Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Global Warming

International Journal of Global Warming (IJGW)

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International Journal of Global Warming (61 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Assessment of Climate Extremes from Historical Data (1960-2013) of Soan River Basin of Pakistan   Order a copy of this article
    by Filza Fatima Rizvi, Bashir Ahmed, Saddam Hussain, Asif Khan, Mohsin Raza, Munir Shahid 
    Abstract: Climate changes are affecting every aspect of life. Global warming and the melting of glaciers are raising at a fast rate. This study presents an analysis of long-term historical climate data (1960-2013) of four climate stations; (Islamabad, Murree, Jhelum, and Mianwali) located in the Soan River basin of Pakistan. Climate extreme analysis has been carried out, using four (04) temperature and five (05) rainfall indices. Four temperature extremes (FDO, SU25, Tmax. Mean, Tmin. Mean) showed positive trends in all stations except the trend of FDO Islamabad and Jhelum stations. Likewise, negative trends have been observed in Tmin. Mean of Murree and in Tmax. Mean of Mianwali station. Also, five rainfall extremes (CDD, CWD, PCRPTOT, R10 mm, R20 mm) showed positive trends in all stations except the trend of CDD in Islamabad, the trend of PCRPTOT in Jhelum, the trend of CWD and CDD in Murree station. Furthermore, result trends from non-parametric techniques (Man-Kendal and Sens slope) and through the indices estimation from RCLIMDEX are consistent. There is a need for time to study and analyze the climate extremes and historical events before moving towards the climate change adaptations and the invention of modern climate-smart technologies based on past climate extreme events over the basin.
    Keywords: Agriculture; Climate Variability; Climate Indices; RCLIMDEX; Soan River Basin.

  • Effects of COVID-19 on energy savings and emission reduction: A case study   Order a copy of this article
    by Fatemeh Nadi, Mustafa Özilgen 
    Abstract: During the COVID-19 pandemic, because of the downturn of the global economy, energy sector asked for the lowest prices for its products. Consequently, investors may not be willing to invest for the renewable energy projects in the short term after the pandemic. Therefore, every possible effort should be done in the post-pandemic era not to lose the clean energy gains of the recent history. Iranian bakeries are among the most energy consuming bakeries in the world and produce 15 million t of bread annually. Three different scenarios are suggested in the present study to make it possible to save 45%, i.e., 105 MJ t-1 year-1, of the energy and increase the cumulative degree of perfection of the traditional bread making processes by approximately 37%. These suggestions may increase the renewability indicator of the traditional bread making sector by about 70%. Such an improvement may be a major attempt toward protecting the clean energy gains of the pre-panemic era.
    Keywords: COVID-19; GHG emission; Renewable energy utilization; Traditional breads; Sustainability indicators.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2021.10039132
  • Responsiveness of rice yield to climate change in China: Historical analysis and future projections   Order a copy of this article
    by Yan Yu, Qingsong Tian, Fengxian Yan 
    Abstract: Understanding the meteorological driving factors of changes in rice production is critical to global food security. In this study, we apply Multivariate Adaptive Regression Spline algorithm to examine the effect of climatic variables on rice yield in China. We find that the importance of temperature is much higher than that of precipitation. The hinge function shows significant nonlinear and interaction effects in yield response function. Based on the projected climate change scenarios of lower rate global warming (SSP1-2.6) and higher rate global warming (SSP5-8.5), we further predict the rice yield, and find that the yield will increase by 0.09% and 0.28% under both scenarios in the medium term. However, the continuous climate change in the long term will lead to yield loss (0.39%) in SSP1-2.6, and a higher loss (7.39%) in SSP5-8.5. The difference in predicted rice yield in 15 provinces also indicates a heterogeneous impact of climate change.
    Keywords: climate change; global warming; rice yield; MARS; temperature.

  • Is the online global mean sea level information reliable?   Order a copy of this article
    by Alberto Boretti 
    Abstract: The purpose of the work is to assess the reliability of satellite altimeter global mean sea level information provided online through consistency, with other products such as ocean temperatures from thermometers or relative mean sea level records from tidal gauges, and stability of the proposed time series. Satellite altimeter global mean sea level information has been sourced since the time the service was started, and changes to the proposed information for the past introduced through updates have been evidenced. The information has also been compared for similarities with other sourced information for ocean temperature or extent of ice on land, as well as relative sea levels, to highlight consistency. The satellite altimeter global mean sea level is a mostly computational product. The result is unstable, as characterized by significant changes for the past results introduced in subsequent reconstructions. The result is conflicting with the measurements of ocean temperature, which indicates a smaller thermal expansion contribution. The result is otherwise consistent with the data of ice on land, which is based on similar computational procedures. The result is conflicting with the tide gauge records indicating local sea level stability. Consistency and stability analyses of the satellite altimeter global mean sea level are not appropriately covered in the literature. The present analysis relies on the quality of data that is publicly available in the data set. Updated versions regularly replace older versions sometimes changing dramatically the past without maintaining the older version. All the versions of the data sets including raw supporting data and code used to generate the results should be made available to the scientific community for independent assessment by peers. A record that keeps on changing the past without any publication of past and present raw data and code used to compute the record hardly can qualify as being correct. Policymaking should be based on reliable data satisfying quality assurance standards.
    Keywords: sea level rise; satellite altimetry; tide gauges; ocean temperature.

