Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Global Warming

International Journal of Global Warming (IJGW)

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International Journal of Global Warming (41 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Research on the relationship between provincial economy and CO2 emissions from power industry in China: from static and dynamic aspects   Order a copy of this article
    by Wei Sun, Shuang Liu, Yuwei Wang, Yujun He 
    Abstract: Understanding the dilemma of provincial CO2 emissions and regional economy is critical for achieving low-carbon development of power industry. This paper investigated the joint relationship and spatiotemporal distribution features of economy and CO2 emissions in power industry. First, the static temporal variation of regional GDP and provincial CO2 emissions are explored in detail, based on the 2007-2017 data derived from the China Statistical Yearbook and China Electric Power Yearbook. Second, the standard deviational ellipse method is adopted to investigate the dynamic spatiotemporal evolution characteristics of regional GDP and provincial CO2 emissions. The results show that: (1) The joint characteristics of GDP and CO2 emissions among 30 provinces exhibit four categories. (2) The spatiotemporal distribution of GDP maintains in northeast-southwest direction, while the distribution of CO2 emissions shifts from northeast-southwest to east-west. (3) The mean centers of both are located in eastern China and move to the west. Based on the findings, the targeted emissions-control strategies for provincial power industry while maintaining stable regional economy are provided to achieve sustainability.
    Keywords: CO2 emissions; power industry; standard deviational ellipse; spatiotemporal analysis; temporal variation.

  • Geosystems-indicators of climate change and cultural landscape recovery in Tigireksky Reserve and its protective zone (Altai Krai, Russia)   Order a copy of this article
    by Dmitry Zolotov, Dmitry Chernykh, Natalia Malygina, Roman Biryukov, Dmitry Pershin 
    Abstract: The paper deals with major trends of landscape dynamics in the northern part of the Tigireksky Reserve. The global warming impact on the study area is confirmed by the ERA5, NCEP-NCAR and CRU TS reanalyses data for 1979-2018. It manifests in decreased atmospheric humidification during the growing season and worsening conditions for forest recovery. We discuss the possibilities of identifying geosystems-indicators for monitoring of climate change and cultural landscape recovery based on the analysis of the authors large-scale landscape map.
    Keywords: Russian Altai; Altai Mountains; climate change; landscape mapping; anthropogenic transformation; recovery potential; indicativeness; forest/treeless area ratio.

  • Transit leverage assessment and climate change mitigation pathway for urbanized areas   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Tamim Kashifi, Umer Mansoor, Syed Masiur Rahman 
    Abstract: The transportation sector comprises a significant portion of greenhouse gas emissions, and its proportion has been increasing continuously. The continuous gross domestic product growth combined with sprawling in cities contributes to further private automobile share and demand for longer distances travel. Public transport is considered as a solution for avoiding the fast growth of motorization along with greenhouse gas emissions. This study investigated the effect of ridership shift from private automobiles to public transportation on greenhouse gas emissions for six major cities of Saudi Arabia, with at least half a million population. The effect of transit leverage, which is the number of vehicle kilometers traveled (VKT) of cars, is replaced by increasing one passenger kilometers traveled (PKT) of transit on energy consumption, and CO2 emissions are discussed. The possible decrease in energy use and carbon dioxide emissions from road transport to reach about a half by increasing annual average per capita mileage of public transport by one-fifth of the current total annual average per capita mileage. Moreover, we can reduce 2.5 million metric tons (MT) of carbon dioxide emissions in Jeddah annually by increasing the per capita mileage of bus to about 20% of current private cars per capita mileage. We can decrease CO2 emissions for six major cities from between 14.6-16.5 Mt-CO2/year to 7.0-8.4 Mt-CO2/year by increasing bus PKT to about 15% of total annual per capita mileage.
    Keywords: Car dependency; city sprawl; greenhouse gas emissions; public transport; Saudi Arabia; and transit leverage.

  • Global relationship between economic growth and CO2 emissions across time: a multilevel approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Luiz Paulo Fávero, Rafael De Freitas Souza, Patrícia Belfiore, Marcos Roberto Luppe, Marcos Severo 
    Abstract: This paper investigates the relationship between economic growth and CO2 emissions worldwide. Based on an extensive review of several similar studies, we propose a novel quantitative methodological approach that captures contextual stances from 187 countries over the period 1800-2016. The proposed multilevel model simultaneously accommodates the interactions between fixed and random effects parameters regarding GDP and carbon dioxide emissions. Additionally, it provides new evidences on the patterns of occurrence of the studied phenomenon between countries over time, respecting the heterogeneities of so distinct observations. More than capturing the positive and statistically significant relationship between economic development and carbon emissions per country, the model underscores the positive signals of the parameters that measure the influence of linear and cubic income over CO2 emissions, and the negative signal for the parameter of quadratic income, highlighting the validity of the traditional N-shaped curve for the analyzed period. Furthermore, we found no differences in the estimation of the parameters between developed and developing countries throughout the period covered by the study, only among countries. Results are particularly important for researchers and policy makers involved with assessing the influence of economic growth on CO2 emissions.
    Keywords: CO2 emissions; economic growth; climate issues; EKC hypothesis; multilevel modeling.

  • Innovative multi-cross trend model (IMCTM) and application   Order a copy of this article
    by Zekâi ?en 
    Abstract: In this paper, innovative multi-cross trend modeling methodology (IMCTM) is suggested for trend identification without any basic assumption at various levels of data records. The methodology is based on the crossing number along a set of straight-line rotations around a given pivot point within the time series. The pivots are exemplified at three levels including the mean and mean
    Keywords: Bi-value; climate change; cross; Danube; intercept; multi; pivot; slope; trend; crossing,.

