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International Journal of Hydrology Science and Technology

International Journal of Hydrology Science and Technology (IJHST)

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International Journal of Hydrology Science and Technology (64 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis in developing surrogate model of flood control channel design in an urban area   Order a copy of this article
    by Masoume Behrouz, Saeed Alimohammadi 
    Abstract: The main purpose of uncertainty analysis is deriving the model output statistical properties and/or its cumulative distribution function (CDF). In this paper, uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of a flood control design problem have been implemented in an urban area using Monte Carlo simulation via Latin hypercube sampling method as well as response surface methodology (RSM) for global sensitivity analysis (GSA). Probability theory along with evidence theory which is a more modern theory especially for epistemic uncertainty analysis has been used here. Several results have been achieved after uncertainty propagation such as the model output CDFs and quantiles. Also, a GSA has been implemented and sensitive parameters determined. Then using RSM, a regression model has been defined as surrogate of the main model. The training and testing of the surrogate model reveals its efficiency that means its accurate enough for further analysis without any need to the main model.
    Keywords: uncertainty analysis; global sensitivity analysis; GSA; aleatory; epistemic; evidence theory; flood control; Latin hypercube sampling; LHS; Monte Carlo simulation; MCS.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2022.10042068
    by Merrious Ofomola 
    Abstract: The hydraulic properties of shallow Coastal Plain Sands, which outline the main aquifer in the Niger Delta, were investigated around Aragba-okpe area of Delta State employing the vertical electrical sounding (VES) and conventional pumping test techniques. The intention was to find out the aquifer transmitting capacity to meet up with the required groundwater withdrawal for both domestic and industrial purpose and identify the distribution of hydraulic characteristics in the area. Fifteen VES stations using the Schlumberger array were occupied to study the subsurface geoelectric properties. Two wells were drilled for pumping test analysis. The interpreted resistivity result was compared with the borehole log data from the drilled well for lithologic identification, and the results showed that the preferred aquifer to source for water is encountered at the fourth layer with resistivity ranging from 1448 - 4935 ?m and a depth which varies from 16.0 32.0 m. The Pumping test data were analyzed in AQTESOLV software to determine transmissivity, storage coefficient and hydraulic conductivity using Cooper-Jacobs recovery methods. The pumping test results further revealed that the transmissivity, Storage coefficient and hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer are 0.3078 m2/min (443.23 m2/day), 0.002824 and 0.01539 m/min (22.16 m/day) respectively with an average maximum aquifer saturated thickness of about 20 m. These results closely approximate the distribution of hydraulic characteristics from Da-zarrouk parameters in the area. It is inferred from this study that the a combination of conventional pumping test and Da-zarrouk parameters will give a more reliable estimates for subsurface hydraulic properties determination, and that the aquifer in the area is prolific and capable of yielding good water for domestic and industrial use in the area.
    Keywords: Pumping test; hydraulic characteristics; AQTESOLV; Storage coefficient; Aragba-okpe.

  • Flood modelling for a data-scarce semi-arid region by using a synthetic unit hydrograph and 1D or 2D hydrodynamic model   Order a copy of this article
    by M.P. Shaikh, S.M. Yadav, V.L. Manekar, B.K. Samtani 
    Abstract: In this study, the semi-arid Rel River Basin was divided into three sub-basins (SW1, SW2, and SW3). For first sub-basin (SW1), a unit hydrograph (UH) was developed using rain gauge data. Snyders method was used to develop a synthetic UH (SUH) for the remaining two ungauged sub-basins (SW2 and SW3). A storm hydrograph was developed from the UH for SW1 and from the SUH for SW2 and SW3. The storm hydrograph was used to create a one-dimensional (1D) steady hydraulic model and two-dimensional (2D) unsteady hydraulic model. The created models were calibrated and validated using field survey data collected immediately after an extreme precipitation event. Critical cross-sections were identified using the 1D hydraulic model. The flood inundation area was identified using the 2D hydraulic model and geographic information system techniques. Remedial measures suggested on the basis of the observed depth, damages, probable reasons for flooding, field survey and modelling results. The observed flood depths were high in rural areas because the villagers had encroached the floodplains to conduct farming. In the urban areas, natural streams and nullahs had been plugged, which resulted in an increase in the flood depth and flood recession time.
    Keywords: rain gauge station; Snyder’s method; inundation; damages; levees; hydrograph.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10035166
  • Water quality evaluation analysis of an urban river based on Self-Organizing maps: Annaba city (Eastern Algeria)   Order a copy of this article
    by Radia Hafsi, Hamouda Boutaghane 
    Abstract: The critical state of Oued Boudjemaa waters (hydrography network of Annaba city, in Algeria) remains in question. Despite the collection of wastewaters, the river remains polluted. Self-Organizing Map (SOM) was used to explore the spatiotemporal characteristics of the urban river in order to investigate the pollution sources. Thirty water quality variables were collected from April 2013 to March 2014 at five sampling points covering the study area. Filling gaps by using the k-nearest neighbors algorithm (K-NN), and transforming the original data by the Min-Max normalization were carried out as a preprocessing step for the application of the SOM. Patterns of water quality variables were visualized by the Self-organizing map, and similar planes were observed to the variables that correlated with each other and had the same origins. The SOM neural network grouped the water quality data into five clusters. It was found that the wet season is the main source of water pollution in Oued Boudjemaa; more than 90% of the parameters used in the study were correlated with the wet season, while just 10% were correlated with both the dry and wet season. Spatiotemporal variation on water quality and variables correlation are mainly a result of the impacts of anthropogenic sources such as stormwaters runoff, agricultural effluents, domestic and industrial discharges, in addition to natural processes, especially water interactions with geological formation and/or deposits on the riverbed.
    Keywords: Self-Organizing Map (SOM); preprocessed data; water quality; Oued Boudjemaa; Clustering; spatio-temporal assessment; physicochemical parameters; correlation to dry and wet season; natural source of pollution; anthropogenic source of pollution.

  • Assessment of Rainfall-Runoff Time Series Data Using Transfer Function Modelling with Exogenous Variable   Order a copy of this article
    by Homa Jalaeian Taghadomi, Xixi Wang, Mujde Erten-Unal, Turaj Vazifedan 
    Abstract: This study assesses the rainfall-runoff time series data using a transform function approach. Modelling rainfall-runoff data is crucial in the hydrology and water resource management. However, the characteristics of serial and cross-correlation between runoff and rainfall sequences have not been discussed widely in the literature. This study evaluates the performance of the transfer function method in modelling monthly rainfall-runoff data in the Blackwater River watershed located in coastal Virginia. Maximum likelihood estimation was employed for estimating the models parameters. Different performance evaluation criteria (AIC, AICC, BIC, RMSE, MASE) were employed for model selection. The adequacy of the final transfer function model was evaluated by Dickey-Fuller, KPSS, Ljung-Box, and Box-Cox transformation. Moreover, the performance of the final model was compared with the simplest time series models to justify the complexity of the model. This study is the first achievement of the hydrological response to precipitation and temperature over the Blackwater River watershed.
    Keywords: Rainfall; Runoff; Temperature; Transfer function model; Exogenous variable; ARIMAX; Forecast; Seasonal; Dickey-Fuller; KPSS; Ljung-Box; Box-Cox Transformation; Blackwater River.

  • Effectiveness of Fenton oxidation for the removal of paracetamol and diclofenac from aqueous medium. Effect of operational parameters.   Order a copy of this article
    by Salih Lahiouel, Samira Ounoki, Samia Achour 
    Abstract: In Algeria, the amount of safe water supplies currently being used is very small and is threatened by an ever-growing population of urban, industrial and agricultural wastewater. The latter includes a wide range of mineral organic and biological contaminants whose choice of treatment is a real dilemma. In fact, certain pollutants are not biodegradable organic compound, such as anticancer drugs, analgesics, antibiotics, hormones and anti-inflammatory. The harmful effects of these pollutants were the subject of several studies which have concluded that they could cause endocrine disruption, antimicrobial resistance and genotoxicity, hence the need to eliminate them. The purpose of this work is to study the efficacy of Fenton oxidation in the removal of paracetamol and diclofenac in distilled water. Various operating conditions, such as contact time, pH, hydrogen peroxide and the initial iron content, have been varied. The obtained results show that Fenton oxidation is very efficient in removing paracetamol with a yield of 77 per cent; however, diclofenac is estimated at 32.6 per cent. Paracetamol removal is preferred in a very acidic medium (pH=2), while diclofenac is well removed in a weakly acidic medium (pH=4 to 4.5). The ferrous iron content, which enhances the removal of paracetamol, ranges between 5 and 10 mg/L, while it is equivalent to 5 mg/L for diclofenac. It also appears that paracetamol is well removed for hydrogen peroxide contents ranging from 300 to 400 mg / L, compared to 200 mg / L for diclofenac. The Fenton process appears to be an efficient process for the treatment of pharmaceutical residues.
    Keywords: Emerging comtaminants; Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug; analgesic; Advanced oxidation; hydrogen peroxide; ferrous sulfate; pH.