  • What's the Roles of Population, Economy, and Energy on CO2 emissions in Henan of China   Order a copy of this article
    by Xuyi Liu 
    Abstract: This study aims to investigate the influence of population size, economic growth, energy intensity, and CO2 intensity on CO2 emissions, and environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis based on Kaya identity and Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence, and Technology (STIRPAT) model in Henan province in China. Unit root test indicates that each time series data is stationary in 1st difference. Three co-integration tests suggest that the selected model is co-integrated. Short- and long-run estimates, based on the autoregressive distributed lag method, support the EKC hypothesis. Population size may lead to the reduction of emissions, while energy intensity and CO2 intensity can increase the emissions. Based on the vector error correction model, the findings of Granger causal linkages between the selected time series data are mixed. Based on empirical results, some policy implications are given to policymakers.
    Keywords: environmental Kuznets curve; autoregressive distributed lag; energy intensity; economic growth; CO2 emissions; Kaya; population; co-integration; STIRPAT; vector error correction model.

  • Analysis of carbon emission and its influencing factors of Shanghais textile and apparel industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Yunfeng Chen, Yiduo Yang, Lirong Sun, Xiaopeng Wang 
    Abstract: This research calculated the amount of carbon emission and carbon emission intensity of Shanghais textile and apparel industry from 2001 to 2014. Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index method was applied to identify the factors that affect the carbon emission and decoupling model was used to prove the relationship between economic output and carbon emission. The results showed that the total amount of carbon emission of Shanghais textile and apparel industry decreased with fluctuation from 2001 to 2014. Among the three sub-industries, textile industry made the greatest contribution to the total carbon emission, and the carbon emission intensity of textile industry also was the largest. Industrial technology was the major driving factor of the mitigation of carbon emission of Shanghais textile and apparel industry while industrial scale was the major inhibiting factor. Economic output and carbon emission of Shanghais textile and apparel industry showed a coupling relationship in most years of the selected research time series.
    Keywords: decoupling relationship; textile and apparel industry; decomposition; carbon emission.

  • An Assessment of GHG Mitigation Potential by Electricity expansion planning using LEAP model   Order a copy of this article
    by Karunanithi K, RAJA S P, Rayaguru N K, Saravanan S, Kannan S 
    Abstract: In this paper, Electricity Expansion Planning (EEP) problem is analyzed for an Indian sate, Tamil Nadu (TN) for a period of thirty years from 2019 to 2048 using Long range Energy Alternative Planning (LEAP) software with conventional and Renewable Energy Resources (RES). Two scenarios, Base line scenario and Green House Gas (GHG) mitigation scenario are developed. In base line scenario, the present energy consumption pattern is followed for next thirty years whereas in GHG mitigation scenario, usage of electricity is encouraged for their energy needs in all sectors and the electricity should be derived from renewable energy resources.
    Keywords: Global Warming potential; Electricity expansion planning; Long range energy alternative planning; Reliability and social cost.

  • Regression Based Comparative Analysis of Pollutants in Biogas and Natural-Gas-Blend Combustion Outputs   Order a copy of this article
    by Asfaw Beyene, Nicholas Bonse 
    Abstract: Biogas is a renewable energy source with an imperative role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. As such, it has become scalable and is currently exhibiting a surge in production capacity. In this work, we compare the combustion pollutants produced from biogas and their fossil fuel counterpart, natural gas, to determine optimum combustion conditions. The process of the study was broken up into pollutant classification, combustion model selection, and regression model analysis. Pollutants are evaluated based on global warming potential, local air quality standards, and effective heat transfer to determine optimum combustion conditions. Four pollutants, carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), nitrogen oxide (NOX), and carbon monoxide (CO) are evaluated. For the combustion model, a perfectly stirred Chemkin reactor with kinetic pathways created by the CRECK Polimi Database was selected. To rank the combustion outputs, a logistic regression was developed using the least toxic outcomes to make a threshold for the combustion processes. The results of the study made it clear that there is no combustion condition in which all the pollutants can be minimized, mainly because the carbon monoxide levels rebound as the combustion temperature falls. However, the study did determine that reducing the combustion temperature and the relative methane content of the fuel - air mixture results in lower pollutant outputs. The effect of relative methane content on the combustion pollutants was determined by the fuel performing better as the biogas content was increased.
    Keywords: Combustion; Pollution; Emission; Regression analysis; Biogas Ranking.