  • A REVIEW ON LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY ASSESSMENT OF BIO- FUEL   Order a copy of this article
    by Aluri Nishanth Kumar, A. Sujin Jose, Naganna Tadepalli, Vallem Venkata Sudheer Babu, Sudhakar Uppalapati, S.P. Jani 
    Abstract: Excessive energy use and energy demand leads to decrease in fossil fuel, and this is only for a limited time. Therefore, moving towards renewable energy-based technologies and resources is attractive considering the sustainability aspects. The main objectives of the research are to provide an overview of current sustainability studies of biofuel with life cycle analysis (LCA). Here, late review techniques are presented to combine the implications of indirect land use change in LCAs and models from the United States, Europe and France. One way to promote algae-based fuels are future fuels is to lead government-based policies that bring wastewater management with algae production. A comparison of emissions of generation I, II and III biofuels has been demonstrated, which demonstrates that the second generation biofuels produce lower emissions. The impact of biofuel feeds on land changes over a long period of time was estimated by Monte-Carlo simulations using the ILUC factor.
    Keywords: Bio-energy; Ethanol; Algae; Feeds tocks; Bio-fuel; Bio- diesel; Gases; Energy.

  • A wet type flue gas desulphurization system used in a coal-fired power plant: A case study   Order a copy of this article
    by Mehmet Tontu 
    Abstract: This study aims to perform energy, exergy, economic and emission removal performance analysis of wet flue gas desulphurization (FGD) systems in a coal-fired power plant with 660-MW capacity. The plant performance has been evaluated with the economic analysis within the framework of energy and exergy approaches. Also, emission removal efficiency has been assessed considering the effect of varying several operating key parameters such as PH value, operating plant loads and the number of working recirculation pumps as well as types of coal used in the power plant. The analysis outcomes reveal that energy and exergy performances are negatively correlated with flue gas temperature enhancement. Energy and exergy efficiency improved by 10 % in the case of integration of the heat recovery unit into the system. Furthermore, the increase in the pH value of the FGD plant, the increase in the number of running pumps positively affect the emission removal efficiency, on the other hand, the increase of the power plant load had an adverse effect. According to economic analysis, net present value (NPV) was determined as $ 605,500. The obtained results show that the profit generated by the gypsum trade can be accepted economically, and the NPV of the system could be increased to $ 880,698 as a result of the integration of the heat recovery unit into the system.
    Keywords: Coal-fired power plant; energy and exergy analyses; economic evaluation; wet desulphurization; emission removal efficiency; heat recovery unit.

  • Environmental Damage Analysis of GE90 Turbofan Engines Used on Boeing 777 Aircraft   Order a copy of this article
    by Ozgur Balli, Alper Dalkiran, Tahir Hikmet Karakoc 
    Abstract: This study presents an environmental damage analysis of GE90 engine series for take-off, climb-out, approaching and cruise phases to evaluate the emission rates, the global warming potentials (GWP), the global warming potential index (GWPI), the environmental impact (EI), the environmental impact index (EII), the environmental damage cost (EDC) and the environmental damage cost index of exhaust gases emitted from GE90 turbofan engines via standard dual annular combustor (SDAC) and low emission dual annular combustor (LEDAC). The GE90-76B engine has the maximum exhaust emission rate by 3.694 kg/h for SDAC usage. The GE90-92B engine has the maximum NOX emission rate by 755.40 kg/h for SDAC usage and 707.40 kg/h for LEDAC usage. The results can be used by airlines, countries, or companies that use GE90 engine series.
    Keywords: turbofan engine; exhaust emission; environmental impact; global warming potential; environmental damage cost.

  • Modeling of techno-economic and environmental analysis for the energy generation technologies from Bagasse (Case Study)   Order a copy of this article
    by Farnaz Amin Salehi, Kambiz Rezapour, Alireza Abdollahshirazi, Reza Effatnejad 
    Abstract: In this article a clear-cut comparative research has been conducted on various types of energy production technologies utilized for bagasse including combustion, Pyrolysis, gasification, anaerobic digestion and alcoholic fermentation. Furthermore, these technologies have been analyzed and modeled in a MATLAB software to select its best usage in the conditions of Iran. Moreover, it takes into consideration three technical, economic and environmental viewpoints along with the development of an essential and acceptable data bank. In the technical study, parameters which are of great significant in implementation and manufacturing the technologies are determined. Then with the help of creditable methods of evaluation such as Delphi and focus group, these parameters are compared and weighted. In the economic study, with the calculation of economic indicators such as break-even point, net present value, internal rate of return and payback period, these technologies were compared. In order to facilitate decision making, three scenarios were considered based on international foreign currency. The environmental comparison of technologies were also made by calculating the degree of greenhouse gases reduction and other polluting gases with regard to the determined emission factors for the power plants in the country and their related external costs.
    Keywords: Bagasse; Economic; Energy Production Technologies; Environmental; Modeling; Technical.

  • Projected climate change over Kuwait simulated using a WRF high resolution regional climate model   Order a copy of this article
    by Hussain Alsarraf 
    Abstract: This study to evaluates three different land surface models in Weather Forecast Research (WRF) model to predict the maximum temperatures during summer season. The five layers (5L) thermal diffusion, rapid update cycle (RUC), and Noah chosen based on nature of the environment topography. The WRF simulations of 10 years over the Arabian Peninsula and Kuwait were conducted during the summer from May to September (20002010) to evaluate the sensitivity of the WRF model dynamical downscaling from the Community Climate System Model (CCSM 4) in three nested-grid resolutions. The land-surface model in WRF affect strongly the temperature simulations over the desert region. The best agreement between observation and simulation was found in the case of WRF with Noah land surface to be used for predictions. The future predictions May to September (2050-2060) predicted an increase 1-2 ?C during the summer season over the Arabian Peninsula and Kuwait. The results reveal that the more effective 4-km high-resolution WRF domain using Noah land surface model should be considered for weather, and climate predictions over the Arabian Peninsula and Kuwait.rn
    Keywords: GLOBAL WARMING; CLIMATE MODELING.

