Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems

International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems (IJHVS)

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International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems (53 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Introducing wheel-rail adhesion control into longitudinal train dynamics   Order a copy of this article
    by Qing Wu, Maksym Spiryagin, Colin Cole, Yan Sun 
    Abstract: Conventional Longitudinal Train Dynamics (LTD) simulations apply a number of assumptions regarding wheel-rail adhesion, and wheel-rail adhesion control has not previously been considered. This paper introduces locomotive wheel-rail adhesion control into LTD using co-simulation and parallel computing techniques. An in-house LTD simulator was connected to a commercial MBS dynamics simulator using the TCP/IP protocol. A heavy haul train with the configuration of three locomotives and 150 wagons was modelled. The wagons were modelled in the LTD simulator while the locomotives were modelled in the MBS simulator. The locomotive models were three-dimensional models that included wheel-rail contact models and adhesion control models. Simulations of locomotives were processed in parallel using three computer cores. Co-simulations with and without the consideration of curve lubrication were conducted and compared with a conventional LTD simulation. Computing times with and without parallel computing were also compared. The results show that, when compared with conventional LTD simulations, wheel-rail adhesion control generates evident differences for maximum traction forces, average train speeds, maximum in-train forces and force patterns. With three computer cores, parallel computing reduced the computing time by about 46% from about 3.7 hours to about 2.0 hours.
    Keywords: longitudinal train dynamics; wheel-rail contact; adhesion control; traction modelling; parallel computing;co-simulation.

  • Ground-watching navigation for trailer-steering control   Order a copy of this article
    by Qiheng Miao, David Cebon 
    Abstract: This paper discusses two ground-watching navigation strategies for path-following control of a steered trailer at low speeds. Such systems provide navigation information by processing the features of the road surface in successive images. Theoretical performance of the systems was initially investigated in simulation. Field testing was conducted for three manoeuvres: a straight line, a lane change and a 90
    Keywords: heavy goods vehicles; active trailer steering; ground-watching navigation; off-highway;.

  • Development of an integrated active yaw controller on soft terrain   Order a copy of this article
    by Hossam Ragheb 
    Abstract: Off-road vehicle maneuverability on soft terrain is strongly affected by the tyre-soil interaction characteristics. Remarkable enhancements in active vehicle safety systems depend on different control systems aiming to enhance off-road vehicle mobility. In this paper, an integrated active yaw control system, Anti-Lock Braking System (ABS) and Traction Control System (TCS), for an (8x8) multi-wheeled combat vehicle operating on soft terrain is developed. A TruckSim-MATLAB/Simulink vehicle model was developed to verify the developed integrated control system on soft soil. The presented integrated control system revealed an enhancement in vehicle directional stability and traction performance. Besides, it should be mentioned that the soil type has a great effect on controller efficiency as it is limiting the applied torque by the developed controller.
    Keywords: off-road; mobility; active yaw control; anti-lock braking system; traction control system; TruckSim; MATLAB/Simulink; multi-wheeled vehicles; soft soil.

  • Study on super-wheelbase preview controller/algorithm for internet of vehicles suspension system used in a heavy vehicle fleet   Order a copy of this article
    by Ce Yuan, Jiang Liu, Xilong Zhang, Bilong Liu, Yushun Wang 
    Abstract: Most truck fleet transportations show typical repetitive features in vehicle models, routes and cargos. So the Internet of Vehicles (IoV) theory could be easily introduced into the active control for truck suspensions. We establish a communication network structure in which paired vehicles are basic elements, and the geographic information system is treated as a detection auxiliary. The new design reduces the overall communication demand for suspension control data. Based on this simplified IoV system, a new super-wheelbase preview control method is proposed. The optimal vehicle distance between paired trucks is calculated by the particle swarm optimisation. The traditional wheelbase preview algorithm is improved by using two equivalent parameters. The rear truck shows better comprehensive suspension performances than the front one. Finally, we perform a simple objective optimisation in the truck pairs sequence. The convergence results show that, with the help of the IoV suspension system, the sixth and after trucks can get the minimised body acceleration in the fleet's first loop.
    Keywords: suspension; IoV; super-wheelbase preview; particle swarm optimisation.

  • Dynamic stability analysis of a high speed diesel engine turbocharger subjected to aerodynamic loads and engine-induced vibration   Order a copy of this article
    by Ali Alsaeed, Salem Bashmal 
    Abstract: The dynamic behaviour of a high-speed turbocharger supported on floating-ring bearings is investigated under the effect of engine-induced vibrations and aerodynamic loads. A finite-element model is developed for the turbocharger to predict the nonlinear transient response while engine excitations are simulated as time-varying force functions on the rotor bearings. Damping and stiffness parameters of the floating-ring bearings are estimated by solving the 2-D Reynolds equation. The engine-induced excitations are combined with compressor radial aerodynamic forces to obtain the total response numerically. Modified non-circular volute theory is used to calculate radial thrust loads due to aerodynamic effects. The numerical predictions agree with the experimental observations of a fully-loaded turbocharger that show no significant second harmonic frequency amplitudes of the engine frequency. However, the engine frequencies are at comparable amplitudes with the Sub High and 1X amplitudes at higher speeds, where the radial aerodynamic loads are not significant (no-load). The results of the present work indicate that, in the subsynchronous region, some amplitudes at the engine-excitation frequency are also observed at the second harmonic for high speeds. Moreover, the dynamic stability of the turbocharger is significantly influenced by the variation in the magnitude of the engine-induced vibration. The numerical predictions are consistent with the previous experimental tests for a typical turbocharger.
    Keywords: turbocharger; stability; transient response; aerodynamic forces; vibrations.

  • Algorithm for inverse determination of derailment coefficient by using instrumented wheelsets   Order a copy of this article
    by Milan Bižić, Dragan Petrović 
    Abstract: The main indicator of the running safety of railway vehicles is ratio between lateral and vertical forces in the wheel-rail interaction, known as derailment coefficient. Its exact determination has a huge significance in the development and certification phases of railway vehicles. The most reliable determination of wheel-rail interaction forces is based on experimental testing, by using instrumented wheelsets, which is otherwise prescribed in appropriate international regulations. This paper presents a unique algorithm for inverse determination of wheel-rail interaction forces, i.e. derailment coefficient, based on the measurement signals obtained from instrumented wheelset. The blind signal separation (BSS) and method of independent component analysis (ICA) are applied. Verification is carried out on an example of a wheelset of a freight wagon, based on the wheels' FEM model. The obtained results confirm a high efficiency and accuracy of the developed algorithm, whereby the estimated error of inverse identification is less than 5%.
    Keywords: inverse determination; wheel-rail interaction forces; derailment coefficient; experimental testing; running safety; railway vehicles; instrumented wheelset.

  • Phase-based evaluation of whole-body vibration exposure for hydraulic excavator operators   Order a copy of this article
    by Tugba Dogan, Bülent Erdem, Zekeriya Duran 
    Abstract: the whole-body vibration exposure of hydraulic excavator operators was studied with the guidelines set by several approaches. The most jolty and quiet phases were FORWARD and WAIT, respectively. Vibration magnitudes were inversely proportional to bucket capacity. Excavator service year and vibration exposure were positively correlated. Younger operators were exposed to higher levels of vibration. Vibration acceleration was negatively correlated to operator experience. Handling of large-sized rocks resulted in more vibration than soil-like material. The most conservative method in estimating the hazard potential was the ISO 2631-1 vector sum, while the probability of an adverse health effect was generally low according to the ISO 2631-5.
    Keywords: A(8); BS 6841; exposure action value; exposure limit value; EU 2002/EC/44; eVDV; hypothesis testing; ISO 2631-1; ISO 2631-5; VDV(8).

