Forthcoming articles

International Journal of Global Warming

International Journal of Global Warming (IJGW)

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International Journal of Global Warming (36 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Assessment of the reliability of three gauged-based global gridded precipitation datasets for drought monitoring   Order a copy of this article
    by Babak Aminnejad, Edris Ahmad Ebrahimpour, Keivan Khalili 
    Abstract: This study evaluates the reliability on three global gridded precipitation dataset including CRU-TS-V.4.01, GPCC-V.7 and UDEL-V.4.01 to drought monitoring over Lake Urmia basin in Iran using standardized precipitation index (SPI). Assessing the precipitation data of global datasets indicate that the major error in precipitation of global datasets is Bias error which means that they can recognize the behavior of precipitation time series but there is a difference in estimation of precipitation amount. To diminish the Bias error, Bias Correction (BC) was done before evaluating the datasets in drought monitoring. The results indicated that GPCC is the most suitable dataset over the study area for drought studies. In addition, results revealed that there is no significant difference between original and BC data in drought monitoring. For example, in 9-month SPI, the Critical Success Index (CSI) for original CRU and CRU-BC were equal to 71 and 76%, respectively, and the GPCC and UDEL in both original and BC versions were equal to 88 and 55%, respectively. Also, it can be claim that the Bias error is not important in drought studies due to the fact that during calculation of SPI, standardization process will remove Bias significantly.
    Keywords: Bias Correction; Climatic Research Unit; Critical Success Index; Global Precipitation Climate Centre; University of Delaware.

    by Babak Keivani, Hayati Olgun, Aysel T. Atimtay 
    Abstract: This work covers co-combustion of biocoal obtained from red pine wood chips with Orhaneli lignite in a 30 kW-thermal capacity circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC) system in air and oxygen-enriched atmosphere. The combustor was of 108 mm inside diameter and 6 m height. The combustion temperature was held at 850+50
    Keywords: biomass; torrefaction; biocoal; oxygen enriched combustion; circulating fluidised bed combustion.

  • An observational maximum seasonal freeze depth changes for a Province   Order a copy of this article
    by Liguang Li, Hongbin Yang, Kangkang Ding, Hongbo Wang, Ziqi Zhao 
    Abstract: Frozen ground plays an essential role in high latitude regions of northern hemisphere, and it is an important indicator of climate change. We analyzed temporal and spatial variations of the Maximum Seasonal Freeze Depth (MSFD) from 1965 to 2015 in 53 observational stations of Liaoning province in the northeast China. The results indicate that the average MSFDs in each month are obviously different, with the highest value of 93 cm in February. The annual MSFD is in a decreasing trend with the rate of -5.25 cm per decade. The spatial distribution of MSFD is in a pattern of decreasing from the northwest to the southeast. The response of the MSFD to global warming showed that the relationships of MSFD with the air temperature and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are negative. The starting and ending dates of the MSFD are in delaying and moving ahead trends. The 100 cm MSFD line moved northward gradually.
    Keywords: maximum seasonal freeze depth (MSFD); air temperature; response.

  • Adsorption Of Cadmium (II) By Using Clays Modified With Ultrasound   Order a copy of this article
    by Erkan KALIPCI 
    Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate the Cd(II) adsorption from aqueous solutions with raw and ultrasound clay samples. In the batch experiments, effect of the some parameters such as contact time, pH levels, temperature, stirring rate on the adsorption were investigated. BET (BrunauerEmmettTeller) surface area of the clay samples increased from 28.5 m2/g to 52.7 m2/g result of ultrasound modification. Adsorption systems were best described with pseudo second order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm. It was determined that the maximum adsorption capacity of the ultrasound modified clay samples is higher compared to raw clay samples. It was determined that the optimum pH value is 6, and the optimum stirring speed is 250 rpm for the adsorption. Adsorption for modified and raw clay samples increased significantly with increasing system temperature which revealed the endothermic nature of the adsorption.
    Keywords: Adsorption; cadmium; clay; ultrasound; modification.

  • Building climatic zoning under the conditions of climate change in China   Order a copy of this article
    by Shanjun Cheng, Mingcai Li, Yuehao Chen, Jingfu Cao, Shanshan Yuan 
    Abstract: The effects of climate change on building climate zones in China were investigated by using the recent 55-year (19612015) meteorological observation data. The results show that the building climate zones have largely changed under climate warming. The changed areas were 31.8
    Keywords: building climatic zoning; climate zone; climate change; energy efficiency; China.

  • Thermodynamic assessment of information transmission in squids giant axon may explain why squid populations thrive with global warming   Order a copy of this article
    by Mustafa Özilgen, Bahar Hazal Yalcinkaya, Bayram Yılmaz 
    Abstract: Thermodynamic analyses are performed with two alternative sodium pump models to determine the effects of the global warming on information transmittance in the giant squid neuron. Squids are preferred in neuron studies since their giant axons allow easy experimentation. They are also highly susceptible to the effects of the global warming, since their organs function at the environmental temperature. One of the mathematical models showed that at 6.3 oC energy cost, exergy destruction and entropy generation were 1.77x10-11 kJ/cm2, 3.49x10-9 kJ/cm2 and 1.25 x10-11 kJ/K cm2, respectively. As temperature increases from 6.3 to 18.5 oC entropy generation is estimated to decrease by half, from 1.25x10-11 to 0.64x10-11 kJ/K cm2, implying that living becomes easier for the squid as temperature increases. The results were similar also with the other mathematical model. Outcomes of the thermodynamic analysis performed in this study may help to explain why the squid populations thrive with global warming.
    Keywords: Global warming; neuronal energy; entropy generation; exergy destruction; activation entropy; sodium pump; Fermi energy.

