Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems

International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems (IJHVS)

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International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems (37 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Development of an integrated active yaw controller on soft terrain   Order a copy of this article
    by Hossam Ragheb 
    Abstract: Off-road vehicle maneuverability on soft terrain is strongly affected by the tyre-soil interaction characteristics. Remarkable enhancements in active vehicle safety systems depend on different control systems aiming to enhance off-road vehicle mobility. In this paper, an integrated active yaw control system, Anti-Lock Braking System (ABS) and Traction Control System (TCS), for an (8x8) multi-wheeled combat vehicle operating on soft terrain is developed. A TruckSim-MATLAB/Simulink vehicle model was developed to verify the developed integrated control system on soft soil. The presented integrated control system revealed an enhancement in vehicle directional stability and traction performance. Besides, it should be mentioned that the soil type has a great effect on controller efficiency as it is limiting the applied torque by the developed controller.
    Keywords: off-road; mobility; active yaw control; anti-lock braking system; traction control system; TruckSim; MATLAB/Simulink; multi-wheeled vehicles; soft soil.

  • Dynamic stability analysis of a high speed diesel engine turbocharger subjected to aerodynamic loads and engine-induced vibration   Order a copy of this article
    by Ali Alsaeed, Salem Bashmal 
    Abstract: The dynamic behaviour of a high-speed turbocharger supported on floating-ring bearings is investigated under the effect of engine-induced vibrations and aerodynamic loads. A finite-element model is developed for the turbocharger to predict the nonlinear transient response while engine excitations are simulated as time-varying force functions on the rotor bearings. Damping and stiffness parameters of the floating-ring bearings are estimated by solving the 2-D Reynolds equation. The engine-induced excitations are combined with compressor radial aerodynamic forces to obtain the total response numerically. Modified non-circular volute theory is used to calculate radial thrust loads due to aerodynamic effects. The numerical predictions agree with the experimental observations of a fully-loaded turbocharger that show no significant second harmonic frequency amplitudes of the engine frequency. However, the engine frequencies are at comparable amplitudes with the Sub High and 1X amplitudes at higher speeds, where the radial aerodynamic loads are not significant (no-load). The results of the present work indicate that, in the subsynchronous region, some amplitudes at the engine-excitation frequency are also observed at the second harmonic for high speeds. Moreover, the dynamic stability of the turbocharger is significantly influenced by the variation in the magnitude of the engine-induced vibration. The numerical predictions are consistent with the previous experimental tests for a typical turbocharger.
    Keywords: turbocharger; stability; transient response; aerodynamic forces; vibrations.

  • Phase-based evaluation of whole-body vibration exposure for hydraulic excavator operators   Order a copy of this article
    by Tugba Dogan, Bülent Erdem, Zekeriya Duran 
    Abstract: the whole-body vibration exposure of hydraulic excavator operators was studied with the guidelines set by several approaches. The most jolty and quiet phases were FORWARD and WAIT, respectively. Vibration magnitudes were inversely proportional to bucket capacity. Excavator service year and vibration exposure were positively correlated. Younger operators were exposed to higher levels of vibration. Vibration acceleration was negatively correlated to operator experience. Handling of large-sized rocks resulted in more vibration than soil-like material. The most conservative method in estimating the hazard potential was the ISO 2631-1 vector sum, while the probability of an adverse health effect was generally low according to the ISO 2631-5.
    Keywords: A(8); BS 6841; exposure action value; exposure limit value; EU 2002/EC/44; eVDV; hypothesis testing; ISO 2631-1; ISO 2631-5; VDV(8).
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2021.10058754
  • Energy management strategy design and fuel consumption analysis for a parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle   Order a copy of this article
    by Shilei Zhou, Paul Walker, Weiwei Yang, Cong Thanh Nguyen, Nong Zhang 
    Abstract: In this paper, the energy-saving benefits of a parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle (PHHV) are investigated. The vehicle powertrain components such as engine, hydraulic pump/motor (HPM) and accumulator are modelled to demonstrate the PHHV powertrain working principle. The optimal fuel economy of the PHHV is obtained by dynamic programming (DP) optimisation. Based on the DP optimisation results, a practical rule-based energy management strategy (EMS) is designed with which the PHHV fuel economy in real application is investigated, including gear shift schedule and regenerative braking control strategy. Through simulation under a selected urban driving condition, PHHV achieves fuel consumption reduction by 27.5% compared with the conventional engine driven vehicle, which proves that the PHHV achieves significant energy saving benefits. PHHV consumes only 1.5% more fuel with the rule-based EMS than with the DP optimisation, indicating the effectiveness and practicality of the rule-based EMS in urban driving conditions.
    Keywords: hydraulic hybrid vehicle; energy management strategy; regenerative braking; fuel economy analysis; dynamic programming.

  • Transfer path analysis of a railway vehicle based on global transfer direct transfer   Order a copy of this article
    by Li Yingli, Wang Yong, Juliana Wada 
    Abstract: To overcome the shortcomings of the classical transfer path analysis (TPA) and operation transfer path analysis (OTPA), the Global Transfer Direct Transfer (GTDT) method is adopted. This method does not require force determination, and direct transfer functions can be used to identify problematic subsystems, which are calculated and used to determine the cause of the total displacements on the car body. When studying the contribution of each component of the bogie to the car body displacements, the effect of different mechanical property parameters is analysed to find the problematic subsystem that causes the highest displacement for improvement. It is creative that mathematical mechanical modelling of a railway vehicle with 6 and 11 degrees of freedom is developed for GTDT analysis. Experimental results show that the GTDT method is a promising method for studying the vibration transmission path of complex practical rail vehicle systems. It can diminish the vibration efficiently.
    Keywords: transmission path analysis; global transfer matrix; direct transfer matrix.