  • Energy management strategy design and fuel consumption analysis for a parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle   Order a copy of this article
    by Shilei Zhou, Paul Walker, Weiwei Yang, Cong Thanh Nguyen, Nong Zhang 
    Abstract: In this paper, the energy-saving benefits of a parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle (PHHV) are investigated. The vehicle powertrain components such as engine, hydraulic pump/motor (HPM) and accumulator are modelled to demonstrate the PHHV powertrain working principle. The optimal fuel economy of the PHHV is obtained by dynamic programming (DP) optimisation. Based on the DP optimisation results, a practical rule-based energy management strategy (EMS) is designed with which the PHHV fuel economy in real application is investigated, including gear shift schedule and regenerative braking control strategy. Through simulation under a selected urban driving condition, PHHV achieves fuel consumption reduction by 27.5% compared with the conventional engine driven vehicle, which proves that the PHHV achieves significant energy saving benefits. PHHV consumes only 1.5% more fuel with the rule-based EMS than with the DP optimisation, indicating the effectiveness and practicality of the rule-based EMS in urban driving conditions.
    Keywords: hydraulic hybrid vehicle; energy management strategy; regenerative braking; fuel economy analysis; dynamic programming.

  • IoT and artificial intelligence enabled state of charge estimation for battery management system in hybrid electric vehicles   Order a copy of this article
    by Siripuri Kiran, Niranjan Polala, Phridviraj M S B, Venkatramulu S, Chintakindi Srinivas, V.Chandra Shekhar Rao 
    Abstract: In recent times the use of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) as dynamic electrical energy management systems in smart grids has shown several benefits while affecting the grid and HEV battery pack. Amongst several HEV technologies, an effective battery management system (BMS) remains a challenging problem, which is mainly used to indicate the battery state of charge (SOC). As over-charging and over-discharging lead to unavoidable damage to the batteries, precise SOC estimation needs to be offered by the BMS. Numerous SOC estimation approaches exist to determine the SOC of the battery cells. With this motivation, this study aims to design an effective IoT and artificial intelligence (AI) enabled SOC estimation model for battery management in HEVs. The presented model involves a black widow optimisation (BWO) based Deep Long Short Term (LSTM) based Stacked Autoencoder (LSTM-SAE).
    Keywords: battery management; hybrid electric vehicles; parameter tuning; deep learning; state of charge; artificial intelligence.

  • Hardware-in-the-loop simulation of active roll control for a single-trailer truck using a steerable wheel at the middle axle   Order a copy of this article
    by Muhammad Nadwi Hakimi Adnan, Zulkiffli Abd Kadir, Khisbullah Hudha, Noor Hafizah Amer, Mohd Sabirin Rahmat, Mohamad Hafiz Harun, Vimal Rau Aparow 
    Abstract: Normally, a single-trailer truck will lose its manoeuvrability when driving at a high speed during cornering or sudden lane-changing manoeuvres. In order to improve the manoeuvrability and to avoid rollover accidents, this study proposes an active roll control using a steerable-wheel system at the middle axle for a single-trailer truck. The system is developed to reject the unwanted yaw, lateral and roll motions based on trailer responses. The control structure of the active roll control system is developed on a verified 18-DOF model of a single-trailer truck. A PID controller as the trailers roll angle feedback control is applied in the control structure and additional roll moment cancellation control using a skyhook controller. From the experimental results using hardware-in-the-loop simulation, a good similarity between simulation and experiment is observed for yaw rate, roll angle and lateral acceleration responses. It also shows that the developed steerable-wheel system has reduced the unwanted lateral, yaw and roll motions.
    Keywords: middle axle steerable wheel; truck-trailer; active roll control; HiLS; PID-Skyhook.

  • The solution of traffic flow organisation optimisation model based on adaptive genetic algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Ji Zhang, Hongxia Lv, Boer Deng, Wenxian Wang 
    Abstract: In order to reduce the workload of the stations along the way, the train flow in the loading area is rationally organised. By designing a vehicle flow organisation method that increases the turnover speed of trucks, it helps to better coordinate the flow of goods and trains. The organisation of the three trucks in the loading area and the time consumption index are analysed, and the optimisation model of the train route adjustment is constructed based on the results to reduce the time consumption of train transportation. In order to ensure the spatial feasibility of the designed model in the application process, based on the improved genetic algorithm, the complexity of the built model and related constraints are considered, and an algorithm that restricts the space search is established. This algorithm can realise adaptive adjustment. The case analysis of Huangdao loading area proves the effectiveness of this model.
    Keywords: car flow organisation in loading area; vehicle hour consumption; optimisation model; spatial search strategy; adaptive genetic algorithm.

  • Deep learning based neuro-PI for yaw disturbance rejection control: hardware-in-the-loop simulation using scaled armoured vehicle platform   Order a copy of this article
    by Vimal Rau Aparow, Khisbullah Hudha, Hishamuddin Jamaluddin, Zulkiffli Abd. Kadir 
    Abstract: This study is focused on improving the behaviour of the armoured vehicle in terms of handling responses during firing by enhancing the performance of yaw disturbance rejection control. A yaw disturbance rejection control is designed to overcome external disturbance using a deep learning based neuro-PI controller to optimise the variables of the neural network. Moreover, cost-effective approaches are required to evaluate the capability of the controller to enhance the lateral dynamic response of the armoured vehicle. Thus, hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation testing has been adopted in this study to analyse the response of the yaw disturbance rejection control. The HIL simulation testing was performed using Cronos Compact data acquisition box developed by Integrated Measurement and Control (IMC) and integrated with Matlab Simulink. The percentage of error between HIL and software-in-the-loop simulation testing using deep learning based neuro PI of yaw disturbance rejection control is less than 7% for overall simulation testing.
    Keywords: yaw disturbance rejection control; hardware-in-the-loop simulation; integrated measurement and control; deep learning based neuro-PI controller; armoured vehicle.

  • Stress analysis of an air tube bracket on a heavy duty commercial vehicles chassis   Order a copy of this article
    by Pasa Yayla, Burak Ates, Ozan Berke Yabar 
    Abstract: This study is performed on the air tube bracket system of a heavy-duty commercial truck oscillating at its natural frequency under dynamic load exposed from all along its route. The dynamic analysis of the bracket with the entire commercial vehicle is made based on the data from rough road conditions. In all studies, the finite element models are created with the Medina software, and the solving process is performed with the Permas software. The results provide not only the optimum geometry of the air tube bracket system of the heavy-duty truck but also its ideal dimensions. The analysis also revealed that, in addition to the geometry, the straps wideness and their locations are of paramount importance in their overall performance.
    Keywords: finite element analysis; air tube bracket; heavy duty commercial vehicle; stress analysis; simulation.

