Forthcoming articles

International Journal of Global Warming

International Journal of Global Warming (IJGW)

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International Journal of Global Warming (23 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Comparative analysis of various refrigerants used in transport refrigeration based on thermodynamics and environmental performances and cold chain management   Order a copy of this article
    by Enver Yalcin, M. Ziya Sogut, Onder Altuntas, T. Hikmet Karakoc 
    Abstract: In cooling systems, besides the refrigerant preferences, the probability of leakage due to dynamic conditions increases energy consumption and emissions directly or indirectly. In this study, thermodynamics and environmental performances of transport refrigeration systems using different and alternative refrigerants were examined. Leakage effects of refrigerants on the environment were investigated in terms of energy consumption and emission loads based on the coefficient of performance, exergy efficiency and improvement potentials. R152A stands out between the refrigerants taken as a reference with aspects of cooling capacity, environmental effects and refrigerant charge amount.
    Keywords: transport refrigeration; COP; exergy analysis; leakage rate; CO2 emission.

  • Thermodynamic assessment of information transmission in squids giant axon may explain why squid populations thrive with global warming   Order a copy of this article
    by Mustafa Özilgen, Bahar Hazal Yalcinkaya, Bayram Yılmaz 
    Abstract: Thermodynamic analyses are performed with two alternative sodium pump models to determine the effects of the global warming on information transmittance in the giant squid neuron. Squids are preferred in neuron studies since their giant axons allow easy experimentation. They are also highly susceptible to the effects of the global warming, since their organs function at the environmental temperature. One of the mathematical models showed that at 6.3 oC energy cost, exergy destruction and entropy generation were 1.77x10-11 kJ/cm2, 3.49x10-9 kJ/cm2 and 1.25 x10-11 kJ/K cm2, respectively. As temperature increases from 6.3 to 18.5 oC entropy generation is estimated to decrease by half, from 1.25x10-11 to 0.64x10-11 kJ/K cm2, implying that living becomes easier for the squid as temperature increases. The results were similar also with the other mathematical model. Outcomes of the thermodynamic analysis performed in this study may help to explain why the squid populations thrive with global warming.
    Keywords: Global warming; neuronal energy; entropy generation; exergy destruction; activation entropy; sodium pump; Fermi energy.

  • Estimation of Shipping Emissions via Novel Developed Data Collecting and Calculation Software: A Case Study for the Region of Ambarli Port   Order a copy of this article
    by Kaan Ünlügençoğlu, Görkem KÖKKÜLÜNK, Fuat ALARÇİN 
    Abstract: It is known that emissions from ships always have higher values around port regions and made shipping one of the polluting industries in the world. The impact of shipping on global warming has recently received significantly more attention owing to a growing demand for decreasing global emissions. In this context, emissions from ships have been limited in accordance with the international shipping regulations such as EU-MRV (Monitoring, Reporting and Verification) and IMO DCS (Data Collecting System). In this study, web-based data collection software was developed to monitor emissions from ships. Furthermore; NOx, CO2, SO2, VOC, CO and PM emissions for June, July, August of 2017 has been calculated and monitored in real-time by considering year of construction, gross tonnage (GRT), main engine power, revolution and power of auxiliary engines, number of arrivals and cruising, manoeuvring and berthing time of all the ships. Moreover, emissions are categorized according to ship types, tonnage and flags. As a result, NOx, SO2, CO2, VOC, PM and CO emissions from main and auxiliary engines were calculated as 538.8 tons, 376.14 tons, 27332.03 tons, 33.11 tons, 53.68 tons and 22.1 tons, respectively with 1032 movement of 323 different ships that arrived in Ambarlı Port between the dates of 25.05.2017 and 22.08.2017.
    Keywords: global warming; port emissions; green shipping; ship emissions.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2019.10022955
  • CO2 adsorption performances of amine hybrid silica aerogels synthesized via in-situ polymerization of hybrid precursors   Order a copy of this article
    by Jiayue Zhang, Yong Kong, Xiaodong Shen 
    Abstract: Amine hybrid silica aerogels (AHSAs) were synthesized via a one-step sol-gel method under room temperature, using N-(2-aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (AEAPTES) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as precursors. AHSAs with different amine loadings were synthesized by changing the TEOS/AEAPTES ratio. The specific surface area decreases with amine loading. The highest CO2 adsorption capacity was achieved when the amine loading was 11.90 mmol/g. The corresponding CO2 adsorption capacities with simulated air (417 ppm CO2), 1% CO2 and flue gas (9.68% CO2) are 1.86, 3.78 and 5.51 mmol/g, respectively. The amine efficiency of AHSA is up to 0.32. The as-prepared sorbent shows excellent cycle stability. The CO2 adsorption kinetics were also discussed.
    Keywords: aerogel; sol-gel; CO2 adsorption; hybrid precursor; kinetics.

