International Journal of Happiness and Development (15 papers in press)
Do Psychological Resilience And Life Satisfaction Affect Happiness Levels Of Individuals?: A Case Study For Trabzon University
by Kenan BÜLBÜL, Tugba TÜRKKAN, Hatice ODACI
Abstract: The aim of the research is to examine the effect of psychological resilience and life satisfaction on happiness. Correlational survey methods were used as quantitative research methods. Accordingly, the research included students from different departments of Trabzon University in the spring semester of the 2018-2019 educational year and was completed with 558 students who accepted participation. Within the scope of the study, the demographic information form, Brief Resilience Scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale and Oxford Happiness Questionnaire-short formwere used with surveys completed in groups in the classroom environment with the researcher. As a result of the analyses, the happiness levels of students did not differ statistically significantly based on their gender and income levels, but differed statistically significantly based on department they studied and this difference was due to students attending the department of foreign languages education. Additionally, positive statistically significant correlations determined between happiness levels of students with psychological resilience and life satisfaction levels. Finally, according to multiple regression analysis, life satisfaction alone predicted 43% of happiness level, while including psychological resilience was included in the model, theyboth predicted 50%.
Keywords: Happiness; Psychological Resilience; Life Satisfaction; University Students.
COVID-19 induced financial anxiety and state of the subjective well-being among the Bangladeshi middle class: The effects of demographic conditions
by A.F.M. Jalal Ahamed
Abstract: In poverty-stricken countries, the middle or working-class usually falls out of focus in fiscal policy discussions, especially during crisis situations, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, in which governments seek to keep trade moving through grants and subsidies and work to sustain the poor. The current research aims to determine if the pandemic has had an impact on the subjective well-being (SWB) and financial anxiety (FAS) for a middle-class Bangladeshi sample, according to four critical demographic factors: gender, income, residency (capital or outside the capital), and job security. At the height of the pandemic (July 1424, 2020), 129 respondents completed a self-reported survey questionnaire. The results indicate that although people appear to be happy in general, they are worried about their relationships. Women score lower on total well-being than men, as do those with household incomes below the average. People living outside the capital score marginally higher; people with well-secured jobs denote their higher well-being too. Furthermore, the FAS results indicate higher levels of anxiety among people with lower incomes and unsecured jobs. Therefore, the COVID-19 experience might inform future fiscal policies, including potential efforts to introduce universal job security insurance and financial counseling to employees after the pandemic.
Keywords: FAS; BBC-SWB; financial policy; financial therapy; wellbeing counseling.
Diversity, Culture, and Membership in Social Organisations
by Abu H. Ayob
Abstract: This cross-national study empirically examines cultural context as a boundary condition for the interaction of diversity and social organisations. Specifically, this research explores the effects of ethnic, religious and linguistic diversity on the membership of humanitarian and charitable organisations, and how the relationships are moderated by the level of fairness and happiness. The hypotheses are tested using the index of fractionalisation and data from the World Values Survey from 38 countries. After controlling for the institutions, the results show that ethnic and linguistic diversity, together with a level of fairness, have positive effects on the membership of social organisations. However, the impact of the level of happiness and the moderating effects of cultural variables vary according to the type of diversity. The findings imply that social heterogeneity and cultural context play a significant role in determining engagement in voluntary social activities.
Keywords: Ethnic diversity; Religious diversity; Linguistic diversity; Fairness; Happiness; Social organisations.