  • Study and failure analysis of non-drive automotive rear axle of a heavy commercial vehicle   Order a copy of this article
    by Aakarsh Ranjan, RAJASEKHARA REDDY MUTRA, Yash Kirty, J. Srinivas, Muhamad Norhisham, D. Mallikarjuna Reddy 
    Abstract: The non-drive automotive rear axle beam of a heavy commercial vehicle, 35T Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW), 8X2 Truck, is undergoing bending failure on the field (failed axle beam). The failure is primarily due to the overloading of the vehicle by the customer. This paper analyses the failed rear axle shaft of the vehicle, and highlights the regions of failure in the axle cross-section and its impact on performance and life. A three-dimensional (3D) Computer-Aided Design (CAD) engineering model of the failed axle beam is modelled in Solid Works software. The 3D model is imported into finite element analysis (FEA) software, Altair Hyper Works, to create a finite element model, carry out linear static, modal and fatigue analysis and study the stress/strain induced in the failed axle beam. Based on the results obtained from the three analyses, the axle beam will undergo cross-sectional and material changes to eliminate the failure and improve product quality and life
    Keywords: non-drive automotive rear axle; bending failure; finite element model; fatigue analysis.

  • Ride comfort assessment and improvement in high-speed railway vehicle   Order a copy of this article
    by Vivek Kumar, Vikas Rastogi, Pushparaj Mani Pathak 
    Abstract: Railway transport has achieved significant improvement in terms of speed and safety in the last few decades. Compared with other means of transportation, trains are found to be environmentally friendly, faster, safer, and cheaper. In all the merits, speed is one of the most critical aspects of train operations. Therefore, the research for increasing the operational speed of trains has never been ended. However, higher speed could negatively affect the performance of a train. The suspension of the vehicle should be modified to compensate for the reduced performance. However, enhancement potentials through passive systems are limited. Consequently, active technology comes as an alternative for improving the vehicle's dynamic performance. The active technology to enhance comfort/stability has been implemented in railway coaches during the past few decades. But, the operational and initial cost of active technology is still very high. Thus, it has yet not attained a decisive, convincing breakthrough in real operations except for a few service implementations. Therefore, the present work is planned to enhance the ride comfort of the high-speed train by using semi-active lateral secondary suspension control. Three different control strategies have been incorporated in secondary lateral suspension for improvement of ride comfort, and it has been found that the use of a semi-active system improves the vibration isolation levels to a significant degree.
    Keywords: railway vehicle; ride comfort; vibration; bond graph; Sperling index.

  • An integrated approach for scheduling electric vehicles and distributed generators in a smart distribution system   Order a copy of this article
    by Velamuri Suresh, Suresh Kumar Sudabattula, N. Prabaharan, R. Sitharthan, M. Rajesh 
    Abstract: An increase in the use of electric vehicles (EVs) and their irregular patterns of usage create a greater impact on the performance electric distribution systems. In this article, an effective method of scheduling EVs, optimal location, and sizing of distributed generators is implemented. A novel smart charging method is proposed and implemented for scheduling the EVs, in both Grid to Vehicle (G2V) and Vehicle to Grid (V2G) modes in this work. Also, a combined approach of Voltage Stability Index (VSI) and the Grasshopper Optimisation Algorithm (GOA) method is implemented on the IEEE 33 bus system in the presence of EVs. The results are carried for three different cases with and without considering EVs in both V2G and G2V modes. The proposed smart charging method provides a better solution in managing the system peak demand, thereby reducing the power loss of the overall network and improving the voltage profile.
    Keywords: electric vehicle; smart charging; grasshopper optimisation; power loss; distributed generation.

  • Strength analysis of energy absorbing protective structure for excavator   Order a copy of this article
    by Yong-Jae Park, Kwang-Hee Lee, Chul-Hee Lee 
    Abstract: The excavator needs a device that can protect the operator from the overturning of the excavator on the slope. The rollover protective structure is a system of structural members that protects a seat belt operator when the excavator is rolled over. A load test is performed for rollover protective structure (ROPS) system certification according to ISO 12117-2 requirements. Unlike the machines covered by ISO 3471, hydraulic excavators feature attachments that affect the required performance capability of the ROPS. Numerical analysis is carried out using the nonlinear finite element solver ABAQUS to evaluate the safety according to the ISO standard. Finite element analysis can reduce time and cost by minimising the number of tests. Structural strength analysis of a hydraulic excavator rollover protective structure has convergence problems owing to nonlinear contact, buckling, and large deformation, and is solved through quasi-static analysis and penalty method. Lateral load, longitudinal load, and vertical load measurements are performed, confirming the good correlation between FEA results and bench test results. The validity of the FEA methodology for the hydraulic excavator rollover protective structure is verified. This paper provides the methodology for performing strength tests on protective structures using numerical analysis methods.
    Keywords: hydraulic excavator; rollover protection; energy absorption; finite element technique.

  • Developing a novel method to reduce the steering force in heavy trucks   Order a copy of this article
    by Gokay Uymaz, Metin Aydogdu 
    Abstract: This study investigates the vibration control as a new method for reducing the steering forces and tyre-road friction which occurred on steering systems. The coefficient of friction between the tyre and road is taken into account as continuously dynamic, and the friction force decreases in the dynamic condition, with the help of controlled vibration. A new system has been designed to replace the so-called drag link in the steering mechanism of commercial vehicles. The draglink replacement part provides controlled vibration for various amplitude and frequency. The new designed system was experimentally verified and then by substituting the experimentally obtained results in the equations, the decrease in the friction coefficient was calculated. Hereby, it has been tried to determine the suitable values of the vibration frequency and amplitude to convert the coefficient of friction between the wheel and the road into the lowest dynamic coefficient of friction. According to the test results, a measurable and significant reduction in steering forces has been determined.
    Keywords: steering systems; tyre-road friction; vibration control; friction coefficient.

  • Transfer path analysis of a railway vehicle based on global transfer direct transfer   Order a copy of this article
    by Li Yingli, Wang Yong, Juliana Wada 
    Abstract: To overcome the shortcomings of the classical transfer path analysis (TPA) and operation transfer path analysis (OTPA), the Global Transfer Direct Transfer (GTDT) method is adopted. This method does not require force determination, and direct transfer functions can be used to identify problematic subsystems, which are calculated and used to determine the cause of the total displacements on the car body. When studying the contribution of each component of the bogie to the car body displacements, the effect of different mechanical property parameters is analysed to find the problematic subsystem that causes the highest displacement for improvement. It is creative that mathematical mechanical modelling of a railway vehicle with 6 and 11 degrees of freedom is developed for GTDT analysis. Experimental results show that the GTDT method is a promising method for studying the vibration transmission path of complex practical rail vehicle systems. It can diminish the vibration efficiently.
    Keywords: transmission path analysis; global transfer matrix; direct transfer matrix.

  • 3D simulation to evaluate MTU4000 heavy-duty diesel engine power enhancement considering performance limitations and combustion improvement by reducing lean regions   Order a copy of this article
    by Saleh Talesh Amiri, Rouzbeh Shafaghat, Mostafa Mohebbi 
    Abstract: The possibility of MTU4000 R43L diesel engine power enhancement has been numerically investigated by raising the fuel mass. In addition, some characteristics such as compression ratio (CR), start of injection (SOI), and piston bowl geometry have also been considered. In the results, the effect of fuel mass is first evaluated. Increasing the fuel mass by 7, 10, and 13%, increased, decreased, and then increased the indicated specific fuel consumption (ISFC), respectively. By increasing the fuel mass up to 10%, the maximum in-cylinder temperature increased, which could be controlled by reducing the CR. Decreasing the CR from 18 to 16 increased the ISFC by up to 3%. Also, the reduction of CR from 17 to 16.5 reduced the maximum slope of pressure change by 35%. The indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) increased by 1.05 bar. By changing the SOI from 6 to 9 degrees bTDC and then decreasing in 10 bTDC. Finally, three different piston bowl geometries have been evaluated.
    Keywords: heavy-duty diesel engine; power density; compression ratio; start of injection; piston bowl geometry.

