International Journal of Global Warming (27 papers in press)
Comparative analysis of various refrigerants used in transport refrigeration based on thermodynamics and environmental performances and cold chain management
by Enver Yalcin, M. Ziya Sogut, Onder Altuntas, T. Hikmet Karakoc
Abstract: In cooling systems, besides the refrigerant preferences, the probability of leakage due to dynamic conditions increases energy consumption and emissions directly or indirectly. In this study, thermodynamics and environmental performances of transport refrigeration systems using different and alternative refrigerants were examined. Leakage effects of refrigerants on the environment were investigated in terms of energy consumption and emission loads based on the coefficient of performance, exergy efficiency and improvement potentials. R152A stands out between the refrigerants taken as a reference with aspects of cooling capacity, environmental effects and refrigerant charge amount.
Keywords: transport refrigeration; COP; exergy analysis; leakage rate; CO2 emission.
DEPTH FUNCTION OF STORED AND SEQUESTERED CARBON IN COTTON GROWING SOILS OF SOUTH GUJARAT IN INDIA
by Sureshkumar Bambhaneeya, Amresh Das
Abstract: Mean SOC stock at 0-15, 15-30, 30-60, 60-90 and 90-120 cm soil depth of irrigated profiles were 15.0, 12.6, 21.5, 19.3 and 15.3 t ha-1, respectively. Similarly, mean SOC stock at an above various soil depth of rainfed profiles were 12.2, 10.0, 19.3, 15.6 and 12.7 t ha-1, respectively. SOC stored/sequestered in micro-WSA (< 0.25 mm) in irrigated profiles varied widely from 1.7 to 11.7 tha-1, while the same in rainfed profile soils varied from 1.4 to 20.5 t ha-1. Mean of irrigated profiles with respect to carbon stock associated with micro-WSA < 0.25 mm was found slightly lower (5.7 tha-1) than that of rainfed profiles (6.0 tha-1). Thus, WSA < 0.25 mm size acts as storing/ sequestering C within it for long periods.
Keywords: Carbon; Cotton; Sequestered carbon; Depth function; South Gujarat.
Sedge for biogas production and improving the process by
pretreating sedge prior to co-digestion
by Nusara Sinbuathong, Netechanok Sombat, Wannapa Kratay
Abstract: Sedge is an indigenous weed and produces a large amount of biomass. Co-digestion of the feedstock of sedge:cow dung:water at the ratio of 10:10:80 was investigated. The mixture of the untreated sedge and that of the pretreated sedge (with 1% sodium hydroxide for 24 hr) with cow dung were the feedstock in this study. The two reactors were supplied with feedstock of untreated and pretreated sedge with cow dung separately in a semi-continuous-flow mode with a hydraulic retention time of 40 days. The methane yield of co-digestion of the pretreated sedge reached 344 L at STP/kg chemical oxygen demand degraded and was 10.97 % greater than that of the untreated sedge or 169 L at STP/kg total solids added and was 26.12 % greater than that of the untreated sedge. The alkali pretreatment of sedge prior to co-digestion with cow dung improved the process of biogas production notably.
Keywords: anaerobic digestion; biogas; co-digestion; global warming; lignocellulosic biomass; methane; pretreatment; renewable energy; sedge.
ANALYSIS OF CARBON SEQUESTRATION BY DOMINANT TREES IN URBAN AREAS OF THANE CITY
by Aasawari Tak, Umesh Kakde
Abstract: The present investigation was conducted to estimate the total carbon sequestered by urban trees in Thane city (India). The total tree biomass, total stored carbon, and CO2 removed by urban trees was determined by with allometric model/volume equations and compared. Using random sampling plot method 50 plots with 0.04ha each, generated to facilitate measurements of trees. It was observed that, carbon sequestration (kgC/tree) was highest in Azadirachta indica, 3289.8 kgC/tree, followed by Ficus benghalensis (2375.5 kgC/tree), Tamarindius indica (1666.9 kgC/tree), Casurina equisetifolia (1530.5 kgC/tree) and Pongamia pinnata (865.9 kgC/tree). The investigation data will be helpful to evaluate the role of urban trees in reducing atmospheric the carbon dioxide. The study will also be useful in assessment of carbon storage potential of the several regions, which are under the threat of air pollution issues worldwide in near future.