  • Is the sea level rise from the melting of high-latitude ice-on-land further reducing the Earth's angular speed?   Order a copy of this article
    by Alberto Boretti 
    Abstract: There is a consensus that the melting of high-latitude ice on land is translating into a movement of mass towards the equator that is producing a further slowdown of the Earths angular speed because of the conservation of angular momentum. Here we show as the frequency of leap second addition to compensating for a reducing angular speed of the Earth is increasing rather than reducing, as an indication that either the movement of mass towards the equator is much less than the expected, or it has an influence much less than the expected.
    Keywords: global warming; high-latitude ice-on-land; sea-level rise; Earth angular speed.

  • Evaluation of Extreme Climate over Selected Eco-Climatic Regions in Nigeria from Observed and Simulated (RegCM3) Data   Order a copy of this article
    by Mary Idowu, Jonathan Matthew, Adebayo Eludoyin 
    Abstract: This study examined local ground-based and regional (RegCM3) climate simulated over Nigeria for temporal and spatial changes using selected extreme climate indices. The data were assessed for quality assurance using Rclimdex software, before they were analysed for variability, trend and spatio-temporal patterns. Results showed increasing trends in minimum (b = - 0.28oC 0.08oC, p < 0.05) and maximum (b = 0.006oC 0.05 oC; p < 0.05) temperatures. The RegCM3 mirrored the ground-based data for most of the ecological regions, except for Sudan savanna. The study concluded that different parts of Nigeria experience changes related to local climatic perturbations, and that the RegCM3 is capable of reflecting the inference from ground-based data for most stations.
    Keywords: Climate Event; Indices of Extreme Temperature; Regional Climate Model (RegCM3); Temperature Changes.

  • The Design and Applications of an Innovative Irrigation System for Biofacades in Hot Arid Climates   Order a copy of this article
    by Fodil Fadli, Payam Bahrami, Sara Zaina 
    Abstract: Assessment of water requirements through physical sustainable means is essential to ensuring water security, which is at high risk in desert climates such as Doha, Qatar. The water requirements of biofacade systems are met using a sub-irrigation system (SIS), whereby water is delivered to the plant root zone from below the soil surface. This paper focuses on the assessment of the watering technique, in view of its crucial role in the survival of the biofacades system and its plants. The research aims to analyze the biofacades on Qatar Universitys campus in terms of improvements or enhancements in the customized irrigation system aimed at minimizing the consumption of water, reduce evaporation, propagate healthy growth of plants, and maintain constant, self-managed access to water. The analysis is based on monthly data summaries and the monitored data for four green walls, measuring the number of times a wall is watered, the soil condition (moisture level) of the plants, and the total amount of water consumed. The study concludes by ensuring sustainability in terms of reduced water consumption to attain the required moisture level and orientation of the walls with respect to sun, wind, and plant selection, offering recommendations for adapting biofacades design for hot arid climates.
    Keywords: biofacade; irrigation system; desert climate; hot arid region; landscape design; sustainability.

  • Assessing Climate Change Indicators in the United Arab Emirates   Order a copy of this article
    by Fatma Kamkar, Layla Khawatmi, Aysha Arif, Hamed Hamed, Sahar T. Issa, Rami El Khatib, Aseel A. Takshe, Rashed Karkain 
    Abstract: Anthropogenic and natural activities have led to a global phenomenon known as climate change, which evidence shows is worsening. Climatic changes can sometimes be observed at a regional level by assessing certain indicators such as temperature, precipitation, and humidity. This study aims to explore climate indicators in the United Arab Emirates that play a possible role in climate change. To gain insight into the longer-term changes, we looked at regional changes by analyzing trends of mean monthly temperature, maximum monthly temperature, minimum monthly temperature, mean monthly humidity, and rainfall quantities per year over the period of 2003 to 2019. The trend analysis showed an increasing trend in the maximum monthly temperature, minimum monthly temperature, mean monthly temperature, and mean monthly humidity, but a decreasing trend in rainfall quantities, which may suggest climate change at a regional level.
    Keywords: Climate change; Global warming; Temperature; Precipitation; Humidity; Rainfall; Greenhouse gas emissions; Trends; Mitigation; United Arab Emirates.

  • Exploring the effects of elevated Carbon dioxide mediated global warming phenomenon in photosynthesis: Challenges and future directions   Order a copy of this article
    by Malini Bhattacharyya, Abhishek Jamloki, Babita Patni 
    Abstract: Photosynthesis is a plant physiological mechanism by which green plants transform light energy into chemical energy. It is the only mechanism which is essential for making food in the form of complex sugar for heterotrophic organisms i.e. for animals and human being by trapping atmospheric carbon compound in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2). For photosynthesis plants need light energy, water (H2O), and CO2. Rise of the concentration of atmospheric greenhouse gases and water vapor causes a rising of total global temperature especially known as global warming. Increasing atmospheric temperature plays a vital role in several plant physiological procedures. Increasing temperature causes climate change by changing the weathering pattern. Climate change affects photosynthesis in terrestrial plants i.e. C3, C4, and CAM (Crassulacean acid metabolism) plants. The focus of this review is to study the impact of global warming mediated climate change and high temperature developed by the elevated CO2 on plant photosynthesis.CO2 is the most abundant greenhouse gas found in nature. The elevated CO2 level in the atmosphere increases the photosynthesis rate in the plant body till a certain level, thereafter increased heat caused by higher CO2 concentration disrupts the photosynthesis procedure and thylakoid membrane. Moreover, the effect of temperature formed by a higher amount of atmospheric CO2 concentration on the C3, C4, and CAM pathway follower plants are discussed thoroughly along with possible future strategies.
    Keywords: Climate change; elevated CO2; Global warming; Green plants; Photosynthesis; Rubisco.