  • Thermodynamic Analysis of Solid Waste and Energy Consumption to Reduce the Effects of an Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) on the Environment   Order a copy of this article
    by Yildiz Koc, Huseyin Yagli, Enver Onur Ozdes, Ertugrul Baltacioglu, Ali Koc 
    Abstract: In this study, thermodynamic analysis of an EAF was made to reduce solid wastes and energy consumptions. Then, the slag formation, quicklime consumption and daily energy consumption of the EAF were optimised for different basicity ratios at constant silicium ratios (1.42%). Finally, the system is re-optimised for varying silicium ratios at constant basicity ratio (1.87). As a result of the study, it was seen that the energy consumption was reduced by about 153.26 GJ per day and the mass efficiency of the system was increased from 92.60% to 95.33%. This energy saving is equal to 1987016.11 kWh, which is equivalent to the nearly 1152 tones CO2 reduction per day.
    Keywords: Electric arc furnace (EAF); waste management; thermodynamic analysis; optimisation; chemical-based mass balance; energy saving.

    by Sureshkumar Bambhaneeya, Amresh Das 
    Abstract: Mean SOC stock at 0-15, 15-30, 30-60, 60-90 and 90-120 cm soil depth of irrigated profiles were 15.0, 12.6, 21.5, 19.3 and 15.3 t ha-1, respectively. Similarly, mean SOC stock at an above various soil depth of rainfed profiles were 12.2, 10.0, 19.3, 15.6 and 12.7 t ha-1, respectively. SOC stored/sequestered in micro-WSA (< 0.25 mm) in irrigated profiles varied widely from 1.7 to 11.7 tha-1, while the same in rainfed profile soils varied from 1.4 to 20.5 t ha-1. Mean of irrigated profiles with respect to carbon stock associated with micro-WSA < 0.25 mm was found slightly lower (5.7 tha-1) than that of rainfed profiles (6.0 tha-1). Thus, WSA < 0.25 mm size acts as storing/ sequestering C within it for long periods.
    Keywords: Carbon; Cotton; Sequestered carbon; Depth function; South Gujarat.

  • Determination of Spatial Distribution of Topsoil Organic Carbon Stock Using Geostatistical Technique in a Karst Ecosystem   Order a copy of this article
    by Turgay Dindaroglu, Recep Gundogan, Mustafa Omer Karaoz 
    Abstract: This study aimed to determine the spatial distribution of total soil organic carbon (TSOC) content in surface soils in the karst ecosystem located in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. Land use types and depression areas were determined using Landsat8 and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data, respectively. Topsoil samples (0-10 cm) were collected in 108 sites and analysed for soil pH, SOC, bulk density (BD), total nitrogen content (N) and particle size distribution. The exponential model was the best model to describe SOC contents, stable model for BD and circular model for TSOC. The SOC content in different land uses ranked as forest (4.10%)>rangeland (2.60%)>cropland (1.41%) areas. Mean TSOC content was identified as 27.22 MgCha-1 in non-depressed areas and 48.71 MgCha-1 in depressed areas. TSOC dramatically changed from none-depressed areas to depressed areas were identified in cropland (ΔTSOCcropland=68.05%). Forest areas were more stable in view of the change of carbon sequestration compared to the other areas (ΔTSOCforest3= 28.24%). Depression areas play very important role in terms of carbon storage capacity in the Karst ecosystem.
    Keywords: soil carbon; sequestration; depression area; environmental modeling; geostatistics; karst area; land use; topsoil; spatial analyses; carbon stock.

