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International Journal of Hydrology Science and Technology

International Journal of Hydrology Science and Technology (IJHST)

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International Journal of Hydrology Science and Technology (57 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Empirical equation for estimating sunshine hours, and comparison of reference evapotranspiration models in temperate Kashmir Valley, India   Order a copy of this article
    by Syed Mohsin, M.A. Lone 
    Abstract: The availability of sunshine hours (SSH) data is central to many agrometeorological, hydrological, and solar applications. However, records of SSH may not be available for all stations. In such situations, an alternate method for the estimation of SSH becomes indispensable. In this study, the linear regression technique was used to develop a model for estimating mean monthly SSH using monthly averages of routinely recorded meteorological parameters for Kashmir Valley, India. Coefficient of determination (R2) and residual analysis were used to evaluate the developed model. For the stations where SSH data were available, a comparison of the actual and predicted reference evapotranspiration (ETO) calculated using eight models was made. The comparison showed a firm agreement between the actual and predicted ETO. Based on statistical indicators of the standard error of estimate and Willmot’s index, the ETO models were ranked in order of their performance in comparison to the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith equation.
    Keywords: Penman-Monteith equation; multiple linear regression; ranking; sunshine hours; SSH; reference evapotranspiration; ETO; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10040772
  • Strategic planning of rubber dams by the SWOT and SWOT-AHP methods in Iran   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Kazem Ghorbani, Hossein Hamidifar 
    Abstract: In recent years, the development of rubber dams or inflatable flexible membrane dams (IFMDs) has received more attention by researchers due to severe drought and flood conditions. The present study examine the strength (S), weakness (W), opportunity (O), and threat (T) factors or simply SWOT of development strategies of the IFMDs. To determine suitable strategies, the weights of the most important internal and external factors have been determined by the SWOT and the SWOT-AHP methods. The results demonstrated that the strengths-threats (ST) strategy must be considered in the development of these dams in Iran. Also, some strategies have been proposed for improved implementation of a comprehensive development program for better fulfilment of the strategic management of the IFMDs.
    Keywords: rubber dam; strategic management; SWOT-AHP; SWOT; Iran.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10041819
  • Calibrating APEX model for predicting surface runoff and sediment loss in a watershed - a case study in Shivalik region of India   Order a copy of this article
    by Anu David Raj, Suresh Kumar, Mary Regina, K.R. Sooryamol, Abhisek Kumar Singh 
    Abstract: The process-based model needs to be calibrated before its applications to derive a reliable estimate. A process-based agricultural policy/environmental eXtender (APEX) model was utilised to assess surface runoff and soil loss of a micro-watershed belongs to the Shivalik region of Himachal Pradesh, India. The model was performed exceptionally well for surface runoff (r2 - 0.81) and sediment yield (r2 - 0.81) with the Nash- Sutcliffe Efficiency assessments of 0.71 for surface runoff and 0.70 for sediment yield. The average annual soil loss is 23.42 t ha-1yr-1 from the watershed. The study revealed that the soil erosion in the Shivalik region increases and identified scrubland as the significant source for generating soil erosion in the watershed. Also, the APEX model could predict surface runoff and soil loss in the Shivalik region. The comprehensive information generated from the study will help to generate a sustainable land use plan in the Shivalik region.
    Keywords: surface runoff; sediment yield; soil erosion; ArcAPEX; process-based model; Shivalik Himalayan region; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10041820
  • The study of climate change related drought risk using weather research and forecasting model over Eastern Africa, Ethiopia   Order a copy of this article
    by Anil Kumar Medikonda, Anirudh Bhowmick 
    Abstract: As the drought research serves potential benefits to the management of its allied sectors, it demands research reasons for climate changes over Eastern Africa. The research paper mainly aims to prove how the WRF model data set for selected meteorological parameters, the MBE, RMSE and MAE have been computed and compared to estimate the correlation with the WRF model with Belg season and the Kirmet season in Ethiopia. The research paper discusses various primary causes for the formation of long and large-scale drought in the Arba Minch and Chencha region during the study period 2001-2010. The research expounds how these less to moderate and extreme conditions can be attributed to the combinational occurrence of La Nina with negative and positive Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) and Hybrid El Nino with NAO and ElNino-Modoki. As Ethiopia is a rainy agriculture-based country, the study is promising for the farmers fraternity in many dimensions including drought forecasting successfully.
    Keywords: weather research and forecasting; WRF; ElNino; North Atlantic oscillations; East Africa low-level jet; sea-surface temperature; SST; Indian Ocean dipole; IOD; drought; tele-connections; QBO; IOBM; MODOKI; hybrid ElNino.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10042159
  • Modelling of stage-discharge relationship using optimisation techniques for Jhelum River in Kashmir Valley, NW Himalayas   Order a copy of this article
    by Sheikh Umar, Mohammad Akbar Lone, Narendra Kumar Goel, Mohammad Zakwan 
    Abstract: The modelling of a reliable stage-discharge rating curve is crucial for the estimation of accurate discharge at particular gauging stations which is essential for planning and managing water resources efficiently as well as floods. This study involves the development of rating curves by applying generalised reduced gradient (GRG) optimisation technique and conventional regression method (RM) and to evaluate the performance of two methods indices like mean absolute relative error (MARE), correlation coefficient (r), Willmott Index (WI) and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) were used along with the graphical interpretation. The outcomes of the analysis revealed that the GRG optimisation technique is most suitable for eight gauging stations on the Jhelum River. Moreover, in the graphical representation, there is close agreement between the observed and predicted discharge by the GRG technique. Furthermore, the study revealed that the GRG technique showed a highly positive correlation (r > 0.95) at all the eight sites between the observed and predicted discharge. Therefore, the GRG solver technique is most suitable for the estimation of discharge for the given stage, which can be recorded easily than streamflow even during floods.
    Keywords: rating curve; optimisation-technique; generalised reduced gradient; GRG; stage; discharge.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10042596
  • Modflow model in the assessment of water conditions in forest areas   Order a copy of this article
    by Michał Wróbel, Andrzej Brandyk, Anna Tereba 
    Abstract: The effects of climate change are being felt on many levels. One of them are forests and the water conditions in their area. There has been a significant decline in the water table, leading to changes in forest ecosystems. Therefore, it is important to take measures to reduce the negative impact on water conditions. Tools such as mathematical models of groundwater flow can support this action. This manuscript presents the possibilities of applying the Modflow model in forest areas. The analysis confirms that the model can be successfully applied. It was shown that the model is suitable for accurate determination of changes in the amount of water in the soil. In the studied example, the increase in groundwater retention when 50 cm high dams were used was about 27% compared to the variant without dams. When 100 cm high dams were used, the increase in water retention was about 38%.
    Keywords: Modflow model; water management; forest; water retention.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10042853
  • Modelling and forecasting of relative humidity in Indian region   Order a copy of this article
    by Vikas Kumar Vidyarthi, Pragya Mukherjee, Shikha Chourasiya 
    Abstract: The forecasting of relative humidity (RH) is very important in planning various industrial activities and in designing future climate control systems. However, the researches on forecasting of RH is very few and far. In this study, a novel technique is proposed for forecasting one-day ahead RH using artificial neural network (ANN) and multiple linear regression (MLR) techniques by reducing the number of variables in input space gradually for an India region. The results show that both ANN and MLR models forecasted one-day ahead RH equally well. The ANN and MLR models which even use only lagged RH values performed equally well with nearly similar values of R (0.969 and 0.966), and RMSE (0.055 and 0.057), but MLR model has an advantage of being simpler and hence the present study recommends the use of MLR technique for RH forecasting. Also, the lagged RH values are sufficient for forecasting one-day ahead RH.
    Keywords: relative humidity; artificial neural network; ANN; multivariate linear regression; MLR; hydrology; building and environment; climate control systems.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10043052
  • Assessment of coefficient of discharge of gabion weir using soft computing techniques   Order a copy of this article
    by Siraj Muhammed Pandhiani 
    Abstract: Unlike classical impervious rigid weirs, organic and dissolved materials can pass through gabion weirs. Thus, due to its minimal negative consequence properties, gabion weirs are preferred over their counterpart rigid weir. It is an edge over rigid weirs due to the flexibility, stability, and eco-friendly reasons as it allows longitudinal movement of water lives and passes sediment and suspended organic materials. This work focused on examining the overflow mechanism of the broad crested gabion weirs under free-flow conditions to assess the gabions’ discharge coefficient, Cd, for this weir. Four porosities, as well as mean sizes, were used for this weir. Utilising MLR, an empirical model for Cd was developed which was performing better than the conventional model given by the previous author. The stochastic ANN model was found to be outperforming the other applied models, however, ANFIS-models were giving comparable results. The sensitivity study further suggests that upstream depth and discharge are significant parameters.