  • Characteristic analysis with new liquid solid coupling dynamics model of high-clearance sprayer during liquid variation   Order a copy of this article
    by Mingming Xing 
    Abstract: The High Clearance Sprayer (HCS) plays an important role in agricultural production. Considering HCSs greater use and work environment, the characteristic analysis of HCS is studied. Therefore, a new whole simulation model of liquid solid coupling dynamics of HCS is built. In detail, the mathematical models of kinetic energy, potential energy and dissipated potential energy are built in the new whole vehicle mechanical model. Next, the differential equations of HCS nodes are set up. Then the node response curves of the HCS total system are simulated. Finally, the stability of liquid variation on HCS nodes is analysed. With simulation results, the liquid fluctuation of liquid storage device is influenced by primary motion of HCS. The influence of flow rate on the stability of HCS nodes is significantly different. The stability of HCS is the problem to be settled urgently when the velocity and flow rate are changed simultaneously.
    Keywords: high clearance sprayer; HCS nodes; liquid solid coupling; displacement amplitude; liquid variation.

  • Adaptive speed controllers based on artificial intelligence techniques for unmanned vehicle electric propulsion system   Order a copy of this article
    by Ahmed Hafez, Amr Sarhan 
    Abstract: The Brushless Direct Current Motor (BLDC) is used in controlling the Unmanned Vehicle's (UV) rotor dynamics. In this article, speed control for BLDC motor via a set of adaptive intelligent control techniques is tackled. Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference Systems (ANFIS), self-adaptive proportionalintegralderivative (SA-PID) and Adaptive Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control (AFSMC) are applied to control the speed of the BLDC to maintain the required speed guaranteeing better performance, robustness and safety of the UV during mission. The main contribution in this article lies in solving the speed control problem for a BLCD on board a UV via artificial intelligence control techniques, ensuring the success of the UV in performing the required mission. The simulation results prove the success of designed controller to achieve the desired speed and the enhancement of the performance compared with traditional controllers.
    Keywords: brushless DC motor; ANFIS; SA-PID; AFSMC.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2022.10051027
  • Investigating spatio-temporal characteristics and evaluation of risky driving behaviours of a heavy goods vehicle based on vehicle networking dataset during naturalistic driving   Order a copy of this article
    by Li Jiang, Huiying Wen, Gang Xue 
    Abstract: This study analyses the factors that affect vehicle warnings driving incidents caused by risky distracted driving behaviours of Heavy Goods Vehicles (HGV) drivers. The analysis was based on the natural driving networking dataset collected over a 6-month period and comprising 81 fleets made by 5396 HGV drivers in Guangdong, China. First, the spatio-temporal coupling characteristics of warning incidents on HGV risky driving behaviour and various levels of roads were excavated. Then, a global Moran index was built to measure the comprehensive score of risky driving behaviour, based on which the safety level of driving behaviour of HGV drivers was assessed. Results showed that 50% of the HGV drivers tended to drive in a substantially dangerous driving way and the proportion of potentially extremely dangerous HGV drivers (39.25%) is distinctly higher than that of other safety types of HGV drivers by 6.64% to 18.34%. HGV drivers received the highest total number of driving warning events in September. Moreover, the high incidence areas of HGV risky warning incidents are concentrated in the dense tertiary road networks in Nanshan District and Longgang District of Shenzhen, and the dangerous warning types are mainly deviation or blocking cameras and smoking. The results of this research can provide references for HGV drivers to modify their driving errors and violations to be more appropriate to the circumstances according to the perception of high risky warning time and region, warning categories and road types during their driving. It can also make a valuable contribution for traffic management departments and logistics teams to the formulate of safety education plans, regulations and proactive road safety countermeasures and management.
    Keywords: monitoring and warning system; heavy goods vehicles; spatio-temporal effects; behavioural coaching; global Moran index; kernel density.

  • Anti-rollover control of heavy-duty dump truck with distributed model predictive control.   Order a copy of this article
    by Zhongcheng Fu, Aihong Gong, Ziwen Liao, Mingmao Hu, Haoda Yu 
    Abstract: Heavy-duty dump trucks easily roll over under extreme steering conditions. To solve this problem, this paper proposes an anti-rollover controller to improve the driving stability of heavy-duty dump trucks. A nine-degree-freedom dynamic model of heavy-duty dump trucks was established. Considering the output constraint characteristics of the active suspension actuator, an active suspension control method based on Distributed Model Predictive Control (DMPC) was given. In this method, the high-dimensional vehicle system into multiple low-dimensional suspension control subsystems was split, and a separate model predictive controller for each subsystem was designed. With the improved lateral load-transfer rate as the rollover evaluation index, additional active suspension force was provided for the vehicle through active suspension control to improve driving stability. With the co-simulation of MATLAB/Simulink and Trucksim, the simulation verification was carried out under fishhook and J-turn conditions. The results show that the designed anti-rollover control method based on DMPC can effectively inhibit the vehicle rollover.
    Keywords: heavy-duty dump truck; anti-rollover; distributed model predictive control; active suspension control.

  • Dynamics stability oriented configuration optimisation of a tractor semi-trailer tank vehicle based on a coupling lateral vehicle dynamics model   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiangji Wu, Xiujian Yang, Shengbin Zhang, Tao Wu, Chuqi Feng 
    Abstract: This paper aims at the configuration optimisation of the tractor semi-trailer tank vehicle to improve the lateral dynamics stability of the whole vehicle. In the investigation, the optimisation is performed based on a complete coupling lateral dynamics model of the tractor semi-trailer tank vehicle established in our previous work. First, a group of candidate parameters for optimisation is determined depending on the evaluation of the effect of vehicle configuration parameters on vehicle dynamics. Then comprehensive measures relating configuration parameters to vehicle dynamics stability are obtained based on the multivariable nonlinear regression method. The optimisation is solved by the elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-?) method and evaluated based on the complete coupling lateral vehicle dynamics model. This study provides a powerful means for the optimising design of the tractor semi-trailer tank vehicle.
    Keywords: vehicle dynamics; tank vehicle; tractor semi-trailer vehicle; optimising design.

  • Gyroscopic suspension for a heavy vehicle   Order a copy of this article
    by Faruk Ünker 
    Abstract: In this study, an angular momentum generated by a flywheel gyroscope is used as a suspension to prevent vehicle vibration. The frequency equations are derived and the optimal flywheel speed is obtained for vibration attenuation of the sprung mass. It is observed that the control moment gyroscope (CMG) keeps the sprung mass in the upright position with a small vibration amplitude of a steady motion. The flywheel speed is in relation to the amplitude of gimbal motion and the frequency of the axles excitation. Besides, a simulation model of CAE software (RecurDyn) is built to validate the equations of motion.
    Keywords: absorber; control moment gyroscope; dynamic absorbers; damping; gyroscope; gyrostabilizer; inverted pendulum.

