axle semitrailer, was used. The semitrailer's weight change, longitudinal shift of the centre of gravity (CG), and CG height change have a fundamental role in the stability of the vehicle and semitrailer on the road. This paper used analytical, experimental, and numerical analysis techniques to address this issue. To investigate the stability parameters, the DLC test (which is in compliance with ISO-3888) was used to compare the results obtained from the numerical and experimental models. The results indicated a 10% difference between the experimental and numerical methods and the longitudinal shift of CG had a greater effect than the CG height change on the vehicle's stability.
    Keywords: semitrailer; centre of gravity; numerical analysis; experimental analysis; roll.

  • Haar cascade-based deep learning model to predict in/out bound passenger flow and distance estimation for intelligent transport systems   Order a copy of this article
    by Vishnu Kumar Kaliappan, K.S. Gautam, M. Akila, K. Mohanasundaram 
    Abstract: Managing crowd density in the transportation industry is still a research issue. One of the components of a smart city's Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) is the improvement of traffic efficiency. The ITS improves traffic congestion control by collecting real-time data. A dependable system capable of counting the number of passengers on a carrier is required for effective traffic congestion control. In this work, we presented a unique approach named the Intelligent Centroid Tracker and Counter (ICTC) that could recognise, count, and compute the distances between people in a limited location. The proposed algorithm is vision-based, aiming to maximise congestion control inside passenger transportation systems. It supports many application cases, including intelligent transportation, buildings, and other demographics requiring social segregation. The ICTC algorithm generates metadata that provides the relevant operational or administrative head with a clear image of the current passenger count status and delivers visual indication with a bounding box. The algorithm collects data on population density in a public transit medium from commuters in each region, then delivers adequate transportation facilities to the general public. The study collects information on crowd density and offers commuters suggestions on available seats in the vehicle, which ultimately saves time, prevents boarding crowded vehicles, assures social distance, and standardizes public transportation systems, all of which have practical implications. According to experimental investigation, the proposed approach operates on VISOR, Kaggle, CALTECH, Penn-Fudan, Daimler Mono, and INRIA with accuracy values of 0.81, 0.83, 0.85, 0.88, 0.82, and 0.89, respectively.
    Keywords: deep learning; intelligent transportation system; Haar classifiers; passenger forecast; computer vision.

  • Review on electronic differential system for electric vehicles   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiaobin Fan, Hao Li 
    Abstract: Electronic differential control is very important for distributed drive electric vehicles. This paper analyses the characteristics of centralized and distributed drive structures of electric vehicle drive system. For centralized driving EVs, the research on differential driving mainly focuses on the structural transformation of the traditional differential and driving motor, while the research on the differential system of distributed driving EVs mainly lies in control strategies, control theories and control optimization algorithm. Finally, the advantages and deficiencies of various differential control technologies are summarized and analysed, and the future development trend is prospected. Adopting slip rate, yaw rate, and vehicle sideslip angle as indirect observations, the torque-controlled differential scheme that combines multi-theory joint control incorporating intelligent algorithms is the future development trend for EV differential control.
    Keywords: electric vehicle; differential control; dual-rotor motor; control theory; driving system.

  • Fuel cell hybrid electric air-cushion tracked vehicle for peat swamp   Order a copy of this article
    by Ataur Rahman, Sany Ihsan Izan, Ahmad Faris Ismail, Altab Hossain 
    Abstract: A fuel cell (FC) hybrid electric air-cushion tracked vehicle of 4.96 kN ground contact area of 0.85 m2 including 0.20 m2 contact area of the air-cushion for the peat swamp of normal ground pressure in the range of 7-8.5 kN/m2 has been prototype to overcome the problem associated of internal combustion engine (ICE) power tracked vehicle. Vehicle power system has been made with an FC of terminal voltage of 60V, 3.6 kW and 500 g of hydrogen mini tank and battery of 60 V and 5.2 kWh. FC and batteries are connected in parallel with a DC/DC converter to optimum fuel efficiency and fuel cell longevity. Consecutively, an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Intelligent System (ANFIS) is used to switch power from FC to battery for the vehicle sinkage > 70 mm in millisecond for high acceleration and prevent vehicle from excessive sinkage, and battery to FC for the vehicle sinkage < 70 mm. The vehicle is able to travel 31 km using FC hybrid power system.
    Keywords: electric swamp peat vehicle; fuel cell hybrid power system; air-cushion tracked system; ANFIS; vehicle mobility.

