Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Global Warming

International Journal of Global Warming (IJGW)

Forthcoming articles have been peer-reviewed and accepted for publication but are pending final changes, are not yet published and may not appear here in their final order of publication until they are assigned to issues. Therefore, the content conforms to our standards but the presentation (e.g. typesetting and proof-reading) is not necessarily up to the Inderscience standard. Additionally, titles, authors, abstracts and keywords may change before publication. Articles will not be published until the final proofs are validated by their authors.

Forthcoming articles must be purchased for the purposes of research, teaching and private study only. These articles can be cited using the expression "in press". For example: Smith, J. (in press). Article Title. Journal Title.

Articles marked with this shopping trolley icon are available for purchase - click on the icon to send an email request to purchase.

Online First articles are published online here, before they appear in a journal issue. Online First articles are fully citeable, complete with a DOI. They can be cited, read, and downloaded. Online First articles are published as Open Access (OA) articles to make the latest research available as early as possible.

Open AccessArticles marked with this Open Access icon are Online First articles. They are freely available and openly accessible to all without any restriction except the ones stated in their respective CC licenses.

Register for our alerting service, which notifies you by email when new issues are published online.

We also offer which provide timely updates of tables of contents, newly published articles and calls for papers.

International Journal of Global Warming (42 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • AIR POLLUTION PREDICTION MODEL FOR ESTIMATING AND FORECASTING PARTICULATE MATTER PM2.5 CONCENTRATIONS USING SOSE-RMLP APPROACH   Order a copy of this article
    by Kanpur Rani, Vallikannu N 
    Abstract: With the poor air quality and air pollution issues, several countries around the globe are facing a challenging aspect. The main intention of air pollution modelling is to reliably predict the noxious air contaminants with their levels of concentrations in the forecasting model. There were several traditional methods employed in the prediction of air quality, however due to the existence of huge uncertainties of Emission Inventory (EI) there is a need for improvements and refinements in the accurate prediction. Hence, san approach to estimate the urban forecasting prediction of air quality that employs a statistical method with optimization strategy for enhancing the prediction of air pollution. The proposed work attempts to introduce a new model for air pollution prediction and forecasting model analysis using processes such as preliminary processing using statistical method termed ordinal scaled encoding-based filtering process (SOSE). Initially, the dataset collected by TEPA (Taiwan Environmental Protection Agency from 2012 to 2017) is considered as the training data for building the classifier forecasting model and it is tested by the 2018 collected data. The process of feature extraction is carried with the use of Iterative Fisher based Feature extraction process with ranking strategy. The features extracted are then optimized with the use of Convergent Artificial Bee Colony optimization (CABC) strategy to get optimized choice of features extracted. At last, the classification mechanism is employed by means of Residual Multilayer perceptron (RMLP) classifier model which in turn predicts the error rate of prediction classifier at varied time period and for varied regions of Taiwan. Thus, the performance analysis was carried out in terms of MAE, RMSE, and MAPE and is compared with existing methods to prove the effectiveness of proposed scheme.
    Keywords: Air pollution; Air Quality Index; air quality prediction; Residual Multi-layer Perceptron; Ordinal Scaled Encoding-based filtering process (SOSE); Taiwan Environmental Protection Agency; Convergent Artificial Bee Colony optimization (CABC); MAE; RMSE; and MAPE.

  • Analysis of the 160 years' time series of daily rainfall in Brisbane   Order a copy of this article
    by Alberto Boretti 
    Abstract: The composite time series of daily rainfall for Brisbane from 1860 to 2022 shows evidence of natural oscillations and the absence of any growing or reducing trend. The linear trend has a slope of only −2 μm/year, which is statistically insignificant. Similarly insignificant is the acceleration, calculated as double the 2nd order coefficient of the parabolic trend, at +0.02 μm/year2. Higher than February 2022 single-day rainfall, three-day consecutive rainfall, or single-month rainfall, were measured in the past. The natural oscillations have, amongst others, clear inter-annual, decadal, and multi-decadal cycles, of lengths slightly less than 10, about 20, about 40, and 65-80 years (quasi-60 years). We conclude that the climate for south-eastern Queensland is characterised by a fairly stable rainfall pattern, dominated by wet and dry cycles.
    Keywords: Australia; droughts; floods; natural variability; rainfall.

  • The Impact of Information and Communication Technology on Youth Ecological Behavior: A Global Cross-country Perspective on Environmental Citizenship and Ethics   Order a copy of this article
    by Ibrahim Niankara 
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the mediating role of information and communication technology (ICT) on the endogenous relationship between pro-environmental activity participation (PAP) and youth engagement in digital and physical climate activism globally. To this end, the study relies on a bootstrap sample of 168036 respondents from 40 countries, extracted from the 2018 Programme for International Students Assessment (PISA), along with endogeneity switching methods implemented through discrete choice modeling under random utility maximization. The findings reveal significant but mixed influences of ICT on youths marginal utility from ecological behavior uptake, based on the nature and place of ICT access and usage. In addition, factors including youths personal characteristics, along with their home, parental and family background are found to importantly drive their choices to participate in pro-environmental activities, and also to engage in signing environmental and social petitions online, as well as boycotting products or companies for environmental and social reasons.
    Keywords: Climate change; Climate activism; COP26; ICT; Sustainable development; Pro-environmental behavior.

  • Historical extreme winters of Istanbul: The factors that contributed to severe winters during the 20th and 21st centuries   Order a copy of this article
    by Veli Yavuz, Mervegül Özda?, Anthony R. Lupo, Neil I. Fox, Ali Deniz 
    Abstract: In this study, the analysis of the extreme winters that occurred in Istanbul between the years 401-2022 was carried out. Until the 21st century, the extremely low temperatures and heavy snowfalls in the province sometimes lasted for days, sometimes for weeks, which adversely affected daily life and especially transportation. In the 21st century, snow depths measured between half a meter and one meter have been effective rather than low temperatures. By examining the extreme events that took place between the 18th and 21st centuries as reference, the statistics for the future occurrence of these events until 2050 and 2100 are presented. The most important factor in the occurrence of four events in only 22 years in the 21st century has been the positive trend in sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies.
    Keywords: Extreme winter; severe weather; snowfall; SST; extreme weather; Bosphorus; Golden Horn; Istanbul; Turkey; Black Sea.