  • A Review of CO2 Emission Reductions due to Wind Turbines Using Energy Benchmarks; a focus on the Irish Electrical Energy Market   Order a copy of this article
    by Tony Kealy 
    Abstract: The installed capacity of wind turbines in Ireland increased from a value of 2,250 MW in 2014 to 3,318 MW in 2017, a 43% increase in the four years, supported through climate mitigation policies. The main aim of this study is to determine if the increase in wind turbine installed capacity is impacting on efforts to reduce CO2 emissions. The study utilises a review methodology. The findings show that the steady rise in wind turbine installed capacity year-on-year is not reflected in the Irish CO2 g/kWh energy benchmark. The benchmark value was 457 g CO2/kWh in 2014 and 437 g CO2/kWh in 2017, an improvement of just 5%. There is no consistent correlation between the increase in wind turbine capacity and a reduction in CO2 emissions. Future research into the quality of the wind turbine power output is recommended, in particular, the variability aspect in the power output signal.
    Keywords: Wind Turbines; Stakeholders; Energy Benchmarks; CO2 Emissions; Review; Ireland.

  • Sedge for biogas production and improving the process by pretreating sedge prior to co-digestion   Order a copy of this article
    by Nusara Sinbuathong, Netechanok Sombat, Wannapa Kratay 
    Abstract: Sedge is an indigenous weed and produces a large amount of biomass. Co-digestion of the feedstock of sedge:cow dung:water at the ratio of 10:10:80 was investigated. The mixture of the untreated sedge and that of the pretreated sedge (with 1% sodium hydroxide for 24 hr) with cow dung were the feedstock in this study. The two reactors were supplied with feedstock of untreated and pretreated sedge with cow dung separately in a semi-continuous-flow mode with a hydraulic retention time of 40 days. The methane yield of co-digestion of the pretreated sedge reached 344 L at STP/kg chemical oxygen demand degraded and was 10.97 % greater than that of the untreated sedge or 169 L at STP/kg total solids added and was 26.12 % greater than that of the untreated sedge. The alkali pretreatment of sedge prior to co-digestion with cow dung improved the process of biogas production notably.
    Keywords: anaerobic digestion; biogas; co-digestion; global warming; lignocellulosic biomass; methane; pretreatment; renewable energy; sedge.

    by Aasawari Tak, Umesh Kakde 
    Abstract: The present investigation was conducted to estimate the total carbon sequestered by urban trees in Thane city (India). The total tree biomass, total stored carbon, and CO2 removed by urban trees was determined by with allometric model/volume equations and compared. Using random sampling plot method 50 plots with 0.04ha each, generated to facilitate measurements of trees. It was observed that, carbon sequestration (kgC/tree) was highest in Azadirachta indica, 3289.8 kgC/tree, followed by Ficus benghalensis (2375.5 kgC/tree), Tamarindius indica (1666.9 kgC/tree), Casurina equisetifolia (1530.5 kgC/tree) and Pongamia pinnata (865.9 kgC/tree). The investigation data will be helpful to evaluate the role of urban trees in reducing atmospheric the carbon dioxide. The study will also be useful in assessment of carbon storage potential of the several regions, which are under the threat of air pollution issues worldwide in near future.
    Keywords: Allometric model; tree biomass; carbon sequestration; carbon storage; volume equations.

