International Journal of Happiness and Development (7 papers in press)
Help-seeking from a counsellor or psychotherapist: A cross-sectional study of Irish adults
by Damien Cassells
Abstract: The factors that contribute towards an individual seeking help from a counsellor or psychotherapist for a mental, nervous or emotional problem are explored in this study. Individuals living in rural areas and in towns with populations of between 5,000 and 10,000 people are found to be less likely to receive counselling, relative to individuals living in Dublin city. Respondents earning the lowest income were less likely to enter therapy compared with respondents earning the highest, while having private health insurance increased the probability of a respondent entering therapy. Individuals aged between 18 and 39 years and between 50 and 64 years are more likely to seek the help of a counsellor. Finally, attending a general practitioner, psychologist, social worker, or member of the clergy increased the likelihood of an individual seeking help from a counsellor or psychotherapist. No such effect was found for attending either a psychiatrist or nurse.
Keywords: Barriers to counselling; psychotherapy; help-seeking; Irish adults; logistic regression; happiness; emotional well-being; psychological problem; mental health.
Determinants of Happiness among Urban Youths in Malaysia
by Zeinab Zaremohzzabieh, Asnarulkhadi Abu Samah, Bahaman Abu Samah, Hayrol Azril Mohamed Shaffril
Abstract: This study was conducted to identify the antecedents of happiness among urban youths in Malaysia. Respondents were 400 youth community-dwelling residents in the metropolitan areas of Malaysia. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to analyze the data. Findings showed that social and family environments and education predict urban youths happiness in Malaysia. Surprisingly, the results also revealed a significant negative relationship between economic opportunities and their happiness, while health, ICT use, and civic engagement had no significant effect on their happiness. Our findings support the implementation of actions to stimulate social and family environments, education, and economic opportunities for urban youths in Malaysia, particularly given the importance of these antecedents in the perception of their happiness.
Keywords: Happiness; subject well-being; urban youths; Malaysia.
Subjective Wellbeing of the Chinese Post-Reform Generation: Influence of Family income and Urban/Rural Origin on the Happiness of Chinese Students
by Helmut Warmenhoven, Paul R.J. Hoebink, Jan M.A.M. Janssens
Abstract: Since the start of the Chinese economic reforms in 1978, China has changed from a predominantly agricultural society to one of the worlds main economies, but progress has come at a steep price. Inequality between urban and rural areas has increased, the social security net has largely been dissolved, most people were only allowed to have one child, and overall subjective wellbeing has decreased. This paper reports on a study among 711 Chinese students from the post-reform generation, comparing the subjective wellbeing of urban and rural students from different family income groups, using the Personal Wellbeing Index of the International Wellbeing Group. Urban participants were found to be more satisfied with their standard of living and their life-achievements than their rural counterparts, but no differences were found between these two groups for happiness, overall satisfaction with life, and the other five Personal Wellbeing Index satisfaction domains. In terms of family income level, participants from higher income families were found to be happier than participants from lower income families, and they were significantly more satisfied with their life (overall), as well as with their standard of living, life-achievement, personal relationships, feeling part of the community, and future (financial) security.
Keywords: China; subjective wellbeing; one-child generation; urban/rural area; adaptation effect; Chinese economic reforms; students.
Quantification and Modelling Life Satisfaction among Internal Displacees in Arda Transau, Zimbabwe
by Robson Mandishekwa, Enard Mutenheri
Abstract: This study was prompted by the scarcity of literature on life satisfaction among mining-induced displacees in less developed economies. The study therefore quantified life satisfaction and determined the correlates of life satisfaction among Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) in Arda Transau. It was found that generally life satisfaction has not largely changed between pre-and post-displacement periods but the change was statistically significant. Ordered Logit Model results indicate that current life satisfaction is significantly determined by household size, social capital and neighbourhood characteristics while future life satisfaction depends on social support, perceived health status and neighbourhood characteristics. Recommendations from the study include that individuals must make use of their social connectedness to derive maximum benefits since social capital and social support were found to be among the major determinants of life satisfaction among IDPs.
Keywords: life satisfaction; temporal satisfaction with life scale; ordered logit; social capital; Arda Transau; Zimbabwe.
Gender, Playfulness, and Creativity: A Perspective of Human Resource Development
by Liang-Hung Lin, Yu-Ling Ho, Tai-Yu Lee
Abstract: This study explores the differences between male and female employees in individual creativity and personal playfulness. Findings of this study showed that male employees have more personal playfulness than female employees, whereas female employees who received higher education and have more support from their husband tend to show higher levels of personal playfulness and creativity. Moreover, personal playfulness can increase employee creativity and such increase differs between male and female employees. By considering playfulness in the workplace as a personality trait, this study therefore contributes to the existing literature of human resource development.
Keywords: gender; playfulness; creativity; human resource development.
The Impacts of Increasing Leisure Time on Subjective Health and Life Satisfaction
by Yen-Lien Kuo, Tzu-Hsiu Huang
Abstract: This paper investigated the relationships between working hours, the change of time spent in leisure and sports activities, perceived health status, and individual life satisfaction. Data from the 2013 Taiwan Social Change Survey is employed in this study. The results show that more working hours significantly lower life satisfaction. Increasing leisure time can significantly improve subjective health, and better subjective health can significantly enhance life satisfaction. Furthermore, subjective health partially mediates the effect of leisure time on life satisfaction. However, the mediating effect does not exist for full-time employees although increasing leisure time can still improve life satisfaction. The reason for this could be that the subjective health of full-time employees is already better than that of those not working full-time. Initiatives leading to reduced working hours and increases in leisure time may increase life satisfaction and may result in reductions in medical expenses.
Keywords: working hours; leisure time; subjective health; life satisfaction; mediating effect.
A Regional Social Progress Index: The case of Epirus, Greece
by Mihail Diakomihalis
Abstract: With reference to a social progress index (SPI), this paper considers the progress level of the region of Epirus, Greece, to gain insights into factors affecting different facets of the region’s social wellbeing and to identify its socioeconomic strengths and weaknesses.
In a sample of respondents representing three levels of education and three types of employment who live in Epirus, the region is empirically evaluated for how satisfying it meets three criteria (i.e., basic human needs, foundations of well-being, and personal and social opportunities) and each of their four sub criteria.
Revealing wide variation in the satisfaction of Epirus’s mean scores compared to those of well-being indices applied worldwide and in Greece, the results informed suggestions for improving Epirus’s social progress and for verifying its current development relative to other regions of EU member countries.
Keywords: Social progress index, basic human needs, criteria of well-being, personal and social opportunities, Epirus, Greece