  • Climate change as a risk to human security. A systematic literature review focusing on vulnerable countries of Africa: Causes and adaptation strategies   Order a copy of this article
    by Artur Saraiva, Ana Monteiro 
    Abstract: The main purpose of this research is to systematically review the literature to understand how climate change influences stability and human security. The results identified from the bibliometric analysis allowed the identification of four dominant themes in the literature explaining the climate change and human security nexus: (1) Food security related to agricultural systems; (2) Water security associated with water scarcity and management; (3) Humanitarian crises, emphasizing conflict and climate migration; (4) Adaptation and mitigation strategies. The results underline the ineffectiveness of current responses to climate change, suggesting the urgency of action to reduce its impact on communities most prone to the effects, particularly in fragile states in sub-Saharan Africa. The study highlights some recommendations to policy and institutional leaders for a sustainable adaptation at the social, ecological, and economic dimensions. Adds a theoretical contribution by explaining the nexus of climate change, human security, and conflict, proposing a new dimension for the concept of human security - ecological security.
    Keywords: climate change; human security; food security; water security; ecological security; migrations; sustainable adaptation; Africa.

  • Emergence, Distribution Dynamics and Drivers of Global High-emission countries Since the Industrial Revolution   Order a copy of this article
    by Hansunbai Li, Yu Ye, Hongxia Li, Qian Ye 
    Abstract: The fossil fuels CO2 emission since the Industrial Revolution is associated with critical development rights driven by economic and population growth. We defined high-emission countries as major emitters whose emission contributed 80% to global emission based on descending order of national emission, and analysed their emergence, distribution dynamics and drivers, which expect to unravel the processes of their emission surges and entwined carbon inequality in history. Our results show that (i) Thirty-one countries formed the group of high-emission countries and hardly exit from group. (ii) High-emission countries appeared in Europe first, then spread to North America, Asia and finally throughout all continents. (iii) Population growth and economic growth stimulated the rapid emission growth of earliest industrialized countries and several short phases after industrialization finished, respectively. Blend impacts transformed most developing countries to high-emission countries after World War II. We also discussed glooming climate mitigation ambitions because of pervasive carbon inequity.
    Keywords: FFCO2; high-emission countries; distribution dynamics; emission threshold; emission drivers.

  • Comparison of hydrogen production with the help of the plastic digesting organisms and by pyrolysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Cennet Yildiz, Ali Bahadir Olcay, Mustafa Özilgen 
    Abstract: Plastic waste collected from the landfills may be washed, shredded, digested by plastic-eating microorganisms centrifuged and sent back to the landfill. If the generated water should be electrolyzed, in the case of processing 10% of the annually generated plastic waste, 24.2 Mt of plastic may be eliminated and 2.4 x103 kWh of energy may be recovered with the energy recovery ratio of 0.8. This ratio would be 2 in the case of pyrolysis, indicating that pyrolysis may be 2.5 folds more efficient than the microbial process. Moreover, pyrolysis occurs at high temperatures and is much faster than the microbial process. If we can find a safe way to innoculate the dump sides with the plastic digesting microorganisms, hydrogen may be generated without the production of carbon dioxide and water, the plastic waste may be reduced in the long run.
    Keywords: plastic waste; landfills; hydrogen-generating organisms; pyrolysis; waste reduction.

  • Effective drought analysis by different methodological integrations in Yesilirmak Basin, Turkey   Order a copy of this article
    by Ugur Serencam 
    Abstract: Three different methodologies are integrated to identify hydrological drought characteristics in a drainage basin based on annual runoff discharge time series. First the cumulative distribution functions (CDF) are identified by a set of risk levels for engineering water resources management. The standard precipitation index (SPI) is applied for Normal, Moderately, Severely, and Extremely drought classification purpose. Regional drought assessment is accomplished by means of percentages of each drought class. For climate change impact assessment innovative trend analysis (ITA) is applied to SPI time series. The application of the methodology is presented for six sets of runoff data from the northern Black Sea Ye?il?rmak drainage basin in Turkey. It is observed that each sub-drainage basin is subject to runoff volume reduction due to the climate change. The findings of this paper shed light on future similar studies by taking into account mentioned methodologies.
    Keywords: Classification; drought; index; probability; runoff; risk; standard; trend.

  • Role of the COVID-19 imposed lockdown in climate change   Order a copy of this article
    by Arsalan Rasheed 
    Abstract: As the transmission of COVID-19 increases rapidly, the whole world adopted the lockdown activity with restriction of human mobility to prevent its spread. Everyone thinks of the COVID-19 negatively however; it has some positive aspects too. Before COVID-19, all over the world are being suffered by a high level of urban air pollution especially in the form of CO2, SO2, NO2 and particulate matter. During the COVID-19 pandemic, lockdown and limited human engagement with nature accompanied by social distance, have proven to be beneficial for nature. As a result, significant reduction in environmental pollution and improvement in the quality of air, cleaner rivers, less noise pollution, undisturbed and calm wildlife was observed. Knowledge gained from the studies suggests that a substantial relationship exists between the contingency measures and environmental health. It is concluded that the COVID-19-induced lockdown has a positive impact on the global warming, a major issue of the 21st century.
    Keywords: positive impacts; COVID-19; SARS-COV-2; coronavirus; lockdown; environment; global warming.

  • EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION SYSTEM ON CI ENGINE FOR NOX REDUCTION USING UREA AND ANIMAL URINE AS CATALYST   Order a copy of this article
    by Raju Tirpude, Pravin Katare, Sanjay Rajurkar, Gajanan Awari, Yasin Karagoz, Ahmet Selim Dalkilic, Somchai Wongwises 
    Abstract: The most effective and widely used post-combustion oxide of nitrogen reduction processes available in the automotive and power generation industries are selective catalyst reduction systems. A chemical reaction, where vaporized ammonia is gathered from the combination of urea and purified water, is used by selective catalyst reduction systems. Conversion of nitrogen oxide to nitrogen and water is the main target. Production of modified selective catalyst reduction device was conducted in the fist process. Secondly, the collection and preparation of Diesel exhaust solution using various pure urea and urine (cow and sheep urines) with varying concentrations was carried out to inject the tail pipe via the selective catalyst reduction system feed pump to assist in reducing oxide of nitrogen. From the results, it was concluded that there can be a significant improvement in oxide of nitrogen emissions using urea, cow and sheep urines in the modified selective catalyst reduction.
    Keywords: CI engine; SCR; NOx; Catalyst; Cow urine; Sheep urine; NOx.

  • Evaluation of building design strategies of according to the effects of climate change by simulation-based optimization: A case study for housing in different climate regions   Order a copy of this article
    by Kubra SUMER HAYDARASLAN, Yalcin YASAR 
    Abstract: The life of the buildings has been extended with technological developments. It is predicted that 75-90% of the existing buildings will continue to be used in 2050. Buildings have an important place in total energy consumption and carbon emissions. With the measures taken in buildings, it is possible to reduce energy consumption by 25-40%. In this study, it has been studied to reduce the energy consumption of existing buildings by taking into account the effects of climate change. In the study, a numerical study was conducted on reducing PEC and CO2 emissions in existing buildings. The suggestions for the buildings were created based on the optimum building envelope, mechanical system, and building form group. These optimum suggestions were optimized with the NSGA II algorithm, taking into account the climate change scenarios from 2020 to 2080. As a result, the province with the lowest decrease in PEC and CO2 emissions was Kirikkale (PEC 36%, CO2 33%); the province with the highest number was Isparta (PEC 69%, CO2 75%). Regionally, the region with the lowest decrease in PEC and CO2 emissions was the Aegean Region (PEC 41%, CO2 42%); the region with the highest number was the Mediterranean Region (PEC 68%, CO2 72%).
    Keywords: Building energy consumption; CO2 emission; simulation-based optimization; NSGA II; climate change.

  • Quantifying the cooling effect of urban heat stress interventions   Order a copy of this article
    by Aiman Mazhar Qureshi, Ahmed Rachid, Debbie Bartlett 
    Abstract: This review evaluates the existing studies of blue, green, and grey interventions based on field measurements and modeling aiming to quantify the cooling impact that reduces outdoor heat stress. Based on findings from literature, it is concluded that water bodies can reduce the mean air temperature (Tₐ) by 3.4°C and Universal Thermal Climate Index by 10.7°C, while natural vegetation can improve Tₐ by 2.3°C and Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) by 10.3°C during summer. Vertical greenery systems provide cooling effect of Tₐ up to 4°C, whereas architectural shades reduce it by approximately 3.8°C and PET up to 6.9°C under shade structure.
    Keywords: Interventions; urban heat stress; urban heat island; mitigation; cooling effect.

  • Revisiting the Relationship Between Income Inequality and CO2 Emissions in US: New Evidence from CS-ARDL model   Order a copy of this article
    by Oguzhan Batmaz, Ferhat Citak, Muhammad Abdul Kamal 
    Abstract: Both theoretically and empirically, the association between income inequality and CO2 emissions is ambiguous. Hence, considering the short- and long-term dynamics of income inequality on carbon emissions, as well as the heterogeneity of the emission distribution, this paper employed Cross-Sectional Autoregressive Distributed Lag (CS-ARDL) approach over the period 1990-2018 and extended revisiting the effect of income inequality on carbon emissions across US states by considering Human Development Index. The study finds that higher income inequality tends to exacerbate US carbon emissions in the long term. Additionally, the study validates the EKC hypothesis by demonstrating that carbon emissions rise with lower income levels and diminish with higher income levels. Population growth leads to increased carbon emissions in the short and long term, while human development index has a negative impact on carbon emissions in the short run. The findings are vigorous to various causality tests. Policy recommendations are further discussed.
    Keywords: Income inequality; carbon emissions; the U.S. states; CS-ARDL.

  • NO and Performance Characteristics of a CI Engine Operated on Emulsified Fuel   Order a copy of this article
    by Fatih OKUMUS, Görkem KÖKKÜLÜNK, Güven GONCA, Ibrahim KAYA 
    Abstract: Emulsified fuels are among the alternative solutions nowadays when global warming and emissions are on the hot topic. In this context, thermal analysis and optimization of engines operating with emulsified fuels are important. In this research, the experimental and computational results of an engine running on emulsified fuel containing 10% water are shown. The investigated engine in experimental method is a naturally aspirated, single-cylinder diesel engine with a direct injection system. In the experimental setup, in-cylinder pressure, power output, specific fuel consumption and NO emission data have been obtained from the engine operating with emulsified fuel containing 10% water, and it have been used to fit some coefficients of the two-zone combustion model used for the computational method. After fitting the coefficients, the effect of design parameters, which are bore, stroke, inlet pressure and temperature, compression ratio, equivalence ratio, residual gas fraction, cylinder wall temperature, and start of injection time, on engine performance parameters have been investigated. According to the parametric results of the model, NO emissions have increased with increasing bore, stroke, cylinder wall temperature, compression ratio, air temperature and pressure. As opposed to it have decreased with increasing residual gases and changing equivalence ratio while it have decreased after saddle point with increasing injection time. As a result, the greatest reductions in NO emissions have been 91.28% and 88.21% in cases where it is 15% and 15 crack angle more than the original values for waste gas fraction and ignition time, respectively.
    Keywords: Engine design; Emulsified fuel; NO emissions; Combustion model.

