International Journal of Global Warming (46 papers in press)
Enviromental performance of the wastewater treatment plants: Green Index
by Pelin Yapicioglu, Özlem Demir
Abstract: The Green Index as a new indicator to determine the environmental performance has been developed in order to reduce the unfavorable environmental of the wastewater treatment plants. The main aim of this study is to reveal the environmental performances of the wastewater treatment plants. An industrial and a municipal wastewater treatment plant in Turkey have been compared in terms of the Green Index. The results revealed that in August, for the municipal and the industrial wastewater treatment plants, CO2 emission values were 0.972 and 0.42 kg/h, respectively. N2O emissions were also 8.7 and 1.53 kg/h, respectively. CO2 emissions in September were with the values of 0.507 and 0.657 kg/h for the municipal and the industrial wastewater treatment plants, respectively and N2O emissions were 5.4 and 1.2 kg/h, respectively. The Green Index of industrial wastewater treatment plant was lower than the municipal with the values of 1.29 and 1.33, respectively.
Keywords: Green index; wastewater treatment; environmental performance; greenhouse gases; global warming.
Impact of urban heat island effect on building heating intensity in Tianjin, China
by Fanchao Meng, Mingcai Li, Jun Guo, Lei Zhang, Jingfu Cao, Yuehao Chen
Abstract: In this study, the hourly variation characteristics of the urban heat island (UHI) and its impact on heating intensity of buildings were analyzed based on the observed hourly temperature data during the heating periods from 2009 to 2017 in Tianjin, a large city in Northern China. The results showed that the heating intensity considerably decreased due to the obvious increase in temperature over the past 9 years. The average annual heating intensity decreased by 8.08% and 10.30% with the increase of 1.46
Keywords: UHI effect; degree-hours; heating intensity; Tianjin city.
Measurement and Modeling of the Solubility of Dodecylcyclohexane in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide
by Xin Yang
Abstract: In developing the application of using supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-CO2) to extract fresh base oil from waste lubricant oil, the equilibrium solubility data is very valuable. In this study the equilibrium solubilities for one of the single lubricant oil component, dodecylcyclohexane, were determined in the temperature T=313.2 K, 328.2 K, 343.2 K, 358.2 K, 373 K and at pressures up to 17.76 MPa. Oil solubility is strongly dependent on the density of carbon dioxide (CO2), which increased with pressure at constant temperature while decreased with temperature at same pressure. The Adachi and Lu model provided the best regression analysis (R2) and the lowest average absolute relative deviation (AARD) in the examined experimental range, indicating the nonlinear equation of Adachi and Lu model best agreement with the experimental data.
Keywords: Supercritical carbon dioxide; Waste oil; Dodecylcyclohexane; Equilibrium solubility; Density-based model.
Global CO2 emissions mathematical modelling to
meet the 2015 Paris agreement on climate change
by Nizar Jaoua
Abstract: Future global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, consistent with the
2015 Paris Agreement on Climate Change, are explicitly predicted by using a
mathematical approach. Optimal designed models could serve as control tools
for the emissions to meet the climate accord. First, two categories of models are
produced: piece-wise linear, indicating the zero-emission time; and exponential,
for faster reduction of the emissions, which asymptotic behaviour allows their
long-term stabilisation slightly above zero. Further, suitable interpolations are
performed to get more developed versions; either to improve the UN climate
target or to add a smooth transition. A free parameter is involved in this
smoothing, therefore, providing an uncountable collection of models with short,
mid, or long transition. A common basis to the designed models is the remaining
budget of CO2 emissions. An explicit formulation of this global budget is
established in terms of the climate target. The graphical confrontation with UN
climate simulation models; the RCPs and no- and low-overshoot 1.5
Keywords: carbon dioxide; CO2; climate mitigation; global CO2 emissions;
mathematical modelling; Paris agreement; remaining CO2 budget; UN climate
Improving the stability and simultaneously capturing CO2 during biogas production under controlled internal pressure using NaOH
by Ishmael Matala Ramatsa
Abstract: The impact of operating parameters plays a very crucial role during anaerobic digestion, especially for the well being and healthy stability of the digester. The current phenomena in research is the coupling together of the digestion process and cleaning stage in one compartment with an aim of suppressing costs and energy involved in cleaning the gas. According to henry law, dissolution of carbon dioxide in the liquid water is directly proportional to its partial pressure. In the case of amount of biogas that was produced it was established in one of our published paper that as more of carbon dioxide dissolved the pH of the internal digester dropped and ultimately compromised the stability of the digester. To improve the stability of the digester two concentrations of NaOH were tested in a batch pressure digester at the pressure of 6bar. A significant amount of biogas and methane gas were recorded, both cumulative and daily biogas. The highest amount of biogas was recorded when the system was buffered with 2.66M NaOH solution, followed by the one without NaOH in daily productions. Cumulatively the amount of biogas produced when the system was buffered with 5.33M NaOH appeared to be higher that amount of biogas produced with buffer. In this current study, the methane composition at 0M NaOH, 2.66M NaOH and 5.33NaOH were 71.2%, 76.9 and 78.8% respectively. The results indicate that using a pressure digester and a buffer might be a promising approach when cleaning the gas. The results showed that at the buffer (2.66M NaOH) the system was more stable as evidenced by the amount of biogas produced. Furthermore at the same buffer more of carbon dioxide was captured as depicted in Fig 6.
Keywords: batch pressure digester; pH; ammonia-nitrogen; methane; carbon dioxide; NaOH; biogas.
Pros and Cons of Stratospheric Aerosol Injection
by Alberto Boretti
Abstract: Solar radiation management (SRM) geoengineering method of stratospheric aerosol injection (SAI) has been proposed to control global warming. The effect of sulphur injections at various locations in the stratosphere are studied by using climate models. These climate models have well-known limitations that are non-adequately addressed in the manuscript, specifically overrating the effect of the SO2 concentration. Examination of global temperatures reveals a smaller than assumed sensitivity to sulphates emissions, as well as to carbon dioxide emissions, and added phenomena missed in the models. Moreover, all the negative effects that the sulphur injections may have on the environment are neglected. Injection of sulphate particles into the stratosphere may thus have more downfalls than benefits, increasing environmental pollution without delivering significant warming reduction.