  • Analysis and verification of splash lubrication for electric vehicle gearbox   Order a copy of this article
    by Zhang Qingyong, Fan Zhen, Jiang Mingjun, Chen Shanyou 
    Abstract: In order to analyse the splash lubrication characteristics of an electric vehicle gearbox, a numerical simulation model of the gearbox splash lubrication was established based on the computational fluid dynamics method, and the gear surface scaling method was proposed to process the gearbox gear. The heat flow field and oil churning loss of gear splash lubrication under different working conditions were obtained. The influence of gear speed and oil immersion depth on splash lubrication was studied. Finally, the temperature rise simulation results are compared with the test results. Results show that gear oil stirring power loss is positively correlated with speed and oil immersion depth; temperature rise is positively correlated with speed; the influence of speed on the heat flow field and oil stirring loss is much greater than the oil immersion depth; the maximum error between the simulation results and the theoretical and experimental results is only 8.51%.
    Keywords: splash lubrication; tooth surface scaling method; temperature field; flow field ; churning loss.

  • A coordinated control system for truck cabin suspension based on model predictive control   Order a copy of this article
    by Yukun Lu, Amir Khajepour, Amir Soltani 
    Abstract: Truck drivers are constantly exposed to undesirable vibrations caused by uneven road surfaces, especially in long-distance transportations. Nowadays, a truck is usually equipped with two suspension systems, namely the primary and the cabin suspensions. The cabin suspension acts as a vibration isolation system between truck chassis and driver cabin. Different techniques have been proposed to eliminate undesired vibrations transmitted to drivers, among which the semi-active cabin suspension is one of the most effective approaches. In this study, a coordinated semi-active suspension system for improving ride comfort in vertical, roll, and pitch directions is introduced. To solve this constrained multi-objective optimisation problem, the Model Predictive Control (MPC) is used. Meanwhile, the skyhook control is considered as a benchmark. These two controllers are examined through the co-simulation between ADAMS/Car and MATLAB/Simulink. The results demonstrate that MPC has significant advantages over Skyhook in terms of optimising cabin dynamics and improving ride comfort.
    Keywords: semi-active suspension; model predictive control; coordinated control; truck cabin system; ride comfort.

  • Fatigue life estimation of welded connections in a tram vehicle   Order a copy of this article
    by Oguzhan Mulkoglu, Ali Reza Seyedi, Mehmet Ali Güler, Bora Yildirim, Fatih Göncü 
    Abstract: Low-floor tram vehicles are becoming popular for mass transportation owing to their versatility. Most of the body of trams is composed of welded structures, which are prone to fatigue failure. In this study, the fatigue life of welded joints on a low-floor tram is investigated using the hot-spot stress and structural stress methods. To assess the suitability of shell elements in finite element models for fatigue analysis, we performed hot-spot stress calculations for three benchmark cases. The hot-spot stress computed using the shell element models is comparable with the results obtained from a solid model for most loading cases. Based on these findings, the fatigue life of four critical regions in a tram are estimated using the hot-spot stress and structural stress methods. It is found that the fatigue lives computed using the structural stress method are more conservative than the fatigue life results obtained from the hot-spot stress method.
    Keywords: fatigue life estimation; tram vehicles; finite element analysis; hot-spot stress method; structural stress method.

  • Research on road adaptability of roof bolter based on power flow transmission characteristics   Order a copy of this article
    by Tian Yang, Yuheng Wang, Zhifu Guo, Xiaobo Wang 
    Abstract: The aims of this research are to expand the cycle construction technology of tunnel boring machine + narrow-body roof bolter in single lane excavation and cross operation and to improve the adaptability of the roof bolter to the coal and rock pavement. First, a six-wheel drive narrow roof bolter is designed. Second, ADAMS is used to carry out virtual simulation test on the motion characteristics of roof bolter. Finally, the adaptability of the roof bolter to the underground coal and rock pavement in six-wheel drive, four-wheel drive and two-wheel drive conditions is discussed. The research results have shown that in six-wheel, four-wheel and two-wheel drive conditions of the roof bolter, it can run normally on coal and rock road, indicating it can adapt to the complex geological conditions of underground road. The lower the theoretical speed of the roof bolter, the smaller the slip power loss and the higher the driving efficiency.
    Keywords: roof bolter; power flow; multi-wheel drive; road adaptability.

  • Experimental assessment of a PID control solution for braking safety of transportation by agricultural tractor trailer combinations   Order a copy of this article
    by Eyub Canli, Kazim Carman, Serhat Soylu, Ergun Citil 
    Abstract: Vast numbers of agricultural tractor trailer combinations are used for transportation, many of which rely on over-run braking on trailers. On-road transportation by these combinations is being increased by increasing speed and mass capacities owing to market pressure. A significant braking safety issue during on-road transportation is dealt in this work. PID control is proposed as a transitional solution towards domination of new tech equipment. Conventional and proposed PID brake controls were compared experimentally by a loaded real world scale agricultural tractor trailer combination. A double axle (front and rear) trailer with 8 tons load was used for dry asphalt road conditions and 0.35 seconds lag time detected between manual and PID controlled braking. Loss of driving stability was reduced by 50% and deceleration increased by 21% with PID. Jack-knifing phenomenon is also evaluated. The proposed solution covers an important safety issue and improves braking performance.
    Keywords: deceleration; emergency braking; jack-knifing; over-run brake; transportation.

  • Modelling and verification of a 12-DOF tractor-semitrailer longitudinal model for load transfer analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Muhammad Zaidan Abdul Manaf, Khisbullah Hudha, Pakharuddin Mohd Samin, Saiful Anuar Abu Bakar 
    Abstract: The analysis of the longitudinal load transfer in a tractor-semitrailer could provide vital information on the magnitude of the loads that have been transferred between the tractor unit and the semitrailer unit. The purpose of this study is to develop a tractor-semitrailer longitudinal model for load transfer analysis. The longitudinal vehicle model is developed based on a two-axle tractor and a single-axle semitrailer connected through a fifth-wheel hitch system. The 12 degrees of freedom tractor-semitrailer model is simulated in the MATLAB Simulink software. The model is verified using qualitative and quantitative comparison methods between the simulation data and the TruckSim data. The verification is performed through the sudden acceleration test and the harsh braking test. The result of the study shows that the dynamic behaviour of the developed tractor-semitrailer model is in good agreement with the TruckSim dynamic behaviour with an acceptable RMS error of less than 5%. The analysis of the longitudinal load transfer found that the load transfer during the harsh braking test had higher magnitudes and a longer duration of existence compared with the sudden acceleration test.
    Keywords: tractor-semitrailer; longitudinal model; load transfer analysis; sudden acceleration test; harsh braking test; hitch joint modelling; vertical hitch force; longitudinal hitch force.

  • Investigation on oil centrifugal force balance of main and auxiliary cylinders in wet clutch of heavy-duty vehicle   Order a copy of this article
    by Ran Gong, Yuhang Liu, Huajun Che 
    Abstract: The high-speed rotation of the wet clutch in heavy-duty vehicles causes the oil in the cylinder to generate a large centrifugal force. In response to the above problem, a balanced structure of the cylinders in the wet clutch is proposed to offset the dynamic pressure generated by the centrifugal force. The correctness of the dynamic pressure model of the clutch cylinder is verified by a test of the oil pressure in the clutch cylinder. The effects of cylinder rotational speed, oil temperature and oil filling pressure on the total pressure and dynamic pressure in the main cylinder and auxiliary cylinder are discussed. Taking the impact degree as an evaluation index, the shift quality of the clutch with different cylinder sizes is studied. The size of the auxiliary cylinder with the best balanced effect on the dynamic pressure in the main cylinder is proposed in this paper.
    Keywords: wet clutch; balanced structure; dynamic pressure; moving mesh; shift quality; CFD.