  • Estimation of Shipping Emissions via Novel Developed Data Collecting and Calculation Software: A Case Study for the Region of Ambarli Port   Order a copy of this article
    by Kaan Ünlügençoğlu, Görkem KÖKKÜLÜNK, Fuat ALARÇİN 
    Abstract: It is known that emissions from ships always have higher values around port regions and made shipping one of the polluting industries in the world. The impact of shipping on global warming has recently received significantly more attention owing to a growing demand for decreasing global emissions. In this context, emissions from ships have been limited in accordance with the international shipping regulations such as EU-MRV (Monitoring, Reporting and Verification) and IMO DCS (Data Collecting System). In this study, web-based data collection software was developed to monitor emissions from ships. Furthermore; NOx, CO2, SO2, VOC, CO and PM emissions for June, July, August of 2017 has been calculated and monitored in real-time by considering year of construction, gross tonnage (GRT), main engine power, revolution and power of auxiliary engines, number of arrivals and cruising, manoeuvring and berthing time of all the ships. Moreover, emissions are categorized according to ship types, tonnage and flags. As a result, NOx, SO2, CO2, VOC, PM and CO emissions from main and auxiliary engines were calculated as 538.8 tons, 376.14 tons, 27332.03 tons, 33.11 tons, 53.68 tons and 22.1 tons, respectively with 1032 movement of 323 different ships that arrived in Ambarlı Port between the dates of 25.05.2017 and 22.08.2017.
    Keywords: global warming; port emissions; green shipping; ship emissions.

  • CO2 adsorption performances of amine hybrid silica aerogels synthesized via in-situ polymerization of hybrid precursors   Order a copy of this article
    by Jiayue Zhang, Yong Kong, Xiaodong Shen 
    Abstract: Amine hybrid silica aerogels (AHSAs) were synthesized via a one-step sol-gel method under room temperature, using N-(2-aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (AEAPTES) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as precursors. AHSAs with different amine loadings were synthesized by changing the TEOS/AEAPTES ratio. The specific surface area decreases with amine loading. The highest CO2 adsorption capacity was achieved when the amine loading was 11.90 mmol/g. The corresponding CO2 adsorption capacities with simulated air (417 ppm CO2), 1% CO2 and flue gas (9.68% CO2) are 1.86, 3.78 and 5.51 mmol/g, respectively. The amine efficiency of AHSA is up to 0.32. The as-prepared sorbent shows excellent cycle stability. The CO2 adsorption kinetics were also discussed.
    Keywords: aerogel; sol-gel; CO2 adsorption; hybrid precursor; kinetics.

  • Thermodynamic Analysis of Solid Waste and Energy Consumption to Reduce the Effects of an Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) on the Environment   Order a copy of this article
    by Yildiz Koc, Huseyin Yagli, Enver Onur Ozdes, Ertugrul Baltacioglu, Ali Koc 
    Abstract: In this study, thermodynamic analysis of an EAF was made to reduce solid wastes and energy consumptions. Then, the slag formation, quicklime consumption and daily energy consumption of the EAF were optimised for different basicity ratios at constant silicium ratios (1.42%). Finally, the system is re-optimised for varying silicium ratios at constant basicity ratio (1.87). As a result of the study, it was seen that the energy consumption was reduced by about 153.26 GJ per day and the mass efficiency of the system was increased from 92.60% to 95.33%. This energy saving is equal to 1987016.11 kWh, which is equivalent to the nearly 1152 tones CO2 reduction per day.
    Keywords: Electric arc furnace (EAF); waste management; thermodynamic analysis; optimisation; chemical-based mass balance; energy saving.

Special Issue on: GCGW2018 Special Issue for Potential Energy Solutions for a Better Environment