  • The Assessment of Air Quality in the Port of Ambarli and Several Districts of Istanbul   Order a copy of this article
    by Kaan Ünlügençoglu, Fuat Alarçin 
    Abstract: Sea transportation is considered as an environmentally friendly transportation option compared to other freight transportation such as airway, rail and road transport. The majority of freight transportation is completed by the sea. Moreover, emissions from ships are increasing due to the increase in trade volume and sea transportation worldwide. Due to this increase, health of people living in coastal cities is affected adversely. In this study, real-time air quality measurements of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, CO, NO and NO2 emissions are performed for 3 months in the Port of Ambarli located in Marmara region that has intense sea trade. The daily average values of real-time emission data measurement are shown for June, July and August 2017. Real-time measurements are received from Air Quality Monitoring Station in Avcilar district of Istanbul for the same period and same air quality measurement device. These PM2.5, PM10, SO2, CO, NO and NO2 emission values are compared with the limit values of air quality in Europe and Turkey. As a result, PM2.5, PM10, SO2, CO, NO and NO2 measurements are under air quality limit value set by Europe and Turkey for the Port of Ambarli based on values obtained from Avcilar and Kadikoy.
    Keywords: shipping emission; air quality; measurement; Port of Ambarli; EU Limits.

  • Methodological framework for adopting sustainable transport measures   Order a copy of this article
    by Maha Alsabbagh 
    Abstract: The term sustainable transport first appeared in the literature over two decades ago. An extensive literature has subsequently evolved, ranging from attempts to clarify the concept to explorations of its actual implementation worldwide. Yet, structured approaches for achieving sustainable transport in developing countries, where data are limited, remain rare. This paper, presents a pragmatic methodological framework for adopting sustainable transport measures related to passenger cars in Bahrain. The proposed assessment process comprises four steps: analyzing the current state, identifying potential measures, assessing these measures, and aggregating the results. The analysis revealed that while achieving sustainable transport in Bahrain is feasible using regulatory and economic measures, fiscal incentives to car technologies may be required to ensure public acceptance. While the focus of this paper is on Bahrain, the proposed methodology is readily applicable to other countries where data are limited.
    Keywords: climate change; content analysis; cost-benefit analysis; DPSIR; energy modeling; multi-criteria analysis; passenger cars; probabilistic analysis; scenarios; stakeholder analysis; sustainability.

  • Multi-Perspective Influence Mechanism Analysis and Multi-Scenario Prediction of Chinas Carbon Emissions   Order a copy of this article
    by Tao Yi, Mohan Qiu, Hao Zheng, Jinpeng Liu 
    Abstract: Due to the mandatory push to meet the carbon emission reduction commitments proposed in the Paris Agreement, an analysis of the peak carbon emission production times in China is required. This paper focuses on the peak production times of the total carbon emissions (TCE) and carbon emissions intensity (CEI) in China. According to the development of China's carbon emissions and related targets in the 13th Five-Year Plan, the peak production times of TCE and CEI in different scenarios are predicted based on an influence mechanism analysis of China's carbon emissions from the perspectives of energy, economy, and society. Considering the development characteristics of China at this stage, this paper introduces several new indicators including the full-time equivalent of research and development (R&D) personnel and the investment in environmental pollution control. Based on the results of the study, several policy recommendations are put forward to fulfil Chinas carbon emission reduction commitments.
    Keywords: carbon emissions; peaking time; influence mechanism; scenario prediction; Paris Agreement.

  • Social selection analysis for a role of nuclear power generation by evolutionary game theory (EGT) in the aspect of global warming assessment   Order a copy of this article
    by T.A.E. H.O. WOO 
    Abstract: The evolutionary game theory (EGT) is introduced for the simulations of the global warming incorporated with energy consumptions in which the life evolution is analyzed by the game theory for the energy sector selection. It is easy to see that each energy sector has the pros and cons as the environmental factor as well as economic factor. The fossil fuels such as oil or coal have severe pollutions to the atmosphere, although it is comparatively simple to make energy productions. There are the models of electricity generations as EGT and cumulating EGT. The highest values are 329.715 in 99th month and 2749.590 in 96th month for evolutionary and cumulating EGT, respectively. Comparing two graphs, the trends are similar to be stabilized in later time where the priority of nuclear energy as the aspect of the global warming factor increases to be paralleled.
    Keywords: Nuclear; Global warming; Evolution; Game; Energy.