  • Does an offset in the airlines emission of CO2 make any difference?   Order a copy of this article
    by Alberto Boretti 
    Abstract: The airlines' emission of CO2 was considered a major environmental threat to the environment, driving the need for immediate carbon offsets and drastic reductions by 2050. The Covid19 experiment demonstrates as a drastic reduction of the airlines' emission of CO2 over 1 year had no impact on the atmospheric concentration of CO2. The atmospheric concentration of CO2 is the result of a much more complex situation where the changes to the environment, in general, depend on many anthropogenic and natural forcings. This makes the offset of the airlines emission of CO2 a purely philosophical exercise unable to make any difference in the real world.
    Keywords: Covid19; fossil fuel emissions; airlines’ emission of CO2; carbon offset; atmospheric concentration of CO2.

  • Numerical investigation of CO2 and NOx emission in a CFB combustor with flue gas recycle and oxy-fuel combustion redesign   Order a copy of this article
    by Zhenxing Li, Shaohua Wu, Yanhong Hao 
    Abstract: Flue gas recirculation (FGR) technology and oxy-fuel combustion strategy are combined to recycle CO2 in a CFB combustor and to limit the emission of NOx and CO2. The combustion process in O2/N2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres is numerically investigated in the CFB combustor. The NOx emission can be effectively reduced using FGR technology both in O2/N2 atmosphere or O2/CO2 atmosphere, which is inversely proportional to the FGR ratio. With O2/CO2 mixtures as the oxidant, the average combustion temperature is lower than that with O2/N2 mixtures when the mole fraction of O2 is 21%. However, increasing FGR ratio has little effect on NOx emission and CO2 enrichment, even if CO2 gas is enriched in the flue gas. While using O2/CO2 mixtures as the oxidant, CO2 could account for more than 90 vol.% in the dried flue gas, thus the CO2 can be easily captured from the flue gas.
    Keywords: Flue gas recycle; O2/CO2 atmosphere; CFD simulation; Circulating fluidized bed combustor.

    by Faisal Nawaz, Syed Ahmad Hassan 
    Abstract: Among the number of factors affecting the watershed ecosystem, climate is the unique having significant links with systems and water resources. Precipitation, temperature, wind speed, humidity, cloud cover and bright sunshine are the major components affecting climate change. Their impacts on local hydroclimatic variables are very crucial and cannot be studied at the regional level. Global Climate Models are the most sophisticated and numerical based coupled method used for future projections of hydroclimatic change using different emission scenarios. The objective of this paper is to examine the hydroclimatic variables to analyse the past, present and future behaviours and their change using the statistical downscaling method. The statistical downscaling model, multiple linear regression and vector autoregression are utilized to calibrate and validate future local scale temperature, rainfall and river flow hydrology. The predicted values of temperature, rainfall and river flow from these approaches show significant results with both calibration and validation phases. Statistical investigations found that the vector autoregression method produces relatively better results. Hence, this may be the best option for the future generation of climate and hydrological conditions of the Pakistan region.
    Keywords: climate change; global climate models; vector autoregression; statistical downscaling model; temperature; rainfall; river flow hydrology.

  • Assessing maximum soluble combined heavy metals not causing inhibition to brewery sludge in anaerobic wastewater treatment   Order a copy of this article
    by Nusara Sinbuathong, Sutha Khaodhiar 
    Abstract: The effect of varying the soluble concentration of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) on methane production and chemical oxygen demand removal was systematically investigated to reveal the soluble combined heavy metal concentration and the mass of soluble combined heavy metals loading to microorganisms that cause anaerobic system malfunctions. The critical value of soluble combined metal concentration was proposed as a model allowing soluble combined metals to cause 20% inhibition and still provide protection for the process. The proposed equation to protect the anaerobic system was K = (Zn/32.7 + Cd/56.2 + Cu/31.8), where K is the maximum soluble combined metal concentration that cannot exceed 0.0038 mEq/L, and Zn, Cd, and Cu are the soluble combined heavy metal concentrations in wastewater measured in milligrams per liter. The mass of soluble combined metals loading to microorganisms cannot exceed 0.38 mEq/kg of mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS). The soluble combined metals caused synergistic inhibition and caused system failure at concentrations exceeding 0.01 mEq/L or 1.0 mEq/kg MLVSS.
    Keywords: Anaerobic digestion; biogas; brewery sludge; heavy metal; inhibition.

    by Kezban Alpan 
    Abstract: The consequences of climate change and global warming have become irrefutable. Scientists are working to change the alarming scenario awaiting humanity in the future. On the other hand, they have proved that the increasing trend of many life-threaten diseases, such as cancer, are caused by global warming. In this research, data collected from national and international databases were analyzed and compared. The aim of this research is presenting the relationship between increasing temperature anomalies and rising cancer trend. As a result of the study, it is determined that the rising global surface temperature and increasing cancer rates are directly related. In the study, data related to Northern Cyprus were also examined. According to the findings; poor waste management and uncontrolled carbon dioxide emissions are responsible for raising cancer rates and cardiovascular diseases in North Cyprus.
    Keywords: Global Warming; Climate Change; Cancer; Cardiovascular Diseases; North Cyprus; Waste Management; Greenhouse Gases.