  • 3D simulation to evaluate MTU4000 heavy-duty diesel engine power enhancement considering performance limitations and combustion improvement by reducing lean regions   Order a copy of this article
    by Saleh Talesh Amiri, Rouzbeh Shafaghat, Mostafa Mohebbi 
    Abstract: The possibility of MTU4000 R43L diesel engine power enhancement has been numerically investigated by raising the fuel mass. In addition, some characteristics such as compression ratio (CR), start of injection (SOI), and piston bowl geometry have also been considered. In the results, the effect of fuel mass is first evaluated. Increasing the fuel mass by 7, 10, and 13%, increased, decreased, and then increased the indicated specific fuel consumption (ISFC), respectively. By increasing the fuel mass up to 10%, the maximum in-cylinder temperature increased, which could be controlled by reducing the CR. Decreasing the CR from 18 to 16 increased the ISFC by up to 3%. Also, the reduction of CR from 17 to 16.5 reduced the maximum slope of pressure change by 35%. The indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) increased by 1.05 bar. By changing the SOI from 6 to 9 degrees bTDC and then decreasing in 10 bTDC. Finally, three different piston bowl geometries have been evaluated.
    Keywords: heavy-duty diesel engine; power density; compression ratio; start of injection; piston bowl geometry.

  • Modelling and verification of a 12-DOF tractor-semitrailer longitudinal model for load transfer analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Muhammad Zaidan Abdul Manaf, Khisbullah Hudha, Pakharuddin Mohd Samin, Saiful Anuar Abu Bakar 
    Abstract: The analysis of the longitudinal load transfer in a tractor-semitrailer could provide vital information on the magnitude of the loads that have been transferred between the tractor unit and the semitrailer unit. The purpose of this study is to develop a tractor-semitrailer longitudinal model for load transfer analysis. The longitudinal vehicle model is developed based on a two-axle tractor and a single-axle semitrailer connected through a fifth-wheel hitch system. The 12 degrees of freedom tractor-semitrailer model is simulated in the MATLAB Simulink software. The model is verified using qualitative and quantitative comparison methods between the simulation data and the TruckSim data. The verification is performed through the sudden acceleration test and the harsh braking test. The result of the study shows that the dynamic behaviour of the developed tractor-semitrailer model is in good agreement with the TruckSim dynamic behaviour with an acceptable RMS error of less than 5%. The analysis of the longitudinal load transfer found that the load transfer during the harsh braking test had higher magnitudes and a longer duration of existence compared with the sudden acceleration test.
    Keywords: tractor-semitrailer; longitudinal model; load transfer analysis; sudden acceleration test; harsh braking test; hitch joint modelling; vertical hitch force; longitudinal hitch force.

  • Assessment of the dynamic stability of mine-rollers-equipped heavy vehicle   Order a copy of this article
    by Mostafa I. Yacoub, Mootaz E. Abo-Elnor, Ahmed M. Ali, Ibrahim A. Elsherif, Mohamed A. El-Latif, Alhossein Mostafa Sharaf 
    Abstract: One of the strategies to protect vehicle platoons against Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) is to use a mine-roller mounted at the front of the vehicle with a telescopic lever and fork ending with two sets of freely rotating solid tyres. However, rough vehicle handling or cornering in unstable conditions may be encountered particularly at high speeds. This paper presents a detailed investigation to ensure sufficient handling and stability of mine-rollers-equipped vehicle. In the design phase, both the kinematic and dynamic analyses are illustrated. The mathematical analysis of the dynamic stability problem is validated by in-field measurements of a real mine-rollers-equipped heavy vehicle. Results show that vehicle stability could be achieved using the pre-manufacturing mathematical analysis illustrated in this article. Furthermore, the analysis is extended to address the effect of some mine-rollers design parameters, such as increasing setup length and weight, which would certainly enhance the protection of the mobile platoon.
    Keywords: mine-rollers; heavy vehicle stability; handling performance; convoying security.

  • Impact of super single truck tyres on tyre-terrain interaction characteristics   Order a copy of this article
    by Alfonse Ly, Zeinab El-Sayegh 
    Abstract: This paper focuses on the impact of tyre configuration on the tyre-terrain interaction characteristics. Two truck tyre models are developed using the Finite Element Method (FEM) and validated in static and dynamic response in a computational environment. The first model is the Regional Haul Drive with dimensions 315/80R22.5, which is used in the dual configuration for tractor semi-trailer applications. The second model is the super single X One XDA size 445/50R22.5, which is used in a super single configuration. The terrain models are developed using a smoothed-particle hydrodynamics technique and are validated using published data. Both tyres are tested under various operating conditions, including on-road and off-road operations, loading, and tyre speed. This study investigates the tyre-terrain characteristics of both tyres and the effect of the variation of moisture in the sandy loam soil.
    Keywords: finite element method; dual tyres; super single; smoothed-particle hydrodynamics; tyre-terrain interaction.