    Keywords: gabion weir; stochastic ANN; multiple linear regression; MLR; ANFIS; coefficient of discharge.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10043279
  • Quadrangle statistical downscaling method application to Mascara-Matemore in Algeria   Order a copy of this article
    by Abdelkader Elouissi, Mohamed Habi, Benali Benzater, Abdelkader Harizia, Oumeria Ouafrigh, Abderrahmane Hamimed 
    Abstract: Climate change consequences have become the concern of all countries. For this reason, scientists have been interested in the future climate prediction. In this study, coupled general circulation models (CGCMs) data precipitation are statistically downscaled by taking scenario data from the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) and those from 42 rainfall stations, located at North-western Algeria, over the period 1971-2011. The period 1971-2005 is used for the model calibration and 2006-2011 for the model validation. Quadrangle statistical downscaling method (QSDM) was used with four scenarios (representative concentration pathway, RCPs: RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0 and RCP8.5). The use of the spatial dependence function (SDF) allowed the CGCM data transfer to the Mascara-Matemore station. Therefore, monthly-downscaled rainfall amounts are generated from 2020 to 2100. Annual rainfall analysis, using moving average method, indicated a decreasing trend until 2100. The scenario RCP4.5 has been selected because of its minimal root mean square error (RMSE). The observed period (1971-2011) was compared to those projected (2020-2060 and 2060-2100). Monthly rainfall comparison exhibits a frequency decrease in low and high precipitation classes in addition to increase in the frequency of consecutive dry months (CDM).
    Keywords: statistical downscaling; climate change impact; drought; Macta watershed; Algeria.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10043410
  • The review of 102 design support tools for nature-based solutions applications   Order a copy of this article
    by Jakub Roemer, Tiina M. Komulainen, Miklas Scholz, Mojtaba Moatamedi 
    Abstract: Nature-based solutions is a new trend in the area of urban and suburban planning. Thanks to its complex nature, Nature-based solutions provide multiple services on different levels of cities functionality. On the other hand nature-based solutions complexity requires extended knowledge in multiple engineering and societal areas, so the implementation is not straightforward. In recent years, countless publications, guidelines, reports, web portals and applications for NBS have been published. It is no trivial task to scope through the materials, given the overwhelming amount of information and variability of the up-front knowledge the potential user could need. The aim of this paper is to present the review of 102 support tools for nature-based solutions applications. The review contains tools published in years 2015 to 2021, among which the majority from 2021 is still supported by authors or actively operating community. The review was also enhanced by extracting metadata from investigated tools.
    Keywords: nature-based solutions; NBS; storm water; climate change.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10043613
  • Low flow frequency analysis of Tawi River discharge at Jammu location   Order a copy of this article
    by Maharshi Yadav, Govind Pandey, Pradeep Kumar 
    Abstract: In present study Tawi river was selected for low flow frequency analysis (LFFA). Tawi River is left bank tributary of Chenab River. LFFA is useful to measure various parameters as mean annual runoff (MAR), mean daily flow (MDF), Q20, Q50, Q90, Q20/Q90, Q50/Q90, Q90/Q50, The average of annual series of minimum ten-day average (MAM10), The average of annual series of minimum seven-day average (MAM7),10Q10, 10Q2, 7Q10 and 7Q2. By separating, the 40 years discharge data in 20-20 years' time period significant change is observed, 15% change observed in MCM, 12.97% change in Q20 and 12.32% change in Q50. Flow duration curves show significant change in discharge of the Tawi river particularly during 5-25% exceedance probability. Monthly discharges show mixed trends with increase in discharges as 42.68%, 81.47% and 42.91% during October, November and June months and decrease in discharges as 13% to 48% during January, March, April, July, August, and December.
    Keywords: low flow frequency analysis; LFFA; mean annual runoff; MAR; mean daily flow; MDF; Tawi River; discharge data.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2022.10045587
  • Statistical temporal analysis of trend and variability of rainfall in Surat district, Gujarat, India   Order a copy of this article
    by Fenil R. Gandhi, Jayantilal N. Patel 
    Abstract: Rainfall is a key component of the water cycaughtle, and its variability is important for both scientific and socio-economic considerations. In the present analysis, the temporal variability of precipitation has been investigated on a monthly, seasonal, and annual basis for Surat district of Gujarat state of India. In order to develop rainfall trend, analysis has been conducted using different indices for 118 years of precipitation data (1901-2018). This study revealed that in annual precipitation there is a positive trend since 2003. A large seasonality is observed for the region and nearly all precipitation is coming during the southwest monsoon. The standard precipitation index (SPI) and rainfall anamoly analysis (RAI) indicated that the study area does not have the threat of drought conditions. The multi-statistical method approach and rigorous interpretation will be useful to readers across the globe to solve issues. Crop water management, flood management, storm-water management, and water balance studies require rainfall analysis. Hence this study is useful to carry on further research on said topics at the local level.
    Keywords: rainfall; drought analysis; rainfall anomaly index; RAI; seasonality index; SI; Gujarat; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2022.10044459
  • Hydro-economic optimisation proposal based on an optimised resource allocation model: a case study of the Peruvian agro-industrial company San Jacinto   Order a copy of this article
    by Jhosep Jhonatan Ochoa Gamarra, Javier Paredes-Arquiola, Lia Ramos Fernandez 
    Abstract: Water and arable land are scarce resources; therefore, it is necessary to optimise their use to increase economic returns and reduce environmental impacts, which becomes more demanding with the world population growth. This paper, proposes a methodology for hydro-economic optimisation in water resources systems through a management model, developed in decision support systems AQUATOOL, with economic estimates of agricultural productivity. This methodology seeks to optimise the rational use of water to obtain maximum economic returns. Therefore, a Peruvian sugar company was employed as a validation case study. This company was in a stage of crop diversification and needed to plan, execute and optimise its production area and crop location; and was able to achieve a reduction of 16.81 hm3 in annual average water deficit an increased annual economic returns by 74.98 million dollars.
    Keywords: water resources management; AQUATOOL; decision making; water balance; irrigation water; optimised water allocation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2022.10044791
  • Stochastic modelling of the daily precipitation occurrence in the Tocantins-Araguaia hydrographic region, Amazon, Brazil   Order a copy of this article
    by Mayke Feitosa Progênio, Claudio José Cavalcante Blanco, Laila Rover Santana 
    Abstract: Evaluating the temporal and spatial variation of the occurrence of dry and rainy days is essential for planning the use of water resources. This article evaluated the behaviour of daily precipitation in the Tocantins-Araguaia hydrographic region (TAHR). The 1st-order stationary Markov chain (MC) of two states was used without considering the spatial correlation between the rainfall gauge stations. The developed model was efficient in estimating the occurrences of daily precipitation for the entire TAHR, as the maximum errors found were equal to RMSE: 14.1568, RSR: 0.0149, NSE: 0.9973 and PBIAS: -1.7650. However, the areas located in the Amazon-Cerrado Biome (Ecotone) require more attention due to the greater occurrence of consecutive drought days. Therefore, it is suitable to use MCs of higher orders for greater accuracy. In addition, the transition probabilities that led to rain conditions were greater when they were closer to the Atlantic Ocean, while the transition probabilities that led to drought conditions were greater in the areas located in the Cerrado biome.