  • Projection of Reference Evapotranspiration over Ondo State Using an Ensemble of Climate Models   Order a copy of this article
    by Yahaya OLOTU, Muhammed Abudu, S.G. Akinyemi, M.M. BEJIDE, D.A. Okodugha, M. Okafor 
    Abstract: Reference evapotranspiration (ETo) is a significant component of the hydrological cycle useful to develop integrated water resources management (IWRM) for domestic and agricultural uses. Climate change may have potential effects on ETo over Ondo State. It is essential to determine a clear trend of uncertainties in ETo for designing future water-holding structures and projecting crop water requirements (CWR) under different climate change scenarios. The sensitivity analysis over the study area indicated that an ensemble of six general circulation models (GCMs) from the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMP5) under Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP 4.5) projected increases in maximum and minimum temperatures (Tmax and Tmin) for the 2050s (2035-2065) and 2080s (2070-2100). The simulation run outputs showed that the projected ETo increased for the periods the 2050s and 2080s in response to the baseline period (1975-2005), with larger increases in the 2080s. The most considerable average annual changes of ETo values 11.0 mm and 14.1 mm are projected in Idanre in Ondo Central Agro-Ecological Zone (OCAEZ) under CCCMA simulation for the near (the 2050s) and long (2080s) periods. Generally, the predicted increases in ETo over Ondo State could be attributed to the expected increases in Tmax and Tmin. This indicates a drier period during the mid and end of the 21st century.
    Keywords: reference evapotranspiration; general circulation models; Ondo State; climate change; representative concentration pathways; CWR; IWRM.

  • Responding of air quality to COVID-19 pandemic forced partial confinement in Turkey   Order a copy of this article
    by Hadi Genceli 
    Abstract: The COVID-19 was announced as a pandemic in the world by World Health Organization in early March 2020 and first case in Turkey was diagnosed by Ministry of Health in March 11, 2020. The increasing trend of COVID-19 cases led the Turkey government to announce some restrictions in April 3, 2020. The purpose of this research is to assess the influence of the COVID-19 forced partial confinement on air pollution of three most polluted and crowded cities of Turkey (Istanbul, Ankara and Bursa). After some days of imposing restrictions, atmospheric pollutant concentrations in terms of different pollution parameters remarkably dropped. The data reveals that, the most considerable improvement was observed for Ankara and NO2 (-50.9%) which is attributed to the limitation of vehicular movement. Also, the lowest reduction in air pollution parameters was recognized for Istanbul and SO2 (-1.7%). During the period of partial confinement in Turkey (3rd April to 3rd May), O3 concentration increased by about 30.9%, 31.8% and 17.4% in Istanbul, Ankara and Bursa in contradiction to remaining pollutants which is the consequence of lower titration of ozone by NOx resulting in accumulation of O3. Although the improvement in air quality in this period is temporary, the analyses of this research could give a glimpse of what might be possible for capital cities of Turkey in the future in terms of adopting pollution regulations.
    Keywords: Carbon monoxide; COVID-19; Nitrogen dioxide; Ozone; Partial confinement; Particulate matter; Sulfur dioxide.

  • Determinants of climate change at the country level   Order a copy of this article
    by Richhild Moessner 
    Abstract: We study the determinants of climate change across a large number of countries. As a measure of climate change at the country level we use average yearly increases in population-weighted average temperature over the periods 1900 to 2014 and 1960 to 2014 estimated for individual countries. We find that higher average yearly increases in population-weighted average temperature across countries over both the periods 1900-2014 and 1960-2014 tend to be associated with higher energy use, higher carbon dioxide emissions and higher greenhouse gas emissions. These results provide evidence at the country level for the relevance of energy use, carbon dioxide emissions and greenhouse gas emissions for climate change.
    Keywords: Climate change; energy use; greenhouse gas emissions; carbon dioxide emissions.

  • Prioritizing Climate Change Actions Post COVID-19 Amongst University Students A Q Methodology Perspective in the United Arab Emirates   Order a copy of this article
    by Aseel A. Takshe, Jon C. Lovett, Paul Stenner, Davide Contu, Noelia Weber 
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic caused strict regulations to lower transmission rates. Industries were shut down, people were in lockdown, and travel was curtailed. Restrictions were in effect for an enough period for peoples behaviour to change. For example, online meetings rather than needing to travel. This opens the possibility for alterations to the perception that it is possible to commit to effective climate change actions. A Q Methodology study was conducted to analyze how 33 university environmental students across the United Arab Emirates perceive the importance of prioritizing climate change actions post-pandemic. Statistical analysis yielded four discourses. The first emphasises the need to learn lessons about climate sustainability and sustain them post-pandemic. The second, more pessimistic but advocates preventing a return to pre-pandemic norms by implementing post-pandemic climate change regulations. The third expects economic recovery to take priority over reducing emissions. The fourth raises opportunities and challenges for environmental sustainability post-Covid-19.
    Keywords: Climate Change; COVID-19; Q-Methodology; Discourses; Environmental Sustainability.