  • Urban cooling effect of rivers: Its role in climate change mitigation   Order a copy of this article
    by Maria Angela J. Tamoria, HyeMin Park 
    Abstract: Natural landscapes, such as rivers, can moderate intense heat in cities and provide a salubrious environment. This study aimed to evaluate how different urban forms affect the urban cooling effect of rivers. Landsat 8 satellite images were used to extract the water index, vegetation, bare land/non-vegetated land, built-up area, built-up density, and vegetation density from two study sites. The impact of urban forms on the cooling effect of rivers was analyzed through ordinary least squares method via exploratory regression analysis and scatter plot diagrams. Analysis revealed that natural landscapes have a positive relationship with surface temperature, whereas other urban forms have a negative trend. Although both sites displayed the same trend for every urban form, statistical analysis revealed different adjusted R
    Keywords: Urban Cooling Effect; Urban Form; Exploratory Regression.

  • Efficient Data Pruning using Optimal KNN for Weather Forecasting in Cloud Computing   Order a copy of this article
    by Benil T. , P.Krishna Kumar , R. Bharathi  
    Abstract: the meteorological area and fusses unambiguously to assist them in numerical weather prediction The numerical weather prediction is used as an indicator to predict atmospheric conditions. The researchers suggest numerous machine-learning techniques to evaluate the numerical equations in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP). The methods so far provide good results, but they are not entirely accurate. Handling the historical data of the weather is difficult, but it is the best method to use. Therefore, we are proposing a new k-Nearest Neighbor classifier, which is implicated in managing the pruning of missing values in the dataset. The proposed new KNN is called optimal k-Nearest Neighbor, which is an improved method used to opt out the exact data needed for the prediction. The performance is evaluated using the Seattle rainfall datasets. Our results show that the best KNN algorithm can improve the accuracy of classification while taking the least amount of time.
    Keywords: K-Nearest Neighbor; Numerical weather prediction; Cloud Computing; Weather Forecasting.

  • High resolution spatial-temporal downscaling model for historical daily precipitation using INLA   Order a copy of this article
    by Pedro Garrett, Filipe Santos, Rui Perdigão 
    Abstract: Precipitation and precipitation extremes have long been challenging to estimate. Significant progress has been made with successive generations of Earth System Models capable of simulating our climate with a global coverage. In this paper, a new statistical approach is presented based on the Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation (INLA) method to downscale historical daily precipitation rates. The spatial and Spatio-temporal structures was used in a Bayesian approach, to produce a daily 5km regular grid for continental Portugal. Results show the capability of the method to provide fast results aligned with the observations, but still underestimating precipitation events higher than 100 mm/day.
    Keywords: Statistical downscaling; climate change; precipitation; weather extremes; INLA; spatial-temporal modelling; Bayesian statistics; ERA5; reanalysis; historical climate.

  • Hydrogen generation from anaerobic co-digestion and statistical evaluation using machine learning algorithms   Order a copy of this article
    by Chinmay Deheri, Saroj Kumar Acharya 
    Abstract: Hydrogen generation from anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and cow dung was statistically predicted using machine learning models. Laboratory scale experiments were performed using CaO2 and CaCO3 as additives. Maximum hydrogen generation of 115.28 and 109.47 mL g-1 TS was obtained using CaO2 and CaCO3. Further, the Pearson correlation matrix evaluated the correlation between the operational parameters such as inoculum to substrate (I/S) ratio, pH, and reactor temperature with the output parameter (hydrogen generation). I/S ratio showed the highest correlation of 0.94 with hydrogen generation compared to the other parameters. Moreover, four regression models were created using machine learning (ML) algorithms such as Linear Regression (LR), Decision Tree Regression (DTR), Random Forest Regression (RFR), and Support Vector Regression (SVR) to predict hydrogen production. Hydrogen generation was accurately predicted by the ML models with an r2 score greater than 0.9 and an RMSE value less than 1.
    Keywords: Machine learning; Anaerobic co-digestion; Hydrogen; Waste biomass.

  • When will dockless bike sharing achieve a carbon balance? A case study of Nanjing, China   Order a copy of this article
    by Mingzhuang Hua, Jinyang Zhang, Xuewu Chen, Wendong Chen 
    Abstract: As an environment-friendly travel mode, dockless bike sharing (DBS) has recently become very popular in China. It is of great significance to quantitatively evaluate the environmental benefits of DBS. This paper estimated the carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reduction of DBS by combining the one-month journey data of Hellobike, the DBS market survey, and the modal shift data in Nanjing, China. The life cycle assessment was administered to determine the carbon emission during the life cycle of DBS. In the case study of Nanjing, 38.6% of DBS trips are originally from motorized modes. And the carbon emission factor of DBS is found to be 22.53 g CO2/km. Based on the above findings, it takes about 842 days to strike a balance between the carbon emission in the life cycle and the emission reduction benefit. This research will significantly help transportation planners and decision-makers committed to the sustainable development of the DBS system.
    Keywords: Dockless bike sharing; Emission reduction; Life cycle assessment; Modal shift.

  • Post-Fire Behavior Estimation of Eco-Friendly Cement Based Composites   Order a copy of this article
    by Müzeyyen Balcikanli Bankir, Kevser ünsalan, Omer Faruk Cansiz 
    Abstract: In cement based composites, bond behavior is an important specialty throughout the service life of structure, especially it exposed to elevated temperature. Since there is a lot of CO2 emission during the production of cement, the necessity of using by-products that can be substituted in order to limit its consumption emerges. To improve the post-fire behavior of eco-friendly composites, by-products such as blast furnace slag, fly ash and silica fume are used. Since the adherence loss could not be measured in structures, it is necessary to estimate without any touch. So, estimation models are designed based on dual, triple and quaternary combinations of independent variables. As a result, the model created by mix, T and FS shows the best performance.
    Keywords: Post-fire; adherence; eco-friendly composite; by-product.