  • Assessment of the dynamic stability of mine-rollers-equipped heavy vehicle   Order a copy of this article
    by Mostafa I. Yacoub, Mootaz E. Abo-Elnor, Ahmed M. Ali, Ibrahim A. Elsherif, Mohamed A. El-Latif, Alhossein Mostafa Sharaf 
    Abstract: One of the strategies to protect vehicle platoons against Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) is to use a mine-roller mounted at the front of the vehicle with a telescopic lever and fork ending with two sets of freely rotating solid tyres. However, rough vehicle handling or cornering in unstable conditions may be encountered particularly at high speeds. This paper presents a detailed investigation to ensure sufficient handling and stability of mine-rollers-equipped vehicle. In the design phase, both the kinematic and dynamic analyses are illustrated. The mathematical analysis of the dynamic stability problem is validated by in-field measurements of a real mine-rollers-equipped heavy vehicle. Results show that vehicle stability could be achieved using the pre-manufacturing mathematical analysis illustrated in this article. Furthermore, the analysis is extended to address the effect of some mine-rollers design parameters, such as increasing setup length and weight, which would certainly enhance the protection of the mobile platoon.
    Keywords: mine-rollers; heavy vehicle stability; handling performance; convoying security.

  • Numerical simulation-based ride comfort analysis of the high-speed train using multibody dynamics   Order a copy of this article
    by Sumeet Padhi, Yamika Patel, Harsh Kumar, Vikas Rastogi 
    Abstract: High-speed railway is emerging as one of India's vital infrastructure projects. The levels of operational safety and comfort are crucial aspects for a passenger. Random track imperfections may lead high-speed trains (HSRV) to react unacceptably, jeopardising operational safety and comfort. This paper attempts to numerically solve the ride comfort problem through the concepts of multibody dynamics under PSD-based track irregularity, modelled and simulated in SIMPACK software. A 50 degree of freedom HSRV model has been developed in SIMPACK. The full car model consists of one LBH coach, two FIAT bogies and four wheelsets. Measured track irregularity data of High-Speed China Railway Comprehension Inspection Train (CRCIT) has been used. Modelling of nonlinear primary and secondary dampers is also incorporated to make HSRV more practical. This work includes acceleration response in the time and frequency domain. Additionally, investigations on effect of velocity and suspension parameters on the ride index are carried out.
    Keywords: numerical simulation; ride comfort; track irregularity; PSD; vibration; multi-body; SIMPACK.

  • Parameter matching of composite power supply for mining vehicle oriented by maximizing braking energy recovery   Order a copy of this article
    by Yilin Wang, Weiwei Yang, Yaodong Yang, Wenmin Zhang 
    Abstract: Owing to the rugged driving conditions, the current of the mining dump truck changes violently during operation, and there is an instantaneous high current charge/discharge, which affects the feedback efficiency and battery life. Therefore, aiming at the demand of braking energy recovery of NTE150 hybrid electric mine vehicle, this paper studies the parameter matching problem of a type of mining truck with the power battery and supercapacitor as composite power supply. The composite power supply parameters are optimised using a multi-objective genetic algorithm with the load capacity and the power battery loss as evaluation indexes. Furthermore, based on the typical fixed, known working conditions, the simulation results under the Pareto solution set and rule-based calculation configuration scheme are compared and analysed. Compared with the rule-based configuration scheme, the optimised configuration scheme decreases the power battery loss by 5.28% and the total weight of the energy storage device by 30.92%.
    Keywords: mining truck; braking energy recovery; parameter matching; composite power; multi-objective optimisation.

  • Mounting position effect on hydraulic cylinder subjected to impulse force   Order a copy of this article
    by Ibrahim A. Elsherif, Mootaz Aboelnor 
    Abstract: Hydraulic cylinders are commonly used in mechanical systems to convert hydraulic energy into mechanical energy to realise linear motion where high forces and robust operation are required. They are used in truck-mounted guns to support the outriggers or spades that transmit the impulse forces resulting from firing to the ground to protect the truck suspension and chassis. The total stiffness of a hydraulic cylinder and the transmitted stress waves are affected by its mounting direction. In this paper, the effect of the mounting position of cylinders subjected to impulse force from firing was studied. It was found that the direction of mounting plays a significant role on stress waves effects that act on both cylinder rod and cylinder barrel when subjected to impulse force. Results show that the mounting position of the cylinder barrel load case is better than the mounting position of the rod load case to withstand the stress waves.
    Keywords: hydraulic cylinder; mobile artillery; impulse force; gun firing; recoil dynamics; stress wave.

  • Impact of super single truck tyres on tyre-terrain interaction characteristics   Order a copy of this article
    by Alfonse Ly, Zeinab El-Sayegh 
    Abstract: This paper focuses on the impact of tyre configuration on the tyre-terrain interaction characteristics. Two truck tyre models are developed using the Finite Element Method (FEM) and validated in static and dynamic response in a computational environment. The first model is the Regional Haul Drive with dimensions 315/80R22.5, which is used in the dual configuration for tractor semi-trailer applications. The second model is the super single X One XDA size 445/50R22.5, which is used in a super single configuration. The terrain models are developed using a smoothed-particle hydrodynamics technique and are validated using published data. Both tyres are tested under various operating conditions, including on-road and off-road operations, loading, and tyre speed. This study investigates the tyre-terrain characteristics of both tyres and the effect of the variation of moisture in the sandy loam soil.
    Keywords: finite element method; dual tyres; super single; smoothed-particle hydrodynamics; tyre-terrain interaction.

  • Three-point based truck mounted platform levelling mechanism   Order a copy of this article
    by Mootaz Aboelnor 
    Abstract: The design methodology of a moving platform levelling mechanism is introduced based on operational limitation of ground level within tilt and pitch angles referenced to horizontal plane. A three-point support platform levelling mechanism is designed. The proposed mechanism operates such that levelling is achieved by a sequential angular displacement of tilt link and pitch link. An analytical kinematics model based on loop-closure constraint equations is proposed, describing platform tilt-pitch due to ground topology status and corresponding tilt link and pitch link angular displacement to restore the top platform level. A 3D CAD model of the proposed levelling mechanism is constructed, and a numerical simulation of tilt and pitch links angular displacement to restore top platform level for different moving base orientations due to ground topology status is carried out to validate the proposed mechanism kinematics and analysis of mechanism behaviour while restoring top platform levelling.
    Keywords: platform levelling; loop-closure kinematics; tilt-pitch mechanism; roll-pitch mechanism.