  • Numerical study using an implicit finite difference scheme of a high velocity flow crossing a non-prismatic hydraulic structure-Case of symmetrical gradual expansion-   Order a copy of this article
    by Ali BERREKSI, Tahar IKNI, Saadia Benmamar, Lyes AMARA, Samir HAMCHAOUI, Abbas BENZERRA, Boualem REMINI 
    Abstract: The objective of the present research work is the numerical simulation of a supercritical flow through a non-prismatic channel. The unsteady flow is governed by the 2D Saint Venant equations. These equations are discretised using the Beam and Warming implicit finite difference scheme. The elaborated numerical model is tested in the case of a symmetrical gradual expansion. First, the aim is to determine the shape of the water surface along the solid wall and the median axis for a weak bottom slope. Subsequently, the study is generalised for steeply sloping channels. The obtained results in the first application show that there are no significant disturbances in the water surface which did not lead to the appearance of the rather dangerous transverse waves. In the second one, it was observed that by increasing the bottom slope the flow does not extend laterally towards the walls because their divergence is very gradual.
    Keywords: high velocity flow; 2D transient flow; implicit scheme; non-prismatic channel; variable bottom slope.

  • Innovative trend analysis of daily and extremes of rainfall in North-Eastern Algeria   Order a copy of this article
    by Tayeb Boulmaiz, Hamouda Boutaghane 
    Abstract: This work concerns the temporal and spatial analysis of daily and extreme events of rainfall in Northeastern of Algeria. Trend of ten indices of precipitation extremes in sixteen meteorological stations have been analyzed using the innovative approach with a period between 1970 to 2008. This method is based on visual analysis of trend and contrary to other classical approach, not require restrictive assumptions for its application. The indices used in this study concern the intensity, duration and frequency of rainfall events. The major results of this work concern the increasing of extreme rainfall events in many parts of the target area and an opposite tendency for dry spells. These facts lead to suppose a better situation in term of water resources but an aggravation of the flood situation which already knows this part of the country.
    Keywords: Innovative trend analysis; ETCCDI; trend analysis; rainfall; North-eastern Algeria.

  • Rainfall-runoff Modeling using the Machine Learning and Conceptual Hydrological Models   Order a copy of this article
    by Esmaeel Dodange, Kaka Shahedi, Debu Misra, Mohammad Taghi Sattari, Bin Thai Pham 
    Abstract: This study compares the capability of simple data-driven and process-driven models to simulate daily discharge in a snow dominated semi-arid watershed in relation to its hydro-meteorological characteristics. M5 model tree was considered for daily discharge simulation of Taleghan watershed in north of Iran, and the results were compared with those of IHACRES and HSPF models. Results showed that with the same meteorological input data, the HSPF model performed best in predicting the daily runoff followed by the IHACRES model. M5 model overestimated the daily runoff in low flow season (May-Dec) as the water required to fill the watershed storage capacity was not considered by the model. Using the stream discharge of the prior day (Qt-1) as additional input to the M5 model resulted in much improved simulation of daily discharge (RMSE = 3.55, NSE = 0.94, KGE = 0.96).
    Keywords: M5 model tree; HSPF model; IHACRES model; Snow melt runoff.

  • Performance evaluation of an automated method for hydrograph separation in Mellah catchment, Northeastern Algeria   Order a copy of this article
    by Sabri Berhail 
    Abstract: The measured discharge at any catchment outlet or any internal station normally consists of two or three components. The three components are surface flow, interflow and baseflow. In literature, several methods exist to split total discharge into these three components. The splitting of the discharge is very important as it gives more insight into the importance of the different hydrological processes and enables a more comprehensive model calibration. It can serve as the first step taken before the calibration of any rainfall-runoff model. This paper explains a procedure based on the Master recession curve (MRC) for hydrograph separation into individual flow components, using the recession constant K. To evaluate the performance of this computational technique, the results of the baseflow component were compared to the baseflow component obtained from the Recursive Digital Filter (RDF) method. The study has revealed that the results of baseflow achieved by both methods show similarity to a great extent, and the baseflow values agree better with (R2 > 0.77). Moreover, automated baseflow separation underestimates the simulated baseflow from RDF method by as much as 2.35%, or overestimates it by up to 23.55%, during rainfall. These methods were applied to a set of hydrometric measures in the Mellah catchment, Algeria. The results proved that the proposed method gives a better estimate of flow components.
    Keywords: Hydrological processes; hydrograph separation; master recession curve; recession constant; baseflow; digital filter; Mellah catchment; Algeria.

  • Correction of the aggressiveness of desalinated water by mixing of treated seawater case of Western Algeria   Order a copy of this article
    by Maamar Mokadem, El-Amine Cherif, Benamar Bekhti 
    Abstract: Several countries suffering from a water deficit have opted for the desalination of seawater and salty waters, but the corrosive quality of the permeate produced by reverse osmosis stations remains a critical factor which does not meet the standards in force and it is not suitable for direct consumption by the population because corrosive water promotes the dissolution of toxic metals such as lead and copper and increases the appearance of leaks in distribution networks. To improve the mineralisation of water to correct its corrosivity and thus guarantee the carbon-carbon balance of post-treatments are necessary. Several strategies are used, namely adding lime, CO2 to the permeate, percolation of the permeation on the filtering calcite. The technique of mixing the permeate with 1% of treated seawater has been studied and has presented a very interesting economic advantage. To assess the quality of the water produced before distribution, changes in various indicators, in particular salinity, the Langelier saturation index, were analysed.
    Keywords: remineralisation; seawater reverse osmosis; corrosivity; calco-carbonic equilibrium.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2020.10033969
  • Relevancy and comparison of friction factor equations for gravel bed in bedload regime   Order a copy of this article
    by Herizi Toufik, Hasbaia Mahmoud 
    Abstract: The friction coefficient f value is a dominant term in the open channel flow calculation. In this study, eight empirical flow resistance equations in a gravel bed are selected to calculate friction factor under bed load regime. To check the relevancy of these equations, 1,392 flume data are selected with measure values of friction factor in uniform and non-uniform bed materials. We used a friction evaluation approach based on the integration of velocity profiles with two types of equations under well-defined conditions. The first type based on relative depth R/D and the second type concern equations that depend on slope value S, Froude number Fr and Reynolds number Re. In this article, we have used each equation whatever conditions and fields of use. In the second step, friction coefficient f was calculated according to application conditions of each equation while maintaining same formula without change. We concluded that Ferros (2018) equation is best one that estimate friction coefficient value with a mean normalised error of 12% for all dataset, in both cases.
    Keywords: flow resistance; gravel bed; bedload regime; open channel; river.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2020.10034034
  • Effect of the protective layer on the temperatures, in asphaltic concrete facing. Case of Bouhnifia dam, North-West Algeria.   Order a copy of this article
    by CHEBBAH LYNDA, DJEMILI Lakhdar, CHIBLAK Mohamed, BOUZIANE Mohammed Tawfik 
    Abstract: In Algeria, several embankment dams have been protected against water infiltration by asphaltic concrete facing to ensure their waterproofness and longevity, these structures can withstand seasonal temperature variations of up to 70
    Keywords: Dam; asphaltic concrete facing; thermal modelling; porous concrete; reinforced concrete.

  • Determining the seasonal relationships between upstream flows and channel transmission losses along a dryland river reach   Order a copy of this article
    by Never Mujere, Dominic Mazvimavi 
    Abstract: River transmission loss is the reduced amount of flow at downstream locations along a channel due to infiltration, seepage into the river bed or river bank, evaporation from river surface, transpiration by riparian vegetation, temporary storage in the river and storage in flood plains. Transmission losses reduce flood stage, recharge local and regional aquifers, and are main sources of groundwater recharge in dryland areas. This study determines the seasonal relationships between of river reach upstream flows and channel transmission losses along a reach in Runde River catchment in Zimbabwe. Using regression equations, channel transmission loss volumes were modelled is the response variables while upstream flow volumes were the predictor variables. The study shows significant positive linear relationships (p = 0.000) between the reach upstream flow and transmission loss during the cool, hot and rainy seasons. Also, during the post rainy season, a significant (p = 0.000) power relationship existed between reach upstream flow and transmission loss. This simple approach helps to understand the water balances and water transmission losses in data scarce dryland river systems.
    Keywords: regression equations; seasonal variations; semi-arid; statistical significance; transmission losses; Runde catchment; Zimbabwe.

  • Spatial analyses of flash flood at Narendra Nagar RuB: a case study of Nagpur catchment, Maharashtra, India   Order a copy of this article
    by Tauseef Ahmad Ansari, Prajwal S. Ganorkar, Prasad S. Ronghe 
    Abstract: The study is focused on flash flood analyses in Narendra Nagar Road under Bridge in Nagpur city, Maharashtra, India. In this paper causes of submergence of Road under Bridge is determined. Based on 304 mm and 187.4 mm rainfall, the maximum discharge rate of Narendra Nagar watershed were estimated as 49.48 m3 /s and 27.69 m3 /s respectively. The discharge capacity of main drain in watershed was calculated as 19.76 m3 /s through field survey which is very small compared to flood discharge of watershed. In this paper, the highest flood levels (HFL) of two drains were also simulated from the year 1984 to 2017 in HEC RAS software to validate the actual conditions at the bridge site. GIS analyses is also performed to determine the flow accumulation, flow direction, Digital Elevation Map of watershed. Also the location of one bypass channel of 372.27 x 4.33 x 2.17 m ahead to the Road under Bridge is designed to release the surplus discharge of 13.46 m3 /s.