Keywords: Allometric model; tree biomass; carbon sequestration; carbon storage; volume
The Assessment of Air Quality in the Port of Ambarli and Several Districts of Istanbul
by Kaan Ünlügençoglu, Fuat Alarçin
Abstract: Sea transportation is considered as an environmentally friendly transportation option compared to other freight transportation such as airway, rail and road transport. The majority of freight transportation is completed by the sea. Moreover, emissions from ships are increasing due to the increase in trade volume and sea transportation worldwide. Due to this increase, health of people living in coastal cities is affected adversely. In this study, real-time air quality measurements of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, CO, NO and NO2 emissions are performed for 3 months in the Port of Ambarli located in Marmara region that has intense sea trade. The daily average values of real-time emission data measurement are shown for June, July and August 2017. Real-time measurements are received from Air Quality Monitoring Station in Avcilar district of Istanbul for the same period and same air quality measurement device. These PM2.5, PM10, SO2, CO, NO and NO2 emission values are compared with the limit values of air quality in Europe and Turkey. As a result, PM2.5, PM10, SO2, CO, NO and NO2 measurements are under air quality limit value set by Europe and Turkey for the Port of Ambarli based on values obtained from Avcilar and Kadikoy.
Keywords: shipping emission; air quality; measurement; Port of Ambarli; EU Limits.
Methodological framework for adopting sustainable transport measures
by Maha Alsabbagh
Abstract: The term sustainable transport first appeared in the literature over two decades ago. An extensive literature has subsequently evolved, ranging from attempts to clarify the concept to explorations of its actual implementation worldwide. Yet, structured approaches for achieving sustainable transport in developing countries, where data are limited, remain rare. This paper, presents a pragmatic methodological framework for adopting sustainable transport measures related to passenger cars in Bahrain. The proposed assessment process comprises four steps: analyzing the current state, identifying potential measures, assessing these measures, and aggregating the results. The analysis revealed that while achieving sustainable transport in Bahrain is feasible using regulatory and economic measures, fiscal incentives to car technologies may be required to ensure public acceptance. While the focus of this paper is on Bahrain, the proposed methodology is readily applicable to other countries where data are limited.
Keywords: climate change; content analysis; cost-benefit analysis; DPSIR; energy modeling; multi-criteria analysis; passenger cars; probabilistic analysis; scenarios; stakeholder analysis; sustainability.
Multi-Perspective Influence Mechanism Analysis and Multi-Scenario Prediction of Chinas Carbon Emissions
by Tao Yi, Mohan Qiu, Hao Zheng, Jinpeng Liu
Abstract: Due to the mandatory push to meet the carbon emission reduction commitments proposed in the Paris Agreement, an analysis of the peak carbon emission production times in China is required. This paper focuses on the peak production times of the total carbon emissions (TCE) and carbon emissions intensity (CEI) in China. According to the development of China's carbon emissions and related targets in the 13th Five-Year Plan, the peak production times of TCE and CEI in different scenarios are predicted based on an influence mechanism analysis of China's carbon emissions from the perspectives of energy, economy, and society. Considering the development characteristics of China at this stage, this paper introduces several new indicators including the full-time equivalent of research and development (R&D) personnel and the investment in environmental pollution control. Based on the results of the study, several policy recommendations are put forward to fulfil Chinas carbon emission reduction commitments.
Keywords: carbon emissions; peaking time; influence mechanism; scenario prediction; Paris Agreement.
Social selection analysis for a role of nuclear power generation by evolutionary game theory (EGT) in the aspect of global warming assessment
by T.A.E. H.O. WOO
Abstract: The evolutionary game theory (EGT) is introduced for the simulations of the global warming incorporated with energy consumptions in which the life evolution is analyzed by the game theory for the energy sector selection. It is easy to see that each energy sector has the pros and cons as the environmental factor as well as economic factor. The fossil fuels such as oil or coal have severe pollutions to the atmosphere, although it is comparatively simple to make energy productions. There are the models of electricity generations as EGT and cumulating EGT. The highest values are 329.715 in 99th month and 2749.590 in 96th month for evolutionary and cumulating EGT, respectively. Comparing two graphs, the trends are similar to be stabilized in later time where the priority of nuclear energy as the aspect of the global warming factor increases to be paralleled.