  • Three-point based truck mounted platform levelling mechanism   Order a copy of this article
    by Mootaz Aboelnor 
    Abstract: The design methodology of a moving platform levelling mechanism is introduced based on operational limitation of ground level within tilt and pitch angles referenced to horizontal plane. A three-point support platform levelling mechanism is designed. The proposed mechanism operates such that levelling is achieved by a sequential angular displacement of tilt link and pitch link. An analytical kinematics model based on loop-closure constraint equations is proposed, describing platform tilt-pitch due to ground topology status and corresponding tilt link and pitch link angular displacement to restore the top platform level. A 3D CAD model of the proposed levelling mechanism is constructed, and a numerical simulation of tilt and pitch links angular displacement to restore top platform level for different moving base orientations due to ground topology status is carried out to validate the proposed mechanism kinematics and analysis of mechanism behaviour while restoring top platform levelling.
    Keywords: platform levelling; loop-closure kinematics; tilt-pitch mechanism; roll-pitch mechanism.

  • The effect of geometric location of semitrailer centre of gravity on stability   Order a copy of this article
    by Shahab Asadi, Ahmad Keshavarzi 
    Abstract: This study investigated a semitrailer's roll and stability. To this end, an O2 single-axle semitrailer, was used. The semitrailer's weight change, longitudinal shift of the centre of gravity (CG), and CG height change have a fundamental role in the stability of the vehicle and semitrailer on the road. This paper used analytical, experimental, and numerical analysis techniques to address this issue. To investigate the stability parameters, the DLC test (which is in compliance with ISO-3888) was used to compare the results obtained from the numerical and experimental models. The results indicated a 10% difference between the experimental and numerical methods and the longitudinal shift of CG had a greater effect than the CG height change on the vehicle's stability.
    Keywords: semitrailer; centre of gravity; numerical analysis; experimental analysis; roll.

  • Haar cascade-based deep learning model to predict in/out bound passenger flow and distance estimation for intelligent transport systems   Order a copy of this article
    by Vishnu Kumar Kaliappan, K.S. Gautam, M. Akila, K. Mohanasundaram 
    Abstract: Managing crowd density in the transportation industry is still a research issue. One of the components of a smart city's Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) is the improvement of traffic efficiency. The ITS improves traffic congestion control by collecting real-time data. A dependable system capable of counting the number of passengers on a carrier is required for effective traffic congestion control. In this work, we presented a unique approach named the Intelligent Centroid Tracker and Counter (ICTC) that could recognise, count, and compute the distances between people in a limited location. The proposed algorithm is vision-based, aiming to maximise congestion control inside passenger transportation systems. It supports many application cases, including intelligent transportation, buildings, and other demographics requiring social segregation. The ICTC algorithm generates metadata that provides the relevant operational or administrative head with a clear image of the current passenger count status and delivers visual indication with a bounding box. The algorithm collects data on population density in a public transit medium from commuters in each region, then delivers adequate transportation facilities to the general public. The study collects information on crowd density and offers commuters suggestions on available seats in the vehicle, which ultimately saves time, prevents boarding crowded vehicles, assures social distance, and standardizes public transportation systems, all of which have practical implications. According to experimental investigation, the proposed approach operates on VISOR, Kaggle, CALTECH, Penn-Fudan, Daimler Mono, and INRIA with accuracy values of 0.81, 0.83, 0.85, 0.88, 0.82, and 0.89, respectively.
    Keywords: deep learning; intelligent transportation system; Haar classifiers; passenger forecast; computer vision.

  • Design of unmanned ground vehicle path tracking controller based on reinforcement learning   Order a copy of this article
    by Islam Hassan, Tamer Attia, Hossam Ragheb, Alhossein Sharaf 
    Abstract: This paper presents a UGV path tracking controller based on Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL), where a Double Deep Q-Network (DDQN)algorithm is employed to train a Deep Neural Network (DNN) for controlling the UGV to follow the desired path. The advantage of DDQN over Deep Q-Network (DQN) is that the DDQN uses two Neural Networks (NNs), where one is working as a controller to generate actions for controlling the UGV, while the other is the target network to estimate the future rewards. The path tracking UGV kinematic is presented to determine the deviated distance and orientation between the UGVs pose and the desired path. White noise was added to the UGV wheels speed for evaluating the robustness of the proposed controller. The simulation results illustrate that the trained controller enables the UGV to follow the desired trajectory in the presence of noisy actuation with high accuracy.
    Keywords: UGV path tracking; deep reinforcement learning; double deep Q-network; deep neural network.

  • An innovative spatial mathematical modeling and vibration analysis of six wheeled truck without spades under an impulsive force   Order a copy of this article
    by Ibrahim Soleiman, Seyed Masoud Hashemi, Asghar Mahdian, Mostafa Nazemizadeh 
    Abstract: In recent years, the wheeled vehicles without spades are employed in modern military applications due to their enhanced mobility and manoeuvrability. In this work, the dynamic modelling and vibration analysis of six wheeled truck without spades and equipped with recoil mechanism under an impulsive force is studied. A novel spatial vehicle model is developed to describe vibration of the heavy wheeled truck. The governing equations of the system are derived and the obtained vibrational equations are solved and simulated. The simulation results show that the dynamic specifications of the recoil mechanism have prominent effects on the vibration behaviour. Moreover, choosing appropriate values of the system parameters prevents excessive vehicle vibration or lift-off. Finally, it should be emphasized that the novel spatial dynamic model of the wheeled truck with the recoil mechanism can be an innovative benchmark for the future studied
    Keywords: wheeled truck; without spades; dynamic modelling; recoil mechanism; firing force; vibration analysis.