    Keywords: Markov chain; rainy days; dry days; ecotones; biomes; Amazon; Brazil.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2022.10045182
  • Effect of land use land cover change on runoff characteristics using curve number: a GIS and remote sensing approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Darshan Mehta, Janvi Hadvani, Devanshi Kanthariya, Prachi Sonawala 
    Abstract: Runoff is an important hydrological process and can cause negative effects such as soil erosion, excessive flooding over the river basin area. Changes in land use land cover are dynamic processes and can strongly influence runoff potential in the long run. The objective of the study is to analyse runoff from the curve number for different land use land cover classes and to derive land use land cover effect on runoff over Ambica river basin using QGIS for a period of 20 years, i.e., 1990-2010. SRTM digital elevation maps, Landsat 5 images, and soil maps extracted from the global hydrological soil group were processed in QGIS. A semi-automatic classification plugin was used for land use land cover classification and land cover classes such as urban area, forest, barren land, vegetation, and water bodies were identified. Significant changes in land use land cover patterns were observed during the study period. The results on the effect of landuse change on runoff can be seen as a warning for landuse managers and policymakers, who should aim at stopping and reversing the current landuse trends of the Ambica river basin.
    Keywords: land use land cover; LULC; curve number; CN; QGIS; semi-automatic classification.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2022.10045556
  • Field quantification and spatial variation of bed load transport in mountain stream: a case study of Gujarat (India)   Order a copy of this article
    by V.K. Yadav, S.M. Yadav, T. Kumar 
    Abstract: Bed load was directly measured for Chottey Cauvery stream, Gujarat, India, by using Modified Helley-Smith bed load sampler. The sampling time was taken as ten minutes. Based on these bed load measurement, Spatial (lateral and longitudinal) variation of bed load transport rate was analysed. Lateral bed load transport increases with increase in depth of flow, however, bed load transport rate is decreasing as the depth of flow increases towards the centre line of the river (chainage from 4m to 7m,) for all the three runs. Significant Spatial variation of bed load is observed at CS-2 with maximum bed load transport rate at chainage of 2 m and 9 m for 60% of the sampling data. Recking’s bed load equation is affected by the spatial variation of bed load transport rate with 75% and 59% predictability whereas Shields’ bed load equation predicts with 67% predictability as compared with the measured spatial bed load transport rate.
    Keywords: non-uniform sediment; Helley Smith sampler; ephemeral stream; bed load; spatial variation; Recking (2013); Shield (1936); sediment transport; mountain stream; Gujarat; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2022.10046113
  • Performance of conservative and non-conservative two-dimensional shallow water models in wavy river bed   Order a copy of this article
    by Anupal Baruah, Arup Kumar Sarma 
    Abstract: The conservativeness, stability, and robustness of the numerical models applied in braided river systems is primarily influenced by morphological complexities adverse, flow pattern and the channel roughness. Two-dimensional flow modelling over an undulating bed profile is critical on account of the existence of subsequent wet-dry regions in the flow domain. This work provides the applicability of the conservative and non-conservative form of two-dimensional unsteady flow equations in braided river system .Both the models are solved by TVD McCormack predictor corrector finite difference method and applied in the Brahmaputra River near Majuli Island, Assam India. The computed outputs are compared with the field observed results for validation. Results indicate a satisfactory agreement between the computed and measured value. Two statistical indices are used in the model performance evaluation.
    Keywords: conservative and non-conservative form; two-dimensional shallow water equation; braided river; bed complexity.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2022.10046835
  • Determination the optimal prediction scenario for the future precipitation rates in the Al-Najaf Governorate in Iraq   Order a copy of this article
    by Hayder H. Kareem, Aseel A. Alkatib 
    Abstract: Statistical downscaling models are recently used to predict the future events of climate change. A model is built for Al-Najaf Governorate, Iraq depending on the daily observed data 2010-2020 with the aim of predicting the future precipitations projections of the decades from 2030 to 2100. Identification the best, ideal and precise scenario that fit the study area to predict the future precipitation values is done. Calibration the statistical downscaling model of Al-Najaf Governorate has given good results comparable to the observations. CanESM2_rcp8.5 scenario results the best values of standard deviations which qualifies it to be the best scenario for anticipating the future precipitation's events. Results indicate a slight increase in precipitation for the decades 2030-2070. In December 2080, the rainfall will increase by 18 mm, while rainfall records a 23 mm increment in January 2080, 2090 and 2100. The implicit years of the predicted decades reveals rainfall (10-18) mm (autumn) and (15-23) mm (winter).
    Keywords: SDSM tool; CanESM2 scenarios; future precipitation prediction; Al-Najaf Governorate; Iraq.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2022.10046852
  • Soil organic matter control of water transmission properties of coarse-textured soil under contrasting land-use types in tropical rainforest   Order a copy of this article
    by Paul C. Oguike, Brown M. Onwuka, Sunday E. Obalum 
    Abstract: Infiltration rate (I) and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) depend on soil organic matter (SOM) in a manner that is poorly known for genetically similar soils of the humid tropics. This study examined I and Ks dependence on SOM under continuous cultivation (CCT), bush fallow (BFL) and secondary forest (SFT) on deep coarse-textured Nigerian soils using linear regressions. Soil texture, SOM and Ks varied by both land use and depth zone, while I was lower under CCT (0.20 cm/h) than BFL/SFT (0.30 cm/h). For Ks, trends were CCT (0.72 cm/h) < BFL (0.82 cm/h) < SFT (1.02 cm/h), and topsoils > subsoils. The SOM was lower in CCT (19.65 g/kg) than BFL/SFT (35.60-39.70 g/kg). Topsoil SOM and subsoil SOM had similar influence on I (82-85%), while SOM influenced Ks less in topsoils (51%) than subsoils (81%). Clay correlated positively with SOM, I and Ks . Land-use practices that promote SOM accretion increase clay-SOM complexation into silt/sand-sized stable aggregates forming 'porous' granular structure in these soils, enhancing their permeability.
    Keywords: bush fallow; drainable pores; granular structure; infiltration rate; soil depth zone.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2022.10046853
  • Investigating the effect of bridge pier material type and related parameters on local scour   Order a copy of this article
    by Rehab Jan, Mohammad Akbar Lone 
    Abstract: Scouring endangers the stability of the hydraulic structures. Studies have considered varied parameters affecting scour around an obstacle. But no substantial work has been done on the impact of obstacle material type on local scouring. The present study analysed the impact of material type of the bridge pier and related parameters on local scour. Cylindrical pier shape was used to simulate the field conditions in the laboratory. Obstacles were made of brick, concrete, wood and steel. Results show noticeable effect of obstacle material on local scour. It was observed that the scour depth and surface roughness of obstacles were inversely correlated and similar was the relation of scour with water absorption. An empirical model was developed to ascertain the maximum scour depth incorporating obstacle parameters. The study will help in better accuracy of scour depth estimation and help in reducing local scour at certain critical junctions of the flow path.
    Keywords: bridge; discharge; Froude number; hydraulic structure; obstacle; pier; scour; local scour; surface roughness; water absorption.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2022.10046855
  • Monthly streamflow prediction: the power of ensemble machine learning based decision support models   Order a copy of this article
    by Hamit Erdal, Ersin Namli 
    Abstract: Predicting stream flow, this is a vital milestone in planning and managing water resources, is important to researchers and hydrologists. Unpredicted stream flow threads cultivated areas, dams and riverside lands. Recently, the increasing popularity of machine learning (ML) methods including ensemble methods in hydrological prediction is noticeable. In this study, five single and three ensembles ML-based 18 prediction models and six performance evaluation measurements are utilised for monthly stream flow prediction. It is proved that models developed by stacking and voting ensemble ML methods have higher prediction accuracy. As a conclusion, this paper has presented the promising endeavour of incorporating sentiment regression into stream flow prediction.
    Keywords: stream flow prediction; water resources; artificial intelligence; machine learning; ensemble learning; Turkey.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2022.10046854
  • The use of low-cost bathymetric methods for the purpose of exploiting mid-forest water reservoirs   Order a copy of this article
    by Michał Wróbel, Kamil Mańk, Radosław Gawryś, Anna Krysztofiak-Kaniewska, Andrzej Boczoń, Sylwester Grajewski 
    Abstract: Bathymetry, the science concerned with measuring the depth of water bodies and reservoirs and representing them graphically in the form of bathymetric maps, sections, and three-dimensional numerical models, is used in monitoring dynamic, socioe-conomically important areas. Available methods include satellite bathymetry, sonars or echo sounders. Satellite bathymetry is unsuitable for most inland reservoirs because its turbid waters suppress electromagnetic radiation. For small, inaccessible reservoirs, sonar and echo sounders are most commonly used as measurement methods. This manuscript describes bathymetric surveys conducted using a low-cost method based on the echo sounder Lowrance Hook 5. The bathymetric method was combined with a digital terrain model (DTM) enhanced by real-time kinematic (RTK) measurements. The analysis of the selected reservoir, located in the middle of the forest, shows that the method used fully meets the assumed objectives and can be successfully applied for the purposes of water reservoir used by forest services.