  • Creation of Carbon Footprint Originating from Road Transportation in Turkey and Digital Mapping of It   Order a copy of this article
    by Ayben Polat Bulut, Seyma Ceylan Demirel 
    Abstract: In this study, the carbon footprint created by the greenhouse gases originating from road transportation in Turkey was calculated. In emission calculations, the methodology recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and determined by the Tier 1 and Tier 2 approaches was used. As a result of the study, it was observed that the CO2 emission, which was 95689 GgCO2 in 2018 according to the Tier 1 method, decreased to 92424 GgCO2 in 2020, and the CO2 emission, which was 417359 GgCO2 in 2018 in the Tier 2 method, decreased to 404631 GgCO2 in 2020. Among the fuels used, it was determined that the diesel fuel type had the highest CO2 emission in both methods. Among the provinces, it was determined that Istanbul, Ankara and Izmir have the highest CO2 emissions, respectively. CO2 emissions were calculated for each province and presented visually on maps prepared using the ARCGIS method.
    Keywords: carbon footprint; greenhoouse gases; road transportation; carbon dioxide; global warming.

  • Ascertaining the Impact of Balancing the Flood Dataset on the Performance of Classification based Flood Forecasting Models for the River Basins of Odisha   Order a copy of this article
    by Vikas Mittal, T.V. Vijay Kumar, Aayush Goel 
    Abstract: The climate shift being observed due to Global warming has led to an increase in the frequency of natural hazards. Floods, which are the most recurrent and devastating of natural hazards, continue to take their toll on human lives and livelihoods. These losses could be avoided by designing models that can forecast floods at early stages, i.e. before they turn into disasters. This paper focuses on the designing of classification based flood forecasting models for the flood affected districts in the river basins of Odisha. Existing classification based models forecast floods using an imbalanced dataset. This paper attempts to ascertain whether balancing the flood dataset would result in the improvement of the existing classification based flood forecasting models. Experimental results showed that balancing the flood dataset using SMOTE and its variants have resulted in an improvement in the performance of classification based flood forecasting models.
    Keywords: Natural Hazard; Floods; Disaster; Flood Forecasting; Machine Learning; Data Oversampling; SMOTE.

  • Comprehensive Analysis of Offshore Wind Farm and Evaluation of Wind Energy Potential: a case study of University of Southampton   Order a copy of this article
    by Ilter Sahin Aktas 
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to provide 40% of electricity consumption of Highfield Campus at the University of Southampton. The wind data is observed during the year of 2019 at three different heights, 10 m, 25m and 45 meter and obtained wind velocities are found as 6.34, 7.1, 7.48 m/s, respectively. According to the collected data, the best location for the wind turbine is proposed to be on the coast of the Isle of Wight. The system is designed with an installed capacity of 3.45 MW wind turbine. Based on the hub height and rotor diameter results run in MATLAB environment, two different solutions of turbine were given. Providing energy requirement of the campus with wind energy, there will be a decrease of approximately 20,000 tCO2 emissions per year. The diameter of the rotor and the hub height are calculated approximately 126 m and 158 m, respectively.
    Keywords: Wind energy; offshore wind power; greenhouse gas emission.

  • Carbon footprint of T-shirts made of Cotton, Polyester or viscose   Order a copy of this article
    by Junran Liu, Lirong Sun, Yiqi Guo, Wei Bao, Ying Zhang, Laili Wang 
    Abstract: TCarbon footprint (CFP) is an effective tool for calculating and assessing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and removals in a product life cycle using a single impact category of climate change. This study performed the CFP calculation and assessment for cotton T-shirt, polyester T-shirt and viscose T-shirt, complying with the system boundary from raw material extraction phase to end-of-life. Results demonstrated that yarn manufacturing contributes most of the CFP (36.1%-50.5%), followed by the product use phase (30.6%-48.3%) and fabric manufacture phase (19.6%-20.3%). Energy consumption is the main contributor to CFP in production processes. Additionally, the carbon sequestration effect of plant-derived fibres such as cotton and viscose played an important role to offset GHG emissions in the life cycle of T-shirts. The effect of carbon sequestration is more significant with the increase of product service life. Findings of this study can provide carbon emission reduction references for enterprises and consumers. In order to reduce the CFP in the entire life cycle of T-shirts, it was recommended that enterprises innovate production technology and increase the proportion of renewables in energy structures to replace the use of fossil energy, and consumers prolong the life cycle of products.
    Keywords: carbon footprint; carbon sequestration; life cycle; garment manufacture; plant-derived fibre.

Special Issue on: GCGW-21 Energy and Environment Related Solutions

  • CO2 EMISSIONS OF TRAMS AND AUTOMOBILES: A CASE STUDY   Order a copy of this article
    by MINE SERTSÖZ 
    Abstract: In this study, the aim was to examine the amount of CO2 emissions from the use of a tram and an automobile as a mode of transportation. In addition, two different equations were used to calculate the power consumption of the tram. The novel equation is an innovative, empirical equation that does not neglect the average curve resistance, unlike the original equation, and does not include the power consumption that is caused by internal consumption and the fluctuations in the current were not hypothetical but actual measurements when the equation was built. As a result of the calculations made for different scenarios to measure CO2 emissions; it was seen that the automobile produced between at least 11.6 (Novel Equation) and 26.39 (Original Equation) times more CO2/pkm (CO2 amount per passenger-km) compared to the tram. This provided the opportunity to demonstrate how the type of transportation and the number of passengers affect this CO2/pkm rate by using theoretical and empirical methods. Thus, the objective of the emission values targeted in the Paris Agreement will be achieved.
    Keywords: Clean Energy; Global Warming; Light Rail Transport System; CO2/pkm.