    Keywords: flash flood; spatial analyses; impervious surface area; runoff; HEC-RAS; road under bridge.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2020.10034420
  • Development of biological processes for the removal of iron from water intended for the production of drinking water case of ferruginous waters in Algeria   Order a copy of this article
    by Kassoul Ahmed, Saaed Hamoudi Abdelamir 
    Abstract: The objective of this study is to remove iron from groundwater by biological means, using slow filtration (V = 0.2 m/h). This technology was characterised by high efficiency throughout the operating period, estimated at 24 days of removal of iron, turbidity and suspended solids. The respective contents estimated in raw water were 5.46 mg/l of iron, 296 NTU of turbidity and 964 mg/l for suspended solids. The maximum value of the efficiency of the technology used for the removal of iron has been set at 98.26%, 99.97% for turbidity and 98.24% for suspended solids, corresponding to a concentration of 0.089 mg/l of iron, 0.09 NTU of turbidity and 17 mg/l of suspended matter in the produced water.
    Keywords: underground water; iron removal; biofiltres; iron-oxidising; bacteria; Algeria.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2020.10034601
  • Development of stage-discharge rating curve using ANN   Order a copy of this article
    by Barkha Chaplot, Prashant Birbal 
    Abstract: Accurate forecasting of river discharge is essential for the efficient operation of water resources systems. Therefore, researchers are consistently developing and improving various techniques to predict river discharge with relative ease and high accuracy, although traditional methods are available. This paper presents mainly three data-driven modelling techniques, namely the stage rating curve (SRC), generalised reduced gradient (GRG) solver, and an artificial neural network (ANN) to accurately model the stage-discharge relationship for local rivers in Trinidad and Tobago using only low flow data. The model that produced the overall superior results was the ANN.
    Keywords: stage-discharge; neural networks; rating curve; regression; modelling.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10034758
  • Dimensional (temporal/spatial) and origin (natural/anthropogenic) characterisation of groundwater quality parameters in alluvial aquifer case study: Ivanak catchment, Koprivnica, Croatia   Order a copy of this article
    by Damir Ruk, Jasna Nemčić-Jurec, Višnja Oreščanin, Ivan Kovač, Igor Horvat, Boris Ivaniš 
    Abstract: A few decades of intensive urbanisation and agriculture had negative side effects on groundwater quality at Ivanak catchment, so primary intention of the study is comprehensive analysis of catchment quality status. For that purpose, the database of standard water parameters was processed by: 1) trend analysis; 2) multiple regression analysis, multivariate discriminant analysis and Newman-Kuels test for spatial/temporal characterisation; 3) cross correlation analysis for origin characterisation. Continuation of temporal trends could cause reaching of groundwater pH minimum (6.50) and nitrates maximum (50 mg/l) admissible concentrations in 16 years. Results of multistatistical spatio/temporal analysis are coherent because site dependent parameters, defined by multiple regression analysis, have the highest index of Newman-Kuels test and significant influence on results of multivariate discriminant analysis (except of dissolved oxygen). Origin analysis assigned nitrate and chloride as anthropogenically originated but of different spatial pattern. Probable direct global warming effects are identified in groundwater temperature rising of 0.3C in last 14 years and indirect in significant variance of quality parameters during and/or immediately after over-average precipitation periods decreasing of pH and increasing of nitrate.
    Keywords: groundwater; catchment; quality parameters; spatial/temporal; natural/anthropogenic; local/global; Croatia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10035025
  • Assessment of groundwater drought vulnerability and delineation of sites for artificial recharge - a case study   Order a copy of this article
    by P. Krishna Praseeda, G. Sindhu, Rajesh Reghunath 
    Abstract: Drought impacts both surface water and groundwater, which leads to reduced supply. Groundwater drought indicates continuous depletion of groundwater level, storage and discharge. Assessment of groundwater drought conditions is necessary for effective planning of drought management strategies. In this study, the drought vulnerability of Chittur Block in Palakkad, Kerala is assessed by the occurrence of groundwater drought and is mapped using geographic information system (GIS). A strategy for the effective implementation of artificial recharge schemes is proposed to combat future drought conditions. A combination of GIS and weighted parameter approach (WPA) is employed to delineate safe, suitable locations for artificial groundwater recharge. Site specific recharging structures such as check dams, infiltration pits, injection wells and percolation ponds are recommended within the 65% area which was identified as most conducive for artificial recharge.
    Keywords: drought vulnerability; artificial groundwater recharge; recharging structures; groundwater drought.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10035027
  • Integration of geochemical and isotopic tracers for elucidating water bodies interaction in the Oum-Er-Rabiaa River (Middle-Atlas, Morocco)   Order a copy of this article
    by Amine Tahiri, Fouad Amraoui, Mohamed Sinan, Khalid Benjmel 
    Abstract: The present study focuses on the area of Oum-Er-Rabiaa River, in which the Liassic limestone formations give rise to a group of springs with good physico-chemical quality. These latter are mixed with a second group of very salty springs. The approach used in this study is based, firstly, on the calculation of the isotope balance (18O, 2H) in order to determine the percentage of the two mixing poles in the contribution to the basic supply of the Oum-Er-Rabiaa River, and secondly, to calculate the global water quality index in order to evaluate the suitability of these water resources for agricultural use. The results showed that the rate of contribution of the fresh springs is about 76%, while the saline springs contribute at a rate of 24%. Furthermore, the calculation of the quality index showed that this contamination by the saline springs has significantly influenced the water quality of the river.
    Keywords: water quality index; WQI; isotope balance; river contamination; water resources management; Morocco.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10035028
  • Climatic and spatial variations in seasonality index of rainfall pattern for major Australian cities   Order a copy of this article
    by Monzur A. Imteaz, Abdullah Yilmaz, Amimul Ahsan 
    Abstract: It is a traditional practice to assign a single value for the seasonality index for a particular city. However, for a large city a single seasonality index value may not be appropriate. Through analysing historical data, this paper presents spatial variations of seasonality index (SI) values in six major cities of Australia. The paper also presents the inter-annual variations of SI values within dry, average and wet years. Four rainfall stations in farthest four corners at each city were chosen for this analysis to see the extent of spatial variability. Historical data was also segregated into dry, average and wet years. Wide ranges of variations are observed in both spatially and under different weather conditions. It is found that locations closer to the ocean exhibit lower SI values, whereas locations situated in high elevations exhibit higher SI values. Also, Melbourne has got highest spatial variation of SI values, followed by Adelaide and Sydney. In regards to climatic variability, there is no certain trend observed; for some cities (Sydney, Melbourne) SI decreases with the increase in annual rainfall amounts, whereas for some other cities (Brisbane, Perth) it is opposite.
    Keywords: seasonality index; inter-annual variation; spatial variation; rainfall.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10035033
  • Mathematical model of fractal conduits flow mechanics in the Gunungsewu karst area, Yogyakarta Special Region, Indonesia   Order a copy of this article
    by Sari Bahagiarti Kusumayudha, M.T. Zen, Sudarto Notosiswoyo, Rudy Sayoga Gautama 
    Abstract: The Gunungsewu area, Yogyakarta, Indonesia is known as a karst landform with unique hydrogeological setting. Water is stored and flown in subsurface chambers and channels. There are some underground rivers, with flow rate ranging from 2,00l / sec to 10,00l / sec, used by the local people to fulfil their fresh water needs. The Gunungsewu is often exploited as a research area by karst geologists, geomorphologists, and hydrogeologists due to its fascinating natural features. A variety of groundwater modelling has been developed, including mathematical modelling, but in this case, the water is generally illustrated as flowing through a pipe with simplified channel shape. In fact, the form of karst channels is actually uneven. This irregularity causes karst channels should be described as fractal geometry. Consequently, some groundwater flow mechanics equations need to be modified, so that they are more appropriate to be applied in the karst region.
    Keywords: mathematical model; groundwater flow; fractal geometry; karst.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10035255
  • Application of Excel optimisation tool in solving and teaching water resource problems   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Zakwan 
    Abstract: Many realistic problems in water resource engineering are too complex to solve manually. Teaching such complex problems becomes a real challenge especially at undergraduate level, but, civil engineering graduates need to be competent enough to provide practical solution to these water resource problems. Most of the undergraduate civil engineering students are well versed with the knowledge of Microsoft Excel. In the present paper, several water resource engineering problems have been solved using Excel solver. Students may evolve a relevant mathematical algorithm to delineate pragmatic structure of the problem and utilise solver to work out that model for any group of input data. In the present paper, Excel solver has been applied to model channel routing, hysteresis affected stage-discharge curves, infiltration depth, scour depth, determination of optimal channel dimension and critical depth in open channel flow. Apart from simplicity the other advantage of using Excel (spreadsheet) solver is that the solver does not conceal conceptual formulation of the problem. In this way Excel solver may prove to be a useful tool for teaching water resource engineering at undergraduate level.