  • Multiscale interaction between energy and food quality in the super cold chain for sustainable agriculture   Order a copy of this article
    by Yi-Sai Gao, Guan-Bang Wang, Ya-Ting Xiao, Jia-Qi Sun, Qiu-Yun Zheng, Xin-Rong Zhang 
    Abstract: For the cold chain of fresh agricultural food, a good balance between energy and quality must be carefully considered. Most of previous researches focused on macroscale and mesoscale, while neglecting the significance of microscale. In the present study, the super cold chain is extended to multiscale studies on the interaction between energy and food quality by illustrating four representative cases. At microscale and mesoscale, such methods as X-ray computed tomography and stochastic reconstruction are adopted to analyse the multi-phase and multi-component porous structure. At macroscale, the dissipation factor is applied to evaluate the heterogeneity and optimize the system. Besides, representative volume element (RVE) method is a bridge between different scales, and heat and mass transport are solved simultaneously. Therefore, based on the special focus on sustainable agriculture, super cold chain has the potential to achieve less food quality loss and lower energy consumption, thereby decreasing effects on global warming.
    Keywords: Super cold chain; energy; food quality; sustainable agriculture; multiscale studies.

  • Impact of climate change on cultural heritage: a simulation study to assess the risks for conservation and thermal comfort   Order a copy of this article
    by Guilherme Coelho, Hugo Silva, Fernando Henriques 
    Abstract: Artefacts are prone to various types of decay depending on the indoor conditions of the building in which they are kept. Moreover, due to climate changes, the indoor climate of these buildings may significantly change, which can endanger their preservation. Hence, this paper studies the effects of climate changes on the indoor climate of heritage buildings and on the conservation of artefacts and thermal comfort of visitors. For this purpose, a validated hygrothermal model of a naturally ventilated historic church Saint Christophers in Lisbon coupled with climate change weather files were used to obtain future indoor conditions. Additionally, four other climates were simulated using the building model: Seville (Mediterranean climate), Prague and Oslo (Continental climate), as well as London (Oceanic climate). The obtained indoor climates were assessed using a statistical analysis based in several known indices, a risk-based analysis and an adaptive thermal comfort model.
    Keywords: climate change; preventive conservation; church; historic building; computational model; risk-based analysis; artefacts conservation; thermal comfort; hygrothermal behaviour; cultural heritage.

  • Characterization of Spatio-Temporal Trend in Temperature Extremes for Environmental Decision Making in Bangladesh   Order a copy of this article
    by Md. Mohsan Khudri, Md. Shaddam Hossain Bagmar, Asef Mohammad Redwan 
    Abstract: Spatial and sequential variability of extreme temperature events enthral the scientific community owing to their significant impact on global climate change and cataclysmic consequences on human sustenance and socio-economic development. This study analysed trends in monthly data of minimum and maximum temperature of 23 meteorological stations of Bangladesh. Mann-Kendall test was applied to characterize the trends in temperature extremes with their spatial and temporal patterns. The minimum and maximum temperature of the country ranged from 0
    Keywords: Temperature; Climate Change; Trend Analysis; Environment; Bangladesh.