  • Research on the relationship between provincial economy and CO2 emissions from power industry in China: from static and dynamic aspects   Order a copy of this article
    by Wei Sun, Shuang Liu, Yuwei Wang, Yujun He 
    Abstract: Understanding the dilemma of provincial CO2 emissions and regional economy is critical for achieving low-carbon development of power industry. This paper investigated the joint relationship and spatiotemporal distribution features of economy and CO2 emissions in power industry. First, the static temporal variation of regional GDP and provincial CO2 emissions are explored in detail, based on the 2007-2017 data derived from the China Statistical Yearbook and China Electric Power Yearbook. Second, the standard deviational ellipse method is adopted to investigate the dynamic spatiotemporal evolution characteristics of regional GDP and provincial CO2 emissions. The results show that: (1) The joint characteristics of GDP and CO2 emissions among 30 provinces exhibit four categories. (2) The spatiotemporal distribution of GDP maintains in northeast-southwest direction, while the distribution of CO2 emissions shifts from northeast-southwest to east-west. (3) The mean centers of both are located in eastern China and move to the west. Based on the findings, the targeted emissions-control strategies for provincial power industry while maintaining stable regional economy are provided to achieve sustainability.
    Keywords: CO2 emissions; power industry; standard deviational ellipse; spatiotemporal analysis; temporal variation.

  • How can shared bikes reduce carbon emissions in the real world: A theoretical analysis and its policy implications   Order a copy of this article
    by Huimin Li, Ping Qiu, Jie Wang, Yufei Wang 
    Abstract: The bike-sharing program had experienced a boom since 2015 in many countries. Although society generally believes the shared bike is a low-carbon tool, why and how it can reduce carbon emissions in the real world is still an outstanding question. The study accounted for the shared bike's CO2 footprint, developed a theoretical model for the emission reduction mechanism of the bike-sharing system, and analyzed the shared bike's emission reduction benefits based on China's case. The results show that the average CO2 footprint of bike-sharing under the current operation mode is about 23.6 gCO2/p
    Keywords: bike-sharing program; bicycle-friendly infrastructures; carbon emissions; CO2 footprint; command-and-control policy; China; emission reduction; low-carbon transportation; lifespan; market-based policy; management; policy implications; replacement rate; social environment; shared bikes; transportation pattern; travel distance; turnover rate.

  • Geosystems-indicators of climate change and cultural landscape recovery in Tigireksky Reserve and its protective zone (Altai Krai, Russia)   Order a copy of this article
    by Dmitry Zolotov, Dmitry Chernykh, Natalia Malygina, Roman Biryukov, Dmitry Pershin 
    Abstract: The paper deals with major trends of landscape dynamics in the northern part of the Tigireksky Reserve. The global warming impact on the study area is confirmed by the ERA5, NCEP-NCAR and CRU TS reanalyses data for 1979-2018. It manifests in decreased atmospheric humidification during the growing season and worsening conditions for forest recovery. We discuss the possibilities of identifying geosystems-indicators for monitoring of climate change and cultural landscape recovery based on the analysis of the authors large-scale landscape map.
    Keywords: Russian Altai; Altai Mountains; climate change; landscape mapping; anthropogenic transformation; recovery potential; indicativeness; forest/treeless area ratio.

  • Transit leverage assessment and climate change mitigation pathway for urbanized areas   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Tamim Kashifi, Umer Mansoor, Syed Masiur Rahman 
    Abstract: The transportation sector comprises a significant portion of greenhouse gas emissions, and its proportion has been increasing continuously. The continuous gross domestic product growth combined with sprawling in cities contributes to further private automobile share and demand for longer distances travel. Public transport is considered as a solution for avoiding the fast growth of motorization along with greenhouse gas emissions. This study investigated the effect of ridership shift from private automobiles to public transportation on greenhouse gas emissions for six major cities of Saudi Arabia, with at least half a million population. The effect of transit leverage, which is the number of vehicle kilometers traveled (VKT) of cars, is replaced by increasing one passenger kilometers traveled (PKT) of transit on energy consumption, and CO2 emissions are discussed. The possible decrease in energy use and carbon dioxide emissions from road transport to reach about a half by increasing annual average per capita mileage of public transport by one-fifth of the current total annual average per capita mileage. Moreover, we can reduce 2.5 million metric tons (MT) of carbon dioxide emissions in Jeddah annually by increasing the per capita mileage of bus to about 20% of current private cars per capita mileage. We can decrease CO2 emissions for six major cities from between 14.6-16.5 Mt-CO2/year to 7.0-8.4 Mt-CO2/year by increasing bus PKT to about 15% of total annual per capita mileage.
    Keywords: Car dependency; city sprawl; greenhouse gas emissions; public transport; Saudi Arabia; and transit leverage.