    Keywords: Excel solver; water resource; civil engineering; estimation; channel dimension; critical depth.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10035533
  • Regionalisation of hydrological drought in the Bogota river basin using the L-moments method   Order a copy of this article
    by Darwin Mena, Anyela Ramirez-Canon, Paula Ximena Moreno Vivas, Wendy Tatiana Hernández, Miguel Angel Cañon Ramos, Jordi Rafael Palacios Gonzalez, Freddy Santiago Duarte 
    Abstract: This study analyses the regionalisation of the magnitude of hydrological drought in the Bogota river basin. It uses, for the first time, the regional analysis of frequency based on the L-moments method. The analysis included the control of data quality of the hydrology data; identification of homogeneous regions; determination of the frequency distribution and estimation of quantiles; characterisation of hydrological drought; and map generation representing the magnitude of the hydrological drought for return periods of 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 years. From the analysis, four homogeneous geographical regions were identified. All regions displayed a water deficit for all the analysed return periods. Results suggest the level of runoff will decrease progressively until the runoff reaches critical conditions of extreme draught along the Bogota river basin. In general, for all return periods, Region 3 is the one with lowest flows, followed by Regions 4, 1 and 2.
    Keywords: extreme hydrometeorological events; hydrological drought; L-moment method; minimum flows; probability distribution; water deficit.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10035534
  • Influence of sediment grain protrusion on the Movability Number   Order a copy of this article
    by Aamer Majid Bhat, Manzoor Ahmed Ahanger 
    Abstract: Grain protrusion, an important characteristic of non-flat sediment beds, is a measure of the exposure of a sediment particle to the streamflow. It is an important determinant of the threshold of sediment motion and hence its transport. Its effect on the Shields parameter has already been examined. This research focuses on the Movability Number, a parameter of the threshold of the sediment motion, for which previous studies have not considered protrusion. Experimental data of some previous researchers is used. The results show the profound impact that grain protrusion has on the Movability Number. The general variation of the critical Movability Number with the grain protrusion is similar to that of the critical Shields parameter.
    Keywords: grain protrusion; streamflow; sediment motion; Shields parameter; Movability Number; critical Movability Number.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10035722
  • Integrating 1D and 2D hydrodynamic models for semi-arid river basin flood simulation   Order a copy of this article
    by Nikunj K. Mangukiya, Sanjaykumar M. Yadav 
    Abstract: The Banas River basin of India experienced a devastating flood in 2017 because of the occurrence of the maximum rainfall of the past 112 years. The Dantiwada and Sipu dams on the Banas River and a tributary of Banas River received unprecedented inflow, which forced dam authorities to release a huge discharge in a short duration, causing the disaster. The cross-drainage work of the Narmada main contour canal was not sufficient to pass the amount of floodwater, which aggravated the flood condition of the surrounding region. To assess this flood, simulation work was performed using the onedimensionaltwo-dimensional coupled hydrodynamic model by using MIKE Flood. The simulated flood depths were compared with actual flood depths obtained using a questionnaire survey at more than 30 villages. The results of the present study can be useful for canal authorities and people from floodaffected villages to take necessary flood preventive measures.
    Keywords: flood; 1D–2D couple; hydrodynamic modelling; semi-arid; MIKE; Narmada main canal.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10035928
  • Automatic calibration of swat hydrological model by SUFI-2 algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohdzuned Mohmedraffi Shaikh, Pradeep P. Lodha, Saeid Eslamian 
    Abstract: In recent development scientists have shown increasing interest in applying geographic information systems (GIS) and satellite-based remote sensing (RS) techniques to the hydrological modelling. This study incorporates satellite based RS and GIS techniques to estimate the spatial variation of the hydrological parameters, which are used as input to the model. The hydrological model is calibrated to resemble the hydrological cycle of the watershed. The model SWAT is calibrated by SUFI-2 algorithm performing sensitivity analysis and then validation is done successfully. Four sensitive parameters namely CN2, ALPHA_BF, GW_DELAY and GWQMN are chosen to calibrate the model for surface runoff over sub-basin number 9. After the rigorous permutations in the algorithm the respective values of sensitive parameters are obtained as 75, 0.7, 240 and 1.00. The NSE for the run is 0.90. The watershed of Western India is taken to demonstrate the work.
    Keywords: ArcGIS; SWAT; watershed; simulation; calibration; SUFI-2; SWATCUP.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10036580
  • The impact of hydro-powers system development in the Mekong basin on the Hau river morphology process   Order a copy of this article
    by Huynh Thi Lan Huong, Nguyen Xuan Hien, Doan Huy Phuong, Nguyen Dinh Hoang 
    Abstract: Currently, the planning and development of reservoirs system in the upper Mekong has been causing serious impacts on the sediment reserves of the river basins in the lower Mekong River. This leads to the sand hungry of the rivers and the erosion became extremely complicated and serious. This paper presents the main results in studying the impact of planning and developing the reservoirs system in the Mekong basin on the morphological changes. The selected study area is the section of the Hau River, downstream of Mekong River that flows through Long Xuyen city, An Giang province, Vietnam. In this study, a MIKE 21C model is conducted to simulate hydrodynamic and morphodynamical processes of the river section. The primary findings show that as considering the reservoir development scenarios in the lower Mekong basin, the studied river section has several significant changes in morphology compared to the baseline scenario.
    Keywords: erosion; reservoirs system; morphodynamic.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10037057
  • Modelling of climatic change effects on runoff values using bird swarm algorithm: case study - Seine basin (France)   Order a copy of this article
    by Noureddine Oulad Naoui, El Amine Cherif, Abdelkader Djehiche, Mohamed Sekkoum 
    Abstract: The primary focus of this paper is the evapotranspiration (ET)-runoff modelling on an annual scale in the Seine basin. In this study, bird swarm algorithm (BSA) is used to estimate mathematical influence of temperature on runoff values. We employ the rural engineering model (GR1) for annual timestep. We calibrate GR1 model with the ET values using BSA, determining the model parameter sets that best reflect the transformation of evapotranspiration into flow. The calibration was done with Matlab software in computer. Statistical parameters values give acceptable runoff values for all climatic conditions modelled by BSA-high values of climatic condition (BSAHVCC = 0.56) and low values of climatic condition (BSA-LVCC=0.82). Variations caused by climatic change are translated by variation coefficient (V.C1 = 0.67 for high values of climatic condition and V.C2 = 0.99 for Low Values of Climatic Condition), which is main objective of our work.
    Keywords: climatic change; modelling; social behaviours; bird swarm algorithm; BSA; temperature-runoff; hydrology; France.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10037276
  • Preliminary investigation on historical flood events using the HEC-HMS hydrological modelling for Kelantan River catchment   Order a copy of this article
    by Zulkarnain Hassan, Sobri Harun, Muhammad Zahran Syahmi Armain, Noradila Rusli 
    Abstract: Investigation on historical flood events in river catchment requires a proper estimation of discharge, and that can achieve by developing hydrological modelling of the catchment. However, understanding the complex relationships between rainfall and runoff process is a complex task, and hydrologic models should be well-calibrated to make the application of the model effective. In this study, Hydrologic Engineering Center-hydrologic modelling system (HEC-HMS) has been developed for several sub-catchments in Kelantan River, Malaysia, for prediction of its hydrologic response and flood events for several return periods. The results are indicating the good performance of the HEC-HMS model for discharge simulation, in which the correlation coefficient (r) has been found to range from 0.640.98 and 0.750.95 during the calibration and validation periods, respectively. The study also shows that the major floods in the Kelantan River catchment have been in line with the 50-year ARI design flood that been simulated by the model. The proposed HEC-HMS model could be beneficial to the studied catchment in terms of preparing a comprehensive guideline of a risk for the existing and future flood problems.
    Keywords: rainfall-runoff; design flood; hydrological modelling; Hydrologic Engineering Center-hydrologic modelling system; HEC-HMS.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10037375
  • Meteorological drought analysis in Pali District of Rajasthan State using standard precipitation index   Order a copy of this article
    by Darshan J. Mehta, S.M. Yadav 
    Abstract: Droughts are very devastating natural hazards that affects large extent of land and causes great economic losses. Droughts are determined by a deficit of water availability over a long time period, due to consistently below average precipitation in that region. The study aimed to discuss the effects of drought with its various features and the frequency of occurrence. To analyse the meteorological drought the study utilises the standard precipitation index (SPI) at different time scales, i.e., 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Monthly rainfall data for 19012002 were utilised from 47 meteorological stations scattered in the study area to assess SPI values. The drought severity and duration are also estimated. The analysed result shows that most of the drought events fall in mild drought category according to the SPI classification. However, the severe drought events were much harmful on some part of the study area due to its low annual rainfall rates. The analysis would help to determine the risk of future droughts in the region, to analyse their effects on economy, the environment, and society, and to take steps to mitigate the impact of droughts.
    Keywords: meteorological drought; risk; SPI; Pali.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10037751
  • Effect of non-uniformity of sediment size on the Movability Number   Order a copy of this article
    by Aamer Majid Bhat, Manzoor Ahmed Ahanger 
    Abstract: Sediment on a channel bed is generally not composed of particles of the same size. This non-uniformity affects its incipient motion condition. As a model of an otherwise very complicated situation, two sediment sizes are considered here. A single parameter of non-uniformity is the ratio d / D of the two sizes, where d is the overlying moving sediment size and D the size of the underlying sediment. This study, with the help of experimental data of previous researchers, examines the influence of non-uniformity of sediment on the parameter of incipient motion, critical Movability Number. The empirical curves given by three different studies for uniform sediment are examined in the more general non-uniform context. It is found that the critical Movability Number decreases when the d / D ratio increases, that is, as the overlying sediment size increases and there is less likelihood of grains being hidden in interstices of the underlying layer. However, other factors like specific gravity, size, and the sediment surface features of the sediment have their individual influence on its determination.