  • Modeling the climate change in regional crop production efficiency in Canada: Based on the Super-efficiency SBM Model and DEA Window Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Kun Song 
    Abstract: This study aims to capture the spatial and time influence of climate change on crop production efficiency (CPE) using the SE-SBM model combined with DEA window analysis. The model is validated with the data from 1976 to 2016 in Saskatchewan, one of the three Canadian Prairie Provinces. By categorizing Saskatchewan into three regions: Black Soil Zone, Dark Brown Soil Zone, and Brown Soil Zone, differences are analyzed between CPE without considering climate change and CPE under climate change. We find that CPE under climate change is significantly larger than CPE without consideration of climate change, and the positive influence of temperature fluctuations during the growth period on CPE is more important than that of humidity fluctuations, and the beneficial impact of average humidity on CPE is significantly greater than that of average temperature.
    Keywords: crop production efficiency; climate change; SE-SBM model; DEA window analysis; Canada.

  • ACTIVATED CARBON PRODUCTION FROM HORSE CHESTNUT SHELLS FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE   Order a copy of this article
    by Kaan Isinkaralar, Gulen Gullu, Aydin Türkyilmaz, Mehmet Dogan, Onur Turhan 
    Abstract: New generation clean energy resources, which can be defined as hydrogen energy. However, the search for techniques accelerated in hydrogen energy converting and storing. In the study, the hydrogen storage capacity of activated carbon obtained from horse chestnut shell, which is a lignocellulosic waste. It was investigated at cryogenic temperature and room temperature. The surface area and micropore volume of the raw material have been increased by chemical activation methods using activation agent (ZnCl2). Physicochemical analysis of activated carbon was also carried out. As a result of the research, the highest efficiency under constant pressure was obtained as 3.18 wt%.
    Keywords: Activated carbon; hydrogen storage; horse chestnut shell; physicochemical.

  • Quantification and prediction of urban sprawl and surface temperature and assessment of their impacts on the environment: Case El Jadida (Morocco).   Order a copy of this article
    by Ikram El Mjiri, Adbelmejid Rahimi, Abdelkrim Bouasria 
    Abstract: The greater El Jadida, which is the subject of this study, has been an important urban extension in the last two decades. The latter may originate from environmental problems and climate changes marked principally by severe and frequent drought episodes. Therefore, this study treats, on the one hand, the dynamics of urban sprawl and, on the other hand, the changes in surface temperature between 1985 and 2019, in order to predict a future scenario of their evolution in 2027 and 2038. It is based on the diachronic analysis of a time series of satellite images (Landsat) and completed by field verification. Thus, the spatio-temporal comparison between the different tele-analytical maps and the statistical analysis of urban and peri-urban expansion between 1985 and 2019 has highlighted the evolution of the built-up areas of Greater El Jadida. An increase of 5121 ha marks this evolution, that is, a growth rate of 247% in 34 years. During the same period, the surface temperature was mutated in the distribution of different temperature intervals, marked essentially by an increase in the areas where the surface temperature was between 25 and 30
    Keywords: LANDSAT; environment; supervised classification SVM; urban extension; LST; the great EL Jadida; Cellular Automata Markov.

  • A study on heating and cooling requirements for green buildings for refugee settlements   Order a copy of this article
    by Selen Çekinir, Önder Özgener, Leyla Özgener 
    Abstract: In this study, geothermal-based three different systems are examined comparatively and a decision-making method is used to find the best option to use in refugee settlements. Earth Air Heat Exchanger (EAHE), Vertical Ground Source Heat Pump (VGSHP), and Vertical Ground Source Heat Pump (HGSHP) are evaluated from the viewpoint of environmental impact, performance, economy, and health. This study is the first study related to the evaluation of EAHE and GSHP systems by using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). It is concluded that EAHE is the best option for refugee settlements Also, EAHE is a healthier option for the Covid-19 pandemic.
    Keywords: Covid-19 pandemic;energy;society;eahe;investment;refugee,global warming.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2022.10042768
     
  • Effect of single and multi-additives on the performance of hydrogen fermentation from food waste   Order a copy of this article
    by Chinmay Deheri, Saroj Kumar Acharya 
    Abstract: Hydrogen as an alternative energy source receives primary importance considering the greenhouse gas emission from conventional fossil fuels. In this study, calcium peroxide (CaO2), calcium carbonate (CaCO3), zinc oxide (ZnO), and copper oxide (CuO) were used as single additives, whereas CaO2+CaCO3, CaO2+CuO, CaO2+ZnO, CaCO3+ZnO, CaCO3+CuO, and CuO+ZnO were used as multi-additives to improve hydrogen fermentation using food waste and cow dung as substrate and sludge solution as inoculum. As a result, maximum hydrogen content was enhanced up to 33.85% with multi-additive (CaO2+CaCO3), whereas it was restricted to 26.34% using single additives. Compared to the control reactor, maximum hydrogen content was increased by 10 and 17% with single and multi-additives, respectively. Further, cumulative hydrogen yield was considerably enhanced from 114.1 to 146.62 mL g-1 TS by adding multi-additives, especially CaO2+CaCO3. Results demonstrated that multi-additives improved the system performance due to the enhanced process stability during fermentative hydrogen production.
    Keywords: Hydrogen production; Additives; Anaerobic fermentation; Food waste; Cow dung.