Keywords: Nuclear; Global warming; Evolution; Game; Energy.
Multiscale interaction between energy and food quality in the super cold chain for sustainable agriculture
by Yi-Sai Gao, Guan-Bang Wang, Ya-Ting Xiao, Jia-Qi Sun, Qiu-Yun Zheng, Xin-Rong Zhang
Abstract: For the cold chain of fresh agricultural food, a good balance between energy and quality must be carefully considered. Most of previous researches focused on macroscale and mesoscale, while neglecting the significance of microscale. In the present study, the super cold chain is extended to multiscale studies on the interaction between energy and food quality by illustrating four representative cases. At microscale and mesoscale, such methods as X-ray computed tomography and stochastic reconstruction are adopted to analyse the multi-phase and multi-component porous structure. At macroscale, the dissipation factor is applied to evaluate the heterogeneity and optimize the system. Besides, representative volume element (RVE) method is a bridge between different scales, and heat and mass transport are solved simultaneously. Therefore, based on the special focus on sustainable agriculture, super cold chain has the potential to achieve less food quality loss and lower energy consumption, thereby decreasing effects on global warming.
Keywords: Super cold chain; energy; food quality; sustainable agriculture; multiscale studies.
Impact of climate change on cultural heritage: a simulation study to assess the risks for conservation and thermal comfort
by Guilherme Coelho, Hugo Silva, Fernando Henriques
Abstract: Artefacts are prone to various types of decay depending on the indoor conditions of the building in which they are kept. Moreover, due to climate changes, the indoor climate of these buildings may significantly change, which can endanger their preservation. Hence, this paper studies the effects of climate changes on the indoor climate of heritage buildings and on the conservation of artefacts and thermal comfort of visitors. For this purpose, a validated hygrothermal model of a naturally ventilated historic church Saint Christophers in Lisbon coupled with climate change weather files were used to obtain future indoor conditions. Additionally, four other climates were simulated using the building model: Seville (Mediterranean climate), Prague and Oslo (Continental climate), as well as London (Oceanic climate). The obtained indoor climates were assessed using a statistical analysis based in several known indices, a risk-based analysis and an adaptive thermal comfort model.
Keywords: climate change; preventive conservation; church; historic building; computational model; risk-based analysis; artefacts conservation; thermal comfort; hygrothermal behaviour; cultural heritage.
Characterization of Spatio-Temporal Trend in Temperature Extremes for Environmental Decision Making in Bangladesh
by Md. Mohsan Khudri, Md. Shaddam Hossain Bagmar, Asef Mohammad Redwan
Abstract: Spatial and sequential variability of extreme temperature events enthral the scientific community owing to their significant impact on global climate change. This study analysed trends in monthly data of temperature extremes of 23 meteorological stations of Bangladesh using Mann-Kendall test. Most of the stations showed significant increasing trend for both temperature extremes on monthly and annual scales. Most of the change points were detected during the last four decades and showed an upward trend. The results obtained from Sen's estimator vouchsafed that magnitudes of trend ranged from 0.007 to 0.034°C /year and 0.014 to 0.049°C/year for minimum and maximum temperature, respectively. The upward trend in both extreme temperatures pointed to global warming. The maximum number of significant trends was observed in monsoon and post-monsoon seasons for average maximum temperature. The upward trend in the monsoon and post-monsoon season may cause the drought and late winter in Bangladesh.
Keywords: Temperature; Climate Change; Trend Analysis; Environment; Bangladesh.
Assessment of thermo-economic performance based on heat recovery preference of air conditioning systems
by M.Ziya Sogut, Hamit Mutlu, T.Hikmet Karakoc
Abstract: Thermal comfort demand in modern buildings is provided by mostly usage central air conditioning and ventilation systems. In these applications, the comfort parameters of the structure are directly related to control of air velocity, blowing temperature, air quality and energy consumption. In these processes, reduction of energy consumption considering thermal comfort conditions and system management with energy efficiency in buildings should be evaluated together with the heat recovery potential in the air conditioning systems. In this study, the thermo-economic analyses of four different application including the heat recovery systems in the air conditioning systems, which was designed for an office building, were made. In these thermo-economic analyses, it is seen that up to 72% energy saving can be achieved with the heat recovery preference according to standard conditions. At the end of the study, system preference in a centralized air conditioning system based on air conditioning processes and its contribution to sustainable energy management were assessed
Keywords: Air conditioning Unit; Heat Recovery; Energy Management; Efficiency; Sustainability.