    Keywords: bathymetry; retention; mid-forest reservoir; forest area.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2022.10046856
  • Study the effect of climate elements variability on surface water runoff and infiltration rate in Babylon province by using statistical analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Basima Abbas Jabir Al-humairi, Nadhum Shamkhi Rahal, Hayder A. Alalwan 
    Abstract: This research was conducted to predict surface water runoff (Ru) and w index for infiltration rate (In) depending on climate elements taken from a metrological directorate for a of 11 years. In addition, the relation between surface water runoff and {temperature (Tm), rainfall (P), relative humidity (Hu), wind speed (Ws), and w index for infiltration (In)}, was studied statistically using data fit software package. The surface water runoff and w index for infiltration was the (dependent variable), and the other climate elements were (independent variables). Several parameters such as coefficient of determination (R2), standard estimated error (SEE), root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE) and relative error (RE) were determined using the strength of the relationship between estimated and observed values of surface water runoff and w index for infiltration and used to verify the generated model, then calculate the coefficient of the runoff between runoff and precipitation.
    Keywords: surface water runoff; humidity; rainfall; temperature; w index; infiltration; data fit program; statistically; weather; runoff coefficient.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2022.10046900
  • Exploring hidden patterns in rainfall in Mula-Mutha and Bhima sub-basin of Upper Krishna valley using statistical trend analysis for water resources planning   Order a copy of this article
    by R.S. Jagtap, Mohan M. Kale, V.K. Gedam 
    Abstract: In-depth information on rainfall patterns is invaluable for planning and development of water resources. Trend analysis of rainfall datasets in Mula-Mutha and Bhima sub-basin characterised by strong presence of seasonality, serial correlation and skewed distribution carried out using robust non-parametric methods showed statistically significant rising trend in the plateau region and no or falling trend in the Western Ghat region. An interesting semi-circular shaped cyclic pattern, with period around 1118 years was visualised during the comprehensive rainfall pattern analysis. This rudimentary pattern could possibly be linked to the 'solar cycles'. Outcome can credibly be used in framing local and region-specific medium-term plans of 11-15 years duration for water resources planning to adapt and cope up with rain-deficient and flood years. Development of robust trend analysis methods to address likely cyclic patterns could be taken up further for research.
    Keywords: cyclic pattern; Mann-Kendall test; rainfall; seasonality; Sen’s slope; serial correlation; trend.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2022.10047049
  • Prediction of Vistula water surface level by applying the new group method of data handling   Order a copy of this article
    by Amin Mahdavi-Meymand, Wojciech Sulisz 
    Abstract: In this study, novel data-driven models were derived and applied to predict water surface level for two stations of the Vistula river. The applied data-driven models comprise quadratic polynomial group method of data handling (QP-GMDH), nonlinear group method of data handling (N-GMDH), linear regression equation (LRE), and nonlinear regression equation (NRE). These models were trained by particle swarm optimisation (PSO) and teaching-learning-based optimisation (TLBO) meta-heuristic algorithms. The results confirmed the superiority of GMDHs with respect to the regression equations for big and small datasets. According to the results, the N-GMDH derived in the study is about 4.68% more accurate than the standard GMDH. The TLBO algorithm is about 2.06% more accurate than the popular and widely applied PSO approach. The TLBO method is also more stable in reaching global solutions in comparison with the PSO method.
    Keywords: Vistula; river; discharge; GMDH; TLBO.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2022.10047052
  • Monthly TRMM correction and application in hydrological modelling   Order a copy of this article
    by Theo Senjaya, Doddi Yudianto, Xie Yuebo, Wanny K. Adidarma 
    Abstract: A more accurate and complex hydrologic model needs more hydrological data as the input. Inadequate hydrological data to conduct a proper hydrologic model became a problem in many cases. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) became an alternative solution to the limitation of rainfall data. However, the difference in the measurement method between conventional ground rainfall stations and the TRMM satellite gives some errors in TRMM data and needs to be corrected before being used in the hydrologic model. This study evaluates the quality of TRMM rainfall data and its applicability in the water availability model on a monthly basis. The NRECA model evaluated the relationship between corrected TRMM and observed flow at Delingan Reservoir. The corrected TRMM showed considerable results compared to the ground station data based on the analysis. Based on these results, TRMM can be used to substitute ground station data in the case of data unavailability.
    Keywords: Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission; TRMM; correction; water availability; rainfall-runoff calculation; Upper Bengawan Solo River Basin.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2022.10047197
  • Spatio-temporal monitoring and dynamic analysis of Harmukh Glaciers, Kashmir Himalaya   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohmad Ashraf Ganaie, Syed Kaiser Bukhari 
    Abstract: Glaciers are considered the most dynamic and remarkable features of earth and are highly sensitive indicators of climatic change and global warming. The continuous retreat of glaciers in the Himalayan region can have serious impacts in the region. So, there is a dire need for timely glacier mapping and monitoring for planning and management of water resources. The study focuses on the dynamic responses of glaciers in the Harmukh range, Kashmir Himalaya using satellite imagery from 1980 to 2020. The total area of the glaciers (G-I to G-VII) has reduced from 6.962 km2 in 1980 to 5.468 km2 in 2020, a deglaciation of 1.493 km2 (21.44%), whereas the glacial area of 0.499 km2 (14.55%) has lost in the Harmukh glacier (G-I) during this period. The snout position and ELA have shown upward shifts, with varying rates at different time intervals in the Harmukh glacier (G-I). The specific mass balance (SMB) of the Harmukh glacier (G-I) changed from 33.15 cm water equivalent (w.e.) to 7.27 cm water equivalent (w.e.) during the observation period. Adverse effects may prevail in the flow of streams and water-dependent regions of the area if the similar situation persisted in these glaciers.
    Keywords: remote sensing; accumulation area ratio; AAR; Google Earth Engine; GEE; equilibrium line altitude; ELA; Kashmir Himalaya.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2022.10047688
  • Geology and granulometry analysis of Krueng Aceh River floodplain, Aceh Besar   Order a copy of this article
    by Muhammad Irham, Firdha Sabrina, Fahri Adrian, Gartika Setiya Nugraha, Dewi Sartika, Edy Miswar 
    Abstract: The study aims to understand the geological conditions and examine the size and characteristic of sediment grains in the Krueng Aceh floodplain. The method used was sampling 14 points of soil samples in the floodplains using hand auger with 100 cm deep. Geological outcrop analysis was carried out to determine the geomorphological units of rocks. Mapping and data processing used ArcGIS software and floodplain soil sample employed multilevel sieve. The results show that the outcrop analysis found three geomorphological units, namely; Denudational Hills, River and Floodplain, and River Terrace Unit and consisted of three rock units; Sandstone, Conglomerate, and Alluvial Unit. Based on the percentage of granulometry analysis the fine sand size sediments are dominated. For the analysis based on river channels, the cut bank zone has the size of fine sand to very fine sand and the beach zone granulometry ranges from gravel, very coarse sand and coarse sand.
    Keywords: granulometry analysis; Krueng Aceh River floodplain; geomorphological unit; rock-unit.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2022.10047783
  • Geostatistical analyses empowered with gradient boosting and extra trees classifier algorithms in the prediction of groundwater quality and geology-lithology attributes over YSR district, India   Order a copy of this article
    by Mogaraju Jagadish Kumar 
    Abstract: Machine learning classifiers are integrated with the geostatistical analyses through interpolation techniques to predict groundwater quality and geology-lithology. Ordinary kriging is used to obtain the optimal interpolation model using RMSSE values. The data extracted from the surface maps were passed onto ML algorithms, resulting in prediction accuracies of 99% for groundwater quality and 96% in predicting the geology-lithology features. There was certain overfitting in the prediction and it was probably due to several classes of geology-lithology variables and limited data available for analysis. The interpolation methods might affect the model performance by producing overfiting and underfitting results. It is to report that the gradient boosting classifier yielded relatively high prediction accuracies in predicting groundwater quality when two classes were used. The extra trees classifier returned better results in predicting geology-lithology features when multiple classes were used in this study.