  • A time-varying carbon intensity approach for demand-side management strategies with respect to CO2 emission reduction in the electricity grid   Order a copy of this article
    by Can Coskun 
    Abstract: The main aim of this study was to determine electricity utilization based on the hourly distribution of CO2 emissions. Turkey was chosen for this case study because of the CO2 intensive characteristics of electricity generation. This study aims to be a pioneer in the spread of a time-varying carbon intensity approach for the calculation of carbon foot prints. There is a 5.98% difference between the proposed method and currently available CO2 reduction amounts for the test renewable energy case study. The aim is to plan electricity utilization according to CO2 intensity characteristics. Total CO2 emissions can be decreased by changing the electricity utilization characteristic. Electricity generation- based hourly emissions are calculated by utilizing actual data. The effective end-user intensity of electricity utilization is calculated for each city. It is determined as the CO2 intensity of electricity generation fluctuates both by the hour and by the day. It varies from 418.6 g CO2/kWh to 824.6 g CO2/kWh, or 597.8 g CO2/kWh on average. According to hourly basis analyses, the highest CO2 intensity of electricity generation occurs between 06:00 and 07:00. The highest CO2 intensity of electricity generation occurs on a Sunday despite this being the time of lowest electricity demand. An annual total of 162.84 metric tons of CO2 is released into the atmosphere as a result of electricity generation. Electricity generation- based CO2 emission per capita is calculated as 1.912 ton CO2.
    Keywords: Electricity generation; CO2 intensity of electricity generation; CO2 emission per capita; Global warming; demand-side management; time-varying carbon intensity; Turkey.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2019.10021583
  • Kinetics and Mechanism of Reaction between Carbon Disulfide and Novel Aqueous Amines Solutions   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: The mechanism and kinetics of Carbon disulfide (CS2) capture by aqueous solutions of well known alkanolamines (monoethanolamine (MEA) and diethanolamine (DEA)) and novel cyclic mono- and polyamines (morpholine (MRPH), piperazine (PZ), n-methyl piperazine (NMPZ) and n-hydroxyethyl piperazine (NHEPZ)) were investigated by stopped-flow apparatus with conductivity detection. The observed reaction rate constants were obtained for a temperature range of 298.15-313.15 K and it was found that cyclic amines react much faster than others. A modified termolecular reaction mechanism was used to analyse the experimental kinetic data. The activation energies for all systems were also obtained by evaluating the Arrhenius equation.
    Keywords: Carbon disulfide capture; absorption kinetics; stopped flow; cyclic amines.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2019.10021863
    by Waqas Ahmed, Qingmei Tan, Sharafat Ali, Najid Ahmad 
    Abstract: Pakistans eastern provinces are very badly affected by haze and smog caused by burning of rice straw and stubbles after reaping season. This practice causes emission of greenhouse gases and pollutant materials which not only has severe health consequences but also the main source of traffic disturbance and accidents due to poor visibility. A ban on burning of crop residue deems to be ineffective without alternative means and consultation of farmers. Previous studies were aimed to figure out causes, contributing factors and impacts of stubble burning, but largely ignored farmers choices and market environment. In this study, a survey-based farmers preference order was obtained through Hybrid AHP-TOPSIS model. The analysis traces out why most of the farmers prefer open field burning. The present study proposes a National Residue Management Service (NRMS) platform based on preferences of the alternatives and considering market externalities. This research provides an appropriate mechanism and policy suggestions to policy-makers and practitioners that may help in minimizing the environmental impacts due to improper management of the crop residue.
    Keywords: Climate Change; Global Warming; Environmental Protection; Crop Residue; Burn; AHP; TOPSIS; Innovation Platform; Pakistan.

  • Impact of Climate Change on Indoor Environment of Historic Libraries in Mediterranean Climate Zone   Order a copy of this article
    by Cihan Turhan, Zeynep Durmuş Arsan, Gulden Gokcen Akkurt 
    Abstract: Most historic library buildings house valuable paper-based collections that are kept in unconditioned environments. This vulnerable cultural heritage is expected to be highly affected by climate change in the future. In this study, indoor microclimate of an unconditioned historic library, Necip Paşa Library (Izmir, Turkey) is analysed for existing conditions and future climate data. The measured and predicted indoor microclimate data from present till 2080s are used to determine possible chemical degredation risk on library collection and human comfort. Comparison of periodic results of future climate data indicates an increase in temperature that could cause both an increase in chemical degredation risk on the library collection and a decline in thermal comfort conditions. Mitigation of climate change effects on library collection and human comfort requires taking some actions such as adding light and adaptive mechanical solutions.
    Keywords: Climate change; Thermal comfort; Degradation risk; Historic libraries; Dynamic simulation.

  • Resolving Strategic Conflict for Environmental Conservation of Glacial Ecosystem: An Attitudinal Conflict Resolution Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Sharafat Ali, Haiyan Xu, Waqas Ahmed, Najid Ahmad 
    Abstract: The efforts of mitigation and adaptation are underway to combat climate changes. But international conservation efforts have not focussed enough to create linkage to issues of regional cooperation for environmental security between the hostile states. Strategic and military conflicts have their environmental consequences and have serious implications for environmental security due to the scarcity of the natural resource. Given the scarcity and vulnerability of quality of natural resources due to human activities, the importance of conservation warrants the consideration of the environmental issues to play a critical role in cooperation. Aspired from this notion, the present study is an attempt to propose a negotiation strategy that may resolve the long-standing Siachen conflict between India and Pakistan. The military presence at Siachen has imperilled its ecosystem. Prolonged militarization of the glaciers would further increase the pollutants and would have adverse impacts on the glacial ecosystem. The resolution of the Siachen conflict is indispensable for the environmental conservation of the glacial ecosystem. The present study analyses possible strategies for the demilitarization of the glacier based on the attitudinal preference in the framework of Graph Model for Conflict Resolution (GMCR). It concludes with the fact that demilitarization of the Siachen conflict would not only preserve a spectacular mountain region and retain hydrologic balance in the region, but it would also add to global environmental protection efforts. Furthermore, it would further open the avenues of future constructive agreements and would save the tremendous resources of these economies.
    Keywords: global warming; environmental conservation; resource conservation; climate change; glacial melt; strategic conflicts; demilitarization; attitude-based preference; conflict resolution.