  • Robust and optimal design of a railway vehicle system for derailment risk using efficient global optimisation method   Order a copy of this article
    by Yung-Chang Cheng, Cheng-Kang Lee, Chia-Ling Hsieh 
    Abstract: This paper presents an innovative optimisation procedure, combining uniform design (UD) and the efficient global optimisation (EGO) algorithm, to generate a set of robust suspension parameters in a railway vehicle model. Nonlinear dynamic analysis of a 31 degree-of-freedom (DOF) railway vehicle model was determined using Kalker's linear theory and heuristic nonlinear creep criterion. To increase running safety, optimisation design for suspension parameters is introduced to make the performance more robust and reduce the sensitivity to noise. Considering the noise factors, vehicle speed and rail irregularity, the dynamic response and derailment quotient are obtained by the Runge-Kutta method. By applying UD, kriging interpolation and EGO algorithm, the best signal-to-noise ratio of the derailment quotient is increased from 12.05 dB to 31.3 dB, or 160%. The numerical results indicate that the optimal and robust design of suspension parameters has been determined successfully by the novel optimisation process.
    Keywords: uniform design; efficient global optimisation algorithm; heuristic nonlinear creep model; rail irregularity; derailment quotient.

  • Simulation-based analysis of passenger ride comfort under different track conditions   Order a copy of this article
    by Yamika Patel, R.C. Singh, Wolfgang Borutzky, Vikas Rastogi 
    Abstract: The ride comfort of a passenger train is a fascinating research topic, continuously investigated and improved over the years, helping us to achieve unbelievable speeds. A rigid multibody system with 50 DOF, depicting the actual LHB coach with FIAT bogie, is created to carry out the dynamic analysis on the straight rail track. The mean comfort standard method has been used to assess passenger ride comfort at different rail-car floor locations. The American sixth grade track spectrum has been introduced on the left rail only, which acts as a random excitation to the vehicle. PSD of acceleration and mean comfort index (Nmv) have been compared at different car floor locations for a speed range of 200 to 350 kmph. The peak values of the Nmv index and PSD of acceleration have been observed at the left and right locations of the rail-car floor.
    Keywords: PSD; SIMPACK; ride comfort; track irregularity.

  • Study on integrated control of tripping anti-rollover for heavy dump trucks   Order a copy of this article
    by Zhong-cheng Fu, Ming-mao Hu, Qing-he Guo, Ai-hong Gong, Qing-shan Gong, Zhi-gang Jiang, Dong Guo, Zi-wen Liao 
    Abstract: In order to effectively solve the tripping rollover problem caused by heavy dump trucks on concave-convex roads, an integrated control method combining differential braking control and active suspension control is proposed. A nine-degree-freedom dynamic model for heavy dump trucks is established, and the lateral load transfer rate is used as the rollover evaluation index. The braking torque is provided for the four wheels by the method of differential braking control, and the active suspension control force is provided for the active suspension by the method of active suspension control to improve the roll stability and smoothness of the dump truck. The co-simulation of MATLAB / Simulink and Trucksim is carried out under the fishhook tripping condition and J-turn tripping condition. The simulation results show that, compared with differential braking control and active suspension control, the integrated control method proposed in this paper reduces the peak body roll angle by additional 4.505 deg and 0.182 deg under the fishhook tripping condition, and reduces the peak body roll angle by additional 2.21 deg and 0.077 deg under the J-turn tripping condition, which shows better rollover resistance. And the integrated control method reduces the pitch angular acceleration of the vehicle by additional 2.53 deg/s2 and 0.32 deg/s2 under the fishhook tripping condition, reduces the pitch angular acceleration of the vehicle by additional 0.73 deg/s2 and 0.30 deg/s2 under the J-turn tripping condition, which shows better ride comfort.
    Keywords: tripping rollover; integrated control; differential brake control; active suspension control; roll stability and smoothness.

  • Integrating machine learning with ITS for effective traffic management under road development conditions   Order a copy of this article
    by Kundan Meshram 
    Abstract: Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) have paved their way into modern day traffic management scenarios. These scenarios include but are not limited to diverting traffic, identifying routes, identifying accidents and propagating them over the network, etc. Owing to a large number of road-based maintenance and repair and new road building works, there is a disruption in traffic flow. Proper maintenance and effective communication among these traffic nodes is of utmost importance for smooth traffic flow. In this paper, different techniques are analysed for ITS communication that assists in maintaining optimum traffic flow under different road construction scenarios. The proposed algorithm devises a novel ITS workflow for organising traffic under different road development conditions. The machine learning algorithm uses extended drone-based imagery to identify best traffic routes for a given traffic area. The paper also extends the proposed algorithm and adds a machine learning layer to it to further optimise the performance of traffic flow.
    Keywords: ITS; machine learning; traffic flow; road works; big data; communication; vehicle management; drone image processing.