    Keywords: machine learning; geostatistics; groundwater quality; gradient boosting classifier; extra trees classifier; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2022.10050042
  • Density-based spatial clustering of application with noise approach for regionalisation and its effect on hierarchical clustering   Order a copy of this article
    by Ramgopal T. Sahu, Mani Kant Verma, Ishtiyaq Ahmad 
    Abstract: The study assesses DBSCAN-based cluster analysis to obtain a quantile with a minimum or low error (AR bias and R-RMSE). The Mahanadi River basin was examined for spatiotemporal characteristics of precipitation records prior to testing the DBSCAN technique for regionalising precipitation. An application of the modified Mann-Kendall trend test and BEAST, i.e., Bayesian estimators of abrupt change, seasonality, and trend for studying the spatiotemporal behaviour of the study area. Furthermore, applying DBSCAN and the empirical orthogonal function analysis (EOF) to come up with an effective clustering solution. Gridded rainfall data at a resolution of 0.25 x 025 (1901-2017) obtained from IMD Pune is used for computing statistics to be used for precipitation regionalisation. The inaccuracy of ungauged site quantile estimations is contrasted with the error resulting from a hierarchical cluster analysis method that creates site-specific areas specifically for computing quantiles. DBSCAN clustering has identified some non-uniform patterns spread over the lower Mahanadi basin, suggesting lots of outliers (noise points) and small-sized clusters in small regions. This could create difficulties in assessing and designing policies for water resource management for different stakeholders.
    Keywords: DBSCAN; mahanadi; regionalisation; RFA; hierarchical CA; L-moments; empirical orthogonal function; EOF; north test; ArcGIS.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2022.10048476
  • Comparison features importance for temporal and spatial-temporal approaches in GRACE and GRACE-FO signal re-construction based on GLDAS data   Order a copy of this article
    by Viktor Szabó 
    Abstract: Machine learning algorithms can effectively learn the complex relationships between various input variables from the global land data assimilation system (GLDAS) and the total water storage (TWS) observed by gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE) and GRACE-FO (follow-on) missions. As the TWS depends on various features, a serious question arises about the importance of used variables for reconstruction. Furthermore, will the variables used for the reconstruction be equally significant for grid-based and basin-based analyses? This work examined the importance of individual predictors for the temporal and spatial-temporal approach over 254 river basins using GRACE and GRACE-FO data as target and GLDAS data as predictors. The extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) algorithm was used to reconstruct TWS. Results were evaluated with root-mean-square error, normalised root-mean-square error, Pearson correlation coefficient, Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, and Kolmogorov-Smirnow-test metrics. Model output influence was checked by the model-agnostic version of the feature importance and by Shapley additive explanations (SHAP).
    Keywords: total water storage; TWS; global land data assimilation system; GRACE; GRACE-FO; features importance; extreme gradient boosting; XGBoost; Shapley additive explanations; SHAP.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2022.10048532
  • Long term trend analysis on precipitation in Ajmer district of Rajasthan State, India   Order a copy of this article
    by Jinal H. Pastagia, Darshan J. Mehta 
    Abstract: The research focuses on long-term patterns of climatic variability, such as precipitation. Rainfall trends in the Ajmer region were assessed using the Mann-Kendall (MK) test, Sens slope estimator, and the innovative trend analysis (ITA) technique on various time scales. Monthly precipitation data were used for the period of 121 years, i.e., 1901-2021. Trends (1901-2021) was assessed at the 5% significant level using a statistical trend analysis method called the MannKendall test. Mann-Kendall trend analysis result reveals an insignificant increase in the region of Ajmer district. At any time, series across the Ajmer district, there is no clear increase or decrease trend. According to the results of the ITA test, all four seasons and annual trends indicate decreasing. Almost all the significant trends identified using the M-K method were excellently recognised by the ITA method. The finding of the study will be useful to understand the risks and vulnerabilities of seasonal and annual precipitation under climate change scenarios in the region.
    Keywords: climate change; innovative trend analysis; ITA; Mann-Kendall test; precipitation; Sen's slope estimator.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2022.10048587
  • Artificial neural network for modelling the sediments accumulation in Es-Saada reservoir (North-Western Algeria)   Order a copy of this article
    by Mustapha Sidi Adda, Djilali Yebdri, Djilali Baghdadi, Sarita Gajbhiye Meshram 
    Abstract: Sediment deposition represents an important aspect of dam reservoir exploitation and management, as it relates to several operational and environmental problems. This study aimed to model the spatiotemporal evolution of the sediment accumulation in the Es-Saada reservoir (North-Western Algeria) using an artificial neural network (ANN) under low data conditions. The ANN model calibration was applied to the chronological period between the bathymetric surveys in 1986 and 2000, and the model verification was performed using data from a third survey conducted in 2003. The simulation of the reservoir bed presented acceptable results compared to the measured data (mean error of 7.76%). The model can provide predictive capacity curve for an average gap of 0.068 to the real curve, with a signification of 93.2%. It would be concluded that using determinist models for predicting sediment accumulation in reservoirs is complicated and needs all system details, while the application of ANN presents an adequate and uncomplicated method for predicting sediment distribution in dam reservoirs and also reservoir volume reduction in an approximate way.
    Keywords: sediments accumulation; artificial neural network; ANN; sedimentation modelling; Es-Saada reservoir; sediment discharge; Algeria.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2022.10048616
  • Runoff prediction based on climate change projection of the Greater Zab River Basin   Order a copy of this article
    by Elzahry F. Elzahry, Sherien Ahmed Zahran, Muhanad Talal Al-Sheer 
    Abstract: Lumped hydrological model (HEC-HMS) is established to simulate the surface runoff in the Greater Zab Basin (20,435 km2), resulting from precipitation and dominant snowmelt to predict the stream flow with applied climate changes scenarios for the best management of water resources systems. The temperature index method was utilised to simulate snowmelt process. Long-term daily runoff at a stream gauging station, precipitation and air temperatures at 20 gauging stations, land use, soil type and digital elevation model data of the basin were used to set-up the hydrologic model. The model was calibrated and validated. The future predictions of daily climate data downloaded from CORDEX and bias corrected for RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 to predict flow hydrographs of the basin during 2047-2073 and 2074-2100 periods. The results show that flood peak for future periods under medium and high scenarios will increase with 7.5% and 52%, respectively.
    Keywords: Greater Zab Basin; HEC-HMS; snowmelt; temperature index; climate change; rainfall-runoff.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2022.10048690
  • Developing rainfall intensity-duration-frequency curves for Dodola catchment to estimate peak discharge using frequency analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Takele Sambeto Bibi 
    Abstract: The development of intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves is one of the most common and useful tools to estimate peak discharge. The purpose of this study was to develop the IDF curves for five selected stations in the Dodola catchment. The Ethiopian Road Authority (ERA) reduction empirical formula was used to estimate the short-duration rainfall intensity from daily rainfall data. The L-moment ratio diagram and three goodness-of-fit tests were used to identify the best-fit probability distribution. The IDF curves that were constructed using regionalised distribution were compared with at-site IDF curves. The difference between the two sets of IDF curves small differences, also, shows the same trend for all selected return periods. These IDF curves will help in the estimation of peak discharge in the catchment.
    Keywords: probability distribution; IDF curves; peak discharge; Dodola catchment.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2022.10048737
  • Understanding efficient seawater intrusion assessment in coastal region of India: a methodological review   Order a copy of this article
    by Zalak Bhavsar, Jayeshkumar Patel 
    Abstract: India is fortunate to have a long length of coastline. In addition to the numerous villages and industrial communities, many of the country’s metropolitan centres are situated along the coastline. Saltwater intrusion is the migration of salty water into freshwater coastal aquifers, resulting in groundwater quality degradation. Land-use changes, climate change, and sea-level rise are the most significant contributing causes to saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers. Coastal saline water intrusion has a broad range of impacts on the community and financial systems, in addition to the area’s overall ecosystem, prompting many studies. According to the research, saline soils cover around 70 thousand square kilometres in India, including about 21,000 square kilometres in coastal regions. It is imperative to understand the extent of seawater intrusion in order to plan and manage mitigation measures towards sustainable development. The objective of this paper is to derive an insightful review of the methods, i.e., hydrogeochemical assessment, geophysical assessment and numerical modelling; used to tackle the pertaining issue of seawater intrusion.