  • Global relationship between economic growth and CO2 emissions across time: a multilevel approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Luiz Paulo Fávero, Rafael De Freitas Souza, Patrícia Belfiore, Marcos Roberto Luppe, Marcos Severo 
    Abstract: This paper investigates the relationship between economic growth and CO2 emissions worldwide. Based on an extensive review of several similar studies, we propose a novel quantitative methodological approach that captures contextual stances from 187 countries over the period 1800-2016. The proposed multilevel model simultaneously accommodates the interactions between fixed and random effects parameters regarding GDP and carbon dioxide emissions. Additionally, it provides new evidences on the patterns of occurrence of the studied phenomenon between countries over time, respecting the heterogeneities of so distinct observations. More than capturing the positive and statistically significant relationship between economic development and carbon emissions per country, the model underscores the positive signals of the parameters that measure the influence of linear and cubic income over CO2 emissions, and the negative signal for the parameter of quadratic income, highlighting the validity of the traditional N-shaped curve for the analyzed period. Furthermore, we found no differences in the estimation of the parameters between developed and developing countries throughout the period covered by the study, only among countries. Results are particularly important for researchers and policy makers involved with assessing the influence of economic growth on CO2 emissions.
    Keywords: CO2 emissions; economic growth; climate issues; EKC hypothesis; multilevel modeling.

  • Innovative multi-cross trend model (IMCTM) and application   Order a copy of this article
    by Zekâi ?en 
    Abstract: In this paper, innovative multi-cross trend modeling methodology (IMCTM) is suggested for trend identification without any basic assumption at various levels of data records. The methodology is based on the crossing number along a set of straight-line rotations around a given pivot point within the time series. The pivots are exemplified at three levels including the mean and mean
    Keywords: Bi-value; climate change; cross; Danube; intercept; multi; pivot; slope; trend; crossing,.

    by Aluri Nishanth Kumar, A. Sujin Jose, Naganna Tadepalli, Vallem Venkata Sudheer Babu, Sudhakar Uppalapati, S.P. Jani 
    Abstract: Excessive energy use and energy demand leads to decrease in fossil fuel, and this is only for a limited time. Therefore, moving towards renewable energy-based technologies and resources is attractive considering the sustainability aspects. The main objectives of the research are to provide an overview of current sustainability studies of biofuel with life cycle analysis (LCA). Here, late review techniques are presented to combine the implications of indirect land use change in LCAs and models from the United States, Europe and France. One way to promote algae-based fuels are future fuels is to lead government-based policies that bring wastewater management with algae production. A comparison of emissions of generation I, II and III biofuels has been demonstrated, which demonstrates that the second generation biofuels produce lower emissions. The impact of biofuel feeds on land changes over a long period of time was estimated by Monte-Carlo simulations using the ILUC factor.
    Keywords: Bio-energy; Ethanol; Algae; Feeds tocks; Bio-fuel; Bio- diesel; Gases; Energy.

  • A wet type flue gas desulphurization system used in a coal-fired power plant: A case study   Order a copy of this article
    by Mehmet Tontu 
    Abstract: This study aims to perform energy, exergy, economic and emission removal performance analysis of wet flue gas desulphurization (FGD) systems in a coal-fired power plant with 660-MW capacity. The plant performance has been evaluated with the economic analysis within the framework of energy and exergy approaches. Also, emission removal efficiency has been assessed considering the effect of varying several operating key parameters such as PH value, operating plant loads and the number of working recirculation pumps as well as types of coal used in the power plant. The analysis outcomes reveal that energy and exergy performances are negatively correlated with flue gas temperature enhancement. Energy and exergy efficiency improved by 10 % in the case of integration of the heat recovery unit into the system. Furthermore, the increase in the pH value of the FGD plant, the increase in the number of running pumps positively affect the emission removal efficiency, on the other hand, the increase of the power plant load had an adverse effect. According to economic analysis, net present value (NPV) was determined as $ 605,500. The obtained results show that the profit generated by the gypsum trade can be accepted economically, and the NPV of the system could be increased to $ 880,698 as a result of the integration of the heat recovery unit into the system.
    Keywords: Coal-fired power plant; energy and exergy analyses; economic evaluation; wet desulphurization; emission removal efficiency; heat recovery unit.