Keywords: Climate models; sulphate injections; CO2; temperatures.
Kinetic Based Extrapolating of Methane Production Potential for Seaweed/Food Waste Matrixes
by Hulya Civelek Yoruklu, Ahmet Demir, Bestami Ozkaya
Abstract: Seaweed accumulation result in undesirable environmental problems along the coastline of Istanbul. In this study, methane production potential of food/seaweed waste matrix was evaluated to explore how much of waste seaweed could be fed with food waste to an anaerobic digester at what rates of substrate to inoculum (S/X). Methane production potential data was modeled to describe the digestion kinetics by modified Gompertz, first-order, logistic function, and transference equation models. The anaerobic digestion was optimized as the S/X ratio up to 6 g VSsubstrate/g VSinoculum with the food/seaweed waste mixture of 2/3, in spite of observed inhibition when only food waste fed to batch reactors. The results indicated that seaweed was a useable agent with a good buffer capacity to improve performance of digesters arising from substrate inhibition. Transference function among applied models gave best fit to describe the kinetics of methane production potential at practical applications.
Keywords: Seaweed; The Marmara Sea; Food waste; Kinetics; Anaerobic digestion.
Interpretation of Alternative Environment-Friendly Gaseous insulator for SF6
by Hafiz Shafqat Abbas Kharal, Muhammad Kamran, Rahmat Ullah
Abstract: This work presents the testing of a unique composite gaseous insulating material using comparative evaluations with the properties of existing insulating materials. Main objectives of this research include the investigation of a novel composite insulating material with superior insulating properties, reduced cost, and less environmental hazard. Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) is commonly used in current electrical insulation network but having recognized disadvantage of Global Warming Potential (GWP) 23,800 times larger than CO2. Due to this, it is an urgent need to find alternative of SF6 which is environment friendly. R12 and its mixture with different concentration of carbon dioxide with varying pressure are tested. Gaseous mixtures containing R12 gas demonstrate good dielectric properties with low-temperature usage possibilities. The insulation properties of SF6 and R12/ CO2 Gas mixtures with other merits and experimental set up are comprehensively discussed in this paper. The experimental study of power frequency breakdown voltage is also analyzed for a proposed gaseous mixture of R12/CO2.
Keywords: CCl2F2/CO2; global warming potential; environment-friendly; insulating material; power frequency; SF6 alternatives; insulation properties.
Toward understanding 1.5
by Yanyu Lu
Abstract: Limiting the global average temperature increase to 1.5
Keywords: climate extreme; global warming limit; long-term impact; model agreement; population.
Detrended fluctuation analyses of rainfall intensities: A case study
by Utku Zeybekoglu, Asli Ulke Keskin
Abstract: The main source of the irregularity in the rainfall regimes is global climate change. These irregularities in the precipitation regime cause sudden and heavy rains, which increases the risk of flooding especially in cities. Therefore, the investigation of the change in precipitation intensities over time has great implications in terms of hydrology, water resources and urbanization. In this study, rainfall intensity of Artvin meteorological station which is located in the Black Sea Region of Turkey is investigated. This station differs from the other stations in the Black Sea Region with extreme rainfall characteristics. Data of 14 standard duration rainfall intensity series with durations of 5 min to 24 h were used. First of all, two methods were applied for homogeneity control and then trend analysis was performed. Assuming that the factor destabilizing the homogeneity is the trend, a Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) was performed. After the implemention of DFA, homogeneity and trend analysis were re-applied to the data. In conclusion, it was determined that the main reason for the deterioration of rainfall intensity was the trend.
Keywords: global warming; rainfall intensity; homogeneity; DFA; trend; Artvin; Turkey.
Impact of substations equipment to the environment
by Cezar POPA
Abstract: The paper examines the main technologies used for the production of primary circuits for substations, average seasonal temperature fluctuations for primary circuits due to load and ambient factors variations correlated with the cost price and environmental impact in terms of space required for installation, CO2-equivalent emissions of equipment and other pollutants. An accurate assessment during the design stage, of environment risks and benefits of using a technical-economical solution can be a decisive factor in the strategy adopted to construct new substations or rehabilitate the existing ones.
Keywords: substation; greenhouse gases leakage; energy losses; environment pollution; CO2 equivalent emissions.
Gate-to-gate environmental life cycle assessment of hardwood lumber production
by Tanveer Ahmad, Uzma Noreen, Adam Taylor, Majid Hussain
Abstract: The objective of this study was to conduct a gate-to-gate life cycle assessment of hardwood lumber production in selected districts (Haripur and Abbottabad) of the Hazara region, Pakistan. Primary data regarding inputs and outputs from sawmills were collected through questionnaire surveys of twenty-two (22) sawmills in the Haripur district and eighteen (18) sawmills in the Abbottabad district of Hazara region, Pakistan during the year 2017-2018. Gate-to-gate life cycle assessment was conducted for a reference unit of 1.0 m3 of planed dry hardwood lumber. Production-weighted average data were modeled in SimaPro v.8.5 for ten environmental impact indicators. Diesel consumption in the transport of raw materials, purchased electricity consumed at the sawmills and urea formaldehyde resin used for filling cracks in the hardwood lumber product had the highest contributions to all the environmental impact categories evaluated. The total cumulative energy demand for 1.0 m3 hardwood lumber production was 5,842 MJ, with most of the energy (>80%) acquired from non-renewable fossil fuel sources such as petrol, CNG and diesel. The total carbon stock of 1.0 m3 hardwood lumber equals 1,047 kg carbon dioxide, whereas the carbon footprint of 1.0 m3 finished hardwood lumber equals 88 kg CO2e. Therefore, the carbon stock can be used to offset the carbon footprint by providing a net carbon flux of -959 kg CO2e per m3 of hardwood lumber production in Pakistan.