  • Variations in temperature in a tropical town: A case study   Order a copy of this article
    by P.P.Nikhil Raj, P.A. Azeez 
    Abstract: Trend analysis of temperature on a local scale provides vital clues to the changes in amplitude with time and possibly the reasons for the changes. The present paper attempts to examine the temporal and seasonal trends in temperature of a developing township, Pattambi, Kerala in India from 1950 to 2018. We used Mann-Kendall rank statistics to examine the historical temperature data. The results show a general increase in annual temperature, especially the mean annual maximum temperature of the region across the year with a statistically significant increasing trend. The same trend could be seen in the case of Southwest monsoon temperature. Another notable observation from the study is the statistically significant decrement in the winter temperature of the region. The regional changes in the temperature will impact much on the economy and society in the area since the local livelihood is heavily dependent on agriculture.
    Keywords: Kerala; Pattambi; Historic temperature data; Mann-Kendall rank statistics; trend analysis.

  • BIODEGRADATION OF MICROPLASTIC BY PROBIOTIC BIFIDOBACTERIUM   Order a copy of this article
    by Hüseyin Sancar Bozkurt, Hülya Civelek Yörüklü, Kutsal Bozkurt, Cenk Denktas, Altan Bozdogan, Orhan Özdemir, Bestami Özkaya 
    Abstract: A growing accumulation of microplastics has become a severe environmental and health issue. Scientific reports on biodegradation of microplastics by microorganisms have sprung up, and these offer a possibility to develop different microbial biodegradation approaches for microplastics. Bifidobacterium infantis is a probiotic commensal heterotrophic anaeorobic bacterium that regulates the intestinal microbiota. In this study, we have comprehensively analyzed the probiotic Bifidobacterium infantis microorganism and that is able to degrade polypropylene which is generally used as synthetic plastic in various atmospheric conditions. Microplastic biodegradation of probiotic bifidobacterium occurs in an aerobic environment and FTIR spectrum of biofilm structure result provides that probiotic bifidobacterium uses polypropylene as an energy and carbon source. The microbial biofilm structure that emerges as a result of biodegradation is a bio-based compound that prevents the growth of pathogenic bacteria. The probiotic bifidobacterial biodegradation of microplastics, which is a global environmental problem threatening human health, is promising.
    Keywords: Microplastic; polypropylene; bifidobacterium; biodegradation.

  • Research on Precipitation Forecasting Method in Northwest China Based on Multi-Model Ensemble   Order a copy of this article
    by Xinwei Liu, Dong Wei, Rong Li, Yicheng Wang, Na Liu, Deshuai Li 
    Abstract: As a key meteorological element in weather forecasts, precipitation forecast has attracted much attention in many application fields. Due to the limited accuracy of forecast methods, the effect of quantitative precipitation forecast still needs to be optimized. Based on the optimal percentile method, this study established a forecasting method by multi-model for graded precipitation fitting Northwest China. Its forecast threat score(TS) of every 3h/24h precipitation were higher than each single model. Meanwhile, its forecast was closer to the actual situation in terms of rainfall area and grade, especially displaying an obvious improvement in light rain and rainstorm forecast. By analyzing the selecting of the optimal percentile, it was found that this
    Keywords: precipitation forecast; graded precipitation; multi-model; optimal percentile; Northwest China; threat score.

  • Comprehensive Review on Medical Waste Incineration   Order a copy of this article
    by Sofia Rani Shaik, Arun Kumar Mahalingam, P. Muthukumar, Pratul Chandra Kalita 
    Abstract: Developing nations like India, Nepal, and Bhutan follow a mixed-system of health wellness. Though it is considered that the health care system is improving, still it is regarded as weak, due to varied reasons. One such reason is improper waste segregation, management and disposal methods of medical waste, generated by medical firms like hospitals, clinics, etc. Incineration is one amongst the reliable medical waste or medical garbage disposal methods applicable for disposal of large quantities of medical waste. Incineration, though an effective solution to burn medical waste it does not come pollution-free. The process of incineration releases harmful pollutants like CO, NOx, PM, PCDF, PAH, PCB in fly ash and REE and heavy metals in bottoms ash. In this paper, an intensive review has been done on works related to incinerators reporting the design of the MWIs, pollutants emitted during the burning process of MW and various remedial techniques followed to reduce the emissions released from the MWIs. Also, the guidelines for waste handling using the incineration technique are presented. Certain gaps in the previous papers have been identified which might open a way for further researches. The scope of future studies like burners, cogeneration and residual ash usage is also mentioned in this paper. \r\n
    Keywords: Medical waste; Waste management; Incinerators; Case studies; Emissions.

  • IOT BASED EARLY FOREST FIRE DETECTION USING MLP AND AROC METHOD   Order a copy of this article
    by V. Vinodhini, M.R. Sundara Kumar, S. Sankar, DIGVIJAY PANDEY, Binay Kumar Pandey, Vinay Kumar Nassa 
    Abstract: The forest is a natural ecosystem that must be protected against natural calamities. Forest fire is one such calamity, and the goal of this work is to alert the event of disaster so that natural resources can be saved. The existing methods has few limitations like false alert, no timely notification, lack of network coverage etc. The proposed work uses Multi-layer perceptron (MLP) and Advanced Relative Operating Characteristic (AROC) approaches to address these constraints. The proposed model has accuracy of 90%, which is higher than the fuzzy logic and average consensus algorithm.
    Keywords: Environmental; Artificial Neural Networks; Monitoring; Arduino; GPRS; Internet of Things; LCD; Sensors; Global Warming.

  • Investigation of design rainfall distribution for Lower Da River Basin under Climate Change   Order a copy of this article
    by Nguyen Tien Thanh, Nguyen Thai Son 
    Abstract: Rainfall intensity expected greatly changes under changing climate. Therefore, using the intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves based on historic rainfall data likely leads to the underestimation of related-risks to the design of drainage systems. For future conditions, probability distributions used in the establishment of IDF curves might need to be re-evaluated. This study investigates the distributions of Gumbel, Generalized Extreme Value, Generalized Laplace and Generalized Exponential in rainfall frequency analysis for Lower Da River Basin, Northern Vietnam. The results indicated that Generalized Laplace best-fitted to observation data, but Generalized Extreme Value is the most appropriate distribution for generating IDF curves under changing climate. Importantly, at level of 50% percentile, the strongest changes in rainfall intensity range from 2.7% at 10 years to 41.4 % at 200 years and from 5.5% at 25 years to 22.0% at 200 years of return period under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively for duration of 72 hours
    Keywords: Climate change; extreme rainfall; IDF curve; distribution; Da river basin; Vietnam.