  • Spatiotemporal variability of climate extremes in the Marmara Region (NW Turkey)   Order a copy of this article
    by Hakki Baltaci 
    Abstract: In this study, the long-term variability of climate extremes was investigated for the region Marmara (NW of Turkey). Based on the 21 meteorological stations, Mann-Kendall rank statistic test and fitted ordinary least squares regression method was implemented to the six indices of extreme temperature and eight of extreme precipitation for the period 1960-2006. In regional perspective for temperature indices, statistically significant increasing trends (p<0.05) are shown in the warm days and nights. In regard to warm days, 38% of all stations show significant increasing trends and the stations located in the north part of the region commonly exhibited significant positive trends. For warm nights, 52% of all stations have significant positive trends, which are homogeneously distributed to all of Marmara. Other temperature extremes such as cold, frost and summer days have non-significant increasing trends. Only cold nights show non-significant decreasing trends in the study. For all precipitation indices, it is found non-significant increasing trends in the region. The possible impacts of the extremes on particular sub-basins were also evaluated in the study. The results can give valuable opportunity for policymakers and stakeholders in focusing on the water resources and eco-environment management strategies in the Marmara Region.
    Keywords: Marmara; climate extremes; indices; trends.

  • Thermodynamics performance of cooling pumps with different sea water temperatures for diesel engine in a cargo ship   Order a copy of this article
    by M.Ziya Sogut, Süleyman Ozkaynak, T.Hikmet Karakoc 
    Abstract: In sea transport having dynamic conditions, for all energy consuming constructions of ships, it is important to ensure effective and efficient use of energy. In this study, the engine performance effect related to cooling process according to changes of sea water temperature was examined based on the exergetic irreversibility. Besides, environmental evaluation were also made depending on exergetic losses considering fuel consumption. In this context, effectiveness of cooling water activity for the main engine, which is 69.39% on its average exergy destruction, were calculated. According this data, the effect rate related to CO2 emission potential considering fuel consumption of the ship were also found as approximately 14 ton CO2. Accordingly, evaluations and suggestions based on the results of the analysis were also given in end of the study
    Keywords: Ship; Energy management; pumps; thermodynamics analysis; efficiency.

  • The Impacts of Window to Wall Ratio and Window Orientation on Building Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions Under Climate Change   Order a copy of this article
    by Mumine Gercek, Ilker Gucu 
    Abstract: Decisions about the openings of the buildings play crucial role for improvements in recent and future energy and environmental performance characteristics. Therefore, the effects of window to wall ratio and window orientation on building annual heating, cooling energy consumptions and operational CO2 emissions are investigated regarding recent (2018) and future weather conditions (2050s and 2080s) of Izmir. The simulation model of a typical office building is created, and several scenarios are generated, including four facade orientations and different window to wall ratios, simultaneously. Then, the impacts of retrofits in window characteristics on building performance under climate change are examined for Izmir and Ankara. Finally, the results are evaluated in terms of different weather conditions to reach the most efficient opening design alternative. Considering the average life time of buildings, the outcomes of this study can be used as additional data for understanding the relation between transparent surface design and energy, environmental performance of buildings.
    Keywords: climate change; office buildings; window to wall ratio; window orientation; energy consumption.

  • Estimation of Emissions from Crop Residue Burning Using Remote Sensing Data   Order a copy of this article
    by Kubra Gulcek Bahsi 
    Abstract: Nearly one-fourth of the population in Turkey works in the agricultural sector. One common problem in agricultural waste removal is the adverse effects of crop residue burning on public health and environment, after harvest. In this research, a pilot area of 225 km2 in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey was selected where CRB is common. Sentinel-2 satellite images of the pilot area were obtained and processed in order to monitor the spatial distribution and the total area of the agricultural parcels where crop residues are burned in the field. The analysis was extended to find out the crop-specific emissions from fields burned by identifying crop type for each agricultural parcel. Total emissions of CO2, CO, CH4, NMHC, N2O, NH3, SO2 and NOX from the study area as a result of CRB were calculated based on previously reported emission factors and their implication for air quality and the atmosphere was assessed.
    Keywords: Crop residue burning; Agriculture; Remote sensing; Air quality.

    by Çağlar Ulusoy, Delia Sponza 
    Abstract: In this study, Nano-ZnO-SiO2 was used to treat pollutants from olive mill industry wastewaters by photo-degradation. ZnO is widely used for the treatment of these pollutants due to its cheapness and easily obtainable properties. SiO2 is also easy to produce under laboratory conditions. In this study, the main target was to ascertain the synergetic effects of ZnO and SiO2 in the treatment of OMW due to the properties of these nano particles. The effects of increasing Nano-ZnO-SiO2 concentrations (0.5 g/L, 1 g/L 3 g/L, 5 g/L and 10 g/L), photooxidation times in sunlight (8,16, 24 and 36 hours) and different pHs (4, 7 and 10) were evaluated in the treatment of OMW pollutants. The photocatalytic reactions were performed under sunlight irradiation in summer months. The maximum pollutant removal efficiencies for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), total phenol and Total Solids (TS) were 77%, 73% and 64% with a Nano-ZnO-SiO2 concentration of 3 g/L after 24 hours of sunlight irradıation at pH 4. According to reusability studies, it was found that the treated Olive Mill Wastewater (OMW) can be used again after 8th sequential treatments with the 3 g/L Nano-ZnO-SiO2 composite with total COD and total phenol yields as high as 99%. The treated water was evaluated based on irrigation purposes. The total cost to treat 1L l of OMW containing the seven nano composite expenses is 1.95 euro.
    Keywords: ZnO-SiO2; Photocatalytic degradation; Olive mill Wastewater; Sunlight Irradiation; Reuse; Recovery.