  • Parametric study of wheel flats effects on dynamic forces and derailment coefficient in turnouts   Order a copy of this article
    by Sajjad Sattari, Mohammad Saadat, Sayed Hasan Mirtalaie, Mehdi Salehi, Ali Soleimani 
    Abstract: Turnouts in railway tracks are considered one of the most important weak points of railway infrastructure due to their complex and discontinuous structure. Therefore, it is very important to evaluate and predict the possibility of derailment at the location of these devices from the point of view of operation and maintenance. In addition, wheel flat failure has always been documented as one of the sources of infrastructure damage due to the occurrence of severe impact forces. In this paper, the dynamic and safety studies of a freight train with a defected wheel (wheel flat) when passing through turnouts are investigated. After modelling and validation, the evaluation of the wheel-rail dynamic forces and derailment coefficient at turnout has been done using the multibody dynamic universal mechanism (UM) software, and the effect of the wheel flat depth on these items has been evaluated. The results indicate that the depth of the wheel flat, as well as the train speed, strongly affect the dynamic forces and derailment coefficient at the turnout. Excessive dynamic forces, with the creation and growth of wheel and rail defects, are the cause of derailment, accidents, and destruction, and must be continuously monitored.
    Keywords: railway vehicles; wheel flats; turnouts; wheel-rail dynamic forces; derailment coefficient.

  • Effects of train speed, track irregularities, and wheel flat on wheel-rail dynamic force   Order a copy of this article
    by Sajjad Sattari, Mohammad Saadat, Sayed Hasan Mirtalaie, Mehdi Salehi, Ali Soleimani 
    Abstract: Today, the wheel-rail dynamic force (WRDF) is one of the criteria for reliable evaluation of running stability, track loading, and vibration behaviour of railway systems. Over-limit dynamic forces, with the creation and growth of wheel and rail defects, are the cause of the derailment, accidents, and damage, and must be constantly monitored. In the present paper, after modelling and validating a passenger rail system with UM, the effects of changes in train speed, track irregularities, and wheel flats on the WRDF, derailment coefficient, and wheel-rail dynamic impact factor are evaluated. One of the results showed that by changing the train speed in different track irregularities, the WRDF has changed significantly and the maximum force has increased with increasing speed. For example, in class 5 and class 6 of irregularity, by changing the train speed from 20 to 100 (km/h), the WRDF is increased about 32% and 27%, respectively.
    Keywords: wheel-rail dynamic force; track irregularities; wheel flat; dynamic impact factor; train speed.

  • Construction and experimental verification of on-board weighing prediction model based on three-level linear transfer   Order a copy of this article
    by Huanbo Qiao, Hongxun Fu, Senyu Bi, Laiyun Ku, Yan Wang 
    Abstract: In order to improve the accuracy of on-board weighing system, a construction method of on-board weighing prediction model based on three-level linear transfer is proposed. Through the finite element analysis of different types of leaf spring, the linear relationship between load and deformation in the vertical direction of leaf springs is verified. Based on the three-level linear transfer relationship of leaf spring, soft spring and parallel beam sensor, the relationship between bearing mass and output mass is established, the bearing mass of a single leaf spring is calculated, and then the whole vehicle weighing prediction model is constructed. The weighing prediction model is solved and verified through two different test schemes. The results show that the overall error of the on-board weighing prediction model based on the three-level linear transfer method can be controlled within 1%, which meets the requirement of on-board weighing error not higher than 3% in JT/T794-2019.
    Keywords: on-board weighing; finite element analysis; linear transfer; prediction model; test verification.

  • Review on electronic differential system for electric vehicles   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiaobin Fan, Hao Li 
    Abstract: Electronic differential control is very important for distributed drive electric vehicles. This paper analyses the characteristics of centralized and distributed drive structures of electric vehicle drive system. For centralized driving EVs, the research on differential driving mainly focuses on the structural transformation of the traditional differential and driving motor, while the research on the differential system of distributed driving EVs mainly lies in control strategies, control theories and control optimization algorithm. Finally, the advantages and deficiencies of various differential control technologies are summarized and analysed, and the future development trend is prospected. Adopting slip rate, yaw rate, and vehicle sideslip angle as indirect observations, the torque-controlled differential scheme that combines multi-theory joint control incorporating intelligent algorithms is the future development trend for EV differential control.
    Keywords: electric vehicle; differential control; dual-rotor motor; control theory; driving system.

  • Fuel cell hybrid electric air-cushion tracked vehicle for peat swamp   Order a copy of this article
    by Ataur Rahman, Sany Ihsan Izan, Ahmad Faris Ismail, Altab Hossain 
    Abstract: A fuel cell (FC) hybrid electric air-cushion tracked vehicle of 4.96 kN ground contact area of 0.85 m2 including 0.20 m2 contact area of the air-cushion for the peat swamp of normal ground pressure in the range of 7-8.5 kN/m2 has been prototype to overcome the problem associated of internal combustion engine (ICE) power tracked vehicle. Vehicle power system has been made with an FC of terminal voltage of 60V, 3.6 kW and 500 g of hydrogen mini tank and battery of 60 V and 5.2 kWh. FC and batteries are connected in parallel with a DC/DC converter to optimum fuel efficiency and fuel cell longevity. Consecutively, an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Intelligent System (ANFIS) is used to switch power from FC to battery for the vehicle sinkage > 70 mm in millisecond for high acceleration and prevent vehicle from excessive sinkage, and battery to FC for the vehicle sinkage < 70 mm. The vehicle is able to travel 31 km using FC hybrid power system.
    Keywords: electric swamp peat vehicle; fuel cell hybrid power system; air-cushion tracked system; ANFIS; vehicle mobility.