    Keywords: coastal aquifer; geophysical method; geophysical method; hydrogeochemical method; seawater intrusion; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2022.10048738
  • A framework for the evaluation of MRP complex precipitation in a CORDEX-SA regional climate applied to REMO   Order a copy of this article
    by Shashikant Verma, A.D. Prasad, Mani Kant Verma 
    Abstract: In this study, rainfall patterns are depicted using 16 regional climate models of seasonal monsoon across the Mahanadi Reservoir Project (MRP) Complex region from 1980 to 2005. Bias correction and different statistical analyses were used to evaluate the model's degree of uncertainty and model performance with the relevant observations, respectively. The purpose of this study is to: 1) compare the capability of regional climate models (RCMs) in reproducing seasonal monsoons; 2) climate change impact in the near future (2021-2046), mid-future (2047-2072), and far-future (2073-2098) over the study area. The seasonal monsoon rainfall under two different RCPs (RCP 4.5 and 8.5) was used to test the experiments and data's ability. Among 16 Coordinated Regional Climatic Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) models, the REgional MOdel (REMO 2009) has a higher R2(i.e., 0.610). Therefore, such studies assist to analyse the impact of monsoon rainfall on different sectors and responding to climate change.
    Keywords: CORDEX-South Asia; MRP complex; regional climate model; RCM; bias correction; statistical analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2022.10049165
  • Analysing the meteorological parameters in the Jhelum watershed   Order a copy of this article
    by Sakiba Nabi, Manzoor Ahmad Ahangar, Abdul Qayoom Dar 
    Abstract: Precipitation and temperature, being the fundamental variables of climate, need to be studied extensively to understand the hydrological response of any watershed. This research aims to investigate the spatio-temporal variability of a data-sparse Himalayan watershed. The spatial patterns of the two variables are analysed at various time scales. The Mann-Kendall (MK) test is employed to detect the trends for both precipitation and temperature at different time scales. The results suggest that the spatial patterns of precipitation are affected by the orographic effects, and those of temperature are affected by the elevation changes in the study area. The trend analysis results point towards increasing trends in both temperature and precipitation on the annual time scale, which could result in glacier melting, lesser snowfall, and extreme events in the future. The study will prove fruitful in better understanding the area's hydrology, mainly because it is a data-sparse region. Also, it can assist in carrying out rainfall-runoff hydrological modelling more efficiently.
    Keywords: precipitation; temperature; spatio-temporal; spatial patterns; trend analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2022.10050547
  • Flood susceptibility mapping using MCDM-AHP approach and geospatial technique- a study of Hyderabad district, Telangana, India   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammed O. Faizan, Manas Hudait, Kajri Sengupta, Biswajit Roy Chowdhury 
    Abstract: Recently, humans have been susceptible to a growing number of natural hazards, the most severe and frequent of which is flooding. This study aims to prepare flood hazard risk zone maps of Hyderabad District based on MCDM-AHP method and RS-GIS tools. Various parameters like physiographic, climatic, LULC and pedological were used and thematic maps were prepared from various sources. Which were integrated into the ArcGIS software to identify flood hazard zone based on weighted overlay method. Each parameter has given a relative weightage depends on their significance, and sub-class of each parameter was given ranking from 0 to 5. The resultant flood risk map is classified into low, moderate and high-flood risk zone and the result was verified further using past flood events occur in the area. This study can be useful to the planners and local authorities in developing flood prevention and mitigation strategies in Hyderabad District.
    Keywords: flood susceptibility zones; analytic hierarchy process; AHP; weighted overlay analysis; WOA; geographical information system; GIS; remote sensing.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2022.10049478
  • Probabilistic flood risk assessment using coupled hydrologic and 2-D-hydraulic model in the Jhelum River, Northwest Himalayas   Order a copy of this article
    by Saika Manzoor, Manzoor Ahmad Ahangar 
    Abstract: Keeping in mind the susceptibility to flooding-related disasters in the past, the need was identified for flood risk assessment using recent modelling techniques in the data-scarce River Jhelum, India. This study conducted a preliminary rainfall frequency analysis to find the best fit statistical model for calculating peak flow rates for multiple return periods. A framework was followed for the spatio-temporal delineation of flood-prone areas by integrating the watershed modelling system (WMS), Hydrologic Engineering Center-Hydrologic Modelling system (HEC-HMS), and two-dimensional Hydrologic Engineering Center-River Analysis System (2-D HEC-RAS) for different return period design floods. The 2-D unsteady state flood modelling in HEC-RAS showed the river overflowing its flow path for all the return periods, with 55% of the Srinagar city inundated in the 100-year event. The simulated flood depths and velocity maps for every design flood scenario are shown. The 2-D simulations yielded encouraging results compared to the most recent flood event.
    Keywords: hydrologic modelling; 2D hydraulic modelling; floodplain delineation; 2D HEC-RAS; River Jhelum.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2022.10050494
  • Gene-expression programming for scour around spur dike   Order a copy of this article
    by Ravi Prakash Tripathi, Kamlesh Pandey 
    Abstract: Spur dikes are hydraulic structures construct in the river or channel and help for saving the bank from erosion, deepen the upstream channel and the habitat present on the dyke of the river. Due to the importance of river dike for natural habitat, microorganism, researcher attracted towards the scour formed around the spur dike very much however the straight channel spur dike were studied maximum in current days along with the focus is also turned into the curved channel or bends. The current paper deals with expanding GP. The GEP is an alternative approach in the way of modelling, which predicts the maximum scour depth. The introduced GEP model may apply to various boundaries with the part-full flow, and the approach gives excellent results compared to pre-existing data.
    Keywords: scour; spur dike; erosion; bed topography; modelling; flow characteristics; GEP; regression analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2023.10050518
  • Application of deep learning algorithm in hydrometry   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Zakwan, Shaik A. Qadeer, Mohammed Yousuf Khan 
    Abstract: Estimation of discharge in a river is an integral part of water resource engineering. In this regard various artificial intelligence (AI) techniques have been employed to model the discharge ratings. The present work compares the performance of two neural network namely back propagation neural network (BPNN) and radial basis neural network (RBNN) to model the discharge rating. The estimated discharge was also compared with the discharge estimated using conventional method. Published data of two gauging station was used for the comparative analysis. It was observed that application of neural networks greatly improved the estimates of discharge as compared to conventional method. Application of artificial neural network (ANN) reduced the sum of square of error (SSE) by about 90% on an average. Maximum absolute error reduced from 51.36 and 141.21 to 5.04 and 7.68 respectively for the two stations for RBNN when compared to conventional method during validation. Calibration results reveal that among the BPNN and RBNN, RBNN could model the ratings at both the stations, better than BPNN.
    Keywords: hydrometry; discharge; river; ratings; neural networks; back propagation neural network; BPNN; radial basis neural network; RBNN; artificial neural network; ANN; sum of square of error; SSE.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2022.10050564
  • A software for water pollution treatment technology evaluation by supporting customisable indicator systems for specific scenarios   Order a copy of this article
    by Bo Song, Chen Chen, Rongrong Kou 
    Abstract: Determining the best water pollution treatment technology (WPTT) is one of the biggest challenges in water pollution management. We proposed the point of specific evaluations for specific scenarios to select appropriate technologies that can improve the efficiency of water pollution treatment. This point refers to establishing specific indicator systems for water pollution treatment technology evaluation (WPTTE) for specific scenarios. A software was developed to achieve specific evaluations for specific scenarios by supporting the rapid construction of customised indicator systems. The functions of this software include data management, indicator system matching, visualising construction of indicator systems, comprehensive evaluation and graphic display. In addition, the software was demonstrated by an example of ammonia nitrogen wastewater treatment technology selection. The software can meet the demands of multi-scene and multi-role evaluation and make the establishment of indicator systems more straightforward and effective. The study provides a solid foundation for specific evaluations for specific scenarios.