    by Onur Kırdök, Tutku Didem Altun, Deniz Dokgöz, Ayça Tokuç 
    Abstract: Around 40% of the Earths carbon emissions are caused by the construction sector; mainly related to materials extraction and energy requirements. Therefore; architects and engineers are looking for solutions to achieve zero carbon emissions with their designs and production methods. This paper aims to investigate innovative construction methods, which are possible by linking the fields of biology and architecture; hence use them to decrease carbon emissions during construction activities. Although using biomaterials and learning from the examples of and imitating nature is not a new idea, contemporary technological advances and scientific understanding made it possible to emulate more complex ideas from nature. This paper studies three biodesign projects; Neri Oxmans Silk Pavilion, Wolf Hilbertzs Sea-Autopia Ampere and TBTs Sand Architectures to investigate if a low carbon architecture and construction that makes use of biodesign is possible. The innovative construction methods in the cases make use of creatures and natural processes to decrease the amount of raw materials in architectural production, decrease the need for transportation by environmentally friendly on-site production and reduce many steps in the construction process; thus make it possible to decrease carbon emissions compared to conventional construction methods.
    Keywords: Bio-architecture; Bio-based material; Biodesign; Eco-construction; Sustainability; Neri Oxman; Silk Pavilion; Biodesign Team Turkey; Sand Architectures Project; Wolf Hilbertz; Sea-Autopia Ampere; Future architecture; Bio-calcification; Bio-rock; Bio-fabrication.

  • Thermal anomalies in the Mediterranean and in Asia Minor (1951-2010)   Order a copy of this article
    by Robert Twardosz, Urszula Kossowska-Cezak 
    Abstract: In Europe, the current climate warming manifests itself with an increasing frequency of anomalously warm months (AWMs) and a declining frequency of anomalously cold months (ACMs). For the purpose of the study the authors define thermally anomalous months as months with the average air temperature at least two standard deviations higher or lower (AWM: t≥tav.+2SD, ACM: t≤tav.-2SD) than the long-term average (1951-2010). The aim of the study is to investigate the frequency of such monthly anomalies in southern Europe (approximately south of 45
    Keywords: Global warming; climate change; thermal anomalies; Mediterranean; Asia Minor.

  • Utilization and leaching behavior of lead smelting slag as additive in cement mortars   Order a copy of this article
    by Yusuf Tibet, Semra çoruh 
    Abstract: Lately, a great many studies for sustainable development have been fulfilled to research the use of waste materials as a construction material. The reutilize of lead-acid batteries smelting slag (LSS) as a construction material not only reduces disposal problems but has ecological and economic advantages as well. In this study, LSS is reutilized as partial cement replacements for making cement mortar. For this purpose of evaluating the effect of LSS on the compressive strength properties, the mortar mixtures containing 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% LSS as cement replacement are prepared, in addition, the leaching characteristics of the cement mortars designed by mixing cement with LLS are inspected at varied curing times such as 1, 2, 7 and 28 days. According to the test results, the compressive strength decreases as the replacement rate of LSS increased. The experimental results specify that the mixtures that are containing 8% LSS, compressive strength performance similar to reference mixture. When the percentage of LSS is %10, the compressive strength is decrease. The leaching tests results are lower than the limits of TS EN 12457-4 and TCLP standards. This research show that concrete is suitable for industrial slag problems.
    Keywords: Cement mortar; lead-acid batteries smelting slag; compressive strength; leaching characteristics.

  • Bioremediation of Minkery Wastewater and Astaxanthin Production by Haematococcus pluvialis   Order a copy of this article
    by Ilhami Yildiz, Yu Liu, Yu Liu 
    Abstract: A two-stage system was designed for culturing and induction processes of H. pluvialis. H. pluvialis was cultivated in minkery wastewater and compared with the conventional Bolds Basal Medium, and grew better in diluted (1.5%) minkery wastewater, yielding a biomass production of 906.3
    Keywords: Bioremediation; minkery wastewater; water pollution; wastewater treatment; Haematococcus pluvialis; algal biomass; astaxanthin; photoautotrophy; mixotrophy; nutrient deprivation; nutrient stress; light stress; surface response methodology; Nova Scotia.