Hydrometeorological Trend Analysis using the MannKendall and Innovative?en Methodologies: A Case Study
by Dang Nguyen Dong Phuong, Vo Ngoc Quynh Tram, Tran Thong Nhat, Tran Dinh Ly, Nguyen Kim Loi
Abstract: This paper analyzed temporal trend possibilities of hydrometeorological records in Vu Gia Thu Bon watershed during 19792014 by employing the recently innovative?en trend methodology in combination with the classical/modified MannKendall tests. The outcomes show that most of statistically significant increasing trends were found in annual rainfall, extreme temperatures, relative humidity and stream flow, whereas opposite trend direction was predominantly observed in evapotranspiration and sunshine duration over the 36year period. Particularly, the greatest warming trends in maximum and minimum temperature were 0.019 and 0.024
Keywords: hydro–meteorological trend; Innovative–?en; Mann–Kendall test; sub–trend; Vu Gia Thu Bon watershed.
Progress on Carbon Dioxide Capture, Storage and Utilization
by Malek Mohammad, Rima J. Isaifan, Yemane Weldu, Mohammad Aziz Rahman, Sami G. Al-Ghamdi
Abstract: The negative impacts of global warming on climate have been witnessed worldwide, and therefore global efforts to decrease the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs), particularly carbon dioxide, have increased. Carbon capture (CC) strategies can effectively reduce the quantity of CO2 being released into the atmosphere by various industries. In this study, several characteristics of CC technologies are analyzed, the negative environmental impacts of CO2 emissions are highlighted, policies that have recently been adopted to decrease GHG emissions are discussed, and state-of-the-art post-combustion CC, pre-combustion CC, and oxyfuel combustion CC technologies are reviewed. Furthermore, this study investigates and compares the three most common carbon separation techniques, namely, absorption, adsorption, and membrane methods. Through the investigation of the CC technologies, we discuss the practicality of implementing such methods and discuss specific case studies that have implemented CC technologies. Furthermore, we summarize ways of utilizing the end-product (the captured carbon) of these technologies. Much research has gone into investigating the negative environmental impacts that are currently arising. This paper stresses the importance of taken measures that go from theory to implementation and how such measures can be approached.
Keywords: Carbon dioxide; Carbon capture and storage (CCS); CO2 separation; CO2 utilization; Environmental impacts.
Probabilistic Innovative trend analysis (PITA)
by Zekâi ?en
Abstract: The impact of trend and variability embedded in the composition of hydro-meteorological time series records from past stationary character to present and future non-stationary forms must be identified in a refined manner for better engineering, social, economy and environmental mitigation, adaptation and management purposes. There are various methodologies from the most frequently used Mann-Kendal (MK) trend test, Sen slope method, regression approach to recently innovative trend analysis (ITA) methodologies, which are at the focus of recent trend assessment researches in applications, but all these methodologies do not take into consideration the underlying probability distribution function (PDF) of time series concerned. Apart from the ITA method others depend on restrictive assumptions such as the normal (Gaussian) PDF and independent serial correlation structure. Especially in the practical applications these two points are not cared for in applied research papers in the literature, and consequently their final conclusions are rather biased. This paper proposes another new innovative methodology, whereby not statistical parameters but actual PDFs play the major role. The methodology is named as the innovative probabilistic trend analysis (IPTA), which has the most convenient climate change basic definition without any restrictive assumption. Its application is presented to temperature, precipitation and river discharge data from different parts of world.
Keywords: climate change; climate variability ; innovation; probability; trend; time series.