  • Environmental Damage Analysis of GE90 Turbofan Engines Used on Boeing 777 Aircraft   Order a copy of this article
    by Ozgur Balli, Alper Dalkiran, Tahir Hikmet Karakoc 
    Abstract: This study presents an environmental damage analysis of GE90 engine series for take-off, climb-out, approaching and cruise phases to evaluate the emission rates, the global warming potentials (GWP), the global warming potential index (GWPI), the environmental impact (EI), the environmental impact index (EII), the environmental damage cost (EDC) and the environmental damage cost index of exhaust gases emitted from GE90 turbofan engines via standard dual annular combustor (SDAC) and low emission dual annular combustor (LEDAC). The GE90-76B engine has the maximum exhaust emission rate by 3.694 kg/h for SDAC usage. The GE90-92B engine has the maximum NOX emission rate by 755.40 kg/h for SDAC usage and 707.40 kg/h for LEDAC usage. The results can be used by airlines, countries, or companies that use GE90 engine series.
    Keywords: turbofan engine; exhaust emission; environmental impact; global warming potential; environmental damage cost.

  • Modeling of techno-economic and environmental analysis for the energy generation technologies from Bagasse (Case Study)   Order a copy of this article
    by Farnaz Amin Salehi, Kambiz Rezapour, Alireza Abdollahshirazi, Reza Effatnejad 
    Abstract: In this article a clear-cut comparative research has been conducted on various types of energy production technologies utilized for bagasse including combustion, Pyrolysis, gasification, anaerobic digestion and alcoholic fermentation. Furthermore, these technologies have been analyzed and modeled in a MATLAB software to select its best usage in the conditions of Iran. Moreover, it takes into consideration three technical, economic and environmental viewpoints along with the development of an essential and acceptable data bank. In the technical study, parameters which are of great significant in implementation and manufacturing the technologies are determined. Then with the help of creditable methods of evaluation such as Delphi and focus group, these parameters are compared and weighted. In the economic study, with the calculation of economic indicators such as break-even point, net present value, internal rate of return and payback period, these technologies were compared. In order to facilitate decision making, three scenarios were considered based on international foreign currency. The environmental comparison of technologies were also made by calculating the degree of greenhouse gases reduction and other polluting gases with regard to the determined emission factors for the power plants in the country and their related external costs.
    Keywords: Bagasse; Economic; Energy Production Technologies; Environmental; Modeling; Technical.

  • Projected climate change over Kuwait simulated using a WRF high resolution regional climate model   Order a copy of this article
    by Hussain Alsarraf 
    Abstract: This study to evaluates three different land surface models in Weather Forecast Research (WRF) model to predict the maximum temperatures during summer season. The five layers (5L) thermal diffusion, rapid update cycle (RUC), and Noah chosen based on nature of the environment topography. The WRF simulations of 10 years over the Arabian Peninsula and Kuwait were conducted during the summer from May to September (20002010) to evaluate the sensitivity of the WRF model dynamical downscaling from the Community Climate System Model (CCSM 4) in three nested-grid resolutions. The land-surface model in WRF affect strongly the temperature simulations over the desert region. The best agreement between observation and simulation was found in the case of WRF with Noah land surface to be used for predictions. The future predictions May to September (2050-2060) predicted an increase 1-2 ?C during the summer season over the Arabian Peninsula and Kuwait. The results reveal that the more effective 4-km high-resolution WRF domain using Noah land surface model should be considered for weather, and climate predictions over the Arabian Peninsula and Kuwait.rn

  • Is the sea level rise from the melting of high-latitude ice-on-land further reducing the Earth's angular speed?   Order a copy of this article
    by Alberto Boretti 
    Abstract: There is a consensus that the melting of high-latitude ice on land is translating into a movement of mass towards the equator that is producing a further slowdown of the Earths angular speed because of the conservation of angular momentum. Here we show as the frequency of leap second addition to compensating for a reducing angular speed of the Earth is increasing rather than reducing, as an indication that either the movement of mass towards the equator is much less than the expected, or it has an influence much less than the expected.
    Keywords: global warming; high-latitude ice-on-land; sea-level rise; Earth angular speed.

  • Evaluation of Extreme Climate over Selected Eco-Climatic Regions in Nigeria from Observed and Simulated (RegCM3) Data   Order a copy of this article
    by Mary Idowu, Jonathan Matthew, Adebayo Eludoyin 
    Abstract: This study examined local ground-based and regional (RegCM3) climate simulated over Nigeria for temporal and spatial changes using selected extreme climate indices. The data were assessed for quality assurance using Rclimdex software, before they were analysed for variability, trend and spatio-temporal patterns. Results showed increasing trends in minimum (b = - 0.28oC 0.08oC, p < 0.05) and maximum (b = 0.006oC 0.05 oC; p < 0.05) temperatures. The RegCM3 mirrored the ground-based data for most of the ecological regions, except for Sudan savanna. The study concluded that different parts of Nigeria experience changes related to local climatic perturbations, and that the RegCM3 is capable of reflecting the inference from ground-based data for most stations.
    Keywords: Climate Event; Indices of Extreme Temperature; Regional Climate Model (RegCM3); Temperature Changes.