  • Investigation of Lipid, Carbohydrate and Protein Production from Chlorella vulgaris in Controlled Environment Minkery Wastewater   Order a copy of this article
    by Ilhami Yildiz, Yuchen Ji 
    Abstract: In an effort to incorporate a novel bioremediation technology into minkery wastewater treatment systems, this study aimed to investigate the effect of light cycles on the simultaneous production of Chlorella vulgaris biomass, lipid, carbohydrate, and protein in controlled environment minkery wastewater. Diluted minkery cage-washing wastewater used in the experiments, which were designed as a completely randomized design with a single factor (light cycle) experiment. The single factor had four levels: 6-day continuous light (photoautotrophic), 48-h light/24-h dark (mixotrophic), 24-h light/48-h dark (mixotrophic), and 6-day continuous dark (heterotrophic) cycle, which were randomly assigned to the 2.25-litre vertical column controlled environment photobioreactors (PBR), each equipped with an independent cool-white fluorescent light (8 W, 6700K) operated at room temperature. The pH in each PBR was monitored and controlled using independent pH meters and air pumps. During 6-day cultivations, continuous light and 48-h light/24-h dark cycles achieved the largest biomass (82.50 mg L-1 day-1 and 79.50 mg L-1 day-1, respectively) and protein productivities (42.62 mg L-1 day-1 and 38.79 mg L-1 day-1, respectively) out of Chlorella vulgaris in minkery wastewater; however, using 48-h light/24-h dark cycle instead of continuous light cycle would reduce the energy cost of cultivation. The light cycles of continuous light, 48-h light/24-h dark, and 24-h light/48-h dark achieved the highest lipid (15.06 mg L-1 day-1, 16.03 mg L-1 day-1, 12.82 mg L-1 day-1, respectively) and carbohydrate (11.15 mg L-1 day-1, 11.89 mg L-1 day-1, 8.08 mg L-1 day-1, respectively) productivities, and there was no statistically significant difference in between; however, using 24-h light/48-h light cycle would again reduce the energy cost of cultivation compared to the other two cycles. Overall, for the cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris in minkery wastewater, the most appropriate light cycle for the production of microalgae biomass and crude protein seems to be the mixotrophic growth under 48-h light/24-h dark cycle, while the mixotrophic growth of 24-h light/48-h dark cycle was the most appropriate system for the production of lipid and carbohydrate. Providing a supplemental organic carbon source, preferably from another waste stream, has a potential to change the story with respect to the competitiveness of continuous dark (heterotrophic) cycle, and studying other microalgae strains may make minkery wastewater even more competitive compared to traditional culture mediums.
    Keywords: Bioremediation; minkery wastewater; water pollution; Chlorella vulgaris; microalgae; lipid; protein; carbohydrate.

  • Investigation of microbial communities in the field-scale co-composting of sewage sludge and organic municipal solid wastes   Order a copy of this article
    by Senol Yildiz, Emre Oguz Koroglu, Ahmet Demir, Bestami Ozkaya, Osman Atilla Arikan 
    Abstract: The alternative methods should be used to treat sewage sludge and municipal solid wastes which are mostly landfilled in Turkey. Therefore co-composting of these waste streams is a suitable disposal method yielding a useful product. The aim of this study was to investigate the microbial community during the field scale co-composting of sewage sludge and organic municipal solid wastes with addition of bulking agents. Aerated static pile of approximately 26 m3 was used for composting process during 56 days. Investigations of diversity dynamics depending on the temperature were determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing of bacterial 16SrDNA-PCR products. The variations of physicochemical parameters and biodegradability during the process were also monitored. The results showed that most of microbial groups role in composting process was temperature dependent and composting was designated by its characteristic thermal profile.
    Keywords: aerated static pile; composting; microbial community; organic municipal solid wastes; sewage sludge.

  • A General Framework for Adaptation Strategies to Sea Level Rise: The Case of Turkey   Order a copy of this article
    by Çağla Ercanlı, Gökçeçiçek Savaşır, Ayça Tokuç, Ayşegül Altınörs Çırak 
    Abstract: Sea level rise is becoming a threat to the coastal areas, where population and socioeconomic focal points are mostly concentrated. A number of coastal cities will face the risk of sea level rise in the near future (2050-2100). The population to be affected by the sea level rise is at a high level in the world and the majority of this population lives in urban areas. However, adaptation strategies for coastal areas of Turkey are lacking. This study aims to construct a general framework for denoting impacts of sea level rise due to climate change in coastal cities and to propose adaptation strategies against these effects. It focuses on geographical/morphological, administrative and spatial/functional aspects the effects of and adaptation strategies against global sea level rise in global, regional, national, urban and architectural scales. The discussion on the coastal areas is elaborated through the case of Turkey. The contribution of this study, especially in urban and architectural scales, is to provide a holistic view throughout a general framework that evaluates different aspects in cross-sections and scales in correlation. This comprehensive framework intends to pave a ground for a broad system of inquiry with interdisciplinary linkages and systematic explanations on this complex phenomenon in a number of possible cases, in further research studies. Figured out by the related literature on coastal cities and elaborated through the case of Turkey, this framework is intended to be used also for different coastal cities having risk of sea level rise.
    Keywords: Global warming; climate change impacts; sea level rise; adaptation strategies; coastal cities; coastal areas in Turkey.