  • Assessment of thermo-economic performance based on heat recovery preference of air conditioning systems   Order a copy of this article
    by M.Ziya Sogut, Hamit Mutlu, T.Hikmet Karakoc 
    Abstract: Thermal comfort demand in modern buildings is provided by mostly usage central air conditioning and ventilation systems. In these applications, the comfort parameters of the structure are directly related to control of air velocity, blowing temperature, air quality and energy consumption. In these processes, reduction of energy consumption considering thermal comfort conditions and system management with energy efficiency in buildings should be evaluated together with the heat recovery potential in the air conditioning systems. In this study, the thermo-economic analyses of four different application including the heat recovery systems in the air conditioning systems, which was designed for an office building, were made. In these thermo-economic analyses, it is seen that up to 72% energy saving can be achieved with the heat recovery preference according to standard conditions. At the end of the study, system preference in a centralized air conditioning system based on air conditioning processes and its contribution to sustainable energy management were assessed
    Keywords: Air conditioning Unit; Heat Recovery; Energy Management; Efficiency; Sustainability.

  • Hydrometeorological Trend Analysis using the MannKendall and Innovative?en Methodologies: A Case Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Dang Nguyen Dong Phuong, Vo Ngoc Quynh Tram, Tran Thong Nhat, Tran Dinh Ly, Nguyen Kim Loi 
    Abstract: This paper analyzed temporal trend possibilities of hydrometeorological records in Vu Gia Thu Bon watershed during 19792014 by employing the recently innovative?en trend methodology in combination with the classical/modified MannKendall tests. The outcomes show that most of statistically significant increasing trends were found in annual rainfall, extreme temperatures, relative humidity and stream flow, whereas opposite trend direction was predominantly observed in evapotranspiration and sunshine duration over the 36year period. Particularly, the greatest warming trends in maximum and minimum temperature were 0.019 and 0.024
    Keywords: hydro–meteorological trend; Innovative–?en; Mann–Kendall test; sub–trend; Vu Gia Thu Bon watershed.

  • Progress on Carbon Dioxide Capture, Storage and Utilization   Order a copy of this article
    by Malek Mohammad, Rima J. Isaifan, Yemane Weldu, Mohammad Aziz Rahman, Sami G. Al-Ghamdi 
    Abstract: The negative impacts of global warming on climate have been witnessed worldwide, and therefore global efforts to decrease the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs), particularly carbon dioxide, have increased. Carbon capture (CC) strategies can effectively reduce the quantity of CO2 being released into the atmosphere by various industries. In this study, several characteristics of CC technologies are analyzed, the negative environmental impacts of CO2 emissions are highlighted, policies that have recently been adopted to decrease GHG emissions are discussed, and state-of-the-art post-combustion CC, pre-combustion CC, and oxyfuel combustion CC technologies are reviewed. Furthermore, this study investigates and compares the three most common carbon separation techniques, namely, absorption, adsorption, and membrane methods. Through the investigation of the CC technologies, we discuss the practicality of implementing such methods and discuss specific case studies that have implemented CC technologies. Furthermore, we summarize ways of utilizing the end-product (the captured carbon) of these technologies. Much research has gone into investigating the negative environmental impacts that are currently arising. This paper stresses the importance of taken measures that go from theory to implementation and how such measures can be approached.
    Keywords: Carbon dioxide; Carbon capture and storage (CCS); CO2 separation; CO2 utilization; Environmental impacts.

  • Probabilistic Innovative trend analysis (PITA)   Order a copy of this article
    by Zekâi ?en 
    Abstract: The impact of trend and variability embedded in the composition of hydro-meteorological time series records from past stationary character to present and future non-stationary forms must be identified in a refined manner for better engineering, social, economy and environmental mitigation, adaptation and management purposes. There are various methodologies from the most frequently used Mann-Kendal (MK) trend test, Sen slope method, regression approach to recently innovative trend analysis (ITA) methodologies, which are at the focus of recent trend assessment researches in applications, but all these methodologies do not take into consideration the underlying probability distribution function (PDF) of time series concerned. Apart from the ITA method others depend on restrictive assumptions such as the normal (Gaussian) PDF and independent serial correlation structure. Especially in the practical applications these two points are not cared for in applied research papers in the literature, and consequently their final conclusions are rather biased. This paper proposes another new innovative methodology, whereby not statistical parameters but actual PDFs play the major role. The methodology is named as the innovative probabilistic trend analysis (IPTA), which has the most convenient climate change basic definition without any restrictive assumption. Its application is presented to temperature, precipitation and river discharge data from different parts of world.
    Keywords: climate change; climate variability ; innovation; probability; trend; time series.