  • Research on the influence of heavy-duty tracked vehicle parameters on steering driving process   Order a copy of this article
    by Tiangang Pei, Bijuan Yan, Hao Dong, Zekun Liu, Zhangda Zhao 
    Abstract: As an important part of the heavy-duty tracked vehicle, the position and posture of the crawler travelling device have a certain impact on the vehicle performance. The Bekker soil sinking theory is used in this study to create the heavy-duty tracked vehicle dynamics analysis model under turning conditions on soft soil roads. The effects of working arm position, turning radius R, track grounding width-length ratio b/L and track centre distance B on vehicle driving force, driving power, and steering resistance moment were investigated using a heavy-duty vehicle as an example. Track sliding and ground shear deformation were taken into consideration. The findings demonstrate that when the turning radius R is close to B/2, the driving power is almost 0 and the inside steering resisting moment and driving force are concentrated. When R = B/2, the vehicle is in the unilateral power steering. What's more, the study can provide theoretical support for heavy tracked vehicles design.
    Keywords: heavy-duty tracked vehicles; steering process; drive performance.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2023.10058440
  • Lateral stability control of truck and centre-axle-trailer combinations under crosswind disturbances   Order a copy of this article
    by Qinghui Zhou, Yuhang Qiu, Yuping He 
    Abstract: Crosswind disturbances may cause rollover or lane departure of truck and centre-axle-trailer (TCAT) combinations. To increase the safety of TCATs, a crosswind model is introduced and a 3 degrees of freedom (DOF) yaw-plane model is generated for developing a lateral stability control technique. Numerical simulation is conducted to examine the resulting dynamic responses under varying crosswind disturbances. To verify the 3-DOF model, the simulation results under a single lane-change manoeuvre under a crosswind disturbance are compared against those based on the corresponding nonlinear TruckSim model. To effectively reject crosswind disturbances, a braking torque distribution strategy is proposed, by which the direct yaw moment control (DYC) is implemented using a fuzzy-PID algorithm. The simulation shows that the directional performance of TCAT is improved when the DYC activates under crosswind disturbances. The proposed active safety technique can reduce the risk of crosswind-induced instabilities of TCATs.
    Keywords: crosswind disturbance; truck and centre-axle trailer; lateral stability; fuzzy-PID control; direct yaw moment control.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2023.10058546
  • Method for determining the effect of road surface condition on the fuel consumption for heavy vehicles from vehicle measurements   Order a copy of this article
    by Ville Pirnes, Perttu Niskanen, Jonne Untinen, Juho Könnö 
    Abstract: The effect of road surface condition on the total fuel consumption of heavy trucks is still a largely insufficiently researched area. In this study, we focus particularly on the effect of renewed road surface on fuel consumption, taking into account the changes in driving behaviour. Experimental tests were made on typical Finnish asphalt-surfaced roads with a 60-ton vehicle combination. The first measurement round was in June 2020 and the second measurement round was in August 2020. The road surface was renewed between the measurements. In this study, an algorithm was developed, which chooses comparable consumption results from divided road sections. The results show that the fuel consumption is reduced with the new road surface if the driver's driving profile is the same. However, the measurements also showed that driving speed is likely to be higher on new road surface which can cause higher fuel consumption than on unrepaired roads.
    Keywords: fuel consumption; road surface condition; heavy vehicle combination; vehicle measurements.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2023.10058628
  • Influence of air spring parameters on tyre wear   Order a copy of this article
    by Luboš Mikula, Jan Famfulík, Michal Richtář, Branislav Šarkan 
    Abstract: Context. When using CNG busses, abnormal tire wear started to occur Objectives. To identify possible causes of this phenomena, verify their impact by practical experiment and suggest solutions. Methods. During the experiment, three same vehicles were set up with different air spring settings, resulting in different clear heights of 325 mm, 335 mm, 345 mm. After approx. 45 000 km, tire wear was examined, tire defects were measured and compared Results. Vehicle most affected by heel-toe wear was one with the highest clear height of 345. Higher clear height negatively influences tire wear, but it is clear that other causes are included in this problem. Conclusions. Experiment and calculations affirmed that the primary cause of the tire wear irregularities are vibrations applied to tires caused by added weight. This theory is confirmed by an investigation more prescribed in the introduction section.