The evidence of recent Canadian Arctic climate change: A case study, the Baffin Island
by Farahnaz Fazel-Rastgar
Abstract: The evidence of the climate change in Baffin Island, the largest island in Canadian Arctic, is examined by analyzing the meteorological datasets from NARR (The North American Regional Reanalysis Model) and NCEP (National Center for Atmospheric Research). The yearly mean time series data analysis (from 1948 to 2017) of the near-surface air temperatures, the vertical velocity at 700mb, precipitation rate and specific humidity show the rapid changes during recent decade over the Baffin Island region. The yearly mean of the near-surface air temperature has the highest value in 2010 corresponded to the lowest value of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index for the same year. This research also shows that the mean yearly vertical velocity at 700mb linearly decreases (at a significant level with a very small p-value of 0.000235) with the 1000mb air temperatures from 1948 to 2017 causing to increase the vertical motion (negative omega) and a possible increased the local instability over Baffin Island region. Monthly anomalies of the physical and meteorological data such as near-surface air temperature, surface albedo and the average precipitation on the surface are also investigated from 2007-2017. The results show that the region has been getting warmer over the past 10 years with the higher maximum values during January and February months (rather warmer winters). Also, the surface albedo has been decreased mostly in the coastal boundaries especially during October around 10-30%. This study also shows that the average precipitation at the surface also has been increased in some parts of Baffin Island with the remarkable changes during June, July, September and November mostly in the south part of the Baffin Island region. Whereas during the months of April and May (except over the topographical areas in the south-east with higher values) the precipitation has been decreased respect to climatology mean.
Keywords: Climate change; near surface air temperature; surface albedo; precipitation; specific humidity.
Energetic valorization of waste tires by pyrolysis: Catalyst effect on tires derived oil and gases
by Hiba REJEB, Emna BERRICH BETOUCHE, CHAHBANI Mohamed Hachemi, Fethi ALOUI
Abstract: Used tires wastes represent health, environmental and ecological problems because of their composition, storage and degradation difficulties. To solve this problem and to upgrade this waste, several technologies are adopted such as pyrolysis. This process allows the production of liquids which could replace fuels. In this paper an experimental investigation is carried out to study the effects of zeolite catalyst ZSM5 on pyrolysis Tires Derived Oil and gas. Two percentages of zeolite catalyst have been chosen i.e. 10% and 20%. Experiments were carried out in a semi-batch reactor under inert atmosphere. The Tires Derived Oil properties measured are the density, the viscosity, the higher calorific value and the acid value. It is found that the tires wastes pyrolysis without catalyst gives a Tires Derived Oil yield equal to 30.53 wt.%. This yield remains constant while using 20% of ZSM5. However, it increases to 32.77 wt.% while using 10% of the catalyst. The Tires Derived Oil obtained presents characteristics close to those of diesel and kerosene. For example, its viscosity is nearly 1 (cP) at 40
Keywords: Wastes; Energetic valorization; Pyrolysis; Catalyst; Fuel; Gas; Micro-gases Chromatography and Calorimetric analysis.
Investigation the insights between health expenditure and air quality
by ZEYNEP CEYLAN
Abstract: In this study, models have been developed for predicting health expenditures of Turkey associated with greenhouse gas (GHG) emission levels using 27-year dataset between the years 1990 and 2016. The annual GHG emissions data consisting of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and fluorinated gases have been used as inputs. In order to increase the accuracy and reliability, three different models namely, the Bayesian-optimization based support vector regression (BO-SVR), three-layered feed-forward back-propagation neural network (BPNN) and multivariate linear regression (MLR) models were employed. The coefficient determination (R2) for the BO-SVR, BPNN and MLR models were determined as 0.9893, 0.9796, 0.9766 in the training phase and 0.9795, 0.9629, and 0.9529 in the testing phase, respectively. The results showed that the BO-SVR model is found to be superior for the estimation of Turkeys health expenditures.
Keywords: GHG emissions; Bayesian optimization; SVR; health expenditure; forecasting; ANNs.
How to benefit from the food waste in the era of global warming
by S. Kaan Gökbulak, Serap Nazir, Mustafa Özilgen, Sena Tuncel
Abstract: Food wastes causes 4.4 GtCO2 eq, or about 8% of total anthropogenic GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions annually. Thermodynamic analyses showed that 1 t of FFRW (fast food restaurant waste), after pressing its water out and pre-drying, would be capable of producing approximately 3.5 GW electricity. There is a common belief among the chefs that finding a way for the consumption of the kitchen waste may reduce the environment burden. After testing this hypothesis with eighteen foods, it is concluded that although it would be possible to recover 7.2 GJ y-1 of energy in Turkey. This would be equivalent to that of electric power production with the FFRW in Rankine cycle in less than three seconds. Analyses indicated that electric power generation from the FFRW in a Rankine cycle would be feasible, and reduce its global warming potential, but trying to find a secondary use for the kitchen waste is not.