    Keywords: channel bed; non-uniformity; incipient motion; sediment sizes; critical Movability Number; specific gravity.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10038449
  • Delineation of flood risk zones in Jodhpur district, Rajasthan, India using remote sensing, GIS and multi criteria decision making techniques   Order a copy of this article
    by Prabhav Upadhyay, Jayantilal N. Patel 
    Abstract: The use of remote sensing data and the geographic information system (GIS) to prepare flood risk maps has gained enormous popularity among researchers. In the present study, flood risk zone map has been prepared for Jodhpur district, Rajasthan using remote sensing and GIS techniques. CartoDEM Version-3 having 30 m spatial resolution along with Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS satellite images with 30 m spatial resolution is used to prepare thematic layers for elevation, slope, drainage density and land use. Monthly precipitation data from climatic research unit at a grid size of 0.5 latitude by 0.5 Longitude is used to prepare rainfall map with 30 m spatial resolution. Soil map for the study area also at 30 m spatial resolution is extracted from FAO digital soil map of the world and then converted to raster data format using feature to raster converter tool in ArcGIS 10.3. Ranking and weight determined from multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) technique are assigned to the raster maps of the variables. The thematic layers were combined with the weighted overlay method in ArcGIS 10.3 software to determine categorised flood risk zone map of the study area.
    Keywords: flood risk zones; remote sensing; geographic information system; GIS; multi criteria decision making; MCDM; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10038450
  • Effect on sediment yield due to change in land use land cover and construction of hydraulic structures   Order a copy of this article
    by B.R. Joshi, S.M. Yadav 
    Abstract: Estimates of sediment yield from the basin are required for water resource management planning. The effect on hydrology and sediment yields of land use variations is examined in the Banzar River Basin, part of the Upper Narmada River, using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The results specify that the increase in agricultural land and water bodies has resulted in deforestation, causing a decrease in sediment yield. The land use land cover (LULC) changes and the construction of hydraulic structures that impact hydrological processes were studied in this research. It was observed that in 30 years, 23% of forest land had been reduced to agricultural, commercial, residential, and water bodies. Hydraulic structure construction reduces sedimentation in the upstream area but increases sedimentation in the downstream zone. Therefore, a change in land use pattern is a long-term solution for a reduction in sediments yield.
    Keywords: land use land cover; LULC; SWAT; sediment concentration; hydraulic structures; sediment yield.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10038451
  • Bivariate flood frequency analysis a case study of Hirakud reservoir inflow   Order a copy of this article
    by Raj Beer Padhee, Anil Kumar Kar, Pradip Kumar Das 
    Abstract: Reservoir inflow as form of flood hydrograph has significant role in reservoir operation. The inflow (discharge), volume, duration are common variables and the fourth variable of flood hydrograph, i.e., the time to peak has been introduced into the analysis. New combinations are generated for peak (Qp) and time to peak (Tp), volume-time to peak, duration-time to peak, to determine the bivariate probability distributions. The correlation of Qp-Tp was approximately equal to zero so behaving independently. The EV1 distribution showing best fit marginals for Peak, Volume and duration with corresponding AIC values as 45.57, 47.29, 51.20 and for Tp, Gamma remains the best fit with 45.66. These best fit marginal for different variables were applied to the family of Archimedean copula along with dependency factor (O), determining the bivariate probability distributions for best fit copula for different bivariate pairs and its conditional probability were determined.
    Keywords: time to peak; time to peak-volume; time to peak-duration; copula.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10039223
  • Effect of debris on the upstream hydraulic head of sluice gate   Order a copy of this article
    by Azza N. Altalib 
    Abstract: Debris caused during flood events and transports by the river maybe lead to many hydraulic troubles due to accumulated debris upstream hydraulic structures. The way to prevent this debris from accumulated occupied many authors. Many studies dealt with the effect of debris on hydraulic structures that occurred especially on scour at weir and pier, but studies carried out hydraulic characteristics of flow under sluice gate were few and almost no. In this study, the effect of accumulated debris upstream sluice gate on the approached water depth was highlighted. The study found that the approached water level increased by 14% when accumulated debris increases. 40% decreased upstream water level lead to debris passage beneath the gate. The gate opening and debris volume were more sensitive to the water depth upstream sluice gate.
    Keywords: debris; flood; hydraulic; open channel; sluice gate.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10039593
  • Flood stages assessment using open source 1D hydrodynamic modelling in data scarce region   Order a copy of this article
    by Ujas D. Pandya, Dhruvesh P. Patel 
    Abstract: Flood is disastrous for developing countries, its assessment is important for flood risk management. The present case describes the formation of a hydrodynamic model for flood mitigation studies. The 1D hydrodynamic model is generated for Sabarmati River from Chiloda Bridge to Vasana barrage. The 1D river geometry has been generated using Cartoset-1 DEM of 10 m resolution. The boundary condition for upstream and downstream has been fixed and the model is simulated under the unsteady flow conditions. As an outcome, the discharge, water surface elevation, velocity and flow area have been derived. Afterwards, the simulated flow and stages at the known section are compared with the observed data and show a significant correlation. The present case shows the application of HEC-RAS and HEC-GeoRAS open-source software in the prediction of river stages, hence applicable for flood mitigation and management in developing countries under a scarcity of data, fund and skilled human resources.
    Keywords: flood; HEC-RAS; hydrodynamic modelling; river stages.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10039735
  • Hydrochemical analysis of groundwater quality in central Hodna Basin, Algeria: a case study   Order a copy of this article
    by Ahmed Ferhati, Ratiba Mitiche-Kettab, Nour El Houda Belazreg, Hakim Djafer Khodja, Salim Djerbouai, Mahmoud Hasbaia 
    Abstract: This paper aims to identify the mineralisation origin and distinguish between the different classes of groundwater quality in several regions of the semiarid basin of Hodna in central Algeria. Many multivariate statistical techniques are applied to a dataset composed of 64 georeferenced individuals with 19 chemical variables. The obtained results from this principal component analysis show that the first five factors explain more than 78% of the groundwater quality variance. Other methods such as CA cluster analysis, CAH hierarchical cluster analysis and geochemical analysis using the Piper diagram are more appropriate to contemplate nodule-facies development and to distinguish clusters. The endorheic characteristic of the study basin consequents the basin centre named Chott El Hodna to be a sanility source. Bit by bit, salinity raises from North to South, from unsalted water to strongly salted water close to the Chott. The outcomes demonstrate that this groundwater is portrayed, the facies definite assessment outlines that the Chloride, Calcium and Magnesium Sulfate facies indicate 84% of cases, trailed by Sodium sulfate facies with 14% and the rest (2%) is identified by the Bicarbonate facies.
    Keywords: GIS; groundwater quality; Hodna; hydrogeochemistry; multivariate statistical analysis; piper hydrochemical facies; principal component analysis; PCA; Algeria.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10040507
  • Threshold of motion of unconventional sediment under unidirectional flow   Order a copy of this article
    by Aamer Majid Bhat, Manzoor Ahmed Ahanger, Pranab Kumar Mohapatra 
    Abstract: The threshold of motion of commonly found sediments in streams and rivers, sand and gravel which are mainly siliceous in nature, has been studied thoroughly since the development of the field of sediment transport in fluvial hydraulics. There are other types of sediment, of more irregular shape, such as bioclastic, biogenic, and organic detritus which need a special focus vis-a-vis their transport. This study considers the incipient motion of such sediments and finding a better representation of their threshold of motion. This study considers the empirical curves of some previous researchers and the scatter of data from unconventional sediment to assess the threshold behaviour of such sediment under unidirectional flow. The consideration of the settling velocity in the sediment threshold studies is important in general and for the sediment studied here in particular. The Movability Number is found to be a better representation of the threshold than the Shields parameter or square of Movability Number as data show less scatter about empirical curves.
    Keywords: sediment transport; fluvial hydraulics; incipient motion; unconventional sediment; Movability Number; Shields parameter.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10040508
  • Empirical equation for estimating sunshine hours, and comparison of reference evapotranspiration models in temperate Kashmir Valley, India   Order a copy of this article
    by Syed Mohsin, M.A. Lone 
    Abstract: The availability of sunshine hours (SSH) data is central to many agrometeorological, hydrological, and solar applications. However, records of SSH may not be available for all stations. In such situations, an alternate method for the estimation of SSH becomes indispensable. In this study, the linear regression technique was used to develop a model for estimating mean monthly SSH using monthly averages of routinely recorded meteorological parameters for Kashmir Valley, India. Coefficient of determination (R2) and residual analysis were used to evaluate the developed model. For the stations where SSH data were available, a comparison of the actual and predicted reference evapotranspiration (ETO) calculated using eight models was made. The comparison showed a firm agreement between the actual and predicted ETO. Based on statistical indicators of the standard error of estimate and Willmot’s index, the ETO models were ranked in order of their performance in comparison to the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith equation.