    Keywords: bus tyre wear; clear height; natural frequency; CNG busses.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2023.10058752
  • Research on cooperative control strategy for braking system of articulated heavy vehicles   Order a copy of this article
    by Bin Fang, Xuanyao Wang, Yecheng Zhao, Jianye Wang, Peng Feng 
    Abstract: The braking response delay of articulated heavy vehicles, the braking incoordination between tractor and semi-trailer, braking impact, etc. affect driving stability. To solve the above problems, the paper designed a configuration scheme and established a model of pneumatic electronic control braking system, and proposed a cooperative braking control strategy for the tractor and semi-trailer. PID control is performed on the braking chamber pressure of the front axle of the tractor first, and then closed-loop feedback control is performed on the braking chamber pressure of the rear axle of the tractor and the axle of the semi-trailer so that the braking chamber pressure of the axle of the semi-trailer can follow the axle of the tractor respond in time to changes in brake chamber pressure. Simulation results based on TruckSim/ AMESim/Simulink verify the effectiveness of the proposed cooperative braking control strategy.
    Keywords: articulated vehicles; braking response delay; braking impact; pneumatic electronic control braking system; cooperative braking control.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2023.10058881
  • Intelligent concrete mixer anti-theft system based intelligent autonomous robotic monitoring system   Order a copy of this article
    by Tang Wenke, Cao Bingxin, Zhou Weiping 
    Abstract: Intelligent autonomous robotics are connected through the IoT to monitor intelligent autonomous robotic vehicles. The design of these vehicles is used to preserve concrete mixers against theft. This might be explained in the various IoT premises to frame the system as an intelligent concrete mixer anti-theft system. The analysis of intelligent autonomous robotic vehicles based IoT system consists of models such as the intelligent concrete mixer anti-theft system and the intelligent autonomous robotic concrete mixer framework. This report gives better services against the anti-theft system concerning the hype cycle, off-track over two laps based on time, vehicle speed graph, vehicles exported for 2020 and 2021 result comparison, and plug-in vehicle sales distance-time graph. The privacy considerations are based on the Decentralized Anti-Theft System (DeAt). These activities maintain the intelligent anti-theft system using intelligent autonomous robotic IoT premises based on security, peer-to-peer communication, quantitative scoring, smart contract, disclosure, and non-disclosure of physical medium.
    Keywords: anti-theft system; homomorphic cryptosystem; intelligent autonomous robotics; peer-to-peer communication; privacy consideration.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2023.10059059
  • Dual LCL resonance compensation for the design of electric vehicle wireless energy transmission system topology   Order a copy of this article
    by Jinge Ma, Lei Dong 
    Abstract: To meet the electric vehicle on-board wireless charging regulations, dual LCL resonant compensation network is analysed, and a dual LCL variable compensation parameter magnetically coupled resonant wireless charging system software is proposed, which can realise constant current and constant voltage battery charging by carrying out the actual operation of casting and cutting only for part of compensation components. According to interrelationship between the important main parameters and the system transmission characteristics obtained by the simulation method, this paper designs the parameter configuration to promote the magnetically coupled resonant wireless charging. The system software has no complex circuit stages and is easy to manipulate, and can also complete the primary side current and operating frequency stability. The experimental platform is constructed, and the voltage or flow-rate derived from the certified customised system software is relatively small and can meet the constant voltage and constant current charging regulations.
    Keywords: dual LCL; resonance compensation; electric vehicles; wireless energy transmission.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2023.10059060
  • Truck traffic state prediction based on small sampled location data   Order a copy of this article
    by Yiran Ding, Xingkun Li, Xiaozhi Li, Xiucai Zhang, Yuhai Wang 
    Abstract: Regional road network truck traffic state prediction can provide real-time traffic information for drivers or intelligent devices, which is of great significance for improving road traffic capacity. In this paper, a new method of truck traffic state prediction based on spatio-temporal location data of the Internet of vehicles, ACST, is proposed to match the grid of the spatial road network and form a prediction framework integrating the interaction between roads. The framework is composed of ConvLSTM coding and ResNet structure, and road network attention mechanism is introduced to extract the interaction between roads and sections. Based on the spatio-temporal location data of small sampled trucks, the global traffic state is predicted, and the traffic state on a certain road is focused. Experimental results based on real road dataset show that the results are better than the general advanced baseline method.
    Keywords: traffic prediction; ConvLSTM; attention; truck IoV; spatio-temporal location data.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2023.10059061
  • Assisting the passage of heavy vehicles, increasing traffic safety designing traffic lights and urban lighting in a smart city   Order a copy of this article
    by Nikolett Fecser 
    Abstract: Congestion caused by traffic bottlenecks or accidents has become commonplace. The consequences are delays, as well as environmental, health and economic damage. One of the solutions to the problem is to expand transport infrastructures and to apply and develop advanced control systems, as well as to create a public lighting network for new traffic routes and pavements. The capacity of the road section examined in this study is inadequate during peak hours, and significant queues are formed. Turning in a wide angle from the secondary direction to the left, especially with heavy vehicles, is difficult and involves a risk of accidents. Owing to heavy traffic, the intersection is to be controlled by traffic lights. In this study, the implementation of a traffic-engineering plan of a junction situated in Gyr is presented with phase-timing plans. In the second part of the study, the results of measurements are described.