  • The evidence of recent Canadian Arctic climate change: A case study, the Baffin Island   Order a copy of this article
    by Farahnaz Fazel-Rastgar 
    Abstract: The evidence of the climate change in Baffin Island, the largest island in Canadian Arctic, is examined by analyzing the meteorological datasets from NARR (The North American Regional Reanalysis Model) and NCEP (National Center for Atmospheric Research). The yearly mean time series data analysis (from 1948 to 2017) of the near-surface air temperatures, the vertical velocity at 700mb, precipitation rate and specific humidity show the rapid changes during recent decade over the Baffin Island region. The yearly mean of the near-surface air temperature has the highest value in 2010 corresponded to the lowest value of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index for the same year. This research also shows that the mean yearly vertical velocity at 700mb linearly decreases (at a significant level with a very small p-value of 0.000235) with the 1000mb air temperatures from 1948 to 2017 causing to increase the vertical motion (negative omega) and a possible increased the local instability over Baffin Island region. Monthly anomalies of the physical and meteorological data such as near-surface air temperature, surface albedo and the average precipitation on the surface are also investigated from 2007-2017. The results show that the region has been getting warmer over the past 10 years with the higher maximum values during January and February months (rather warmer winters). Also, the surface albedo has been decreased mostly in the coastal boundaries especially during October around 10-30%. This study also shows that the average precipitation at the surface also has been increased in some parts of Baffin Island with the remarkable changes during June, July, September and November mostly in the south part of the Baffin Island region. Whereas during the months of April and May (except over the topographical areas in the south-east with higher values) the precipitation has been decreased respect to climatology mean.
    Keywords: Climate change; near surface air temperature; surface albedo; precipitation; specific humidity.

  • Energetic valorization of waste tires by pyrolysis: Catalyst effect on tires derived oil and gases
    by Hiba REJEB, Emna BERRICH BETOUCHE, CHAHBANI Mohamed Hachemi, Fethi ALOUI 
    Abstract: Used tires wastes represent health, environmental and ecological problems because of their composition, storage and degradation difficulties. To solve this problem and to upgrade this waste, several technologies are adopted such as pyrolysis. This process allows the production of liquids which could replace fuels. In this paper an experimental investigation is carried out to study the effects of zeolite catalyst ZSM5 on pyrolysis Tires Derived Oil and gas. Two percentages of zeolite catalyst have been chosen i.e. 10% and 20%. Experiments were carried out in a semi-batch reactor under inert atmosphere. The Tires Derived Oil properties measured are the density, the viscosity, the higher calorific value and the acid value. It is found that the tires wastes pyrolysis without catalyst gives a Tires Derived Oil yield equal to 30.53 wt.%. This yield remains constant while using 20% of ZSM5. However, it increases to 32.77 wt.% while using 10% of the catalyst. The Tires Derived Oil obtained presents characteristics close to those of diesel and kerosene. For example, its viscosity is nearly 1 (cP) at 40 °C like kerosene. But its density is in the Diesel range i.e. between 870 - 1000 kg/m3. Gas volumetric percentages present in the pyrolytic gas phase are determined using micro GC analyzer. For the same experiments’ conditions, the gas yields were between 11.45 wt.% et 17.75 wt.%. Hydrogen and methane are the main component gas products all over the tires waste pyrolysis.
    Keywords: Wastes, Energetic valorization, Pyrolysis, Catalyst, Fuel, Gas, Micro-gases Chromatography and Calorimetric analysis