    Keywords: water pollution; treatment technology; technology evaluation; specific evaluations for specific scenarios; indicator system; analytic hierarchy process; AHP; evaluation software.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2022.10050837
  • River discharge estimation in the Punatshangchu River Basin, Bhutan using an integrated flood analysis system   Order a copy of this article
    by Damudar Dahal, Parmanand Kumar, Ramesh Chhetri, Rocky Talchabhadel, Chandra Man Rai 
    Abstract: Predicting river discharge is essential for managing water resources, contributing to the economy, and minimising associated hydrologic risks. Despite the manifold importance of a sound understanding of river discharge, the rugged geography of Bhutan makes installing sophisticated water discharge measuring equipment challenging. Using an integrated flood analysis system - a non-structural method - is used to calculate the river discharge of the Punatshangchu River Basin. The two tank configuration hydrologic model was applied through parameterisation, calibration, and validation and was forced using rainfall data. The maximum observed discharge was 1,532 m3/s and the minimum was 58 m3/s. The validated simulation model showed a maximum discharge of 1,522 m3/s and a minimum discharge of 138 m3/s, respectively. The simulated result overestimates the low flow and underestimates the high flow. A Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency of 0.7626 was achieved, indicating a satisfactory level of estimation. The study found that the IFAS model can predict river discharge in a data-scarce environment.
    Keywords: integrated flood analysis system; IFAS; model calibration; Punatshangchu River Basin; PRB; river discharge; simulation; Bhutan.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2022.10051274
  • Long-term spatial and temporal trend analysis of stream flow and suspended sediment transport of Godavari River Basin, India   Order a copy of this article
    by Madhura C. Aher, S.M. Yadav 
    Abstract: Long-term spatial and temporal variations of stream flow and suspended sediment discharge of rivers are important for effective planning of available water resources and soil conservation measures. In present study the gradual and abrupt change in stream flow and suspended sediment discharge at 21 stream gauging stations which are located on the Godavari River were analysed for the period of 1969 to 2015 (46 years). The Mann-Kendall (MK) trend test and Pettitt test is used to detect the gradual and abrupt change respectively. The results of MK test indicates that 76% stations shows decreasing trend in stream flow, whereas 90% stations shows decreasing trend in suspended sediment discharge. The Abrupt change is reported in the early and middle period of 1990 to 2000. The significant decreasing trend in stream flow and sediment discharge is due to the construction of extensive dams, land use change and rainfall pattern.
    Keywords: Godavari Basin; stream flow; suspended sediment discharge; trend; change point.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2022.10051376
  • Developing rainfall intensity-duration-frequency curves at the western flank of Mt. Merapi, Indonesia   Order a copy of this article
    by F. Tata Yunita, Indratmo Soekarno, Joko Nugroho, Untung Budi Santosa 
    Abstract: The intensity and frequency of extreme events are continuously increasing due to climate change, leading to a rise in flood probability. Considering flood discharge by connecting the recent rainfall data is critical. This research aims to provide temporal characteristics of rainfall intensity in the western flank of Mt. Merapi. The 10-, 20-, 30-, 40-, 50-, 60-, 120-, 180-, 360-, and 720-minutes annual maximum rainfall data from 5 stations were used to develop the intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves by using Logarithmic and power equations. Distribution frequency analysis was carried out using extreme value type-I, normal, lognormal, Pearson type-III, and log Pearson type-III methods. The results showed that the proposed model is satisfying for short-duration rainfall of less than 360-minutes with R-values of more than 90%. These alternative IDF curves based on short-duration rainfall data significantly improve the accuracy of lahar flood mitigation measures in Mt. Merapi.
    Keywords: short-duration rainfall; IDF curve; mountainous region; lahar flood.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2022.10051623
  • Univariate streamflow forecasting using deep learning networks   Order a copy of this article
    by R. Yamini Priya, Manjula R 
    Abstract: Streamflow plays a vital role when deciding on water resource planning and management. According to data resources and their availability, streamflow prediction for different regions has been made so far using distinctive models, such as physically-based hydrologic models, statistical models and machine learning algorithms. This article describes the applications of recently generated deep learning N-BEATs algorithm by modifying the basic structure with nonlinear predictor coefficient and long short-term memory (LSTM) for univariate streamflow forecasting in the Ponnaiyar River Basin. To develop the model, the model utilised the data of three streamflow stations that contain 40 years of Villipuram discharge and 36 years of Gummanur and Vazhavachanur discharge. The experimental analysis is performed to analyse the performances of the proposed model. From the results, both models performed well during the training and validation period. Similarly, the accuracy estimation of validation conducted by N-BEATs and LSTM Nash-Sutcliff efficiency for upstream (0.827 and 0.792) and midstream (0.9407 and 0.865) have revealed that the modified N-BEATs accomplished superior outcomes than LSTM, respectively. It is concluded that the proposed N-BEATs model can be applied for univariate streamflow forecasting which simplifies the data complexity for model establishment.
    Keywords: deep learning networks; streamflow; water resource planning; annual rainfall; forecasting; root mean square error; RMSE.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2022.10051827
  • Numerical modelling of groundwater flow in Nambiyar river basin   Order a copy of this article
    by S.P. Rajaveni, R.V. Archana, B. Saranya, P. Shakthi Priyadharshini 
    Abstract: Coastal aquifers are groundwater resources that connect land and sea. Coastal aquifers supply freshwater to almost one billion people who live near the coast and interact with coastal risks as well as coastal ecosystems. On a regional and global scale, coastal groundwater runoffs should pay more attention to the balance between water and solutes. The objective of this paper is to simulate the dynamics of groundwater discharge along the Nambiyar river basin coastal shoreline. A three-dimensional groundwater flow equation was used to estimate the groundwater discharge along the shoreline from December 2010 to December 2018. By adjusting aquifer parameters within the permitted range, steady state calibration was performed to match the observed and simulated groundwater heads. The study results show that the quantity of groundwater discharge is high during the month of August compared to the month of April.
    Keywords: groundwater discharge; groundwater model; Nambiyar river basin; finite element model.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2022.10052059
  • Study rainfall intensity duration frequency relationships under climate change for design of efficient urban stormwater drainage systems in Dodola town, Ethiopia   Order a copy of this article
    by Takele Sambeto Bibi, Nebiyu Waliyi Tekesa 
    Abstract: The variability in rainfall intensity caused by climate change has an impact on the efficiency of urban stormwater drainage systems. Therefore, this study presents the relationships between rainfall intensity and climate change using the global climate models MIROC-ESM, HadGEM2-ES, and CanESM2 under two representative concentration pathway scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). The future projected daily rainfall was extracted and bias-corrected using the python scripts. The results show that the highest intensity of rainfall for a 100-year recurrence period in a 5-minute duration is 201.2 mm/hr. The relative difference between the RCP4.5 climate change scenario and historic rainfall ranges between 25.1% and 36.3% for the 2030s, 3.0% and 81.4% for 2050s, and 1.5% and 58.6% for 2080s, respectively. Similarly, the difference between the climate change scenario and historic rainfall for the 2030s ranged from 13.9% to 49.8%, with an average value of around 25.1% in the case of RCP8.5. As a result, the investigation of rainfall intensity relationships due to climate change will be used to design efficient drainage systems.
    Keywords: climate change; CanESM2; rainfall intensity; relative difference.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2022.10052154
  • Optimal operation of the multi-reservoir system: a comparative study of robust metaheuristic algorithms   Order a copy of this article
    by Shashikant Verma, A.D. Prasad, Mani Kant Verma 
    Abstract: In a multi-reservoir system, the functioning of one reservoir affects the other reservoirs. A multi-reservoir system must be managed as a single entity for sustainable water management. Thus, assessing a multi-reservoir system’s existing operating policy is crucial for integrated operation. In this study, the recently introduced grey wolf optimisation (GWO) was compared to the robust metaheuristic algorithm the whale optimisation algorithm (WOA). First, the performance of these algorithms was evaluated and compared for multi-reservoir system operation optimisation. The statistical indices coefficient of determination (R2), root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), mean square error (MSE), normalise mean square error (NMSE), and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) were used to compare the algorithms’ performance. According to the test findings, among the ten algorithms evaluated. GWO was shown to be the most effective, and it is suggested as a reliable and promising technique for optimising multi-reservoir systems.