    Keywords: traffic bottlenecks; transport infrastructures; public lighting network; capacity of the road; large trucks; risk of accidents; phase-timing plans; traffic control with traffic lights;heavy vehicles.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2023.10059062
  • Research on the application of blockchain technology in power instrument and equipment management   Order a copy of this article
    by Dong WenJuan, Wang XiniGang, Re NaGuLi WuFuEr, Wang YuiWei, DeLiNuEr Azan 
    Abstract: In order to study the application of blockchain technology in power instrument and equipment management, this paper focuses on the impact of blockchain technology on power instrument and equipment management. Through the analysis of the comprehensive efficiency, overall effect and coupling degree of common technology and blockchain technology in power equipment management, it is found that the analysis and research using blockchain technology is better than the previous common technology. At the same time, the blockchain technology realises the purpose of unified management through the collection and distribution of equipment operation data parameters. Research has proved that promoting the integration of blockchain technology and power instrument and equipment management can better improve the efficiency of equipment operation.
    Keywords: blockchain; power equipment; technical study; device management; data analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2023.10059400
  • Driver model characterisation at tunnel exit with crosswind using a dynamic driving simulator   Order a copy of this article
    by Antonio Cioffi, Anirudh R. Prakash, Michele Vignati, Edoardo Sabbioni 
    Abstract: Often, strong crosswind could lead to unsafe operation of heavy vehicles. For this reason, the crosswind-high-sided lorry interaction was studied, with focus on the driver reaction. With the aid of a dynamic driving simulator, an ad-hoc scenario was created and tested. It reproduced a wind gust at the exit of a tunnel. The test was performed by 28 drivers at different vehicle and wind speeds. The gathered data were analysed to understand the general response of the driver. In the case studied, it was composed by an uncontrolled and a controlled phase. A metric based on the yaw rate signal was used to rank the drivers as "Quick" or "Slow". Finally, a path-follower driver model was tuned using the experimental data. The model was able to qualitatively reproduce the controlled phase exhibited by the human drivers. More effort is needed to increase the overall accuracy of the model.
    Keywords: vehicle dynamics; vehicle-driver response; crosswind; vehicle stability; crosswind tunnel exit.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2023.10059683
  • Deep learning-based forecasting of port cargo throughput using PCA and error correction multivariate LSTM   Order a copy of this article
    by Sihao Wei, Wei Deng 
    Abstract: As an emerging technology, deep learning has been well-used in many fields. This paper mainly studies the application of deep learning in smart cities about port cargo throughput forecasting. Firstly, the port cargo throughput is analysed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Correlation analysis was carried out on the impact factors, and the screened GDP and container throughput was put into the multivariate long-term short-term memory neural network (LSTM) as external input factors to improve the accuracy, and a multivariate LSTM prediction model based on PCA was built; then, using the errors generated by the prediction model in the prediction of cargo throughput in Ningbo Zhoushan Port as training data, training to generate error sequences, and the prediction data are subjected to error correction to increase the prediction accuracy. Lastly, the model's forecast outcomes are contrasted with the vector autoregressive model (VAR), Holt-Winters, grey prediction model, and univariate LSTM model prediction results were compared and analysed. The comparison results show that the multivariate LSTM prediction model based on PCA and error correction has higher prediction accuracy
    Keywords: smart cities; artificial intelligence; deep learning; principal component analysis; multivariate long short-term memory neural network; error correction; port cargo throughput.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2023.10059804
  • Design of an omnidirectional, multi-axle, distributed-drive electric truck with Mecanum wheels and direct yaw moment controller   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiaozheng Wang, Pak Kin Wong, Rong Guo, Ziyi Sun 
    Abstract: This paper proposes a novel multi-axle distributed drive electric truck with Mecanum wheels (MDDETMW) and direct yaw moment controller (DYC). The proposed MDDETMW is designed to address environmental concerns related to diesel emissions and enhance poor steering performances of classical trucks. It uses a steer-less chassis structure and a DYC to regulate steering and omnidirectional manoeuvres. A model predictive control-based DYC (MPC-based DYC) and a sliding mode control-based DYC (SMC-based DYC) are herein proposed. Simulation results show that the MDDETMW with MPC-based DYC provides a more accurate tracking performance to the reference models than the MDDETMW with SMC-based DYC and the classical truck. The proposed MDDETMW design and control method are promising and can significantly improve urban and inter-city transportation. The paper shows that the MDDETMW has the potential to revolutionize truck chassis design, offering superior efficiency and manoeuvrability.