The Influence of Religiosity and Culture on Economic, Environmental and Social Dimension of CSR:A Comparative Case Study of Taiwan and Austria
by Marius Molter, Vito Bobek, Gorazd Justinek, Tatjana Horvat
Abstract: The following paper analyzes the influence of culture and religiosity on Corporate Social Responsibility by assessing the three dimensions of the triple- bottom approach - economic, environmental, and social via creating composite indicators out of relevant questions of the World Value Survey for each field. This study\'s comparative nature includes doing that for the countries Austria and Taiwan, as two very different countries in terms of economic development, religion, and cultural values. The analysis has been done for all available data on the World Value Survey website, and therefore, a comparison of the development of these factors over time is possible. Lastly, a correlation analysis regarding the influence of religiosity on each of those dimensions was applied. The time-series analysis results show a positive trend in all dimensions for both countries, overshadowed by a few heavy decreases. The correlation analysis resulted in a conclusion that is not following previous studies. It suggests negative relationships for two out of the three dimensions in both countries. While in Austria, a positive correlation between religiosity and the economic dimension is observable, the correlation between environmental concerns and religiosity in Taiwan appears significant.
Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility; Culture; Religiosity; Time-series analysis; Cross-country comparison.
Urbanization and Life satisfaction
by Marium Ishaque, Faisal Sultan Qadri
Abstract: The world is urbanizing rapidly and the proportion of the population living in urban areas in both the developed and developing countries has increased over time. In this paper, We study the association between urbanization and life satisfaction at the national level by using different indicators of urbanization. The study examines whether or not the urbanization-well-being association varies when different measures of urbanization are used. The analysis covers a wide range of regions across the world including the four income groups; low, lower-middle, upper-middle, and high-income group. Data for the empirical analysis is obtained from World Happiness Report 2020 and WDI (World Development Indicators 2019). The findings demonstrate that national level urbanization raises national life satisfaction however, the benefits of urbanization decrease with the development level. It is found that a change in urbanization indicator may change the direction as well as the statistical significance of the relationship.
Keywords: Urbanization; subjective well-being; life satisfaction; regions; urbanization indicator.
Does Fiscal Deficit, Public Debt, Economic Growth and Energy Consumption Effect Health Expenditure in India: An Empirical Evidence Based ARDL Bound Testing Approach
by Tariq Lone, Parveez Lone
Abstract: This paper examines the impact of fiscal deficit (LFD), public debt (LPD), gross domestic product (LGDP) and of energy consumption (LEC) on health expenditure (LHE) in the country. Annual data taken for the time period 1980-2019 has been taken for the analytical purposes. The bound testing approach for co-integration, Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model has been used for testing the long run cointegration among variables. Besides, vector error correction model (VECM) has been utilised for determining the direction of short and long run causality. The results have shown the presence of long run causal relationship between fiscal deficit, public debt, economic growth, energy consumption and health expenditure. However in the short run, only single relationship was observed between GDP and health expenditure. These results indicate that in the long run all the variables do influence the health expenditure but it shows that GDP is stronger of all the variables that effect health expenditure more. Thus we suggest that prudent public debt management, fiscal discipline, efficient energy consumption and economic growth should go a long way in maintaining the health expenditure and therefore better health outcomes for the economy as a whole.
Keywords: Health expenditure; ARDL Bound; VECM; Cointegration; Causality.
What Makes Employees Happy at Work? Evidence from Cross-sectional data in India
by Iqra Zaffar, Abdul Gani
Abstract: This study examines the state of happiness of Indian employees, identifies the antecedents of their happiness, and explores the correlates of their workplace happiness. It is based on a sample of 400 public sector employees belonging to the education, health, banking and manufacturing sectors in northern India. SPSS version 23 was used to analyse the collected data using descriptive and inferential statistical tests. Results indicate that most employees are contented with their happiness at work, but their overall happiness level is not very high. The studies findings reinforce that flow, intrinsic motivation and supportive organisational experiences are important contributors to employee happiness. The study results indicate that the type of family, income and years of experience significantly affect employee happiness. The study highlights the organisational interventions which can contribute to employee workplace happiness. This endeavour would also have important implications for the interpretation of the predictors of employee happiness.
Keywords: workplace; happiness; happiness antecedents; happiness correlates; public sector; India.