  • AN EVALUATION OF CARBON-BASED ADSORBENTS FOR POST-COMBUSTION CO2 CAPTURE   Order a copy of this article
    by Ece Yapici, Hasret Akgün, Aysun Özkan, Zerrin Günkaya, Müfide Banar 
    Abstract: This study aims to select the most suitable carbon-based adsorbent to be used in post-combustion CO2 capture by using Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM). Biochar, biomass-derived activated carbon, multi-walled carbon nanotube, and graphene adsorbent alternatives were evaluated based on five criteria. The criteria were weighted using the simple multi-attribute rating technique and criteria importance through inter-criteria methods. The analytic hierarchy process and the complex proportional assessment techniques were applied to the weighted criteria. As a result, biomass-derived activated carbon ranked first in all the applied methods. The novelty of the study is the prioritization of carbon-based CO2 adsorbents with the MCDM approach.
    Keywords: analytic hierarchy process; carbon-based adsorbents; climate change; complex proportional assessment; post-combustion CO2 capture.

  • Evaluation of environmental impacts of a building-integrated photovoltaic system by the RIAM method   Order a copy of this article
    by Gustavo Gonçalves, Raphael Abrahão 
    Abstract: Renewable energy sources, such as photovoltaics, are seen as sustainable alternatives to mitigate climate change. Building-integrated photovoltaic systems allow components to be connected to the building structure itself. The aim of this study was to identify and assess the environmental impacts related to a building-integrated photovoltaic system sized to meet the electrical consumption of a tourist complex, using the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix method. In total, 14 different aspects and 22 respective environmental impacts were identified, distributed in the three stages of the project. Of these, 7 were in the Physical/Chemical category, 14 in the Economic/Operational, 2 in the Social/Cultural and 1 in the Biological/Ecological, being 33.3% +D, 16.8% -B, 12.5% -D, 4.2% +A, 8.3% +C, -C, +B and -A. The main positive impacts were related to local economic development, security of electricity supply, and decarbonization of the electricity grid. Negative impacts, on the other hand, were associated with reduced visibility of the original structure and safety issues for workers. The building-integrated photovoltaic system presented itself as a solution to meet the electrical demand in places that face land use and occupation conflicts, due to its integration in the structures.
    Keywords: Sustainable construction; Environmental feasibility; Photovoltaics; Renewable Energy.

  • CLEANROOM VALIDATION PROCESSES AND REDUCING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS THROUGH AUTOMATION   Order a copy of this article
    by Mustafa Zeki Yilmazoglu, Enis Dogan Dagdemir 
    Abstract: This study is aimed at examining the validation and operation steps in a cleanroom, to reduce the rate of air changes per hour in the cleanroom to maintain the pressure difference except when not in use. Before changing the HEPA filters of twenty-three operating rooms in Gazi University Hospital, air change rate measurements were carried out and compared with the measurements of the last two years. Particles were counted to verify the ISO class of the operating theatres. Since the airflow rate decreases outside of working hours, the determination of the decontamination period, which is one of the validation steps, should be taken into consideration. In this study, the reduction of operating costs and greenhouse gas emissions are examined by considering different operating scenarios. It was calculated that 63.2% of energy savings can be achieved and 2.76 tons of CO2 emissions per year can be prevented for an operating room according to different operating scenarios.
    Keywords: Cleanroom; healthcare; greenhouse gas; particle; energy-saving; validation; energy efficiency; TAB.

  • Big Dilemma in Face Mask Consumption: Environmental Sensitivity versus the Fear of Covid-19   Order a copy of this article
    by Kenan Aydin, Seda Yildirim, Ece Özer Çizer 
    Abstract: The Covid-19 pandemic has created a significant transformation in the production and consumption of face masks. This study investigated the main indicators effect attitude and intention toward reducing unnecessary face mask consumption during the Covid-19 pandemic. Accordingly, this study focused on exploring how environmental sensitivity, the fear of Covid-19, price sensitivity, and subjective norms influence mask consumption behavior based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB). The data was collected from Turkish citizens by survey method. As a result, it was seen that environmental sensitivity, price sensitivity, and subjective norms affected attitude and intention towards reducing unnecessary mask consumption positively. On the other side, it was determined that fear of Covid-19 increased face mask usage and affected attitude and intention towards reducing unnecessary mask consumption negatively.
    Keywords: Environmental sensitivity; fear of Covid-19; subjective norms; price sensitivity; face mask consumption.

  • HYDROGEN ENERGY USAGE IN RAILWAY VEHICLES IN TERMS OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC VALUE ASSESSED BY PARETO ANALYSIS   Order a copy of this article
    by MINE SERTSÖZ 
    Abstract: In this study, the energy requirement of the moving for a light rail transport system is covered by scenarios using different amounts of hydrogen. The economic benefit and environmental impact outputs of these different scenarios were found. Then, by looking at these findings, the optimum scenario by Pareto analysis was determined. It was determined that 7% of the total energy consumed when met by hydrogen uses 61.82% of the maximum cost and for this, the hydrogen utilization rate was considered. It was found that the additional cost will increase by an average of 1.17 thousand TL however; the amount of the reduction in CO2 emission will be on average 290.385 kg for four different load scenarios per day.
    Keywords: Global Warming; Hydrogen Energy; Clean Energy; Light Rail Transport System; Pareto analysis.

  • A novel position determination method for the modular snake-like natural gas pipeline inspection robot in a GPS denied environment   Order a copy of this article
    by Mehmet Yilmaz, Huseyin Ayhan Yavasoglu, Kursad Gokce 
    Abstract: In this study, a novel approach has been proposed to determine the positions of a modular snake-like inspection robot in a GPS-denied in-pipe environment. For this purpose, an inertial navigation system (INS) has been placed in one of the robots modules to provide the initial position as a reference point, and forward kinematics with the Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) method have been utilized to obtain the transformation matrices. Using the transformation matrices, the angular and linear positions of each module with respect to the INS module have been determined. Thus, in comparison to the existing advanced robot applications for city pipelines that utilize open-loop control for their modules during special transitions, this study enables a fully position determination method that allows individual and flexible control of each robot module as their position can be known exactly. The accuracy of the generated transformation matrices was validated with simulation results.
    Keywords: Natural gas pipelines; Non-destructive testing (NDT); In-line inspection (ILI) robot; Denavit Hartenberg (D-H) method; CoppeliaSim.