  • Experiment and optimisation analysis of whole-body vibration among tractor drivers: a comprehensive study   Order a copy of this article
    by Chander Prakash, Lakhwinderpal Singh, Ajay Gupta 
    Abstract: This study investigates the impact of whole-body vibration (WBV) in terms of daily vibration exposure (A(8)) at seat-pan, weighted acceleration response (Awz) at seat-base, and Health Guidance Caution Zones (HGCZ), and vibration damping ratio (VDR) among three tractor drivers. Three ride conditions were considered i.e., average forward speeds (5-levels), road roughness (5-levels), and two driving postures (sitting vertically erect with a backrest position (P1) and sitting freestyle with no backrest contact (P2)) used to arrange the experiments by Response Surface Methodology (RSM) design. The total vibration (av) was observed from 0.62 to 1 m/s2, 0.6 to 0.94 m/s2, and 0.49 to 0.9 m/s2 for tractor drivers (TD) 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Optimised ride conditions were average speed (6.37 m/s), road IRI (2.28 m/km), and P2 among all the selected drivers. Moreover, the best suitable linear regression model is found with 97.73% and 97.57% desirability for drivers first and second, respectively.
    Keywords: whole body vibration; daily dose A(8); health guidance caution zones; optimisation design; tractor driver; road international roughness index; body mass index.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2023.10058321
  • Research on the influence of heavy-duty tracked vehicle parameters on steering driving process   Order a copy of this article
    by Tiangang Pei, Bijuan Yan, Hao Dong, Zekun Liu, Zhangda Zhao 
    Abstract: As an important part of the heavy-duty tracked vehicle, the position and posture of the crawler travelling device have a certain impact on the vehicle performance. The Bekker soil sinking theory is used in this study to create the heavy-duty tracked vehicle dynamics analysis model under turning conditions on soft soil roads. The effects of working arm position, turning radius R, track grounding width-length ratio b/L and track centre distance B on vehicle driving force, driving power, and steering resistance moment were investigated using a heavy-duty vehicle as an example. Track sliding and ground shear deformation were taken into consideration. The findings demonstrate that when the turning radius R is close to B/2, the driving power is almost 0 and the inside steering resisting moment and driving force are concentrated. When R = B/2, the vehicle is in the unilateral power steering. What's more, the study can provide theoretical support for heavy tracked vehicles design.
    Keywords: heavy-duty tracked vehicles; steering process; drive performance.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2023.10058440
  • A review on estimation of vehicle tyre-road friction   Order a copy of this article
    by Zipeng Huang, Xiaobin Fan 
    Abstract: The tyre-road friction coefficient is not only related to pavement conditions, but is also affected by factors such as tyre material, tyre pressure and ambient temperature; in addition, there are problems such as sensor measurement noise, signal transmission hysteresis, parameter uncertainty or time denaturation in the actual vehicle system; these problems will make the real-time robust estimation of the friction coefficient and its stability analysis more complicated. Therefore, the identification of tyre-road friction coefficient has always been a key topic and difficult issue in research. This paper provides a comprehensive technical review of the currently widely used tyre-road friction coefficient estimation methods. First, various filters and observers and their improved versions to solve different problems are introduced. Then the model-based estimation algorithm is comprehensively expounded. The research results of sensor-based and neural network-based methods are summarised, the new method brought about by the structural characteristics of distributed drive electric vehicles to estimate the friction coefficient is analysed, and the future development directions are discussed.
    Keywords: vehicle state; tyre-road friction; Kalman Filter; particle filter; Luenberger observer; nonlinear observer; tyre model; distributed drive; intelligent tyres; neural network.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2023.10058477
  • Lateral stability control of truck and centre-axle-trailer combinations under crosswind disturbances   Order a copy of this article
    by Qinghui Zhou, Yuhang Qiu, Yuping He 
    Abstract: Crosswind disturbances may cause rollover or lane departure of truck and centre-axle-trailer (TCAT) combinations. To increase the safety of TCATs, a crosswind model is introduced and a 3 degrees of freedom (DOF) yaw-plane model is generated for developing a lateral stability control technique. Numerical simulation is conducted to examine the resulting dynamic responses under varying crosswind disturbances. To verify the 3-DOF model, the simulation results under a single lane-change manoeuvre under a crosswind disturbance are compared against those based on the corresponding nonlinear TruckSim model. To effectively reject crosswind disturbances, a braking torque distribution strategy is proposed, by which the direct yaw moment control (DYC) is implemented using a fuzzy-PID algorithm. The simulation shows that the directional performance of TCAT is improved when the DYC activates under crosswind disturbances. The proposed active safety technique can reduce the risk of crosswind-induced instabilities of TCATs.
    Keywords: crosswind disturbance; truck and centre-axle trailer; lateral stability; fuzzy-PID control; direct yaw moment control.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2023.10058546
  • Method for determining the effect of road surface condition on the fuel consumption for heavy vehicles from vehicle measurements   Order a copy of this article
    by Ville Pirnes, Perttu Niskanen, Jonne Untinen, Juho Könnö 