Why Some People Are Not As Happy As They Could Be: The Role of Unobservable Subjective Factors
by Adalgiso Amendola, Roberto Dell'Anno, Lavinia Parisi
Abstract: This paper investigates the relative importance of unobservable subjective factors (i.e., genetic, personality, cognitive traits) on happiness. We apply a residual-based approach to distinguish between the direct and indirect effects of unobservable subjective time persistent traits on happiness. We refer to the indirect effects as the effects of unobservable variables on happiness mediated by social, economic and family factors. We find that these indirect effects only explain approximately 25% of the happiness variation at the individual level, while unobserved (i.e. genetic and personality) traits may explain up to 75% of the differences in happiness. We also find that socioeconomic, demographical and institutional factors better explain the variance of happy versus unhappy people. The empirical analysis is based on the European Quality of Life Survey dataset.
Keywords: Happiness; unobservable traits; subjective well-being; unhappiness; genes.
How's life? An international classification based on life satisfaction and its determinants
by Sergio Tezanos, Borja López-Noval
Abstract: Average life evaluations significantly vary across countries due to several factors, such as income, health, social support, freedom, generosity and corruption. In this paper we carry out an analysis of the joint distribution of average life satisfaction and five key determinants in 103 countries by means of a hierarchical cluster analysis. We build a life satisfaction taxonomy that identifies five groups of countries: two comprise relatively dissatisfied countries, one includes moderately satisfied countries, and the remaining two highly satisfied countries. The contribution of the taxonomy is twofold. First, it provides the first systematic classification of countries based on life satisfaction and its determinants and suggests that previous classifications are not as robust as it is usually assumed. Second, the taxonomy contributes to the discussion on the meaning and measurement of well-being. Interestingly, it shows that different configurations of the classification variables may be associated with similar levels of life satisfaction.
Keywords: Life satisfaction; cross-country analysis; cluster analysis; multidimensional taxonomy; international classification.
Income Inequality and Violent Crime: Evidence from Indian States
by G. Nagasubramaniyan, Augustine Joseph
Abstract: The objective of this study is to examine the determinants of different types of violent crime in India. A panel data model was estimated using data from 28 Indian states and one union territory during the years 1993, 2004 and 2011, covering three decades. Based on the Hausman test result, random effect model was used for all types of violent crime except robbery. Our main result suggests that income inequality measured using Gini coefficient negatively affects the incidence of murder, attempt to commit murder, and kidnapping and abduction. Furthermore, there are evidences suggesting that unemployment is an insignificant variable in explaining the incidence of different categories of violent crime. Consistent with previous research, lower levels of violent crimes are associated with a higher literacy rate. The current study also discusses the possible reasons for the above mentioned relationship between economic variables and violent crime.
Keywords: Income inequality; Crime; Violent crime; Gini coefficient.
Stock market and happiness: Some cross-country evidence of spillover effect and good government
by Tee Chwee Ming, Christine Chong Siew Pyng, Lim Thean Pheng, Boo Mei Chin
Abstract: Previous research has examined the influence of stock market valuation on happiness among stock investors. In this study, we analysed how the stock market affects the overall happiness of a country. We conducted further exploration of additional mechanisms that moderate the association between stock market valuation and happiness level. Based on a 68-cross-country dataset from 2010 to 2017, we examined the association between stock market valuation and happiness. We found that the stock market index was positively associated with the level of
happiness. Findings also revealed that the positive association was weaker in countries with uneven distribution of wealth (high GINI) but stronger in countries with stronger democratic institutions and rule of law. These
findings are robust to controlling for endogeneity using instrument variables, lag variables, and change models. Additional test results indicated that the association between the higher stock market index and higher happiness level
was also significantly moderated by political stability and the control of corruption.
Keywords: Stock; Happiness; Good governance.
Well-Being of Old Natives and Immigrants in Europe: Does the Socio-Cultural Integration Matter?
by Eleftherios Giovanis, Sacit Akdede
Abstract: The first aim of the study is to explore the determinants of socio-cultural integration and to compare the degree of this integration between natives and immigrants. The second aim is to examine the relationship between socio-cultural integration and the subjective well-being of both natives and migrant populations. We use panel data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe across the period 2004-2017 in 29 countries. We apply seemingly unrelated regressions to explore the simultaneous relationship between socio-cultural integration and well-being. We consider first and second-generation immigrants and also immigrants from different countries of origin. Our findings suggest that first-generation immigrants are less likely to participate in the socio-cultural activities explored. However, those who are engaged in those activities, participate more frequently than natives. Furthermore, even though immigrants report lower levels of SWB, the latter is significantly enhanced with socio-cultural integration.