  • Development of Seasonal Solar Radiation Estimation Models for Dokuz Eylul University Campus Area for Controller of a Two-Axis Solar Tracker   Order a copy of this article
    by Tuğçe Ünver, Aytaç Gören 
    Abstract: In urban locations, it is generally hard to find enough spaces for solar power plants. However, micro-energy generation systems like solar trackers can be located even in crowded cities and becoming a significant technology in solar energy systems. In this study, the measured global solar radiation data for the research area, Tinaztepe/Izmir (38

    by Banu Demirel, Nilay Bıçakçıoğlu, Sumeyra Duman, Canan Madran, Yasemin Arbak, Beyza Sümer, Sevinç Özkul, Türkay Baran, Gülay Onuşluel Gül, Okan Fıstıkoğlu, Ali Gül, Ayşegül Özgenç Aksoy, Mustafa Doğan, Filiz Barbaros 
    Abstract: This study aims to identify the understanding and key determinants of climate change perceptions of stakeholders of a public university. Data is collected via in-depth interviews and content analyses is carried out. Findings reveal four distinct themes: internal factors affecting perceptions of climate change, external factors affecting perceptions, pro-environmental behaviours and consequences of climate change based on the perceptions of stakeholders. The findings of this study are believed to provide insights about the public perception which can also be a valuable input in climate change communication.
    Keywords: Climate change; perceptions; content analysis; pro-environmental behaviour; climate change perception; temporal distance; drivers of climate change.

  • Techno-economic evaluation of a residential roof-mounted solar system and its power generation: A case study in Canada   Order a copy of this article
    by Azzam Abu-Rayash, Ibrahim Dincer 
    Abstract: In this paper, a case study is presented where a residential solar system in Kitchener, Ontario is analyzed economically as its annual performance is also assessed. The recorded data for this system are investigated further to better assess its technical performance. This system is part of a government-incentive program called MicroFIT, which allows for generated electricity from renewable sources to feed to the local grid for generous rates ranging between $0.29 and $0.97 per kWh. The system is further examined to show the correlation between climatic parameters such as wind speed and temperature on the overall system performance. Wind speed shows an inverse relationship to the energy output while the temperature shows a linear relationship. Optimal annual performance is observed when the temperature is at 18 degrees Celsius and when the wind speed is at 3.8 m/s. Furthermore, using the System Advisor Model (SAM) developed by NERL, a residential solar system has been simulated with the addition of a battery storage in order to understand its impact on the performance and economic aspect of the system. The modeled system without the battery correlates closely with the actual installed system. In fact, the actual ROI for the system is 19.75% while the modeled ROI is 23.5%. The payback time of 5 years is another major highlight of this system. In addition, the actual cost of the system is $18,844 while the projected cost modeled is $15,425. An addition of the battery resulted in insignificant improvements in power generation, higher projected cost of $20,466, lower ROI of 17.21% and a longer payback period of 5.8 years. The major losses in the systems production is due to shading and soiling, which add up to 64,899 kWh in the lifetime of the system. Finally, GHG emissions of the current system total up to 38,000 kgCO2e/kWh.
    Keywords: Solar Energy; Photovoltaics; Thermoeconomics; Battery Storage; Performance Assessment; Cost Analysis.

  • BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM SUNN HEMP   Order a copy of this article
    by Nusara Sinbuathong, Roj Khun-anake, Suriya Sawanon 
    Abstract: Sunn hemp at a cutting age of 50 days was investigated for biogas production by studying the anaerobic digestion of sunn hemp alone and the co-digestion of sunn hemp with cow dung at a concentration of 20% by fresh weight but with various proportions. The single-stage, semi-continuous reactors were operated at a hydraulic retention time of 40 days. Mixed ruminal microorganisms from cows were used as inoculum. The results indicated that the CH4 content from the digestion of sunn hemp alone was 47.57% and the CH4 produced per area of cultivation was 9231 m3/hectare.year. Co-digestion could increase the CH4 content to greater than 50%. Proportion of sunn hemp:cow dung:water of 10:10:80 by fresh weight was optimal for co-digestion. At this recommended ratio, the CH4 yield reached 412 L/kg total volatiles solids degraded. Sunn hemp could be a very good renewable energy source for biogas production.
    Keywords: anaerobic digestion; bioenergy; biogas; co-digestion; cover crop; cow dung; global warming; green manure; methane; renewable energy;sunn hemp.

    by Neval Baycan, Yiğit Pehlivan 
    Abstract: Environmental pollution and waste management are getting important because of industrial development, increasing population and unplanned urbanization. Sustainable development requires the strategic plans for all nations. Greenhouse gas reduction, development of renewable energy sources, and energy efficiency represent the main supports of sustainable development. There is a growing interest for the quantification of corporate level carbon footprints as a results of the international climate policy and emerging consumer awareness. Consequently, it is very important to quantify and report their Carbon Footprint (CF) for implementing national and international policies/strategies aimed at mitigating and adapting these concerns. First objective of this study mentions to environmental effects of harbours and ports. What kind of waste is given by ships, amount of wastes, their disposal processes are studied. Besides, international and national regulations about ports and harbors waste management applications are examined. The second objective of this work to calculate the carbon footprint of the port that is located in the city center based on emission sources of ships. Carbon footprint that was entered our lives with global warming and greenhouse effects were analyzed. The inventory analysis mainly uses primary data collected from the port. The number of ships coming to the port and their types of engines and amount of fuels were taken into account in the calculation of the carbon footprint. Every type of engine has different operation modes. While calculating the carbon footprint of main engines only two operation modes which are transit mode and maneuvering mode were used. The results of this study show that the port has a carbon footprint 65043 tonnes CO2 equivalent per year. Container ships have the highest rate of carbon footprint which is 43729 tonnes CO2 equivalent per year.
    Keywords: Waste management; global warming; greenhouse gases; carbon footprint; ports.