  • Novel molecular integrated process model for biomethane upgradation by CO2 capture with Monoethanolamine   Order a copy of this article
    by Neha Kumari Agarwal, Niloy Kundu, Supriya Sarkar 
    Abstract: This work is aimed to develop a novel method for CO2 capture leading to high calorific value renewable fuel generation. Monoethanolamine (MEA) is one of the most common solvents used for post combustion CO2 capture from flue gas. However, substituting this solvent for biomethane upgradation requires the knowledge of the molecular chemistry involved. Therefore, to understand the interactions, DFT (density functional theory) calculations were performed. Further, a process model was developed in Aspen Plus for capturing CO2 from biogas using MEA as solvent. To optimise the process various sensitivity analysis was performed with variation of number of absorber and stripper stages, distribution coefficient of CO2 and methane in MEA etc. Finally, an effective model was developed incorporating both the molecular chemistry of solvent as well as the process parameters to upgrade biomethane to be used as a renewable fuel along with sustainable waste management.
    Keywords: CO2 capture; Monoethanolamine; biogas; Aspen Plus; DFT; biomethane.

  • Century-long changing climate of Texas: the spatial-temporal variability and trends of temperature and precipitation   Order a copy of this article
    by Yanan Li 
    Abstract: As a geographically diverse region, Texas has a wide variety of local and regional climatic conditions, which may not commensurate with the global warming. In this study, the Parameter-elevation Relationships on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) historical dataset was used to examine the spatial and temporal variations in temperature and precipitation of Texas. Mann-Kendall and Sens slope statistics were performed to identify trends for the periods of 18952019 and 19902019. Results show no significant trends in the past century but significant cooling and wetting in the recent decades. Gridded trend maps revealed the spatial and seasonal heterogeneity, which exhibits cooling in summer and winter for most areas and increasing precipitation in western, south central and southern areas. Northern area has become hotter and drier. The high spatial resolution and long-term coverage captured features not discovered before, providing a fundamental step toward understanding climate impacts on people and environment.
    Keywords: climate change; temperature; precipitation; Texas.

  • EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF NITROGEN FLOW RATE EFFECT ON OLIVES POMACES WASTES PYROLYSIS USING THERMOGRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS   Order a copy of this article
    by Emna BERRICH, Mansoura SALHI, Mehrez ROMDHANE, Fethi ALOUI 
    Abstract: Olives pomaces wastes OPW pyrolysis behaviour was studied using thermogravimetric analysis under inert conditions. Nitrogen flow effect on OPW thermal degradation was illustrated and discussed. Thermal residence time, peaks numbers, the maximum temperatures and the conversion rates were determined and compared. For 20 and 100 ml/min, a small peak appears at 110
    Keywords: Olives pomaces wastes; Biomass; Energetic valorization; Pyrolysis process; Thermo-Gravimetric analysis; Nitrogen flow; Thermal degradation; Residence time.

  • Determining the water level fluctuations of Lake Van through the integrated machine learning methods   Order a copy of this article
    by Ugur Serencam, Ömer Ekmekcioglu, Eyyup Ensar Basakin, Mehmet Özger 
    Abstract: Determining the lake levels is of paramount importance considering the environmental challenges encountered due to the global warming. The purpose of this study is to predict water level fluctuation of Lake Van using extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost). In addition, complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition with adaptive noise (CEEMDAN) method was adopted to the proposed model. The gravitational search algorithm (GSA) was utilized to tune the hyperparameters of XGBoost and the genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) were used for benchmarking. The results showed that GSA-CEEMDAN-XGBoost model outperformed its counterparts, i.e. GA-CEEMDAN-XGBoost and PSO-CEEMDAN-XGBoost, according to the performance metrics.
    Keywords: hyperparameter optimization; Lake Van; Mann-Whitney U test; signal processing; tree-based ensemble machine learning; Water level forecast; XGBoost.

  • The Effects of Natural Disasters on Human Development in Developing and Developed Countries   Order a copy of this article
    by Adnan Akram, Faisal Jamil, Shahzad Alvi 
    Abstract: The weather related disasters are rising worldwide due to global warming. Nowadays, the countries are more vulnerable to climatic disasters and thus face more extensively the risk of loss of life and property. Natural disasters have been identified as major threats to human development. The present study attempts to identify the effect of natural disasters on the Human Development Index (HDI). The sample consists of 30 countries from all over the world and data ranges from 1990 to 2018. We use the Generalized Method of Moments(GMM) to estimate the model. The results indicate that disaster related vulnerability negatively affects HDI wherein the developing countries are more vulnerable than developed countries. However, countries with higher literacy rates, better institutions, higher per capita income, and a higher degree of openness to international trade are more able to absorb the climatic shock
    Keywords: Vulnerability Index; Institution resilience; per capita income; climate Change; GMM.