    Keywords: Penman-Monteith equation; multiple linear regression; ranking; sunshine hours; SSH; reference evapotranspiration; ETO; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10040772
  • Assessment of damage for dam break incident in Lao PDR using SAR data   Order a copy of this article
    by Padam Jee Omar, Vikram Kumar 
    Abstract: Among various human-made hazards, failure of dam is common and terrible hazard. This paper represents the impact of flood resulting from dam failure of Saddle Dam D in Champasak Province of Lao People's Democratic Republic on 23 July 2018. A synergetic approach was adopted for estimation of the lateral extent of floodwater and flood depth. Useful information for disaster mapping planning is obtained by overlapping the flood map. Exposure analysis study has been done on three major affected villages, considering three exposures as population, agricultural damage and infrastructure damage. Results revealed that before and after Dam break there is difference of 18.84 km2 in area of reservoir and, in downstream there is increase in the inundated area of approx 44.70 km2. Approx 10% population of Sanamxay district is affected and approx 56 km roads, 600 buildings and 33 km2 cropland areas was exposed to flood.
    Keywords: emergency; decision support; human-made hazard; GIS; remote sensing; SAR.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10040874
  • People’s perception on climate change effects and adaptation in the Haor basin of Bangladesh   Order a copy of this article
    by Sheikh Hefzul Bari, Noor E. Ashmaul Husna 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to understand the people's perception on climate change occurring in the Haor basin of Sunamganj, Bangladesh. Results of focus group discussion (FGD) show that the change in the rainfall affects economic, residential, health, in a word every aspect of life of local people. Historic analysis of data reveals that flash flood is common in the Haor areas. Flash floods seriously damage the crops as they occur in March-April when the winter rice is semi-ripe, just 1520 days earlier than the harvest time. However, trend analysis of rainfall data reveals a decreasing trend in most of the months. Further investigation of daily rainfall data shows that heavy rainfall in consecutive three to five days along with upstream discharge causes the flash flood. This heavy rainfall does not have a serious effect on total rainfall but brings misfortune to farmers.
    Keywords: climate change; Haor Basin; Bangladesh; flash flood; rainfall; Mann-Kendall test; focus group discussion; FGD.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10041194
  • Conjunctive use of flow modeling, entropy, and GIS to design the groundwater monitoring network in the complex aquifer system   Order a copy of this article
    by Yashwant B. Katpatal, Chandan Kumar Singh 
    Abstract: The groundwater level monitoring network (GWLMN) provides a basis for management and planning of groundwater resources. The present study aims to assess and redesign the GWLMN for the Wainganga Basin, Central India. The study proposes a three-step method to redesign the GWLMN: 1) to simulate spatiotemporal distribution of groundwater levels (GWLs) using groundwater flow modelling (GWFM); 2) to analyse the uncertainty in GWL for each observation wells (OWs) using entropy theory; 3) to optimise GWLMN using hydrological and anthropogenic parameters. The study suggests that, a minimum of 116 OWs were significant for GWLMN. Incorporation of hydrological and anthropogenic parameters into the GIS environment is found to be important for designing GWLMN. The proposed method is useful for redesigning GWLMN in a complex aquifer system.
    Keywords: groundwater monitoring; geographic information systems; entropy; MODFLOW; monitoring network; observation well.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10041387
  • Efficiency of indirect and estimated evapotranspiration methods in South Western Nigeria   Order a copy of this article
    by Sunday.O Adesogan, Blessing F. Sasanya 
    Abstract: Evapotranspiration is the energy which drives the hydrologic cycle. The estimation of evapotranspiration is of utmost importance to irrigation projects as well as water resources, evaluation, planning and management. Various empirical models estimating evapotranspiration suits different basins in various degrees. This study determined the suitability of different evapotranspiration models for South Western Nigeria. These models were compared with measured evapotranspiration. Suitability of the models were determined from correlation coefficients, root mean square errors (RMSEs), efficiency test and volume error. In comparison with measured values, FAO Penman-Montieth had highest correlation coefficient (0.74), lowest RMSE value (27.26 mm/month), highest efficiency test value (0.40) and lowest volume error (0.26). The differences between the evapotranspiration values obtained from the empirical methods and the directly measured values are significant at ?0.05. Some of the models overestimated while others underestimated evapotranspiration. This study will facilitate irrigation project planning and water resources management in South Western Nigeria.
    Keywords: FAO Penman-Monteith method; class ‘A’ evaporation pan; Piche evaporimeter; water resources management.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10041388
  • Investigation on vertical wall abutment scour under steady and unsteady flow in compound channels   Order a copy of this article
    by Alireza Yazdani, Khosrow Hosseini, Hojat Karami 
    Abstract: The depth of local scouring in a vertical wall abutment in a compound channel was investigated. Steady and unsteady tests were carried out for different lengths of abutments. For steady tests, the time evolution of scour depth and scour hole geometry was determined for different flow conditions. The experiments revealed that the more is the flow intensity and abutment length, the more are the scour depth and their ultimate values. Finally, a dimensionless equation that correspond the evolution of scour depth to the flow intensity and the abutment length was proposed. For unsteady flow, a symmetric hydrograph was applied and scour depth evolutions was determined. By stepping hydrograph, successive scour depths were obtained by using steady flow estimation during each step. The results calculated from the stepped hydrograph were almost identical to the results measured from the flood hydrograph.
    Keywords: vertical wall abutment; unsteady flow; compound channel; scouring; hydrograph.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10041610
  • Strategic planning of rubber dams by the SWOT and SWOT-AHP methods in Iran   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Kazem Ghorbani, Hossein Hamidifar 
    Abstract: In recent years, the development of rubber dams or inflatable flexible membrane dams (IFMDs) has received more attention by researchers due to severe drought and flood conditions. The present study examine the strength (S), weakness (W), opportunity (O), and threat (T) factors or simply SWOT of development strategies of the IFMDs. To determine suitable strategies, the weights of the most important internal and external factors have been determined by the SWOT and the SWOT-AHP methods. The results demonstrated that the strengths-threats (ST) strategy must be considered in the development of these dams in Iran. Also, some strategies have been proposed for improved implementation of a comprehensive development program for better fulfilment of the strategic management of the IFMDs.
    Keywords: rubber dam; strategic management; SWOT-AHP; SWOT; Iran.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10041819
  • Calibrating APEX model for predicting surface runoff and sediment loss in a watershed - a case study in Shivalik region of India   Order a copy of this article
    by Anu David Raj, Suresh Kumar, Mary Regina, K.R. Sooryamol, Abhisek Kumar Singh 
    Abstract: The process-based model needs to be calibrated before its applications to derive a reliable estimate. A process-based agricultural policy/environmental eXtender (APEX) model was utilised to assess surface runoff and soil loss of a micro-watershed belongs to the Shivalik region of Himachal Pradesh, India. The model was performed exceptionally well for surface runoff (r2 - 0.81) and sediment yield (r2 - 0.81) with the Nash- Sutcliffe Efficiency assessments of 0.71 for surface runoff and 0.70 for sediment yield. The average annual soil loss is 23.42 t ha-1yr-1 from the watershed. The study revealed that the soil erosion in the Shivalik region increases and identified scrubland as the significant source for generating soil erosion in the watershed. Also, the APEX model could predict surface runoff and soil loss in the Shivalik region. The comprehensive information generated from the study will help to generate a sustainable land use plan in the Shivalik region.
    Keywords: surface runoff; sediment yield; soil erosion; ArcAPEX; process-based model; Shivalik Himalayan region; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10041820
  • The study of climate change related drought risk using weather research and forecasting model over Eastern Africa, Ethiopia   Order a copy of this article
    by Anil Kumar Medikonda, Anirudh Bhowmick 
    Abstract: As the drought research serves potential benefits to the management of its allied sectors, it demands research reasons for climate changes over Eastern Africa. The research paper mainly aims to prove how the WRF model data set for selected meteorological parameters, the MBE, RMSE and MAE have been computed and compared to estimate the correlation with the WRF model with Belg season and the Kirmet season in Ethiopia. The research paper discusses various primary causes for the formation of long and large-scale drought in the Arba Minch and Chencha region during the study period 2001-2010. The research expounds how these less to moderate and extreme conditions can be attributed to the combinational occurrence of La Nina with negative and positive Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) and Hybrid El Nino with NAO and ElNino-Modoki. As Ethiopia is a rainy agriculture-based country, the study is promising for the farmers fraternity in many dimensions including drought forecasting successfully.