    Keywords: Mecanum wheels; omnidirectional trucks; multi-axle trucks; direct yaw moment control; model predictive control; sliding mode control.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2023.10060009
  • Research on variable universe fuzzy anti-rollover control of counterbalanced forklift Based on a general rollover index   Order a copy of this article
    by Guang Xia, Xianyang Liu, Xiwen Tang, Shilong Wu, Linfeng Zhao 
    Abstract: Aiming at the problem of large changes in the centre of gravity (COG) and angular momentum of counterbalanced forklifts during movement, this study proposes a new rollover control strategy for the counterbalanced forklift to improve its rollover stability and active safety. The strategy is based on the combination of COG and foot rotation indicator (FRI) with the rollover index, the forklift’s support area and the proposed classification for forklift rollover stability. The actuator is controlled by the variable universe fuzzy anti-rollover control that is jointly controlled by the locking cylinder and active steering. New rollover indicators are introduced. The stable state classification based on COG and FRI includes the static stable state, dynamic stable state and dynamic unstable state. In terms of control, the cylinder is locked and active through the adaptive fuzzy anti?--rollover control with a variable universe. The steering controller is designed to deal with the uncertainty of the anti-rollover actuator. MATLAB/Simulink, an industry standard software, is used to simulate and measure the three degrees-of-freedom roll dynamics model of the forklift.
    Keywords: counterbalanced forklift; anti-rollover control; centre of gravity; foot rotation indicator; variable domain theory and fuzzy control; MATLAB/Simulink platform.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2023.10060010
  • Analysis and evaluation of CFD simulation uncertainty based on aerodynamic drag of the Ahmed car   Order a copy of this article
    by Peng Li, Xiaoyu Yang, Sha Huang, Zhan Huang, Jiqiang NIU 
    Abstract: To identify the key factors affecting aerodynamic drag prediction in the aerodynamic shape optimisation design of ground transportation, a quantitative and sensitivity analysis of aerodynamic drag uncertainty were conducted with Ahmed car as the object. Grid size, turbulence model, pressure velocity coupling and spatial discretisation scheme are selected as variables, and their values are assumed. Then, an orthogonal experimental design scheme was used to calculate aerodynamic drag using the CFD method. Multi factor CFD uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analysis were conducted, and verified with wind tunnel experimental data. The results show that, the degree of effect on the aerodynamic drag of the Ahmed car is in the order of spatial discretization scheme, grid size, pressure velocity coupling, and turbulence model. The best simulation strategies for aerodynamic drag are: QUICK scheme, fine grid, SIMPLEC algorithm, SST k- turbulence model.
    Keywords: uncertainty analysis; Ahmed car; aerodynamic drag; CFD; grid independence.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2023.10060022
  • Research on an all-axle active steering control strategy of articulated vehicles based on feedforward-feedback control   Order a copy of this article
    by Song Zhongchao, Zhang Liwei, Zhang Menglei, Jiao Yanbin 
    Abstract: To improve the trajectory tracking ability of multi-module articulated vehicles, an all-axle active steering control strategy based on feedforward-feedback control is proposed. Based on the kinematics model, the expected steering angle is calculated as the feedforward control signal. The trajectory error of each axle is defined, a vehicle controller based on sliding mode control algorithm is designed to obtain additional steering angle as the feedback control signal. The vehicle model is built and run in ADAMS. Compared with no control, the tracking error of each axle of the front and middle cars is reduced by about 50%, and that of the rear car is reduced by about 75%. It indicates the control strategy is more effective in improving the tracking ability of each axle of the rear. In conclusion, the proposed control can reduce the tracking error of each axle and improve the trajectory tracking ability of the vehicle.
    Keywords: articulated vehicles; all-axle active steering control; feedforward-feedback control; sliding mode control.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2023.10060077
  • Vibration analysis of a spade-less wheeled vehicle equipped with several recoil mechanisms subjected to an impulsive force   Order a copy of this article
    by Ibrahim Soleiman, Mostafa Nazemizadeh, Asghar Mahdian, Mohammad Hashemi 
    Abstract: Owing to extensive implementation of the spade-less wheeled vehicles in advanced military services, their design and analysis have received a great deal of interests in recent years. In this work, performance of some recoil mechanisms in elimination of the huge firing force of an installed artillery system on the vehicle are studied and compared. To do this, at first, a novel spatial vehicle model is developed to describe vibration of the spade-less vehicle equipped with several recoil mechanisms like as passive, soft and magnetorheological ones. The vibration equations of such vehicle are derived and simulated. The simulation results indicate the importance of the recoil mechanism and demonstrate the priority of the magnetorheological damper. Furthermore, the new spatial dynamic model of the wheeled vehicle with various recoil mechanisms can be a basic benchmark for the future studies.