  • The Effect of Phase Change Material Incorporated Building Wall on the CO2 Mitigation: A Case Study of Izmir-Turkey   Order a copy of this article
    by Mustafa Asker, Ersin Alptekin, Ayça Tokuç, Mehmet Akif Ezan, Hadi Ganjehsarabi 
    Abstract: Buildings are considered to be one of the considerable energy consuming systems and greenhouse gas emissions sources, and 14% of this energy is used for cooling. This paper evaluates the energetic benefits and CO2 emissions of incorporating phase change materials (PCMs) on the facade of an office building under real weather data conditions for Izmir- Turkey for cooling. For this purpose, two situations, specifically the effect of the melting temperature (27
    Keywords: building energy consumption; building wall; CO2 mitigation; PCM; TES.

    by ONUR ORUC, Ibrahim Dincer 
    Abstract: In this study, a Rankine cycle is investigated thermodynamic analyses through energy and exergy approaches. Environmental impact assessment for lignite, hard coal, biomass, fuel oil and hydrogen are also performed. For this purpose, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide emission values are calculated for different fuels. The emission values are calculated using the emission factor method. The use of biomass and hydrogen significantly reduces emissions. Additionally, the effects of lignite drying process on the emissions from the plant are studied comparatively. It is aimed to decrease the humidity of Turkish (Tuncbilek) lignite from 27% to 19% in the drying chamber. By decreasing the moisture content, the lower heat value of the lignite is increased, and the emissions of CO2 NOX and SO2 resulting from lignite combustion are then decreased. The overall energy and exergy efficiencies are comparatively evaluated as found to be 29.6% and 47%, respectively.
    Keywords: Power plant; environmental impact; exergy; biomass; emissions; hydrogen.

  • Numerical investigation of valve lift effects on performance and emissions in diesel engine.   Order a copy of this article
    by Kubilay BAYRAMOGLU, Semih YILMAZ, Kerim Deniz KAYA 
    Abstract: Diesel engines are widely used in the world for trade and human transportation because of their efficiency and economical aspects. Approximately thirty percent of the greenhouse gases that cause global warming in the world are due to the transportation sector. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of four-stroke single-cylinder diesel engine on combustion characteristics and exhaust gas emissions by changing intake valve lift distances. Combustion analysis and visualization of analysis results at different valve lift values were applied with ANSYS-Forte, which is a commercial software, using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for combustion system analysis and ANSYS-Chemkin which is used for reaction kinetics of combustion. Numerical results are shown that CO, CO2, NO, NO2 emissions, pressure and temperature with respect to crank angle. Numerical analysis results were compared with previous experimental data and parametric studies were applied based on verified model. The cylinder pressure and temperature values were found to be parallel with the data examined in the literature. The current study found that gross indicated power, indicated main effective pressure (IMEP) and combustion efficiency increase with the valve lift extension.
    Keywords: valve lift; marine diesel engine; computational fluid dynamics; exhaust emissions.

  • Are high altitudinal regions warming faster than lower elevations on the Tibetan Plateau?   Order a copy of this article
    by MINGYUAN DU, Jingshi Liu, Yingnian Li, Fawei Zhang, Liang Zhao, Ben Niu, Yongtao He, Xianzhou Zhang, Seiichiro Yonemura, Yanhong Tang 
    Abstract: The Tibetan Plateau (TP) has been considered as one of the most sensitive regions to global climate warming. It seems a consensus that high altitudinal regions are warming faster than lower elevations, and the TP has warmed much faster than surrounding areas. However, it is still unclear whether the elevation-dependent warming pattern exists also within the highest plateau in the world due to the lack of sufficient observational data. 12 years (2005-2016) intensive field observations data along two slops with altitude differences about 1200m (3250m to 4400m and 4280m to 5538m) are used to check the climate warming with elevation change in recent years. Annual mean of air temperature during 19512014 of 65 meteorological stations over 2750m above sea level of China Meteorological Administration (CMA) on the TP are used to calculate the climate warming rate and to analyse the relationship between elevation and climate warming. We divided the TP into 3 latitude zones: 35
    Keywords: air temperature; climate warming rate; elevation; latitude zone; the Tibetan Plateau.

Special Issue on: IEEES-10 Environmentally Benign Solutions for Better Sustainability

  • Comparative analysis of various refrigerants used in transport refrigeration based on thermodynamics and environmental performances and cold chain management   Order a copy of this article
    by Enver Yalcin, M. Ziya Sogut, Onder Altuntas, T. Hikmet Karakoc 
    Abstract: In cooling systems, besides the refrigerant preferences, the probability of leakage due to dynamic conditions increases energy consumption and emissions directly or indirectly. In this study, thermodynamics and environmental performances of transport refrigeration systems using different and alternative refrigerants were examined. Leakage effects of refrigerants on the environment were investigated in terms of energy consumption and emission loads based on the coefficient of performance, exergy efficiency and improvement potentials. R152A stands out between the refrigerants taken as a reference with aspects of cooling capacity, environmental effects and refrigerant charge amount.
    Keywords: transport refrigeration; COP; exergy analysis; leakage rate; CO2 emission.