Keywords: Carbon stock; Environmental impacts; Hardwood; Lumber; LCA; Pakistan.
The effect of temperature on the development of immature stages of Aedes spp. against breeding containers
by Nazri Che Dom
Abstract: Temperature is often identified as the main environmental factor affecting the growth of the mosquito population. In this study, we examined the effect of constant temperatures on the developmental period of local Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti strains using environmental chambers. Based on the developmental data, it was found that the increase in temperature reduced the developmental period of the mosquito except for the first instar larvae. In addition, both strains were found to be able to develop and survive at all selected temperatures up to 33
Keywords: temperature; climate; Aedes; albopictus; aegypti; development; survival; humidity; breeding container.
ZERO WASTE MANAGEMENT: A CASE STUDY
by Ozge Koksal, Bilge Aydin Er, Yuksel Ardali
Abstract: Waste characterization is shown as the first step of a successful waste management policy. Many stages such as reduction of waste at source, separation according to property, collection, temporary storage, recovery, transportation, disposal and control must be carried out regularly and effectively. The studies were carried out to determine the amount of solid wastes generated and the characterization of the wastes produced in Ondokuz May?s University (OMU). According to the data, the total amount of solid waste production per week was calculated as 8597 kg/week. According to the waste characterization of the university, distribution rates are 51% for packaging wastes, 10% for non-recyclable wastes and park and garden wastes, 9% for construction waste, 9% for waste, 2% for organic waste, 2% for e-waste, 8% medical waste and 6% hazardous waste. After one year of monitoring at Ondokuz May?s University, studies have been initiated to manage the waste generated and the recycling potential and minimization of the existing wastes.
Keywords: Waste; management; characterization; zero waste; sustainability.
Grey water footprint assessment for a dye industry wastewater treatment plant using Monte Carlo simulation: Influence of reuse on minimization of the GWF
by Pelin Yapicioglu
Abstract: A tool was developed by the Water Footprint Network to determine the required water to dilute pollution named as the grey water footprint. Grey water footprint was figured out for five scenarios and existing treatment process without reuse and with reuse process for a full-scale dye industry wastewater treatment plant. In this study, five treatment scenarios that include an electrocoagulation process (Scenario-1), a Fenton Process (Scenario-2), a membrane distillation process (Scenario-3), a reverse osmosis (Scenario-4) and an ozonation process (Scenario-5) were studied. The grey water footprint assessment was undertaken using Water Footprint Network (WFN) method without reuse process. Then, Monte Carlo simulation was applied for the minimum grey water footprint. The minimum value means to 100% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency without the reuse process. Finally, the grey water footprint was assessed with the reuse process. The reuse technology was membrane bioreactor (MBR). According to the results, the grey water footprint was found to decrease upon applying the reuse process. A significant reduction was approximately 182.5% with the reuse process for the existing process. The results revealed that Scenario-4 has the smallest grey water footprint value and Scenario-1 has the highest grey water footprint value, after the reuse process.
Keywords: dye wastewater; grey water footprint; minimization; Monte Carlo simulation; reuse.
Estimation of CO2 Emissions from Air Transportation in EU Countries by Artificial Neural Networks
by Alparslan Serhat Demir, Ömer Emin Eminler
Abstract: Estimating CO2 emissions is crucial due to its negative impacts on global warming. The study examines an artificial neural network technique for estimating the CO2 emissions in the aviation industry of EU countries. And the key factors of the data are the flight type, fleet age, the number of flight and passengers. We get %7.8 MAPE error for domestic flights and %6.7 MAPE error for international flights CO2 emission with this study. Accordingly, it may be concluded that artificial neural networks can be used for forecasting CO2 emissions in aviation sector.
Keywords: Estimating; CO2 Emission; Air transport; Artificial Neural Network; Aviation.
Thermal analysis of methanol production from low grade coal of Thar coalfield: An alternate route to utilize indigenous coal efficiently
by Muhammad Asif, Ihtishamul Haq, Pengyu Dong, Xinguo Xi
Abstract: In this paper, we have developed an integrated model of coal gasification with the methanol synthesis reactor using a process simulation tool known as ASPEN PLUS
Keywords: CO2 utilization; Thar coalfield; Gasification; Methanol synthesis; Heat and mass transfer; Thermal analysis.
Effects of ethanol-mixed supercritical CO2 fluid on CO2 adsorption on coals: implications for CO2 geologic storage in coal seams
by Dengfeng Zhang, Zichao Hu
Abstract: The coal matrix swelling induced by CO2 decreases the permeability of the target coal seams, and it will trigger disadvantages to CO2 storage in deep coal reservoirs. In order to mitigate such swelling effect, the addition of ethanol into CO2 is proposed. The effects of ethanol-mixed supercritical CO2 on the adsorption equilibrium and kinetics behaviors of CO2 adsorption on coals are studied in this paper. The results indicate that the ethanol-mixed supercritical CO2 fluid could increase CO2 adsorption capacity of two coals with low metamorphic degree, but decrease that of two coals with high metamorphic degree. The addition of ethanol into CO2 fluid remarkably enhances the diffusion and adsorption rate of CO2 within the micropores and macropores of coals. The alterations of pore system of various rank coals could account for the changing law of CO2 adsorption equilibrium and kinetics behaviors on coals after interacting with ethanol-mixed supercritical CO2.
Keywords: Coal; CO2 storage; adsorption; ethanol; supercritical CO2 fluid.