    Keywords: weather research and forecasting; WRF; ElNino; North Atlantic oscillations; East Africa low-level jet; sea-surface temperature; SST; Indian Ocean dipole; IOD; drought; tele-connections; QBO; IOBM; MODOKI; hybrid ElNino.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10042159
  • Modelling of stage-discharge relationship using optimisation techniques for Jhelum River in Kashmir Valley, NW Himalayas   Order a copy of this article
    by Sheikh Umar, Mohammad Akbar Lone, Narendra Kumar Goel, Mohammad Zakwan 
    Abstract: The modelling of a reliable stage-discharge rating curve is crucial for the estimation of accurate discharge at particular gauging stations which is essential for planning and managing water resources efficiently as well as floods. This study involves the development of rating curves by applying generalised reduced gradient (GRG) optimisation technique and conventional regression method (RM) and to evaluate the performance of two methods indices like mean absolute relative error (MARE), correlation coefficient (r), Willmott Index (WI) and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) were used along with the graphical interpretation. The outcomes of the analysis revealed that the GRG optimisation technique is most suitable for eight gauging stations on the Jhelum River. Moreover, in the graphical representation, there is close agreement between the observed and predicted discharge by the GRG technique. Furthermore, the study revealed that the GRG technique showed a highly positive correlation (r > 0.95) at all the eight sites between the observed and predicted discharge. Therefore, the GRG solver technique is most suitable for the estimation of discharge for the given stage, which can be recorded easily than streamflow even during floods.
    Keywords: rating curve; optimisation-technique; generalised reduced gradient; GRG; stage; discharge.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10042596
  • Modflow model in the assessment of water conditions in forest areas   Order a copy of this article
    by Michał Wróbel, Andrzej Brandyk, Anna Tereba 
    Abstract: The effects of climate change are being felt on many levels. One of them are forests and the water conditions in their area. There has been a significant decline in the water table, leading to changes in forest ecosystems. Therefore, it is important to take measures to reduce the negative impact on water conditions. Tools such as mathematical models of groundwater flow can support this action. This manuscript presents the possibilities of applying the Modflow model in forest areas. The analysis confirms that the model can be successfully applied. It was shown that the model is suitable for accurate determination of changes in the amount of water in the soil. In the studied example, the increase in groundwater retention when 50 cm high dams were used was about 27% compared to the variant without dams. When 100 cm high dams were used, the increase in water retention was about 38%.
    Keywords: Modflow model; water management; forest; water retention.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10042853
  • Detection and correction of suspicious pixels of rainy images for Setif Weather Radar, Northeast of Algeria   Order a copy of this article
    by Mehdi Keblouti, Hamouda Boutaghane, Faiza Bouzahar, Mouhamed Amine Habbache 
    Abstract: In order to ensure a good coverage of rainfall information in the Algerian territory, the Algerian office of meteorology has installed seven meteorological stations, including the weather radar of Setif, Northeast of Algeria. This technology ensures continuous rainfall cover in the area of this particular town of Setif and neighbouring towns. However, this tool proves to be difficult to use, especially in a relief zone as presents some errors, which can reduce the quality of estimation. The purpose of this study is the calibration of Setif weather radar, then the detection and correction of suspicious pixels for three crowns (0-50 km, 50-100 km, and 100-150 km) using the pixel-info program, the efficiency of the latter has been studied for three crowns. The result showed that the pixel-info program gave a good estimate for the 0-50 km zone and the reverse for the other two rings, the program gives a high error rate because of the attenuation of the radar signal meteorological.
    Keywords: Algeria; pixel info program; rainfall; suspicious pixels; weather radar; calibration; Z-R relation; rain gauge; cross-validation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10042910
  • Modelling and forecasting of relative humidity in Indian region   Order a copy of this article
    by Vikas Kumar Vidyarthi, Pragya Mukherjee, Shikha Chourasiya 
    Abstract: The forecasting of relative humidity (RH) is very important in planning various industrial activities and in designing future climate control systems. However, the researches on forecasting of RH is very few and far. In this study, a novel technique is proposed for forecasting one-day ahead RH using artificial neural network (ANN) and multiple linear regression (MLR) techniques by reducing the number of variables in input space gradually for an India region. The results show that both ANN and MLR models forecasted one-day ahead RH equally well. The ANN and MLR models which even use only lagged RH values performed equally well with nearly similar values of R (0.969 and 0.966), and RMSE (0.055 and 0.057), but MLR model has an advantage of being simpler and hence the present study recommends the use of MLR technique for RH forecasting. Also, the lagged RH values are sufficient for forecasting one-day ahead RH.
    Keywords: relative humidity; artificial neural network; ANN; multivariate linear regression; MLR; hydrology; building and environment; climate control systems.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10043052
  • Assessment of coefficient of discharge of gabion weir using soft computing techniques   Order a copy of this article
    by Siraj Muhammed Pandhiani 
    Abstract: Unlike classical impervious rigid weirs, organic and dissolved materials can pass through gabion weirs. Thus, due to its minimal negative consequence properties, gabion weirs are preferred over their counterpart rigid weir. It is an edge over rigid weirs due to the flexibility, stability, and eco-friendly reasons as it allows longitudinal movement of water lives and passes sediment and suspended organic materials. This work focused on examining the overflow mechanism of the broad crested gabion weirs under free-flow conditions to assess the gabions’ discharge coefficient, Cd, for this weir. Four porosities, as well as mean sizes, were used for this weir. Utilising MLR, an empirical model for Cd was developed which was performing better than the conventional model given by the previous author. The stochastic ANN model was found to be outperforming the other applied models, however, ANFIS-models were giving comparable results. The sensitivity study further suggests that upstream depth and discharge are significant parameters.
    Keywords: gabion weir; stochastic ANN; multiple linear regression; MLR; ANFIS; coefficient of discharge.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10043279
  • Quadrangle statistical downscaling method application to Mascara-Matemore in Algeria   Order a copy of this article
    by Abdelkader Elouissi, Mohamed Habi, Benali Benzater, Abdelkader Harizia, Oumeria Ouafrigh, Abderrahmane Hamimed 
    Abstract: Climate change consequences have become the concern of all countries. For this reason, scientists have been interested in the future climate prediction. In this study, coupled general circulation models (CGCMs) data precipitation are statistically downscaled by taking scenario data from the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) and those from 42 rainfall stations, located at North-western Algeria, over the period 1971-2011. The period 1971-2005 is used for the model calibration and 2006-2011 for the model validation. Quadrangle statistical downscaling method (QSDM) was used with four scenarios (representative concentration pathway, RCPs: RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0 and RCP8.5). The use of the spatial dependence function (SDF) allowed the CGCM data transfer to the Mascara-Matemore station. Therefore, monthly-downscaled rainfall amounts are generated from 2020 to 2100. Annual rainfall analysis, using moving average method, indicated a decreasing trend until 2100. The scenario RCP4.5 has been selected because of its minimal root mean square error (RMSE). The observed period (1971-2011) was compared to those projected (2020-2060 and 2060-2100). Monthly rainfall comparison exhibits a frequency decrease in low and high precipitation classes in addition to increase in the frequency of consecutive dry months (CDM).
    Keywords: statistical downscaling; climate change impact; drought; Macta watershed; Algeria.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10043410
  • The review of 102 design support tools for nature-based solutions applications   Order a copy of this article
    by Jakub Roemer, Tiina M. Komulainen, Miklas Scholz, Mojtaba Moatamedi 
    Abstract: Nature-based solutions is a new trend in the area of urban and suburban planning. Thanks to its complex nature, Nature-based solutions provide multiple services on different levels of cities functionality. On the other hand nature-based solutions complexity requires extended knowledge in multiple engineering and societal areas, so the implementation is not straightforward. In recent years, countless publications, guidelines, reports, web portals and applications for NBS have been published. It is no trivial task to scope through the materials, given the overwhelming amount of information and variability of the up-front knowledge the potential user could need. The aim of this paper is to present the review of 102 support tools for nature-based solutions applications. The review contains tools published in years 2015 to 2021, among which the majority from 2021 is still supported by authors or actively operating community. The review was also enhanced by extracting metadata from investigated tools.
    Keywords: nature-based solutions; NBS; storm water; climate change.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10043613
  • The drought assessment using inquisitive method - a case of Rajkot, Gujarat, India   Order a copy of this article
    by Nidhi R. Chandarana, Prasit G. Agnihotri, Saeid Eslamian 
    Abstract: The study leads to the identification of drought situations and drought condition patterns observed. Rainfall data of study area was deployed for last 74 years. The statistical dispensation functions which include gamma function, exponential function, Weibull function, and lognormal function are primarily adapted and matched to data (precipitation)analysed for assorted time scales, based on which the suitable functions are chosen according to the situation. Time scale 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24 (for all classes of drought) was analysed. These threshold values are important for the step-wise implementation while making decisions by taking the needful Consideration for its response. Study results are helpful to find and forecast a level of preventive steps needed to plan to get rid of scarcity of water. As a result relentlessness and frequency of utmost drought are identified. Relentlessness and frequency of utmost drought are identified by this method.
    Keywords: SPI index; drought; rainfall record optimisation; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2022.10043740
  • Low flow frequency analysis of Tawi River discharge at Jammu location   Order a copy of this article
    by Maharshi Yadav, Govind Pandey, Pradeep Kumar 
    Abstract: In present study Tawi river was selected for low flow frequency analysis (LFFA). Tawi River is left bank tributary of Chenab River. LFFA is useful to measure various parameters as mean annual runoff (MAR), mean daily flow (MDF), Q20, Q50, Q90, Q20/Q90, Q50/Q90, Q90/Q50, The average of annual series of minimum ten-day average (MAM10), The average of annual series of minimum seven-day average (MAM7),10Q10, 10Q2, 7Q10 and 7Q2. By separating, the 40 years discharge data in 20-20 years' time period significant change is observed, 15% change observed in MCM, 12.97% change in Q20 and 12.32% change in Q50. Flow duration curves show significant change in discharge of the Tawi river particularly during 5-25% exceedance probability. Monthly discharges show mixed trends with increase in discharges as 42.68%, 81.47% and 42.91% during October, November and June months and decrease in discharges as 13% to 48% during January, March, April, July, August, and December.