Special Issue on: WCEST-2021 The Dimensions of Energy for Global Warming

  • Conversion of brewed tea waste into hydrochar and activated carbon   Order a copy of this article
    by Ismail Cem Kantarli 
    Abstract: Feasibility of hydrochar and activated carbon production from brewed tea waste was investigated in this study. Brewed tea waste was hydrothermally carbonized in subcritical water to obtain hydrochar as energy feedstock. Hydrothermal carbonization experiments were performed at different process temperatures to determine its effect on fuel properties and combustion behaviour of resultant hydrochar. Increasing the process temperature yielded less amount of hydrochar. Higher calorific value and lower burnout temperature was observed for hydrochar. Hydrothermal carbonization could remove only 25-35% of initial ash in biomass and could not remove CaO in brewed tea waste. Hence hydrochar had high slagging risk during combustion which was only slightly lower than that of feedstock. On the other hand, hydrochar had lower fouling risk due to removal of K2O. ZnCl2 activation of hydrochar produced an activated carbon with high surface area and acceptable porosity.
    Keywords: brewed tea waste; hydrochar; combustion; slagging; fouling; activated carbon.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2022.10049603
     
  • A NEW DISTRIBUTOR SELECTION METHODOLOGY FOR REFRIGERATION CYCLES   Order a copy of this article
    by Habip Akin Hacimusalar, Mehmed Rafet Ozdemir, Mehmet Harun Sokucu, Ahmet Selim Dalkilic 
    Abstract: The pressure gradient analysis is important to observe the homogeneity of the refrigerant and to choose the correct distributor equipment in refrigeration cycles. This research proposes a new method for determining the two-phase pressure gradient accurately compared to existing methods. Two-phase pressure gradient determination approach of Chisholm was modified by integrating the flow pattern map of Thome and Cioncolini. The thermophysical properties of refrigerant 404A were obtained through EES software and the proposed method was coded in the same software. The two-phase pressure gradient results of the proposed method were verified using the experimental data for the refrigerant 404A and compared with the commonly used methods and correlations. It was found that the proposed method predicted the experimental data of R404A better compared to other methods and correlations. The proposed method accurately determines the two-phase pressure drop under superheating and subcooling conditions for various tube wall thicknesses.
    Keywords: Two phase pressure gradient; Distributor; Flow distribution; Refrigeration cycle; climate change; global warming.

  • Macro and Micro Climatic Analysis of Traditional Houses in Turkey   Order a copy of this article
    by Aliyu Usman, Paratsoo Pourvahidi 
    Abstract: Buildings consume more than half of the world's energy, contributing to climate change. The purpose of the research is to equip architects with a way for constructing buildings based on microclimate in order to reduce future energy usage. The research was carried out in order to find a solution to Turkey's climate change issue. The research was conducted in seven distinct districts throughout Turkey. These are the regions of Eastern Anatolia, Central Anatolia, Black Sea Region, Mediterranean Region, Aegean Region, Marmara Region, and South-eastern Anatolia Region. The construction industry in Turkey is experiencing a surge in demand for residential constructions as the country's population grows. As a result, in light of the above statement, the contribution of this research is to provide builders with a simple and explicit method for designing a building based on microclimate in order to reduce energy consumption in the future.
    Keywords: energy efficiency; climate Change; micro Climate; macro climate Turkey.

  • The effect of nanotechnology in the energy sector on economic growth and sustainable development   Order a copy of this article
    by Zahra Fotourehchi, Amir Ali Farhang 
    Abstract: In the present work, the effect of nanotechnology in the energy sector on sustainable development and economic growth is compared in 28 developed and developing countries for a period of time 2015-2019. Empirical results indicate that the nanotechnology index in the energy sector positively and significantly affects economic growth and sustainable development. This impact is stronger and greater in developed countries compared to developing ones. Moreover, the stronger effect of nanotechnology in the energy sector on sustainable development than economic growth indicates the significant role of nanotechnology in the energy sector in developing innovative approaches for creating novel products, replacing current manufacturing equipment, reproducing new materials, and improving the structure of chemicals, including reduction of consumption of materials, storage and transfer of energy, and reducing damage to the environment and its protection. These results provide useful information to sustain development globally. Because from the point of view of environmental issues, nanotechnology in the energy sector, due to its efficiency and wide productivity in this sector by reducing environmental degradation will lead to the transmission of the least damage and challenges to the production and industry of future generations. Furthermore, control variables have different effects in different models on economic growth and sustainable development.
    Keywords: Nanotechnology; energy sector; economic growth; sustainable development.

  • Design and Analysis of an IoT Enabled Unmanned Aerial Vehicle to Monitor Carbon Monoxide: Methodology and Application   Order a copy of this article
    by Ozge Kucukkor, Orhan Aras, Emre Ozbek, Selcuk Ekici, Tahir Hikmet Karakoc 
    Abstract: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are efficient platforms for the inspection and detection of hazardous particle emission locations in terms of cost and ability to reach challenging areas. In this study, a custom quadcopter UAV with Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) type Carbon Monoxide (CO) sensor and data acquisition module is designed to detect and measure CO pollution over industrial sites and urban areas. Unlike similar studies, a rope hanging design is used for sensor extension and collected data transmitted to the cloud using Internet of Things (IoT) technology. Flight tests are conducted to collect CO measurements over an area with a controlled fire to replicate industrial chimneys. CO readings on 26 data points result in between 0 and 4 PPM concerning their distance to the pollution zone. Therefore, a heatmap is created using real-time GPS locations and measured CO concentrations. Challenges in this operation are explained to guide future researchers and entrepreneurs.
    Keywords: air quality; drone; environment; IoT; pollution; remote sensing; UAS; UAV.