Climate mitigation mathematical models consistent with the 2015 Paris Agreement
by Nizar Jaoua
Abstract: Smooth mathematical models are explicitly designed to describe time future climate trends consistent with the 2015 Paris Agreement. Such models would serve as a basis for the implementation and control of appropriate climate mitigations. A non-linear interpolation, together with a transition smoothing, is performed to model atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration. A model for global warming is derived by a specific composition, made practical with the use of matrix representations of the involved functions, whose asymptotic behaviour will permit a long-term stabilisation below the climate target. As applications, the avoidance of further warming and the effectiveness of atmospheric CO2 mitigation are quantified with time. In addition, an infinite sequence of target-switching models is deduced by induction to improve the effectiveness or for more feasibility with regards to the most binding UN target 1.5
Keywords: atmospheric carbon dioxide; CO2; avoidance; climate mitigation model; effectiveness; global average temperature; GAT; global warming; Paris Agreement; UN climate target.
Analysis of Social Dimension and Well-being in the context of Circular Economy
by Joshua Onome Imoniana, Jelena Stankeviciene, Marta Nikanorova
Abstract: Circular Economy (CE) is based on Environmental, Economic and Social Dimension which aims to ensure Sustainable Development on each step of product creation, transformation and conversion by creating of a closed loop economy. The purpose of the article is to propose a concept of Social Dimension of the CE, apply and provide empirical evidence based on the data of Baltic Sea Region countries. The study augmented for the models that include the analysis of the Circular Economy concept, necessary for the Social pillar as part of it including: human well-being, healthy ageing, health and social justice. The multi-criteria decision methods MULTIMOORA and TOPSIS were used to assess the Social Dimension in the context of Circular Economy. Results are useful to add to theoretical building and also evaluate the Social aspect in the concept of Circular Economy.
Keywords: Circular Economy; Sustainable Development; Social Dimension,
MULTIMOORA; TOPSIS; Well-being.
A new conceptual model for CO2 reduction in hot and dry urban areas: a case study of Mashhad in Iran
by Ali Mostafaeipour, Mojtaba Shakeriravesh, Mohsen Naderpour, Mohammad Saleh Owlia
Abstract: This research aims to introduce a conceptual model for reduction of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) in an urban for developing intervention strategies. For this purpose, the system dynamics methodology is used for modeling the causal feedback loops. City of Mashhad in Iran is nominated for this research work which is the second largest city in Iran. A group of local experts with long experience of working in the municipality of Mashhad was relied upon for developing the model. The model is very helpful in correcting the subjective models of urban decision makers, assisting individual and organizational learning regarding the mutual effects of urban variables on CO2 emission. It also facilitates policymaking and scenario planning for urban development simultaneously with CO2 emission reduction. The model can serve as a support tool for the implementation of practical measures for reducing CO2 emission in large cities in other developing countries. The study shows how different urban subsystems can interactionally increase or decrease CO2 emissions and also the importance of paying attention to the interactions when policy making for CO2 reduction, even more than considering each subsystem separately. It presents a novel system dynamics (SD) model for demonstrating long term interactions of urban subsystems regarding CO2 emissions which has not been studied in Iran. It also encompasses some new variables which have not been studied in previous similar studies.
Keywords: CO2 emission; conceptual model; system dynamics; urban areas; global warming.
Environmental impact and cost analysis of gas turbine cycles with steam injection and inter-stage turbine reheat
by Hasan Kayhan Kayadelen, Yasin Ust, Veysi Bashan
Abstract: Inter-stage turbine reheat is an effective gas turbine retrofit which can easily be used with simple and steam injected gas turbines as well. Owing to the uncertainties relating to an efficiency comparison of steam injected and no-injection cycle designs, thermoeconomics and environmental impacts have been considered to evaluate reheat and steam injection which regards pollutant emissions and environmental costs together. Being the complemental of the authors previous studies on steam injected gas turbines, simple, reheat, steam injected (STIG) and reheat steam injected (RHSTIG) gas turbine cycles are compared. Economic feasibility of steam injection as well as inter-stage turbine reheat are discussed according to 2018 plant cost data. Optimal cycle parameters are determined using a new comprehensive cycle model which permits to work with realistic working fluids, simulates the combustion process regarding 14 exhaust species and determines NOx and CO emissions.
Keywords: Gas turbines; reheat; steam injection; emissions; environmental impact; thermoeconomic analysis.
Simulating future urban growth and land use/land cover change for a city
by Badeea Shafeeq Abdi, Hakan Oguz
Abstract: Climate change is the leading environmental problem that human being faces and urban growth exacerbates this problem due to higher population growth, private transportation demands, electricity usage, and demand for larger residential homes. Thus, estimating future growth of cities becomes more popular than before. The main objective of this study is to predict future urban growth and land use change dynamics of the city of Bursa so that it would provide a basis for better urban management. SLEUTH model was used in this study and calibrated with historical data derived from a time series of satellite images. The model was coupled with Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing data to simulate urban growth of the city from 2011 to 2040. Two different scenarios were designed to predict the urban development from 2011 to 2040.
Keywords: SLEUTH Model; Climate Change; GIS; Remote Sensing; Calibration; Urbanization.
Comparison of environmental pollution and social cost analyses in different drying technologies
by Ali Motevali, Hassan Jafari, Esmaeili Zakipour Molkabad, Z.H.U. Songming, Reza Tabatabaee Koloor, Ahmad Taghizadegh
Abstract: Four different widely used dryers (i.e. recirculation, fluidized-bed, hybrid hot-air/infrared, and hybrid microwave/hot-air dryers) were used to analyze the gas emissions from different drying processes of Aloe Vera. According to the results, the highest and lowest actual specific energy consumption were 306.977 and 3.182 kWh/kgwater reported for fluidized-bed and hybrid microwave/hot-air dryers, respectively. Given the energy consumption of different dryers, the highest CO2, SO2 and NOx emission levels were 314.651, 4.689 and 0.827 kg/kgwater for the steam power plant, 337.06, 1.195 and 1.778 kg/kgwater for the gas turbine plant, and 190.940, 0.714 and 1.161 kg/kgwater for the combined-cycle power plant. The lowest energy consumption was reported for drying with the microwave/hot-air dryer at 60 , airflow velocity of 0.3 m/s and power level of 300 W. The highest and lowest social costs for the microwave/hot-air dryer under the said conditions were 0.12 and 0.08 USD for evaporating 1 kg water, which belonged to gas turbine and combined-cycle plants, respectively. According to the results, the lowest emission level was observed in the combined-cycle power plant when burning natural gas.