    Keywords: wheeled vehicle; spade-less; nonlinear dynamics; recoil; magnetorheological; vibrations.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2023.10060153
  • Non-linear hydraulic system (MIMO) plant for optimal control and identification by hybrid BCMO-RERNN strategy   Order a copy of this article
    by R. Muniraj, G.P. Kannayeram, R. Saravanan 
    Abstract: This paper proposes a non-linear hydraulic system MIMO plant for optimal control and identification by hybrid BCMO-RERNN strategy. The BCMO-RERNN hybrid strategy is a combination of BCMO and RERNN, therefore it is called BCMO-RERNN. The proposed adaptation process is executed by using data occupied through the operation of control system, which plant is recognised and model is used for improving the controller. The plant is corresponding to a MIMO hydraulic system, containing two tanks fed through the pump and a three-path valve. The first aspects are achieved by plant identification and controller training. Plant identification is performed in two ways: the first is offline by using BCMO technique and collecting data in an open loop, and the second is online by RERNN, where training data is collected through control system operation in a closed loop.
    Keywords: Balancing Composite Motion Optimisation; Recalling Enhanced Recurrent Neural Network; multiple input multiple output; hydraulic system; MATLAB.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2023.10060219
  • Control moment gyroscope recoil stabiliser including LQR controller for two-wheeled robot   Order a copy of this article
    by Gökhan Çetin*, Faruk Ünker 
    Abstract: This article presents the possibilities of using two-wheeled robot with a relatively independent weapon such as an automatic cannon robot. This study considers CMG using LQR control technology as a weapon recoil stabiliser for a two-wheeled robot. The firing accuracy of cannon turret is an important result in determining LQR control parameters that will optimize weapon-robot performance. CMG with LQR control effectively reduces the recoil impact loads of the overhead weapon while compensating angular momentum to ensure safety for robot in firing. The precession motion of the gimbal from several milliradians to tens of milliradian is one of some contradictions for describing the effect of the recoil force on robot
    Keywords: absorber; damper; control moment gyroscope; gyro-stabilizer; heavy-duty robot; impact; impulsive load; inverted pendulum; LQR; recoil force; shock; two-wheeled robot; weapon.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2023.10060383
  • Selection method for the hybridisation topology of a mobile working machine   Order a copy of this article
    by Anna Tupitsina, Matti Linjama, Lasse Laurila, Petteri Multanen, Tuomo Lindh 
    Abstract: Emissions regulations are driving interest in hybrid electric vehicles, where multiple energy sources with several powertrain topology choices introduce a vast design area. This work aims to determine the optimal layout of a hybrid powertrain for a mobile working machine with the sizes of its components based on the given load cycle. The topology choice was implemented for a typical loader recorded cycle. A series hybrid topology with a supercapacitor showed the highest fuel consumption reduction of 2.53% compared with the diesel-powered option with minimised costs of the additional electrical components. The overall outcome shows that a switch of the powertrain from a diesel-powered version to a hybridised layout alone will not necessarily bring operational cost benefits because losses in additional components may outweigh any gains in the diesel engine efficiency. To achieve better fuel consumption, additional changes in the layout of components should be considered to enable energy recuperation.
    Keywords: hybrid working machine; component sizing; parallel and series hybrid.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2023.10060806
  • Performance improvement of SWH system using fuzzy grey relational and POA   Order a copy of this article
    by G. Senthil Kumaran, R. Manivannan, R. Ramesh, K. Shanmugapriya 
    Abstract: This manuscript proposes a hybrid method for modelling solar water heating systems (SWHS) for the residential sector. The proposed hybrid method is the combination of both fuzzy grey relational analysis(F-GRA) and Pelican Optimisation Algorithm (POA), together called as F-GRA/POA method. The main aim of proposed method is to increase the solar thermal energy generation and reduce the system cost. The operation of heating system is depending on solar thermal collectors, heat-only boiler, heat pumps, electric heaters, and thermal energy storage units. The F-GRA/POA method is used to calculate the maximum solar thermal energy generation with minimal possible net cost of the system under various constraints. Also, the proposed method consider the reduction of heat demand because of the thermal insulation of buildings, the amount based on the lowest net heat cost is analysed. Then, the performance of the proposed method is implemented in MATLAB site and it is compared with existing methods.