  • The Design and Applications of an Innovative Irrigation System for Biofacades in Hot Arid Climates   Order a copy of this article
    by Fodil Fadli, Payam Bahrami, Sara Zaina 
    Abstract: Assessment of water requirements through physical sustainable means is essential to ensuring water security, which is at high risk in desert climates such as Doha, Qatar. The water requirements of biofacade systems are met using a sub-irrigation system (SIS), whereby water is delivered to the plant root zone from below the soil surface. This paper focuses on the assessment of the watering technique, in view of its crucial role in the survival of the biofacades system and its plants. The research aims to analyze the biofacades on Qatar Universitys campus in terms of improvements or enhancements in the customized irrigation system aimed at minimizing the consumption of water, reduce evaporation, propagate healthy growth of plants, and maintain constant, self-managed access to water. The analysis is based on monthly data summaries and the monitored data for four green walls, measuring the number of times a wall is watered, the soil condition (moisture level) of the plants, and the total amount of water consumed. The study concludes by ensuring sustainability in terms of reduced water consumption to attain the required moisture level and orientation of the walls with respect to sun, wind, and plant selection, offering recommendations for adapting biofacades design for hot arid climates.
    Keywords: biofacade; irrigation system; desert climate; hot arid region; landscape design; sustainability.

  • Assessing Climate Change Indicators in the United Arab Emirates   Order a copy of this article
    by Fatma Kamkar, Layla Khawatmi, Aysha Arif, Hamed Hamed, Sahar T. Issa, Rami El Khatib, Aseel A. Takshe, Rashed Karkain 
    Abstract: Anthropogenic and natural activities have led to a global phenomenon known as climate change, which evidence shows is worsening. Climatic changes can sometimes be observed at a regional level by assessing certain indicators such as temperature, precipitation, and humidity. This study aims to explore climate indicators in the United Arab Emirates that play a possible role in climate change. To gain insight into the longer-term changes, we looked at regional changes by analyzing trends of mean monthly temperature, maximum monthly temperature, minimum monthly temperature, mean monthly humidity, and rainfall quantities per year over the period of 2003 to 2019. The trend analysis showed an increasing trend in the maximum monthly temperature, minimum monthly temperature, mean monthly temperature, and mean monthly humidity, but a decreasing trend in rainfall quantities, which may suggest climate change at a regional level.
    Keywords: Climate change; Global warming; Temperature; Precipitation; Humidity; Rainfall; Greenhouse gas emissions; Trends; Mitigation; United Arab Emirates.

  • Exploring the effects of elevated Carbon dioxide mediated global warming phenomenon in photosynthesis: Challenges and future directions   Order a copy of this article
    by Malini Bhattacharyya, Abhishek Jamloki, Babita Patni 
    Abstract: Photosynthesis is a plant physiological mechanism by which green plants transform light energy into chemical energy. It is the only mechanism which is essential for making food in the form of complex sugar for heterotrophic organisms i.e. for animals and human being by trapping atmospheric carbon compound in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2). For photosynthesis plants need light energy, water (H2O), and CO2. Rise of the concentration of atmospheric greenhouse gases and water vapor causes a rising of total global temperature especially known as global warming. Increasing atmospheric temperature plays a vital role in several plant physiological procedures. Increasing temperature causes climate change by changing the weathering pattern. Climate change affects photosynthesis in terrestrial plants i.e. C3, C4, and CAM (Crassulacean acid metabolism) plants. The focus of this review is to study the impact of global warming mediated climate change and high temperature developed by the elevated CO2 on plant photosynthesis.CO2 is the most abundant greenhouse gas found in nature. The elevated CO2 level in the atmosphere increases the photosynthesis rate in the plant body till a certain level, thereafter increased heat caused by higher CO2 concentration disrupts the photosynthesis procedure and thylakoid membrane. Moreover, the effect of temperature formed by a higher amount of atmospheric CO2 concentration on the C3, C4, and CAM pathway follower plants are discussed thoroughly along with possible future strategies.
    Keywords: Climate change; elevated CO2; Global warming; Green plants; Photosynthesis; Rubisco.