  • Effect of truck tyre tread design on tyre-terrain interaction using advanced computational techniques   Order a copy of this article
    by Alfonse Ly, Zeinab El-Sayegh 
    Abstract: This paper investigates the effect of various tread design parameters on tyre-terrain interaction characteristics. The off-road terrain chosen for this study is varied moisture content sand. The sand terrain was modelled and designed using the Smoothed-Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) technique and was calibrated using measured terrain data. The truck tyre used has a size 315/80R22.5 that was designed and validated through Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The tread of the 3-grooves base model tyre is modified with 4-grooves, 5-grooves, half depth, and quarter depth to study the impact of the number of grooves and tread depth on the tyre-terrain interaction characteristics. To study this impact, variations of tyre loading and tyre speed were subjected to the simulation over different terrains. The tyre-terrain interaction characteristics included the rolling friction, tyre vertical displacement, and longitudinal slip.
    Keywords: tyre mechanics; soil dynamics; computational analysis; off-road vehicle operations.

  • A dynamic modelling of forklift hydraulic actuator internal leakage using bond graph method   Order a copy of this article
    by Rizki Susetyo Nugroho, Irfan Bahiuddin, Hafizh Arsa Prabakara, Ryandhi Rofifu Chazim, Zulkarnain Ali Leman, Mohd Hatta Mohammed Ariff 
    Abstract: This paper presents a first application of a bond graph approach to model hydraulic internal leakage in the elevating movement of a forklift. A mathematical model was built by considering the operation of the forklift during normal and faulty conditions. The modelled system consists of mechanical and hydraulic parts of the mechanism. The internal leakage is proposed to be added in the hydraulic system. Several parameters are tuned using constriction particle swarm optimisation (PSO) inspired by bird groups searching for food. The analysis was carried out by considering parameters of the leakage flow system in the forklift lifting hydraulic cylinder. The simulation results show that the greater the leakage flow parameter the smaller the efficiency, which is quite similar to the benchmark data from the previous study. A negative correlation between a constant representing leakage and the steady state velocities with value of -0.55 is found based on the simulation results.
    Keywords: bond graph; forklift; cylinder leakage; dynamic simulation; elevating mechanism?.

  • The effect of geometric location of semitrailer centre of gravity on stability   Order a copy of this article
    by Shahab Asadi, Ahmad Keshavarzi 
    Abstract: This study investigated a semitrailer's roll and stability. To this end, an O2 single-axle semitrailer, was used. The semitrailer's weight change, longitudinal shift of the centre of gravity (CG), and CG height change have a fundamental role in the stability of the vehicle and semitrailer on the road. This paper used analytical, experimental, and numerical analysis techniques to address this issue. To investigate the stability parameters, the DLC test (which is in compliance with ISO-3888) was used to compare the results obtained from the numerical and experimental models. The results indicated a 10% difference between the experimental and numerical methods and the longitudinal shift of CG had a greater effect than the CG height change on the vehicle's stability.
    Keywords: semitrailer; centre of gravity; numerical analysis; experimental analysis; roll.

  • Haar cascade-based deep learning model to predict in/out bound passenger flow and distance estimation for intelligent transport systems   Order a copy of this article
    by Vishnu Kumar Kaliappan, K.S. Gautam, M. Akila, K. Mohanasundaram 
    Abstract: Managing crowd density in the transportation industry is still a research issue. One of the components of a smart city's Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) is the improvement of traffic efficiency. The ITS improves traffic congestion control by collecting real-time data. A dependable system capable of counting the number of passengers on a carrier is required for effective traffic congestion control. In this work, we presented a unique approach named the Intelligent Centroid Tracker and Counter (ICTC) that could recognise, count, and compute the distances between people in a limited location. The proposed algorithm is vision-based, aiming to maximise congestion control inside passenger transportation systems. It supports many application cases, including intelligent transportation, buildings, and other demographics requiring social segregation. The ICTC algorithm generates metadata that provides the relevant operational or administrative head with a clear image of the current passenger count status and delivers visual indication with a bounding box. The algorithm collects data on population density in a public transit medium from commuters in each region, then delivers adequate transportation facilities to the general public. The study collects information on crowd density and offers commuters suggestions on available seats in the vehicle, which ultimately saves time, prevents boarding crowded vehicles, assures social distance, and standardizes public transportation systems, all of which have practical implications. According to experimental investigation, the proposed approach operates on VISOR, Kaggle, CALTECH, Penn-Fudan, Daimler Mono, and INRIA with accuracy values of 0.81, 0.83, 0.85, 0.88, 0.82, and 0.89, respectively.
    Keywords: deep learning; intelligent transportation system; Haar classifiers; passenger forecast; computer vision.

  • Design of unmanned ground vehicle path tracking controller based on reinforcement learning   Order a copy of this article
    by Islam Hassan, Tamer Attia, Hossam Ragheb, Alhossein Sharaf 
    Abstract: This paper presents a UGV path tracking controller based on Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL), where a Double Deep Q-Network (DDQN)algorithm is employed to train a Deep Neural Network (DNN) for controlling the UGV to follow the desired path. The advantage of DDQN over Deep Q-Network (DQN) is that the DDQN uses two Neural Networks (NNs), where one is working as a controller to generate actions for controlling the UGV, while the other is the target network to estimate the future rewards. The path tracking UGV kinematic is presented to determine the deviated distance and orientation between the UGVs pose and the desired path. White noise was added to the UGV wheels speed for evaluating the robustness of the proposed controller. The simulation results illustrate that the trained controller enables the UGV to follow the desired trajectory in the presence of noisy actuation with high accuracy.
    Keywords: UGV path tracking; deep reinforcement learning; double deep Q-network; deep neural network.

  • An investigation on the effectiveness of mandatory periodic truck safety inspection policy in China: a case study in Guangdong Province   Order a copy of this article
    by Wenxue Cai, Xiaoqi Hong, Shuyu Lin, Yimiao Gu, Hui Shan Loh 
    Abstract: The current warranty of fitness scheme in China is considered effective in reducing truck accident rates, but the expense of doing so seems too high. This study attempts to find appropriate inspection intervals for different truck types to reduce costs and maximise the effectiveness and efficiency of truck safety inspection scheme. Few studies have investigated policy of periodic vehicle inspections from the angle of truck performance, which has a direct impact on the transportation system. This study empirically evaluates the periodic truck safety inspection policy by investigating the cyclic variation of truck performance based on the inspection data classified by truck types in Guangdong Province of China from 2010 to 2017. First, the annual performance of different truck types is analysed and the cyclic variation of truck performance is evaluated over eight consecutive years. Second, the costs of the periodic inspection scheme and the advantages of prolonging the inspection intervals of small trucks and medium trucks are discussed. Quantitative data is also used to reveal the potential associations between the decay rate of truck performance and overweight. It has been found that it is appropriate to extend the inspection intervals from one year to four years for the first five years of light trucks and medium trucks. This study provides useful references for policy makers and relevant government departments to carry out effective and scientific truck safety inspection schemes in China and other countries.
    Keywords: truck inspection; inspection policy; truck performance; safety performance.

  • An innovative spatial mathematical modeling and vibration analysis of six wheeled truck without spades under an impulsive force   Order a copy of this article
    by Ibrahim Soleiman, Seyed Masoud Hashemi, Asghar Mahdian, Mostafa Nazemizadeh 
    Abstract: In recent years, the wheeled vehicles without spades are employed in modern military applications due to their enhanced mobility and manoeuvrability. In this work, the dynamic modelling and vibration analysis of six wheeled truck without spades and equipped with recoil mechanism under an impulsive force is studied. A novel spatial vehicle model is developed to describe vibration of the heavy wheeled truck. The governing equations of the system are derived and the obtained vibrational equations are solved and simulated. The simulation results show that the dynamic specifications of the recoil mechanism have prominent effects on the vibration behaviour. Moreover, choosing appropriate values of the system parameters prevents excessive vehicle vibration or lift-off. Finally, it should be emphasized that the novel spatial dynamic model of the wheeled truck with the recoil mechanism can be an innovative benchmark for the future studied
    Keywords: wheeled truck; without spades; dynamic modelling; recoil mechanism; firing force; vibration analysis.