Keywords: Environmental pollution; Greenhouse gases; Aloe vera; power plants; social costs; drying technology.
Impacts of nighttime warming on rice growth, physiological properties and yield under water saving irrigation
by Zhen Zhang, Yunsheng Lou, Jun Li, Rui Li, Li Ma
Abstract: Asymmetric diurnal warming is one of the main features of global climate warming. More attention has been paid to the impacts of nighttime warming on rice production. However, how rice responds to nighttime warming under water saving irrigation is still unclear. A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of nighttime warming on rice growth, physiological properties, and grain yield under water saving irrigation. The results indicated that, nighttime warming significantly increased leaf area index (LAI) of rice at tillering stage but reduced it at jointing-maturity stage. Nighttime warming decreased grain yield by 17.2% and 12.98% under flooding (traditional irrigation) and wetting (water saving irrigation) conditions, respectively. The above findings indicate that wetting treatment is feasible in rice production instead of flooding treatment under future climate warming.
Keywords: Rice; Nighttime warming; Wetting irrigation; Physiological properties; Grain yield;.
Assessing the local perception of Climate Change in a Small Island: A Case Study
by Jose Benedicto, Sandra Hervías Parejo, Bárbara Ambrós, Azucena De La Cruz, Artur Gil
Abstract: The effects of climate change are global, but small islands are among the most vulnerable places. Local populations on small islands might have a ground-based perspective of the impacts that threaten them. This study was undertaken on Corvo Island (Azores), where about 34% of the residents of both genders and different education levels were surveyed. Here, their understanding of climate change and their perception of its local impact, the sense of risk (or not) associated with climate change, the identification of local areas at risk, the willingness to propose mitigation and adaptation strategies, and the knowledge of regional procedures related to climate change was analyzed. Education played a crucial role in increasing local understanding. The general perception was that the regional policies were insufficient to address climate change issues at the local level. This fact points out that the efforts to mitigate climate change impacts, and the public participation procedures for supporting policy-making on climate change challenges, have so far been scarce and ineffective.
Keywords: Global change; local impacts of climate change; local perception of climate change; island-scale mitigation; adaptation policy-support; Outermost European Regions.
Investigation of The Effect of Climate Change on Precipitation and Temperature Data of Susurluk Basin and Van Lake Closed Basin
by Gokmen Ceribasi
Abstract: In this study has researched to effect of climate change emerging as a result of global warming in Susurluk Basin in west of Turkey and in Van Lake Closed Basin in east of Turkey. This research was conducted on annual mean temperature and precipitation data of both basins. Innovative Sen Method was used to make analyses with these data. As a result of study, an increasing trend has been observed in three regions of temperature data of both basins. When precipitation data was examined, it was observed that there was an increase in high region in precipitation of Susurluk basin. In medium region, an increasing trend for 3 stations, a decreasing trend for 1 station and no trend for 3 stations were observed in medium region. Also, no trend was generally observed on low region. In Van Lake Closed basin, a trend of decrease was observed in general in precipitation.
Keywords: Global Warming; Climate Change; Meteorology; Precipitation; Temperature; Susurluk Basin; Van Lake Closed Basin; Station; Trend Analysis; Innovative Sen Method.
THE EFFECT OF TRADITIONAL AND REDUCED TILLAGE SYSTEMS ON THE SEDIMENT YIELD OF PLOTS CONSTRUCTED IN THE MEDITERRANEAN CLIMATE ZONE CAUSED BY NATURAL RAINFALL
by Tugrul Yakupoglu, Turgay Dindaroglu, Abdullah Emin Akay, Kadir Kusvuran, Veysel Alma, Recep Gundogan
Abstract: The Mediterranean climate zone is one of the most vulnerable regions to climate change since it is one of the land parts where anthropogenic processes are applied intensely for a long time. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different types of tillage systems and different crops on the sediment yield under natural rainfalls from agricultural parcels established in two Mediterranean cities of Turkey. The study was carried out in two consecutive hydrological years, in which both total precipitation and precipitation pattern were different. Twenty-four parcels were prepared according to the randomized block design in factorial order with three replications. Traditional and reduced tillage were tested with two crops and fallow. The results indicated that the soil tillage system (P ?0.05) and whether or not the plant production was implemented in the parcels (P ?0.01) had statistically significant effect on the sediment yield of the parcels. Although the total sediment yield was not statistically different for both hydrological years, there was a statistical difference between two years in terms of sediment yield per unit rainfall (P? 0.01). For the both years, the most amount of sediment was transported from fallow parcels treated with traditional tillage system (478 kg ha-1 for 2015-2016 and 303 kg ha-1) while the least amount of sediment was from the sainfoin planted parcels treated with reduced tillage system (16 kg ha-1, for 2015-2016 and 9 kg ha-1, for 2016-2017). The applied tillage system and the rainfall pattern are considerably effective on the erosion.
Keywords: fallow; rainfall; sainfoin; sediment; tillage; wheat.
Techno-economic and environmental appraisal of a hybrid distributed generation system for a hospital building
by Kambiz Rezapour, Reza Effatnejad, Alireza Abdollahshirazi, Mohsen Ghorbani
Abstract: In this paper, the techno-economic, energy efficiency, and environmental parameters of three different types of distributed generation systems, including high-temperature fuel cells, micro-turbines and photovoltaic (PV) systems were performed for a hospital building in Tehran, Iran using the eQUEST energy simulation tool and HOMER international optimization model. The demand of electricity and natural gas of the hospital was calculated by the eQUEST? software. Based on that, economic parameters, energy efficiency and environmental issues for three distributed generation systems have been evaluated by the HOMER international optimization model and results are proposed for decision making. The results show that emissions produced by the fuel cell system including F and nitrogen oxides (NOx) are far less than other distributed generation systems. Therefore, the high-temperature fuel cell is more sustainable and affordable from economic and environmental aspects.