Keywords: Fast food restaurant waste; kitchen waste; energy and exergy savings; cumulative degree of perfection; global warming potential.
Environmental sensitivity of printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturing to Cu recycling rate, transportation and various energy sources
by Elif Ozkan, Bilge Bas, Nilay Elginoz, Fatos Germirli Babuna
Abstract: This study concentrates on environmental impacts of PCB manufacturing. The objective is to examine the effect of Cu recycling rate, transportation, energy sources and end-of-life (EoL) on global warming (GWP), marine aquatic ecotoxicity (MAEP), terrestric ecotoxicity (TETP), freshwater aquatic ecotoxicity (FAETP), human toxicity (HTP), ozone layer depletion (ODP), photochemical ozone creation (POCP), eutrophication (EP), acidification (AP) and abiotic depletion (ADP fossil, ADP elements) potentials. Increasing Cu recycling rate from 30% to 47%, reduce the impacts by 10 to 103%. The most significant reduction is for HTP. Transportation elevates AP and POCP by 29%, ADP fossil by 23% and GWP by 21%. Obtaining energy from renewable sources causes 56, 40 and 39% reductions in HTP, ADP fossil and GWP, namely. Apart from GWP where PCB manufacturing and EoL has equal impacts, for the other categories PCB manufacturing has more than 75% contribution.
Keywords: printed circuit board; life cycle assessment; manufacturing; electronics industry; Cu recycling; transportation; energy source.
Empirical models for estimating the daily and monthly global solar radiation for Mediterranean and Central Anatolia region of Turkey
by Ismail Ustun, Cuma Karakus, Huseyin Yagli
Abstract: Climatology and geoengineering studies in literature clearly identify the relationship between solar radiation and global warming. These studies generally try to predict progress in global warming. To do that, it is essential to predict solar radiation rate, which is directly proportional to global warming. By the obtained solar radiation models in present study, researcher will be adequate to estimate solar radiation rate accurately for future prediction analysis. In this study, data imported from measurement stations were used to develop and validate radiation models by using regression and multi-regression models to estimate daily and monthly global solar radiation for Urgup, Karaman, Nigde, Isparta, Iskenderun and Adana regions. The statistical parameters (MBE, MPE, RMSE and R2) carried out to evaluate the performance of obtained estimation models. In addition, climatic properties of selected regions had been deeply examined to analyse usability of obtained estimation model for other regions where have similar climate characteristics.
Keywords: Climate analyses; regression and multi-regression analyses; daily and monthly solar radiation; estimation models; solar radiation.
Carbon footprint as an environmental sustainability indicator for a higher education institution
by Ihsan Ullah, Islam Uddin, Uzma Naoreen, Majid Hussain
Abstract: This study aimed to quantify carbon footprint of the University of Haripur (UoH), Pakistan for one fiscal year (July 2016Jun 2017). Primary data was collected through questionnaire surveys, interviews, personal observations and measurements by visiting concerned offices, departments, laboratories, library, canteens, and agriculture fields. The UoH carbon footprint was calculated according to the IPCC 2007 greenhouse gas (GHG) protocol for 100 years time horizon using environmental impacts modelling software SimaPro v.8.4. The results showed that UoH emitted around 578,898 kg CO2-eq emissions to environment during 2016-2017. The largest GHG emission (38%) from single source to the total carbon footprint was from the purchased electricity. Up to our knowledge, there is no published literature available for any other Pakistani universities who conducted their carbon footprint.
Keywords: Higher Education Institution; Carbon footprint; Students; GHG emissions; UoH; Pakistan.