  • AN ON-BOARD ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS WITHIN THE COVID-19 EFFECTS   Order a copy of this article
    by Alperen SARI, Egemen SULUKAN, Dogus Ozkan, Tanay Sidki UYAR 
    Abstract: The marine transportation industry, which has made significant steps in recent years to combat climate change and global warming, is heavily influenced by regional and worldwide economic trends. The covid-19 pandemic, which began in China at the end of 2019 and spread to the rest of the world in the first quarter of 2020, caused the global economy and marine transport to decline by 4.1 percent in 2020. It is proposed in this study to investigate various scenarios by modeling this circumstance that has unexpectedly occurred using decision assistance technologies.
    Keywords: Reference Energy System; Energy Analysis; Energy Modelling; LEAP; Greenhouse Gas Emissions.

  • Assessment of Environmental Sustainability with Entropy-Based Indicators for Integrated Buildings   Order a copy of this article
    by Mehmet Ziya Sogut 
    Abstract: Different climatic conditions directly affect fuel consumption of traditional heating systems in buildings and, together with this system-induced entropy generation, constitute one of the main sources of CO2 emissions with a global impact. Although these consumption vary primarily according to combustion performance, they generally define a high rate of exergy destruction due to irreversibility depending on the system operation and load values. In this study, first, exergy analyses were performed in order to evaluate the entropy performance and analyze it comparatively with the process efficiency. Accordingly, the fuel-based exergy efficiency of the building was found to be 55.02%, and the efficiency potential for total improvement was determined as 20.31% depending on the parametric values and the entropy criteria developed. At the end of the study, the features of the two criteria developed in such building preferences were evaluated and some re commendations were presented.
    Keywords: Integrated buildings; rnDemand management; rnfficiency rnSustainability rnEnvironment.

  • Suitability of Hekimhan siderite as oxygen carrier in Chemical Looping Combustion   Order a copy of this article
    by Merve DURMAZ, Nesibe DILMAÇ, Ömer Faruk DILMAÇ 
    Abstract: In this study, siderite ore from Hekimhan (Malatya, Turkey) was calcined and tested as the oxygen carrier (OC) in a laboratory-scale Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) set-up by using CO and H2 mixtures. 92% fuel conversion was obtained as a mean of four tests performed at 850 oC. It was determined that calcination of the ore before the tests led to the generation of MnFe2O4, a bimetallic OC that includes the synergistic benefits of both metal oxides. It was concluded that siderite is a proper OC for pilot or sub-pilot applications.
    Keywords: Chemical Looping Combustion; oxygen carrier; siderite; manganese ferrite.

  • Effect of an Algae Integrated Water Wall on Energy Consumption and CO2 Emission   Order a copy of this article
    by Nilay Altunacar, Mehmet Akif Ezan, Yonca Yaman, Ayça Tokuc, Berkay Budakoglu, Gülden Köktürk, Irem Deniz 
    Abstract: This study develops a transient thermal model for an indoor in which a photobioreactor (PBR) is integrated into one of its facades. Thermal comfort, energy consumption, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions were interpreted in different design scenarios for Izmir, Turkey. As a result, it was determined that a 20% window-to-wall ratio (WWR) provides the most comfortable results, and the algae usage increases the annual comfort by 19% and reduces the heating/cooling demand. Compared to a water wall, it provides a 17% reduction in energy consumption and CO2 emissions.
    Keywords: algae integrated façades; energy-efficient buildings; photobioreactor; water wall.

  • Investigation of Energy Efficiency Strategies in Production Processes Based on Operational Management   Order a copy of this article
    by Mehmet Sogut, Tahir Hikmet Karakoç 
    Abstract: This study investigates the energy efficiency potential of a cement production process based on the operational control approach, which has been developed. In this context, indicators that concern consumption of specific energy users were defined and limit values were determined. Accordingly, energy efficiency potential was found to be 3.5% depending on the control of 122 operational parameters. When the consumption loads of the enterprise are taken into account, the annual savings potential was found to be 4.5 GWh/year of heat energy and 39 GWh/year of electricity. These processes indicated a total of 10334.99 tons of CO2 per year. At the end of the study, the contribution of the developed approach to the energy management processes was evaluated. In this respect, in cement production, mill inlet temperatures, secondary temperature, and main drive power emerge as the main operational indicators for energy efficiency for raw mills, rotary kiln, and cement mills, respectively.
    Keywords: Operational control; Energy management; efficiency; Cost; Sustainability.

  • Biogas production from sugarcane leaves and tops using batch experiments   Order a copy of this article
    by Boonsong Sillapacharoenkul, Roj Khunanake, Yupadee Paopun, Piyanan Thanomchat, Nusara Sinbuathong 
    Abstract: Sugarcane leaves and tops were studied as feedstock for biogas production. Sugarcane leaves and tops alone and those mixed with cow manure were separately digested in anaerobic batch reactors. The influent feedstock for digestion consisted of ratios of sugarcane leaves and tops-to-cow manure-to-water of 20:0:80 (sugarcane leaves and tops alone) and for co-digestion was 10:10:80 (sugarcane leaves and tops with cow manure). The anaerobic batch reactors comprised 50 mL syringes in a trial that compared methane (CH4) yields. The CH4 yield obtained from the co-digestion of the feedstock with cow manure was 145 L at standard temperature and pressure (STP)/kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) degraded while that of the digestion of sugarcane leaves and tops alone was just 61 L at STP/COD degraded. The rate of co-digestion of the sugarcane leaves and tops with cow manure was faster than that of the digestion without cow manure.
    Keywords: Agricultural waste;anaerobic digestion;biogas;co–digestion;renewable energy;sugarcane.