    Keywords: solar water heater; thermal energy storage; residential sector; solar thermal collectors; electric heaters; heat pumps.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2024.10061134
  • Dynamic response analysis of hydraulic-mechanical composite drive system of anchor drill truck   Order a copy of this article
    by Hong Zhang, Chaochao Yang, Wanli Wang, Yuyan Wu 
    Abstract: In order to meet the unique adaptability of the anchor drilling truck driving on complex underground road surfaces and overcome the problem of slow transfer of tracked vehicles, a hydraulic-mechanical composite transmission wheel driving system is designed. The hydraulic, mechanical and ground models of the driving part are constructed and the model is verified. Finally, the driving power response of the vehicle's hydraulic-mechanical transmission on complex road surfaces such as plane roads, passing obstacles, climbing hills, and braking, turning conditions is simulated. The results show that the vehicle can drive on complex road surfaces, with a maximum speed of 5.76 km/h, a maximum long-distance climbing angle of 10.8
    Keywords: anchor drilling truck; compound drive; pressure flow; torque speed; power response.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2024.10061185
  • Vibration optimisation of truck cargo transport compartment using numerical simulation   Order a copy of this article
    by Mostafa Mirtabaee, Seyed Amirhossin Ahmadi 
    Abstract: Reducing vibrations in truck cargo transport compartments has become increasingly important to prevent damage to the cargo and ensure the safety of passengers. Optimising truck cargo transport compartments based on transportation vibration standards, such as MIL-STD-810H, can considerably improve their performance, reduce transportation damages, and increase the agility and speed of heavy vehicles. The purpose of the current research is to analyse and optimise the cargo transport compartment of the Benz 911 truck by numerical methods. For this purpose, the frequency transfer function of the truck cargo transport compartment is determined by considering the effects of the weight of loads and road and engine dynamic forces at natural frequencies. Finally, after 14 optimisation steps, the obtained weight reduction is 38.8% compared with the initial state, and the maximum acceleration has also been reduced by 56.6% compared with its initial value.
    Keywords: truck cargo transport compartment; MIL-STD-810H; optimisation; vibration; modal analysis; frequency transfer function.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2024.10061272
  • The integration of an electric vehicle with the internet of things platform: an improved GRFA (IGRFA) technique   Order a copy of this article
    by R. Subramaniyan 
    Abstract: This manuscript presents a hybrid approach for the integration of electric vehicles with the Internet of Things (IoT) platform. The proposed hybrid method is the combined performance of Garra Rufa Fish Optimisation (GRFO) and Artificial Transgender Longicorn Algorithm (ATLA).In the current control program, the GRFO search process is improved using Artificial Transgender Longicorn Algorithm (ATLA)to take into account the minimal error function, thus it is renamed the Improved GRFO algorithm control program. This manuscript focuses on non-isolated four-port power electronic interfaces (two input and two output ports) for electric vehicle uses. The major contribution of the work is to explore the application of transformer-less single-phase four-port two-way buck-boost converter electric vehicles by integrating the IoT, which increases the capacity and life of the battery and also reduces the distance, cost and temperature. The proposed system is installed on the MATLAB platform, and its performance is tested against other existing systems. According to the results, the proposed hybrid approach based on converter efficiency compares well with other converters.
    Keywords: artificial transgender longicorn algorithm; electric vehicle; garra rufa fish optimisation; internet of things; non-isolated four-port; power electronic interface.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2024.10061551
  • Study on cold chain logistics vehicle path optimisation method based on improved artificial bee colony algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Fengju Chen, Jingzhao Zhang 
    Abstract: Cold chain logistics describes the process of transporting and storing perishable items from their point of manufacture to the final customer transportation and storage facilities equipped with refrigeration systems. Using cold chain logistics, perishable foods such processed foods, meats, seafood, ice creams, poultry, dairy products, vegetables, and fruits can be safely transported from the producer to the consumer. Effective planning of the cold chain logistics vehicle is crucial for minimising travel time, distance, and overall logistics costs in order to get the product to the consumer. One such artificial swarm intelligence technique is the Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm , which is inspired by the activities of bees and their colonies. The fundamental aim of this research is to reduce the time, distance and cost associated in transportation. The results show that effective cold logistics transportation and optimal path selection have been achieved with a 98 83% success.