    Keywords: metaheuristic algorithm; multi-reservoir system; Mahanadi reservoir project; grey wolf optimisation; GWO; whale optimisation algorithm; WOA.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2022.10052274
  • Meteorological drought analysis in Pali District of Rajasthan State using standard precipitation index   Order a copy of this article
    by Darshan J. Mehta, S.M. Yadav 
    Abstract: Droughts are very devastating natural hazards that affects large extent of land and causes great economic losses. Droughts are determined by a deficit of water availability over a long time period, due to consistently below average precipitation in that region. The study aimed to discuss the effects of drought with its various features and the frequency of occurrence. To analyse the meteorological drought the study utilises the standard precipitation index (SPI) at different time scales, i.e., 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Monthly rainfall data for 1901-2002 were utilised from 47 meteorological stations scattered in the study area to assess SPI values. The drought severity and duration are also estimated. The analysed result shows that most of the drought events fall in mild drought category according to the SPI classification. However, the severe drought events were much harmful on some part of the study area due to its low annual rainfall rates. The analysis would help to determine the risk of future droughts in the region, to analyse their effects on economy, the environment, and society, and to take steps to mitigate the impact of droughts.
    Keywords: meteorological drought; risk; SPI; Pali.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10037751
  • Threshold of motion of unconventional sediment under unidirectional flow   Order a copy of this article
    by Aamer Majid Bhat, Manzoor Ahmad Ahanger, Pranab Kumar Mohapatra 
    Abstract: The threshold of motion of commonly found sediments in streams and rivers, sand and gravel which are mainly siliceous in nature, has been studied thoroughly since the development of the field of sediment transport in fluvial hydraulics. There are other types of sediment, of more irregular shape, such as bioclastic, biogenic, and organic detritus which need a special focus vis-a-vis their transport. This study considers the incipient motion of such sediments and finding a better representation of their threshold of motion. This study considers the empirical curves of some previous researchers and the scatter of data from unconventional sediment to assess the threshold behaviour of such sediment under unidirectional flow. The consideration of the settling velocity in the sediment threshold studies is important in general and for the sediment studied here in particular. The Movability Number is found to be a better representation of the threshold than the Shields parameter or square of Movability Number as data show less scatter about empirical curves.
    Keywords: sediment transport; fluvial hydraulics; incipient motion; unconventional sediment; Movability Number; Shields parameter.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10040508
  • Hydrochemical analysis of groundwater quality in central Hodna Basin, Algeria: a case study   Order a copy of this article
    by Ahmed Ferhati, Ratiba Mitiche-Kettab, Nour El Houda Belazreg, Hakim Djafer Khodja, Salim Djerbouai, Mahmoud Hasbaia 
    Abstract: This paper aims to identify the mineralisation origin and distinguish between the different classes of groundwater quality in several regions of the semiarid basin of Hodna in central Algeria. Many multivariate statistical techniques are applied to a dataset composed of 64 georeferenced individuals with 19 chemical variables. The obtained results from this principal component analysis show that the first five factors explain more than 78% of the groundwater quality variance. Other methods such as CA cluster analysis, CAH hierarchical cluster analysis and geochemical analysis using the Piper diagram are more appropriate to contemplate nodule-facies development and to distinguish clusters. The endorheic characteristic of the study basin consequents the basin centre named Chott El Hodna to be a salinity source. Bit by bit, salinity raises from North to South, from unsalted water to strongly salted water close to the Chott. The outcomes demonstrate that this groundwater is portrayed, the facies definite assessment outlines that the chloride, calcium and magnesium sulphate facies indicate 84% of cases, trailed by sodium sulphate facies with 14% and the rest (2%) is identified by the bicarbonate facies.
    Keywords: GIS; groundwater quality; Hodna; hydrogeochemistry; multivariate statistical analysis; piper hydrochemical facies; principal component analysis; PCA; Algeria.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10040507
  • People's perception on climate change effects and adaptation in the Haor Basin of Bangladesh   Order a copy of this article
    by Sheikh Hefzul Bari, Noor-E-Ashmaul Husna 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to understand the people's perception on climate change occurring in the Haor Basin of Sunamganj, Bangladesh. The results from focus group discussion (FGD) show that the change in the rainfall affects economic, residential, health, in a word every aspect of life of local people. Historic analysis of data reveals that flash flood is common in the Haor areas. Flash floods seriously damage the crops as they occur in March-April when the winter rice is semi-ripe, just 15-20 days earlier than the harvest time. However, trend analysis of rainfall data reveals a decreasing trend in most of the months. Further investigation of daily rainfall data shows that heavy rainfall in consecutive three to five days along with upstream discharge causes the flash flood. This heavy rainfall does not have a serious effect on total rainfall but brings misfortune to farmers.
    Keywords: climate change; Haor Basin; Bangladesh; flash flood; rainfall; Mann-Kendall test; focus group discussion; FGD.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10041194
  • Effect of debris on the upstream hydraulic head of sluice gate   Order a copy of this article
    by Azza N. Altalib 
    Abstract: Debris caused during flood events and transports by the river maybe lead to many hydraulic troubles due to accumulated debris upstream hydraulic structures. Debris caused during flood events and transported by rivers leads to many hydraulic troubles due to accumulated debris upstream of the hydraulic structure. Therefore, many authors were preoccupied with stopping or reducing this debris from accumulating. Many studies dealt with the debris' effect on hydraulic structures, especially on scour at the weir and pier. However, studies on hydraulic flow characteristics under the sluice gate are few and limited. In this study, the effect of accumulated debris upstream sluice gate on the approached water depth was highlighted. The study found that the approached water level increased by 14% when accumulated debris increases, while a 40% decreased upstream water level led to debris passage beneath the gate. The gate opening and debris volume were more sensitive to the water depth upstream the sluice gate.
    Keywords: debris; flood; hydraulic; open channel; sluice gate.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10039593
  • Efficiency of indirect and estimated evapotranspiration methods in South Western Nigeria   Order a copy of this article
    by Sunday O. Adesogan, Blessing F. Sasanya 
    Abstract: Evapotranspiration is the energy which drives the hydrologic cycle. The estimation of evapotranspiration is of utmost importance to irrigation projects as well as water resources, evaluation, planning and management. Various empirical models estimating evapotranspiration suits different basins in various degrees. This study determined the suitability of different evapotranspiration models for South Western Nigeria. These models were compared with measured evapotranspiration. Suitability of the models were determined from correlation coefficients, root mean square errors (RMSEs), efficiency test and volume error. In comparison with measured values, FAO Penman-Montieth had highest correlation coefficient (0.74), lowest RMSE value (27.26 mm/month), highest efficiency test value (0.40) and lowest volume error (0.26). The differences between the evapotranspiration values obtained from the empirical methods and the directly measured values are significant at α0.05. Some of the models overestimated while others underestimated evapotranspiration. This study will facilitate irrigation project planning and water resources management in South Western Nigeria.
    Keywords: FAO Penman-Monteith method; class 'A' evaporation pan; Piche evaporimeter; water resources management.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10041388
  • Conjunctive use of flow modelling, entropy, and GIS to design the groundwater monitoring network in the complex aquifer system   Order a copy of this article
    by Yashwant B. Katpatal, Chandan Kumar Singh 
    Abstract: The groundwater level monitoring network (GWLMN) provides a basis for management and planning of groundwater resources. The present study aims to assess and redesign the GWLMN for the Wainganga Basin, Central India. The study proposes a three-step method to redesign the GWLMN: 1) to simulate spatiotemporal distribution of groundwater levels (GWLs) using groundwater flow modelling (GWFM); 2) to analyse the uncertainty in GWL for each observation wells (OWs) using entropy theory; 3) to optimise GWLMN using hydrological and anthropogenic parameters. The study suggests that, a minimum of 116 OWs were significant for GWLMN. Incorporation of hydrological and anthropogenic parameters into the GIS environment is found to be important for designing GWLMN. The proposed method is useful for redesigning GWLMN in a complex aquifer system.
    Keywords: groundwater monitoring; geographic information systems; entropy; MODFLOW; monitoring network; observation well.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2021.10041387