Keywords: distributed generation; renewable energy; hybrid system; building energy efficiency; eQUEST; HOMER.
Research on Residents' Electricity Behaviour Analysis and Control Strategy Optimization
by Yaxuan Chen, Xiaobin Cheng, Kai Huang, Jinpeng Liu, Tao Yi
Abstract: In recent years, the electricity consumption of residents has continued to grow, which has brought impact to global climate, it is of great significance to dig deep into the characteristics of residential electricity consumption. This paper introduces the ReliefF algorithm to reduce the load characteristic index. The resident electricity behaviour analysis model based on DBSCAN algorithm is further constructed to analyse the index data, and then the empirical calculation and data mining analysis are carried out. On account of the clustering results, the judgment radar matrix of user control attribute is advanced to clarify differentiated regulation strategies and meticulous regulative strategies for various residents are proposed. The analysis model introduced in this paper can accurately describe the user's electricity behaviour characteristics, so that the proposed differential control strategy can improve the demand side management level, which will alleviate global warming to some extent.
Keywords: residential electricity consumption behaviour; ReliefF algorithm; DBSCAN algorithm; cluster analysis; regulation strategy.
Land use, land-use change and their effect on greenhouse gas emissions and removals from Greek forests
by Iordanis Tzamtzis, Petros Ganatsas
Abstract: The role of Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) activities has been already recognized for the mitigation of climate change. Mitigation can be achieved in the LULUCF sector through the increase of removals of greenhouse gases (GHG) from the atmosphere (e.g. planting trees, managing forests) and/or the decrease of emissions by sources (e.g. reducing deforestation). This paper deals with the estimation of the current status of GHG balance in Greek forests, and the effect of land use, and land-use changes occurred during last decades on this balance. The analysis was based on data from the 1st National Forest Inventory, a great number of forest management plans, and data on land-use changes occurred in Greek forests. Special emphasis was given to the evaluation of the methods applied and the utilization of the data in the National GHG Inventory, and finally specific gaps have been identified and highlighted. According to data analysis, forest land acts as a net carbon sink during the studied period (19902016); sink capacity of forest land has increased from approximately -1.1 Mt CO2 eq in 1990 to approximately -2.1 Mt CO2 eq in 2016, due to the biomass increase. This is partly attributed to the land-use changes (expansion of forest land-afforestation of croplands), but mainly to the forest management practices applied in Greek forests. Finally, net emissions from deforestation activities amounted to 0.5 Mt CO2 eq in the period 2008-2016.
Keywords: LULUCF; carbon sequestration; UNFCCC; Kyoto Protocol; climate change; forest management.
Mechanism of CO2 sequestration by high-alkaline red mud : Conversion of katoite
by Zelin Su, Dongbo Wang, Xianqing Huang, Xiang Li, Xin Yu, Ying Huang, Qingge Feng
Abstract: Red mud (RM) is an alkaline solid waste, which can be carbonized and neutralized by sequestrating carbon dioxide (CO2). Here, the CO2 sequestration capacity of red mud was quantitatively characterized by elemental analyzer, and the effects of liquid-solid ratio (2:1-10:1), reaction time (0-300 min), reaction pressure (2-12 bar) and reaction temperature (room temperature-130?) were studied in detail. In addition, both the red mud before and after carbonation were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, SEM and laser particle size analyzer. The results showed that CO2 could be sequestrated by red mud due to the mineral phase transformation of alkaline substances, which was that katoite converted to calcite and other substances with dissolving CO2 and leaching Ca2+ in water medium.
Keywords: Red mud; carbon dioxide; sequestration; transformation; alkaline substances; mechanism; katoite; calcite.
The soil organic carbon density spatial heterogeneity and its impact factors under different karst landforms
by Xingfu Wang, Xianfei Huang, Jiwei Hu, Zhenming Zhang
Abstract: To study the spatial heterogeneity and effect factors of soil organic carbon density (SOCD) under different karst landforms, total of 1173 samples were taken from different karst landforms including Puding (KP), Xingyi (KPCD), Guanling (KC), Libo (KVF) and Yinjiang (KTV) in Guizhou Province. SOCD characteristics in lands with different vegetation types, land uses and soil types under different Karst landforms were analyzed. The relationship between SOCD and environment factors was analyzed via redundancy analysis. The results indicate that there is a larger discrepancy of SOCD among difference karst landforms types, and this distinction decreased gradually with the increasing of soil depth. The SOCD in soil horizons (0-100 cm) of KPCD, KP, KTV, KC and KVF were 11.10 kg
Keywords: Karst; Different Landform types; Soil Organic Carbon Density; Spatial Heterogeneity; Environment factors; Impact mechanism.
Canadian Arctic weather system configuration related to the recent sea ice decline and heatwave of summer 2019
by Farahnaz Fazel-Rastgar
Abstract: Average summer surface temperatures time series during 1948-2019 reveals higher positive slope for eastern Canadian Arctic rather than the west with a peak in summer 2019, accompanied with recent Arctic sea-ice decline. This is associated with Greenland Omega blocking high-pressure system. The Hovm
Keywords: Climate change; heatwave; Canadian Arctic; omega blocking high; GBI.
Global warming scenario depicts enhanced spatial distribution of Quercus lanata in the western Himalayas
by Maneesh S. Bhandari, Rajendra K. Meena, Rajeev Shankhwar, Shailesh Pandey, Rama Kant, Santan Barthwal, Harish S. Ginwal
Abstract: Quercus lanata, native to Indian Himalayan Region (IHR), is a less explored but extremely important species. Habitat fragmentation, forest degradation, lower seed viability and relegated regeneration contributed to the declining population of this species. The present study aimed to predict the distribution of Q. lanata in western Himalayas using Maxent modeling, where 70 % of the geo-coordinates were used for prediction and rest for validation. Results revealed the statistically significant AUC value ranged from 0.896
Keywords: Quercus lanata; Indian Himalayan Region; Maxent model; ecological niche; global warming.