Effect of Addition CNTs in Passive Sampler for Ammonia Measurement in Outdoor Air
by Andac Akdemir
Abstract: It was determined that the adsorption capacity of nano materials was higher than that of conventional adsorbents. In this study based on this topic, It is aimed to improve the performance of classical passive samplers for measuring high concentration of ammonia. Ammonia was measured at 6 different points in the industrial zone. The CNT addition sampler was also used in the measurements together with the conventional ammonia passive sampler. Thus, the effect of CNT addition on ammonia concentration was investigated. It was observed that the low CNT addition correlated with the conventional passive sampler but the correlation was decreased in the addition of high CNT.
Keywords: MWCNT; Air Quality; Ammonia; Fertilizer production plant.
Research on food carbon emissions of consumers based on restaurant investigations in Shenyang, China
by Yue Wang, Ruxi Liu, Bo Wu, Nan Wang, Yang Liu
Abstract: China became has become the largest carbon emitter. This study aimed at examining The aim of this study was to examine the food greenhouse gas emissions emissions (GHGs) of consumers based on restaurant investigations in Shenyang, China. The food GHGs per capita per meal of consumers at restaurants in Shenyang were 4.07 times more than the national average in 2016. The percentage of meat GHGs was 77.06%. The food GHGs of consumers of medium-sized restaurants were the highest. The food GHGs of consumers of buffets were 1.5 times higher than those of consumers of table meals. The consumption of meat was 6.06 times than the upper limit of the recommended amount. The food GHGs per capita per meal of consumers at restaurants in Shenyang were markedly higher than the national average in 2016. The dietary patterns of eating out were unreasonable. Therefore, guidance must be provided for regarding the behaviorbehaviours of people who dine out and of restaurant owners.
Keywords: food; restaurant; greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs); dietary pattern.
Color and COD Removal from Aqueous Solutions of Direct Yellow 86 Textile Dyestuff by Electro-Fenton Method
by Nevzat BEYAZIT
Abstract: In this study, COD and color removal were investigated by the electro-Fenton method from aqueous solutions of direct Yellow 86 commercial textile dyes. The effects of electrolyte concentration (250-3000 mg/l), H2O2 concentration (250-3000 mg/l), initial dye concentration (50-500 mg/l), distance between anode and cathode (0.5-1.5 cm) on COD and colour removals were investigated. Under optimal experimental conditions (NaCl: 1500 mg/l, H2O2: 1500 mg/l, initial dye concentration: 50 mg/l, anode-cathode distance: 1.5 cm), the maximum COD and color removal efficiencies were 95.3% and 99.5%, respectively. It was determined that H2O2 concentration and dye concentration had the highest effect on removal efficiencies. It was determined that removal efficiencies increased with increasing H2O2 concentration, and decreased with increasing initial dye concentration. The results show that the electro-Fenton method can be effectively applied in COD and color removal from aqueous solutions of direct Yellow 86 commercial textile dyestuff.
Keywords: COD removal; color removal; direct yellow 86; electro-Fenton; removal efficiency.
Meteorological Analysis of a Fatal Istanbul Helicopter Accident on Mar 10, 2017
by Emrah Tuncay Özdemir, Oguzhan Kolay
Abstract: On Mar 10, 2017, a helicopter belonging to a private company departed Atat
Keywords: Istanbul Atatürk International Airport; Helicopter Accident; Stratus; Fog; Satellite Products.
Enviromental performance of the wastewater treatment plants: Green Index
by Pelin Yapicioglu, Özlem Demir
Abstract: The Green Index as a new indicator to determine the environmental performance has been developed in order to reduce the unfavorable environmental of the wastewater treatment plants. The main aim of this study is to reveal the environmental performances of the wastewater treatment plants. An industrial and a municipal wastewater treatment plant in Turkey have been compared in terms of the Green Index. The results revealed that in August, for the municipal and the industrial wastewater treatment plants, CO2 emission values were 0.972 and 0.42 kg/h, respectively. N2O emissions were also 8.7 and 1.53 kg/h, respectively. CO2 emissions in September were with the values of 0.507 and 0.657 kg/h for the municipal and the industrial wastewater treatment plants, respectively and N2O emissions were 5.4 and 1.2 kg/h, respectively. The Green Index of industrial wastewater treatment plant was lower than the municipal with the values of 1.29 and 1.33, respectively.
Keywords: Green index, wastewater treatment, environmental performance, greenhouse gases, global warming.