  • The emission abatement of enterprises in China: A bayesian DSGE approach under carbon tax scenarios   Order a copy of this article
    by Haitao Xu, Xiongfeng Pan, Yuduo Lu 
    Abstract: In this study, we establish an environmental DSGE model embodying carbon tax to compare the impact of technology and consumption shock on macro environment and emission abatement of enterprises under carbon tax and non-tax scenario in China. The results show that the carbon tax policy will exert greater effect on technology and consumption shock. In carbon tax scenario, the economic expansion effect caused by a technology shock is likely to be dampened and emission abatement will increase. The response of emission abatement of enterprises in carbon tax scenario is contrary to that in non-tax scenario under a positive consumption shock.
    Keywords: Dynamic stochastic general equilibrium; Carbon tax policy; Emission abatement; Pollutant emissions; Macroeconomic fluctuation.

  • The perspective of direct air capture of atmospheric carbon dioxide   Order a copy of this article
    by Alberto Boretti 
    Abstract: Removing CO2 from the atmosphere by DAC, and then geologically storing it, or recycling it to renewable hydrogen-based fuels, is here discussed. The energy inputs for the capture of the atmospheric CO2 at the present concentration is ~45 GJ t-1 of C, 4.28 times the energy produced by burning the best coal generating the captured CO2. Accounting for non-uniformities of atmospheric CO2 concentration and pointwise capture, the energy cost is larger, as the atmospheric CO2 concentration close to the DAC machines will reach values below the preindustrial level when the global average will be above. DAC as a way to control global concentrations of atmospheric CO2 is questionable, making this solution unattractive.
    Keywords: global warming; direct air capture; atmospheric CO2.

  • Re-conceptualizing climate change-driven loss and damage   Order a copy of this article
    by Daniel Puig 
    Abstract: In intergovernmental climate-change negotiations, the impacts of climate change that cannot be avoided through adaptation measures are referred to as loss and damage. To date, there is no commonly agreed definition of the phrase loss and damage. Notwithstanding, it is clear that in a primary or subordinate manner, depending on ones understanding of what loss and damage entails loss and damage is concerned with some of the most costly consequences of global warming. Mainly for this reason, intergovernmental negotiations about loss and damage have made relatively slow progress since the establishment in 2013 of the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage, the negotiating forum on this matter under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Scholarship on loss and damage has helped characterize the scope of loss and damage. The article reviews this scholarship, to explore the potential impact of separating loss and damage, both in the context of research and policy. A key result presented in the article is that treating loss and damage separately would be most beneficial with regard to loss, in that the political hurdles that currently mar the loss-and-damage debate mainly derive from disagreement over financing responsibilities with regard to damages, which unduly slow progress on the urgent task of understanding how to manage loss. In this context, the article provides elements for separate definitions of loss and damage, and suggests a possible categorization of loss-and-damage scholarship.
    Keywords: residual climate-change impacts; limits to climate-change adaptation; climate change-driven loss and damage; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change; Warsaw International Mechanism; soft and hard adaptation limits; climate justice; climate finance; Paris Agreement; event attribution.

  • Energy and Environment Nexus: Environmental Impact Mitigation Strategies   Order a copy of this article
    by Mehmet Tontu, Ahsen Sultan Tontu 
    Abstract: Energy and the environment have always been and will continue to be intimately connected. All types of energy negatively impact the environment somehow. Once used, it is eventually released to the ecosystem as a useful byproduct or, more often than not, as harmful pollutants or waste. As energy consumption has expanded around the world, its impact on the environment is continuing to increase. Greenhouse gas pollutants are mainly generated by the combustion of fossil fuels. Therefore, energy consumption is considered the main cause that impacts the environment. In this study, the main environmental issues due to energy production have been explained. Also, environmental impact mitigation methodologies related to energy systems have been deeply investigated in different methods for obtaining a cleaner ecosystem and sustainable use. Potential mitigation solutions have been identified via real case examples. Lastly, the interaction of energy, environment and sustainable development have been outlined.
    Keywords: Environmental problems; mitigation solutions; energy technologies; sustainable development; cleaner production.

  • Population-based dynamical modeling for global warming mitigation assessment by nuclear energy resource   Order a copy of this article
    by T.A.E. H.O. WOO 
    Abstract: The climate change is analyzed by the global population growth incorporated with the energy and its related social aspect consequences where the energy-mix policy has been issued to mitigate the carbon production fossil fuels such as oil and coal. In the simulation study, there are comparisons using three types of the population growth rate. Results show the temperature change where the variations of average temperature for 2020 are analyzed in three cases of regions. The highest value is on 4th year as 4.49 in Type1(Land). So, the indirect method of the population growth to reduce the world temperature could be analyzed as another way to treat the climate change. The other regional effect could be studied in the future work to find out the trend of nation and temperature variations.
    Keywords: Energy; Global warming; Population; Nuclear; Mitigation.

  • Comparative evaluation of nickel ions removal from aqueous solutions using hydrochar and biochar of cypress cones   Order a copy of this article
    by Mahboub Saffari, Masomeh Moazallahi 
    Abstract: A BoxBehnken design (BBD) under response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the nickel (Ni) ions removal by biochar and hydrochar of cypress cones from aqueous solutions. As result, the Ni removal in hydrochar (average 42.14%) was almost twice that of biochar (average 23.23%), which can be attributed to the higher porosity and the existence of oxygenated functional groups in hydrochar than biochar. The optimization results of RSM showed the high ability and accuracy of this model (R2> 0.96) in estimating Ni removal. The numerical optimization result predicted the most removal of Ni by biochar (51-57%) and hydrochar (67-69%), with desirability 1. In general, despite the lower production cost and removal of higher amounts of Ni by hydrochar compared to biochar, but it seems that due to the wood structure of hydrochar, the application of modification methods (Physico-chemical activation) may be necessary to help remove more Ni.
    Keywords: Adsorption; Biochar; Hydrochar; Nickel; Optimization.