Urban Heat Island effect over Delhi NCR using LANDSAT data
by Mohit Raja Srivastava, Satya Prakash
Abstract: In the paper the authors have analysed Urban Heat Island using Landsat TM data for Delhi NCR region using Mono-window algorithm. Spatial pattern of land surface temperature (LST) from 2001-2018 was retrieved to characterize its effect on UHI. It was found that UHI effect was increasing during 2001-2010, while during 2010-2016 it showed a decreasing trend due to increase in forest coverage and various governmental policies for construction activities, but the current trend shows an increasing trend further, the effect is highest in 2018. A total of 26 profile along each LST map has been taken to collaborate the finding.
Keywords: Land Surface temperature; Urban Heat Island; Delhi NCR; UHI; LST; Mono-window algorithm.
MSW to Energy: A Novel and Sustainable Solution to Waste Management for Kolkata, India
by Pradip Mondal, Sudip Ghosh, Swapan Das
Abstract: This study deals with modeling and 4-E analysis of a solid waste gasification combined cycle plant, conceived for the municipal area of Kolkata (India). It reveals that the plant can utilize municipal waste to generate about 300MW at a maximum efficiency of 49%. The combustor accounts for maximum exergy destruction, followed by the gasifer and the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). The plant offers very low cost of electricity and CO2 emission (2.8 INR/kWh and 580 g/kWh respectively, at optimum point) and also saves significant environmental damage cost by avoiding land-filling.
Keywords: 4-E analysis; CO2 emission; cost of electricity; sustainability; waste to energy.
Removal of Heavy Metals from Mixed Domestic and Industrial Wastewater by Activated Sludge Process Using MWCNT
by Ümmükülsüm Özel Akdemir
Abstract: In this study, the effect of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) on heavy metal and COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) removal in the continuous flow activated sludge process was investigated. In order to treat domestic and industrial wastewater together in the biological treatment unit, 50 and 100 mg.L-1 MWCNT were added to laboratory scale reactors, one of which was a control reactor (CR). It was determined that the increase of the MWCNT concentration leads to increase in the rate of removal of COD. COD removal for CR, 50 and 100 mg.L-1 MWCNT was 49.24, 64.95 and 76.46 %, respectively. In the first hour Ni (II) removal was achieved in the control Reactor (CR) at 65.33 %. When 50 and 100 mg.L-1 MWCNT was added to reactors, Ni (II) removal was 71.14 % and 79.99 %, respectively. Cu (II) and Cr (VI) removal efficiencies were achieved about 99 %, during the treatment. It was determined that MWCNT has a positive effect on activated sludge treatment efficiency. As a result, biokinetic coefficients show that reactor volume the size will be smaller and size of sludge handling facility will be the greater with increases in the amount of MWCNT.
Keywords: MWCNT; activated sludge; heavy metals; COD; biokinetic coefficients.
CO2 Emission from Oil & Gas Production - Challenges and Opportunities
by Shakir Ather, Muhammad Asim, Salman Manzoor
Abstract: The analysis in the report is related to the issue of emission of CO2 from the oil and gas companies in Pakistan. The issue was selected considering the increasing threats for the environmental sustainability that are caused due to the emission of CO2 gases on consistent basis. The variables chosen for the purpose of analysis were knowledge of the firm, incentives of the government, magnitude of CO2, cost and scale of CCU technology. The statistical techniques that were applied were regression, correlation and Cronbach alpha analysis. The findings that were obtained through regression and correlation illustrated a positive impact between the independent and the dependent variables.
Keywords: Carbon Capture and Utilization; Awareness; Acceptance; Perception; Emissions; Greenhouse Gases; Emissions Reduction; Emissions Mitigation.
Covid 19 impact on atmospheric CO2 concentration
by Alberto Boretti
Abstract: The recent Covid19 outbreak, and the measure enforced to limit the spreading of the virus, from airlines grounded, factories shut down, business close down, citizens confined in their homes, have translated in a drastically reduced anthropogenic carbon dioxide emission. This experiment permits to test the hypothesis if the anthropogenic CO2 emission is the overwhelming contributor to the atmospheric CO2 concentration and global warming, or if the anthropogenic CO2 emission has a limited effect on the atmospheric CO2 concentration that is driven by the temperature, and which would be the effect of prolonged, unprecedented cuts in anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions of the atmospheric CO2 concentration.
Keywords: Covid19; anthropogenic CO2 emission; atmospheric CO2 concentration.
Pandemic modeling is a dialogue with nature, not a monologue
by Alberto Boretti
Abstract: As soon as more data became available, the assumptions of the simulations that drove the world to lockdown appear to be incorrect. In particular, the fatality rate is much less than what was assumed in the simulations, the same as the parameters affecting the duration of the outbreak. The number of people that do not get infected even if challenged by the virus, and those who are asymptomatic and mild, is much larger than what was thought. The infection fatality rate is evaluated at somewhere in the range of 0.12% and 0.2%, exceptionally a long way from the 0.9% presumed in the models. The peak daily mortality rate is also much less than the model results, roughly of a factor of twenty, and also achieved much quicker, typically in less than one month after the outbreak, with similar trends in countries with or without complete lockdown and harsh distancing measures. This calls for a much different approach, where predictions by models are continuously updated through validation versus the continuously evolving experimental evidence. More importantly, policy measures based on past results proven to be wrong should be similarly revised.
Keywords: Epidemiology; Covid19; Compartmental models; Validation.