    Abstract: The effect of road surface condition on the total fuel consumption of heavy trucks is still a largely insufficiently researched area. In this study, we focus particularly on the effect of renewed road surface on fuel consumption, taking into account the changes in driving behaviour. Experimental tests were made on typical Finnish asphalt-surfaced roads with a 60-ton vehicle combination. The first measurement round was in June 2020 and the second measurement round was in August 2020. The road surface was renewed between the measurements. In this study, an algorithm was developed, which chooses comparable consumption results from divided road sections. The results show that the fuel consumption is reduced with the new road surface if the driver's driving profile is the same. However, the measurements also showed that driving speed is likely to be higher on new road surface which can cause higher fuel consumption than on unrepaired roads.
    Keywords: fuel consumption; road surface condition; heavy vehicle combination; vehicle measurements.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2023.10058628
  • Influence on polygon effect with characteristic parameters of guide arc branch of the crawler robot   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiaobing Chen, Hong Zhang, Yang Liu, Jingyu Wang, Jiaqi Song 
    Abstract: Aiming at the problem of polygon effect vibration caused by unreasonable matching between track plate and chain link pitch of crawler robots in coal mines, a method is proposed to improve the polygon effect by adjusting characteristic parameters of the guide arc-branch. First, the theory of polygon effect and vibration of chain link is analysed. Second, the virtual simulation experiments and discussion of the crawler robot with different guide arc-branch parameters are carried out by RECURDYN. Finally, the external test is carried out. The results show that with the increase of Dc and Lc, the contact force between the observed track plate and the idler, and between the mountain damping pad and the road, significantly decreases, the vibration displacement of vehicle body correspondingly decreases, and the vibration impact of the crawler robot is weakened, which provides theoretical reference for improving ride comfort of the crawler robot in coal mines.
    Keywords: polygon effect; guide arc-branch; dynamics simulation; crawler robot.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2023.10058631
  • Influence of air spring parameters on tyre wear   Order a copy of this article
    by Luboš Mikula, Jan Famfulík, Michal Richtář, Branislav Šarkan 
    Abstract: Context. When using CNG busses, abnormal tire wear started to occur Objectives. To identify possible causes of this phenomena, verify their impact by practical experiment and suggest solutions. Methods. During the experiment, three same vehicles were set up with different air spring settings, resulting in different clear heights of 325 mm, 335 mm, 345 mm. After approx. 45 000 km, tire wear was examined, tire defects were measured and compared Results. Vehicle most affected by heel-toe wear was one with the highest clear height of 345. Higher clear height negatively influences tire wear, but it is clear that other causes are included in this problem. Conclusions. Experiment and calculations affirmed that the primary cause of the tire wear irregularities are vibrations applied to tires caused by added weight. This theory is confirmed by an investigation more prescribed in the introduction section.
    Keywords: bus tyre wear; clear height; natural frequency; CNG busses.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2023.10058752
  • Research on cooperative control strategy for braking system of articulated heavy vehicles   Order a copy of this article
    by Bin Fang, Xuanyao Wang, Yecheng Zhao, Jianye Wang, Peng Feng 
    Abstract: The braking response delay of articulated heavy vehicles, the braking incoordination between tractor and semi-trailer, braking impact, etc. affect driving stability. To solve the above problems, the paper designed a configuration scheme and established a model of pneumatic electronic control braking system, and proposed a cooperative braking control strategy for the tractor and semi-trailer. PID control is performed on the braking chamber pressure of the front axle of the tractor first, and then closed-loop feedback control is performed on the braking chamber pressure of the rear axle of the tractor and the axle of the semi-trailer so that the braking chamber pressure of the axle of the semi-trailer can follow the axle of the tractor respond in time to changes in brake chamber pressure. Simulation results based on TruckSim/ AMESim/Simulink verify the effectiveness of the proposed cooperative braking control strategy.
    Keywords: articulated vehicles; braking response delay; braking impact; pneumatic electronic control braking system; cooperative braking control.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2023.10058881
  • Intelligent concrete mixer anti-theft system based intelligent autonomous robotic monitoring system   Order a copy of this article
    by Tang Wenke, Cao Bingxin, Zhou Weiping 
    Abstract: Intelligent autonomous robotics are connected through the IoT to monitor intelligent autonomous robotic vehicles. The design of these vehicles is used to preserve concrete mixers against theft. This might be explained in the various IoT premises to frame the system as an intelligent concrete mixer anti-theft system. The analysis of intelligent autonomous robotic vehicles based IoT system consists of models such as the intelligent concrete mixer anti-theft system and the intelligent autonomous robotic concrete mixer framework. This report gives better services against the anti-theft system concerning the hype cycle, off-track over two laps based on time, vehicle speed graph, vehicles exported for 2020 and 2021 result comparison, and plug-in vehicle sales distance-time graph. The privacy considerations are based on the Decentralized Anti-Theft System (DeAt). These activities maintain the intelligent anti-theft system using intelligent autonomous robotic IoT premises based on security, peer-to-peer communication, quantitative scoring, smart contract, disclosure, and non-disclosure of physical medium.
    Keywords: anti-theft system; homomorphic cryptosystem; intelligent autonomous robotics; peer-to-peer communication; privacy consideration.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2023.10059059
  • Dual LCL resonance compensation for the design of electric vehicle wireless energy transmission system topology   Order a copy of this article
    by Jinge Ma, Lei Dong 