Keywords: Cultural and Social Integration; EURO-D; Life Satisfaction; International Migration; Old Age; Panel Data; Psychological Well-Being; Religious Activities; Sports Events; The Survey of Health; Ageing and Retirement in Europe; Voluntary Work.
Moderating effect of Mindfulness in Psychological Contract Breach and Work Engagement relationship
by Gul Afshan
Abstract: Over the last decade, scholars have paid great attention to employee engagement and its antecedents. However, most of the research is conducted in the Western part of the world. This study examines the impact of psychological contract breach (PCB) on banking sector employees work engagement in Pakistan. The relationship was hypothesized between PCB and work engagement based on the job-demand resource model and affective event theory (AET). Data were collected through a survey questionnaire from 239 banking employees working in banks of Pakistan. The study includes those individuals that served in a bank for at least six months to ensure the experiences regarding psychological contracts have been formed over the period of time. The data was analyzed through structural equation modeling (SEM) in AMOS software. The results supported the negative relationship between PCB and employees work engagement.
Moreover, mindfulness moderated the relationship between PCB and work engagement, which was weak for employees with a high level of mindfulness. This study implied the breach of expectations to harm employees engagement in work but the buffering role of mindfulness in restoring the cognitive resources to awaken the work engagement. The study contributes to the employee-employer relationship literature by integrating AET in a collectivistic society, Pakistan. Results highlight that unaddressed PCB may lead service sector employees to be less engaged in their jobs. Based on the studys findings, organizations are recommended to understand and address the psychological contract formation process and develop a quality relationship with employees to benefit in the longer run. Mindfulness practices may also be organized to boost employee engagement.
Keywords: Mindfulness; Psychological Contract Breach; Work Engagement; Banks; Pakistan.
Factors associated with farm household happiness: analysis from western and eastern Indonesia
by Zainal Mutaqin, Yessica CHUNG, Noxolo Kunene
Abstract: Indonesians are moderately happy, however, little is known about the happiness of professions in the country. This study addresses this issue by using a large-scale survey consisting of 10,332 individuals living in farm households that are nested in 432 communities of Western Indonesia and Eastern Indonesia. We focus on farm families because of the global issue of declining farm population. An Ordered Logistic Regression is applied to examine individual-level, household-level, and community-level characteristics that are associated with farmers happiness. This finding showed that individual characteristics are largely associated with farmers happiness, which includes individual social capital. Moreover, the study showed that farmers in Eastern Indonesia are happier than farmers in Western Indonesia. Being Javanese and ideally owning a house in Western Indonesia is positively associated with farmers happiness. Meanwhile, the active presence of traditional markets in communities of Eastern Indonesia has a positive and significant relationship with farmers happiness.
Keywords: farmers happiness; community-level factors; agricultural infrastructure; western Indonesia; eastern Indonesia.
Mergers and acquisitions and employees level of anxiety - the role of HRM practices
by Vathsala Wickramasinghe, Nadeesha Sajeewani
Abstract: Anxiety due to organizational change is an important issue in occupational health. The paper presents findings of a study that investigated the level of anxiety experienced by employees due to an acquisition and the effect of human resource management practices in easing anxiety. The sample consisted of employees from both acquiring and target entities, who had experience spanning three phases of merger and acquisition, i.e., pre-, during, and post. The findings showed significant differences in the level of anxiety between the two entities as well as across the three phases. The results showed that human resource management practices play an important role in easing anxiety, which is a widely identified occupational health issue in mergers and acquisitions.
Keywords: acquisition; anxiety; merger; acquirer; target entity; human resource management; uncertainty.