RECENT ADVANCES IN THE PRETREATMENT OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS FOR ENHANCED BIOFUEL PRODUCTION
by Oznur Yildirim, Rahime Songur, Emine Bayraktar, Ahmet Demir, Bestami Ozkaya
Abstract: Lignocellulosic biomass has a hard matrix consisting of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, which stores carbon and chemical energy in its structure. Although its structure is resistant to biodegradation, it should be considered as an important raw material of high added value products such as ethanol and butanol. During the biologically refining of these products with a bio-refinery approach, it is essential to breakdown this structure with pre-hydrolysis. Therefore, the optimization and feasibility of biological processes strictly depend on the pretreatment step. This study aimed to contribute to ensuring accelerated biofuel production by examining all the applications adopted for the preliminary hydrolysis process in recent years. Another considerable point is being to release toxic compounds from the degradation of hemicellulose and cellulose during the pretreatment step, which is one of the discussed key points in this study. This study set out the challenges and implications in the pre-treatment step of lignocellulosic biomass, which will contribute to the commercialization of the biotransformation systems refining of high added value products with the biorefinery approach.
Keywords: lignocellulosic biomass; pre-hydrolysis; toxicity; bioethanol; biobutanol; biomethane; biohydrogen.
Emerging Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Removal and Utilization Techniques
by Zhihua Zhang
Abstract: The increasing carbon emissions from fossil fuel combustion and land use change will lead to disastrous global warming in the near future, so it is widely recognized as one of the most challenges facing human societies. In this paper, we will assess the atmospheric carbon dioxide removal and recycling utilization which can turn anthropogenic carbon emissions from carbon pollution into valuable resource and then satisfy the needs of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The direct removal of atmospheric carbon dioxide is mainly through direct air capture, sustainable biochar, desert geoengineering, and ocean fertilization. Captured atmospheric carbon dioxide can further be utilized in the synthesis of various fuels or enhance of traditional energy production. This novel approach can bring the atmospheric carbon dioxide back to the energy cycle, converse fossil energy into carbon-neutral energy, and then achieve the recycle of carbon dioxide resource.
Keywords: Carbon Emissions; Carbon Dioxide Removal; Carbon Dioxide Utilization; Carbon-neutral Fuel; Sustainable Development Goals.
Special Issue on: R&R 2018 Environmental Dimensions of Recycling and Reuse
Comparative study of combustion, performance, and emissions of a diesel engine fueled with biodiesel blend with metallic and organic nano-particles
by E.A. Elsarkawy, M.M. Abou Al-Sood, M.K. El-Fakharany, M. Ahmed
Abstract: This study investigates the effect of adding two types of nano-particles to castor biodiesel-diesel on combustion, performance, and emission characteristics of diesel engine. Blended fuels were experimentally tested by running the engine at various loads at a constant speed. The experimental analysis indicated that diesel-biodiesel blends with aluminum oxide nano-particles (ALNPs) show better results than multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) for higher cylinder peak pressure, lower ignition delay, higher BTE and lower emissions for CO While (MWCNT) diesel-biodiesel blends have slight improvement in NOx emissions. The peak pressure increase was approximately 2.2% while BTE increased by 6.1 %. The maximum reduction in NOx emissions was 30.5 %, while the reduction in CO emission was 28.52%. For (MWCNT) addition, increase in cylinder pressure recorded was 3.3 %, and the BTE was enhanced by 6.2%, NOx emission decreased by 30.25 %, while the greatest reduction in CO was 57.2% for the fuel blend with (ALNPs). Finally, adding MWCNT to biodiesel blend CB30 increases the cost of producing 1.0 kWh by 41 % - 170 % whereas adding ALNPs has a negligible effect in the cost.
Keywords: Castor biodiesel; Nano-particles; Combustion; Performance; Emissions.
Special Issue on: GCGW-2019 Studies Associated with Global Warming
An Experimental Evaluation of Indirect Direct Evaporative Cooling Unit for Hot Climate
by Bourhan Tashtoush, Nelson Chilengwe, Mohammad Musthafa, Yousef Al Horr
Abstract: Direct and indirect evaporative cooling system is experimentally investigated using a plate heat exchanger for hot climate conditions. The effects of chilled water and ambient temperatures, water flow rates, humidity, and the operating cooling mode on the supply air temperature was investigated for three configurations. The system dry bulb and wet effectiveness was estimated for all conditions under consideration. It was found that the dry bulb effectiveness approached 17%, while it was in the range of 72-98% for the wet bulb effectiveness. In addition, the secondary air saturation efficiency was calculated with varying water flow rates. It was found that the increase of water quantity in the heat exchanger would increase the cooling capacity and lead to a higher secondary air temperature difference. This resulted in higher saturation efficiency for the system. These results were compared with available numerical data for calibration and validation purposes.
Keywords: Direct Cooling; Indirect Cooling; Cross flow; Wet Bulb Effectiveness; Dry Bulb Effectiveness; Saturation Efficiency.
Statistically Downscaling Climate Change Projection of Precipitation and Temperature over the semi-arid Yarmouk Basin- Jordan
by Fayez Abdulla
Abstract: The statistical downscaling model (SDSM) skills have been addressed in downscaling the climate over the Yarmouk Basin, which is a semi-arid trans-boundary basin between Syria and Jordan. The scenarios used to drive SDSM are GHGs Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) using CanESM2 GCM. The study findings illustrate that there is a good statistical confidence in the downscaling based on the uncertainty analysis results that have been performed. SDSM showed a good ability to simulate the mean characteristics of precipitation and temperature but a poor capability for capturing the daily precipitation pattern and extreme precipitation events. In addition, SDSM was found to tend to underestimate the precipitation amounts and the number of wet days. During the 21st century, all scenarios have agreed that the mean annual rainfall will continue to decrease while the temperature will continue to increase. The projected time series can be adopted with satisfying confidence for any intended climate change impact studies within the Yarmouk Basin.
Keywords: Climate change; Downscaling; SDSM; Semi-arid basin; Yarmouk Basin and Uncertainty.