    Abstract: To meet the electric vehicle on-board wireless charging regulations, dual LCL resonant compensation network is analysed, and a dual LCL variable compensation parameter magnetically coupled resonant wireless charging system software is proposed, which can realise constant current and constant voltage battery charging by carrying out the actual operation of casting and cutting only for part of compensation components. According to interrelationship between the important main parameters and the system transmission characteristics obtained by the simulation method, this paper designs the parameter configuration to promote the magnetically coupled resonant wireless charging. The system software has no complex circuit stages and is easy to manipulate, and can also complete the primary side current and operating frequency stability. The experimental platform is constructed, and the voltage or flow-rate derived from the certified customised system software is relatively small and can meet the constant voltage and constant current charging regulations.
    Keywords: dual LCL; resonance compensation; electric vehicles; wireless energy transmission.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2023.10059060
  • Truck traffic state prediction based on small sampled location data   Order a copy of this article
    by Yiran Ding, Xingkun Li, Xiaozhi Li, Xiucai Zhang, Yuhai Wang 
    Abstract: Regional road network truck traffic state prediction can provide real-time traffic information for drivers or intelligent devices, which is of great significance for improving road traffic capacity. In this paper, a new method of truck traffic state prediction based on spatio-temporal location data of the Internet of vehicles, ACST, is proposed to match the grid of the spatial road network and form a prediction framework integrating the interaction between roads. The framework is composed of ConvLSTM coding and ResNet structure, and road network attention mechanism is introduced to extract the interaction between roads and sections. Based on the spatio-temporal location data of small sampled trucks, the global traffic state is predicted, and the traffic state on a certain road is focused. Experimental results based on real road dataset show that the results are better than the general advanced baseline method.
    Keywords: traffic prediction; ConvLSTM; attention; truck IoV; spatio-temporal location data.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2023.10059061
  • Assisting the passage of heavy vehicles, increasing traffic safety designing traffic lights and urban lighting in a smart city   Order a copy of this article
    by Nikolett Fecser 
    Abstract: Congestion caused by traffic bottlenecks or accidents has become commonplace. The consequences are delays, as well as environmental, health and economic damage. One of the solutions to the problem is to expand transport infrastructures and to apply and develop advanced control systems, as well as to create a public lighting network for new traffic routes and pavements. The capacity of the road section examined in this study is inadequate during peak hours, and significant queues are formed. Turning in a wide angle from the secondary direction to the left, especially with heavy vehicles, is difficult and involves a risk of accidents. Owing to heavy traffic, the intersection is to be controlled by traffic lights. In this study, the implementation of a traffic-engineering plan of a junction situated in Gyr is presented with phase-timing plans. In the second part of the study, the results of measurements are described.
    Keywords: traffic bottlenecks; transport infrastructures; public lighting network; capacity of the road; large trucks; risk of accidents; phase-timing plans; traffic control with traffic lights;heavy vehicles.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2023.10059062
  • A FOPID-based decentralised control system for vibration control of a railway vehicle using hybrid optimisation   Order a copy of this article
    by Nitish Kumar, Amit Kumar Singh 
    Abstract: This paper proposes a 17-degree of freedom dynamic model of a railway vehicle integrated with wheel rail forces and active suspension. The response of the model is validated with the experimental results. Afterward, a decentralised control structure with a fractional order proportional integral derivative (FOPID) controller is formulated to mitigate the track disturbances. To provide the optimum force, a novel metaheuristic optimisation technique named hybrid PSO-GWO is proposed. The performance of the FOPID controller is evaluated in the time and frequency domains under the periodic and random track disturbances, and the results are compared against the passive system and classical tuning method. From the results, it is seen that hybrid PSO-GWO is more capable of reducing the vehicle accelerations compared with the other tuning method as it can reduce the lateral, roll and yaw acceleration by up to 77.81%, 75.29%, and 63.74% under periodic excitations, and by 57.22%, 77.88%, and 69.58%, under random excitations.
    Keywords: active suspension; decentralised control; FOPID controller; metaheuristic algorithms; PSDs; ride comfort.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2023.10059063
  • Research on the application of blockchain technology in power instrument and equipment management   Order a copy of this article
    by Dong WenJuan, Wang XiniGang, Re NaGuLi WuFuEr, Wang YuiWei, DeLiNuEr Azan 
    Abstract: In order to study the application of blockchain technology in power instrument and equipment management, this paper focuses on the impact of blockchain technology on power instrument and equipment management. Through the analysis of the comprehensive efficiency, overall effect and coupling degree of common technology and blockchain technology in power equipment management, it is found that the analysis and research using blockchain technology is better than the previous common technology. At the same time, the blockchain technology realises the purpose of unified management through the collection and distribution of equipment operation data parameters. Research has proved that promoting the integration of blockchain technology and power instrument and equipment management can better improve the efficiency of equipment operation.
    Keywords: blockchain; power equipment; technical study; device management; data analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHVS.2023.10059400