    Keywords: cold chain logistics; path optimisation; artificial intelligence; transportation; artificial bee colony.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2023.10061595
  • Practice of fast body attitude control for multi-axle active suspension vehicles via bi-directional attitude-suspension kinematics modelling   Order a copy of this article
    by Fan Zhang, Zhenhua Wu, Chu Li, Jintian Cai, Jiguo Yang 
    Abstract: Multi-axle off-road vehicles with suspension lifting function can achieve some robotic manoeuvring effects through body attitude and wheel lifting adjustment, but carry larger loads. In the face of the hyperstatic and coupled-bearing challenges of multi-axle suspension systems, constructing a kinematic model to guide attitude transitions is a fundamental part of active suspension control. Firstly, the bi-directional kinematic relationship between body attitude and suspension displacement on uneven ground is presented to provide graphical interaction for the driver. Secondly, multibody dynamics simulations are carried out for vehicle state calculation and body attitude adjustment. Finally, a three-axle independent hydraulic suspension experimental platform is developed, and active attitude control experiments are carried out. Experimental results show that the scheme can achieve flexible and effective attitude control of multi-axle vehicles under complex ground conditions, thus playing a positive role in enriching the active suspension control functions of multi-axle vehicles and supporting the vehicle extrication.
    Keywords: multi-axle vehicle; active suspension; attitude control; Hydraulic system; hyperstatic problem.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2024.10061893
  • Multi-objective optimization of coordinated control strategy for reducing shift shock based on engine model with reduced-order   Order a copy of this article
    by Xianhe Shang, Fujun Zhang, Zhenyu Zhang, Tao Cui 
    Abstract: To address the issue of intensified shifting shocks in the upshifting process of a certain model of heavy vehicles due to the limitations of the engine's full-speed regulation characteristics, this paper proposes a coordinated control multi-objective optimization strategy for reducing shifting shocks. This strategy takes into account the transient characteristics of the engine during the shifting process and establishes a reduced-order model of the engine with high simulation accuracy and real-time performance using long short-term memory (LSTM) neural network. Based on the impact of gear shifting shock caused by the transient characteristics of the engine, a coordinated control scheme is formulated to reduce the gear shifting shock. To obtain the optimal solution for control parameters, a multi-objective optimization was performed using the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II) algorithm with the minimization of root mean square of shifting shocks and friction work as optimization objectives.
    Keywords: LSTM neural network; NSGA-II; Reduced-order model; Shift shock; Coordinated control.

  • Research on active suspension-based anti-rollover control strategy for side-unloading dump trucks during lifting operations   Order a copy of this article
    by Tianmin Zhu, Mingmao Hu, Qinghe Guo, Min Liu, Renjun Liu, Mengchao Wang, Zhongcheng Fu, Yu Wang 
    Abstract: Aiming at the problem of poor stability of side-unloading dump trucks under lifting conditions, an anti-rollover control strategy combining active suspension and fuzzy sliding mode control was proposed. Considering the changes in the mass and spatial position of the cargo during lateral unloading, a four-degree-of-freedom side-unloading dump truck nonlinear model was established, and the model's accuracy was validated using MATLAB/Simulink. The adjustment of sliding mode control parameters is realized through fuzzy logic, and the fuzzy-sliding mode controller is used to obtain the anti-roll moment that suppresses suspension deformation. A rollover warning controller was designed using the ratio of the right wheel load to the total vehicle weight as the rollover evaluation index. Simulation is conducted using ordinary sliding mode control and without any control for comparison. The results indicate that this strategy enhances the lateral stability of side-unloading dump trucks under lifting operations, effectively preventing rollover incidents.
    Keywords: side-unloading dump truck; active suspension; anti-rollover; fuzzy-sliding mode control.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2024.10062414
  • Development of a direct yaw moment control strategy for an articulated bus equipped with on-board electric motors   Order a copy of this article
    by Kerem Bayar 
    Abstract: Considering the damping moment associated with the articulation joint of buses, the degree of actuation freedom increases, for stabilising the vehicle during harsh manoeuvres on slippery surfaces. With this background, this study aims at developing a direct yaw moment control strategy for an articulated bus, equipped with on board electric motors at middle and rear axles, that is capable of braking / accelerating the left and right wheels independently. The yaw moment control problem is treated as a control allocation problem, where the corrective yaw moment action for front and rear compartments, is distributed onto individual wheel braking/acceleration and articulation joint damping moment. Through lane change and snaking manoeuvre simulation results, the effectiveness of the proposed controller is shown, in terms of tracking the desired front and rear compartment yaw rates. This is achieved without sacrificing vehicle sideslip and articulation angles.
    Keywords: direct yaw moment control; articulated bus; control allocation; yaw rate; articulation angle; vehicle sideslip angle; on board electric motor.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2024.10062569