    Keywords: low flow frequency analysis; LFFA; mean annual runoff; MAR; mean daily flow; MDF; Tawi River; discharge data.

  • Rainfall-runoff modelling using soil conservation service-curve number technique for the Khapri watershed in the Dang District of Gujarat, India   Order a copy of this article
    by Ashish L. Guruji, Prasit G. Agnihotri, Saeid Eslamian 
    Abstract: A real-life system can be better understood with the help of a model by focusing on few parameters. In the model, the real system is expressed in terms of a mathematical equation. Here, an effort is made to find out runoff using the soil conservation service-curve number technique for the Khapri watershed located in the Dang District of Gujarat State, India. The satellite images of 1997, 2009, and 2018 have been used. The categories in which the land cover was distributed as agriculture, dense forest, sparse forest, waterbody, and residential area (built-up). For calibration period (1993-2008), percentage bias, coefficient of determination, Nash Sutcliffe efficiency and root mean square error-standard deviation ratio (RSR) are 0.75, 0.56, 0.53 and 0.69, respectively. For the validation period (20102012) percentage bias, coefficient of determination, Nash Sutcliffe efficiency, and root mean square error-standard deviation ratio (RSR) are 3.82, 0.98, 0.58, and 0.65 respectively. These are quite satisfactory. The ratio of simulated runoff and weighted mean rainfall (WMR) rainfall for the calibration period and validation period was 0.51 and 0.41, respectively.
    Keywords: soil conservation service technique; SCS; curve number; CN; land use land cover; LULC; weighted mean rainfall; WMR; root mean square error-standard deviation ratio; RSR; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2022.10044458
  • Statistical temporal analysis of trend and variability of rainfall in Surat district, Gujarat, India   Order a copy of this article
    by Fenil R. Gandhi, Jayantilal N. Patel 
    Abstract: Rainfall is a key component of the water cycaughtle, and its variability is important for both scientific and socio-economic considerations. In the present analysis, the temporal variability of precipitation has been investigated on a monthly, seasonal, and annual basis for Surat district of Gujarat state of India. In order to develop rainfall trend, analysis has been conducted using different indices for 118 years of precipitation data (1901-2018). This study revealed that in annual precipitation there is a positive trend since 2003. A large seasonality is observed for the region and nearly all precipitation is coming during the southwest monsoon. The standard precipitation index (SPI) and rainfall anamoly analysis (RAI) indicated that the study area does not have the threat of drought conditions. The multi-statistical method approach and rigorous interpretation will be useful to readers across the globe to solve issues. Crop water management, flood management, storm-water management, and water balance studies require rainfall analysis. Hence this study is useful to carry on further research on said topics at the local level.
    Keywords: rainfall; drought analysis; rainfall anomaly index; RAI; seasonality index; SI; Gujarat; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2022.10044459
  • An application of transfer function noise models for predicting groundwater level signals using rainfall signals in Adyar Basin, India   Order a copy of this article
    by S. Mohanasundaram, Sokneth Lim 
    Abstract: The effect of rainfall on groundwater level fluctuation was analysed using autoregressive moving average exogeneous (ARMAX) transfer function noise (TFN) modelling approach on four selected observation wells in Adyar Basin, Tamil Nadu, India. The evaluation of spatial average rainfall representation in the rainfall-groundwater level rise regression analysis was compared with three different methods namely simple arithmetic average (SAA), Thiessen polygon (TP), and Thiessen zone wise rainfall (TZR). Linear regression analysis on rainfall-groundwater level rise datasets revealed that the TZR method of inputting spatial average rainfall improved the rainfall-groundwater level rise correlation over SAA and TP methods. The four selected wells groundwater level fluctuation data from Adyar Basin was further modelled using ARMAX-TFN modelling approach and MLR methods. The study results show that the ARMAX-TFN model prediction performance was superior over MLR methods at all four locations. The validation results of the ARMAX-TFN model show that the predicted and observed groundwater levels at the corresponding well locations were strongly correlated with the correlation coefficient values of 0.85-0.93.
    Keywords: transfer function noise models; ARMAX models; groundwater level; groundwater level rise; rainfall; time-series modelling.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2022.10044100
  • Assessing groundwater vulnerability based on modified DRASTIC-model and COP-model in arid areas   Order a copy of this article
    by Osama Gazal, Saeid Eslamian 
    Abstract: Groundwater vulnerability models are the most useful tools to simulate the various control factors that govern the surface contamination leaching process towards the aquifers. A study illustrating the significance of vulnerability models in dry areas, in the case of Jordan, and its contribution to groundwater sustainability. DRASTIC-model was performed with two scenarios. Sensitivity tests were applied to modify and examine the original theoretical weights and avoid the subjectivity in ratings and ranges of the parameters. Real parameters weights were calculated for the two scenarios by different methodologies rely on the GIS and using the extracted random points with the values of the seven DRASTIC parameters-maps. Long average and maximum concentrations of nitrate, sulphate, and salinity were used to assess the DRASTIC results since agriculture is the main source of pollution in the area. A comparison between the COP-model and the DRASTIC-model indicates the appropriate use of DRASTIC in arid areas.
    Keywords: groundwater vulnerability; agricultural contamination; DRASTIC; COP-model; sustainability; effective weight; sensitivity analyses.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10035061
  • Long-term trend analysis of climate variables for arid and semi-arid regions of an Indian State Rajasthan   Order a copy of this article
    by Darshan J. Mehta, S.M. Yadav 
    Abstract: Variations of rainfall as well as temperature for long term are one of the elements in variability of climate. In this paper, trend detection has been studied for the period of rainfall data from year 1871 to 2016 and temperature data from 1901 to 2002 for the entire state. To detect the existing trend, Mann-Kendall test is performed and to detect the magnitude of trend, Sens slope estimator tests were performed. Trend analysis of rainfall over 146 years shows increasing trend in pre monsoon, southwest monsoon and annual precipitation in west Rajasthan while the result shows increasing trend in pre monsoon, post monsoon and annual rainfall in the east Rajasthan. Trend analysis of temperature over 102 years shows increasing trend in annual temperature in both regions. It can be concluded that there are significant changes in the trend of rainfall and temperature of the region. This study would be useful to hydrologists, water resource engineers, researchers and consultants dealing with the impact of climate change for sustainable development and water resource planning.
    Keywords: climate change; Mann Kendall test; rainfall; temperature.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2020.10033400
  • SWAT-based runoff and sediment simulation in a small watershed of Nepalese river: a case study of Jhimruk watershed   Order a copy of this article
    by Madhab Rijal, Hari Prasad Pandit, Binaya Kumar Mishra 
    Abstract: Watershed models represent a scientific understanding of various processes involved within a watershed or simulate natural processes of the flow of water, sediment, etc. This study presents the methodology of evaluating soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) and test the applicability of SWAT on runoff and sediment load simulation in the Jhimruk watershed located in hilly region of Nepal. Daily runoff and sediment event data of 1995-1998 period were used in this study. The evaluation statistics (NSE = 0.768 and 0.689 for flow and NSE = 0.648 and 0.582 for sediment calibration and validation; coefficient of determination R2 = 0.774 and 0.689 for flow and R2 = 0.656 and 0.636 for sediment calibration and validation, respectively) for the daily runoff simulation indicate that the model results were acceptable and the model performed well in capturing trend of runoff and sediment. The results indicate that the SWAT model can simulate the runoff and sediment yield with good performance. The study indicates that SWAT can be efficiently used in hilly region of Nepal.
    Keywords: soil and water assessment tool; SWAT; watershed; sediment load; runoff; simulation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2022.10044101
  • Hydrogeology and chemo-isotopic characteristics of the deepest qanat in the World, Qasabeh Qanat, East of Iran   Order a copy of this article
    by Hojat Mirani Moghadam, Gholam Hossein Karami, Rahim Bagheri 
    Abstract: Qasabeh Qanat is the oldest and deepest qanat of the world, has two major branches including Kalat Branch and Kakhk Branch. The water types of Kakhk and Kalat Branches are Mg+2-HCO3- and Na+-Cl- respectively which after mixing change to Na+-Cl-. Due to the direct cation exchange, the amount of calcium and magnesium deficit in the samples is proportional to their excess sodium. The deuterium (δD) and oxygen (δ18O) isotopes signatures demonstrate the meteoric origin of the groundwater of this qanat and the flow mechanism is direct infiltration of precipitation through fractures in the limestone and sandstone formations at the south of the catchment and infiltration of surface water in the coarse grain alluvial cones at the south border of the plain. The variation of δ18O content of precipitation with altitude (-0.3‰/100 m) allows the main recharge areas to be determined above 1,850 m.a.s.l. in Kalat Branch and above 2,050 m.a.s.l. in Kakhk Branch.
    Keywords: Qasabeh Qanat; hydrograph; cation exchange; saturation indices; stable isotope; Gonabad; Iran.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2022.10044102