Special Issue on: Recent Advances in Active Safety Control Systems for Commercial Vehicles

  • Investigating the active suspension performance using 2/ robust controller combined with particle swarm optimisation   Order a copy of this article
    by Hamid Taghavifar, Leyla Tagahvifar, Aref Mardani 
    Abstract: A robust controller design technique for vehicle active suspension systems is investigated, which takes into consideration the road disturbance as the uncertainty of system parameters. The design of the robust controller is considered as a dynamic optimisation problem, and two artificial intelligence approaches of genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization are adopted to find the optimum amounts of weighted mixture of H∞/H2. The cost function of the robust controller is designed based on the norms of the weighted mixture of H∞/H2 for a plant with a definite feedback gain and coefficient of norm of infinity that varies in the range between 0 and 1 representing absolute H2 and H∞, respectively. Particle swarm optimisation showed a competitive convergence to the global minimum of 127 in the shortest time and was selected as the best performing technique. The adopted system improved the system response in terms of sprung mass acceleration, suspension deflection and unsprung mass displacement. The obtained results from the simulations further confirm the superiority of the proposed system relative to the classical passive suspension, and signify the robustness of the active controller design.
    Keywords: active suspension; robust control; suspension deflection; particle swarm optimisation.

Special Issue on: Embedded Architecture for Battery Cell Management Systems in Electric Vehicles

  • Composite fault diagnosis method of EMU traction motor speed sensor considering harmonic interference   Order a copy of this article
    by Yanshu Li, Hua Li, Jiyou Fei, Chang Lu, Jie Ma 
    Abstract: In order to improve the accuracy of the fault diagnosis of the motor speed sensor and reduce the time consumed, this paper proposes a composite fault diagnosis method for the traction motor speed sensor of the EMU considering harmonic interference. This paper takes the traction system of the CRH2 EMU as the research object, calculates the multi-dimensional fuzzy harmonic closeness of the speed sensor fault signal and the normal signal, and extracts the harmonic interference characteristics. The D-S evidence theory is used to establish a collection of equipment failure types, and to judge irrelevant subsets in the collection. According to the Dempster combination rule, the confidence function corresponding to the fault diagnosis evidence of different types of equipment is merged to realise the fault diagnosis of the motor speed sensor. Experimental results show that the diagnostic accuracy of the proposed method is high, the time-consuming is stable below 150 ms, and the packet loss rate is stable at about 2%, which is significantly better than other comparable systems. The reliability of the proposed method is verified and is a research aid in related fields.
    Keywords: harmonic interference; EMU; traction system; motor speed; speed sensor; D-S evidence theory.

Special Issue on: Recent Trends and Advancements in Marine Transportation Electrification

  • Robust speed control of induction motor drive for electric traction application   Order a copy of this article
    by Usha Sengamalai, Geetha Anbazhagan, Thamizh Thentral T M, Boopathi C S 
    Abstract: The proposed system focuses on improving the speed performance of traction drive by implementing the robust fuzzy logic controller-based inverter fed parallel connected induction motors. The fuzzy controller is compared with a conventional controller. The performance of the modified induction motor drive for traction is analysed and improved under parameter variations to achieve robust speed control. The simulation and hardware results are realised for the proposed system and compared with the conventional system.
    Keywords: asynchronous motor; robust speed control; PI controller; Fuzzy controller; Parameter variations.

  • Stability modelling and control algorithm of electric vehicle power steering   Order a copy of this article
    by Jianwei Guo, Yongbo Lv, Han Zhang 
    Abstract: In the traditional PID power steering stability modelling and control algorithm, the road control process lacks auxiliary control, the real-time performance is poor, and the stability is low. In view of this situation, a stability modelling and control algorithm of the electric vehicle steering system is proposed. The simulation models of the steering system, motor system and frame system are established by using the simulation tools of MATLAB software. The test results show that the lateral acceleration control algorithm of electric vehicle is -0.4 to -0.72 g, -0.72 g to 17.5 degrees/s and 22 degrees/s respectively under the control of input angle of 3 degrees/s to 17.5 degrees/s, stability of 22 degrees/s, stability of 0.4 to -0.3 g and -0.33 to -0.72 g.
    Keywords: control algorithm; electric power steering; steering gear; auxiliary control.

  • Design of reliable video Image transmission system for an underwater vehicle   Order a copy of this article
    by Haijun Li, Hui Lv 
    Abstract: In order to improve the transmission performance of underwater vehicle motion video image, a reliable transmission system of underwater vehicle motion video image is designed. The hardware part of the system includes the design of the transmission server and the design of the transmission client; the software part of the system mainly includes two parts: compression processing and lossless transmission of the motion video image of the underwater vehicle, which completes the software design of the system and realises the design of the whole system. The test results show that the proposed transmission system has good transmission performance for the motion video image of the vehicle in shallow water.
    Keywords: shallow water; moving video image; reliable transmission; motion.

  • Modelling of coordinated development between marine agglomeration industry ecological industry chain and natural environment   Order a copy of this article
    by Liqun Zhang, Weibo Yang 
    Abstract: Although China's marine economy continues to grow, but relatively speaking, the lack of ecological industry chain, the existence of marine environmental pollution and marine economy is unsustainable. In order to avoid the disordered state that may appear in the development of the marine aggregation industry, and ensure the coordinated development of the marine ecological industry and environmental protection, it is particularly important to find a scheme conducive to the sustainable development of the marine economy. The research shows that the construction of marine agglomeration industry ecological chain in the selected provinces is not perfect, and the pressure on marine resources and environment is also increasing year by year. At the same time, it is concluded that the marine 'sustainability' of the selected provinces has an increasing trend year by year, which undoubtedly indicates that the sustainable development capacity of the province is improving year by year.
    Keywords: marine agglomeration industry; ecological industry chain; sustainable development; model analysis method.

  • Modular tri-port converter with switched reluctance motor based hybrid electric vehicles for fault tolerance   Order a copy of this article
    by Ramya Devasahayam, D. Godwin Immanuel 
    Abstract: Hybrid electrical vehicle (HEV) is safe from CO2 emissions. Switched reluctance motors (SRMs) are easily compatible with HEV. Generator, battery bank, and SRM form the energy components in series type HEV. A tri-port converter[1,2] combines the components. Modes of operation are generator to SRM, battery bank to SRM, generator and battery bank to SRM. Flow of energy from generator to battery bank and vice versa can be possible without using an additional converter[1,2]. In the proposed system, a single phase induction motor is replaced by an SRM to reduce switching losses of the converter circuit and to control each phase independently. An SRM is preferred for its high reliability, high power, high efficiency and economy. Fault tolerance in a hybrid electric vehicle is possible using the tri-port converter.
    Keywords: hybrid electric vehicle; switched reluctance motor; tri-port converter.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2022.10044850