  • Projection of Reference Evapotranspiration over Ondo State Using an Ensemble of Climate Models   Order a copy of this article
    by Yahaya OLOTU, Muhammed Abudu, S.G. Akinyemi, M.M. BEJIDE, D.A. Okodugha, M. Okafor 
    Abstract: Reference evapotranspiration (ETo) is a significant component of the hydrological cycle useful to develop integrated water resources management (IWRM) for domestic and agricultural uses. Climate change may have potential effects on ETo over Ondo State. It is essential to determine a clear trend of uncertainties in ETo for designing future water-holding structures and projecting crop water requirements (CWR) under different climate change scenarios. The sensitivity analysis over the study area indicated that an ensemble of six general circulation models (GCMs) from the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMP5) under Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP 4.5) projected increases in maximum and minimum temperatures (Tmax and Tmin) for the 2050s (2035-2065) and 2080s (2070-2100). The simulation run outputs showed that the projected ETo increased for the periods the 2050s and 2080s in response to the baseline period (1975-2005), with larger increases in the 2080s. The most considerable average annual changes of ETo values 11.0 mm and 14.1 mm are projected in Idanre in Ondo Central Agro-Ecological Zone (OCAEZ) under CCCMA simulation for the near (the 2050s) and long (2080s) periods. Generally, the predicted increases in ETo over Ondo State could be attributed to the expected increases in Tmax and Tmin. This indicates a drier period during the mid and end of the 21st century.
    Keywords: reference evapotranspiration; general circulation models; Ondo State; climate change; representative concentration pathways; CWR; IWRM.

  • Responding of air quality to COVID-19 pandemic forced partial confinement in Turkey   Order a copy of this article
    by Hadi Genceli 
    Abstract: The COVID-19 was announced as a pandemic in the world by World Health Organization in early March 2020 and first case in Turkey was diagnosed by Ministry of Health in March 11, 2020. The increasing trend of COVID-19 cases led the Turkey government to announce some restrictions in April 3, 2020. The purpose of this research is to assess the influence of the COVID-19 forced partial confinement on air pollution of three most polluted and crowded cities of Turkey (Istanbul, Ankara and Bursa). After some days of imposing restrictions, atmospheric pollutant concentrations in terms of different pollution parameters remarkably dropped. The data reveals that, the most considerable improvement was observed for Ankara and NO2 (-50.9%) which is attributed to the limitation of vehicular movement. Also, the lowest reduction in air pollution parameters was recognized for Istanbul and SO2 (-1.7%). During the period of partial confinement in Turkey (3rd April to 3rd May), O3 concentration increased by about 30.9%, 31.8% and 17.4% in Istanbul, Ankara and Bursa in contradiction to remaining pollutants which is the consequence of lower titration of ozone by NOx resulting in accumulation of O3. Although the improvement in air quality in this period is temporary, the analyses of this research could give a glimpse of what might be possible for capital cities of Turkey in the future in terms of adopting pollution regulations.
    Keywords: Carbon monoxide; COVID-19; Nitrogen dioxide; Ozone; Partial confinement; Particulate matter; Sulfur dioxide.

  • Determinants of climate change at the country level   Order a copy of this article
    by Richhild Moessner 
    Abstract: We study the determinants of climate change across a large number of countries. As a measure of climate change at the country level we use average yearly increases in population-weighted average temperature over the periods 1900 to 2014 and 1960 to 2014 estimated for individual countries. We find that higher average yearly increases in population-weighted average temperature across countries over both the periods 1900-2014 and 1960-2014 tend to be associated with higher energy use, higher carbon dioxide emissions and higher greenhouse gas emissions. These results provide evidence at the country level for the relevance of energy use, carbon dioxide emissions and greenhouse gas emissions for climate change.
    Keywords: Climate change; energy use; greenhouse gas emissions; carbon dioxide emissions.

  • Prioritizing Climate Change Actions Post COVID-19 Amongst University Students A Q Methodology Perspective in the United Arab Emirates   Order a copy of this article
    by Aseel A. Takshe, Jon C. Lovett, Paul Stenner, Davide Contu, Noelia Weber 
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic caused strict regulations to lower transmission rates. Industries were shut down, people were in lockdown, and travel was curtailed. Restrictions were in effect for an enough period for peoples behaviour to change. For example, online meetings rather than needing to travel. This opens the possibility for alterations to the perception that it is possible to commit to effective climate change actions. A Q Methodology study was conducted to analyze how 33 university environmental students across the United Arab Emirates perceive the importance of prioritizing climate change actions post-pandemic. Statistical analysis yielded four discourses. The first emphasises the need to learn lessons about climate sustainability and sustain them post-pandemic. The second, more pessimistic but advocates preventing a return to pre-pandemic norms by implementing post-pandemic climate change regulations. The third expects economic recovery to take priority over reducing emissions. The fourth raises opportunities and challenges for environmental sustainability post-Covid-19.
    Keywords: Climate Change; COVID-19; Q-Methodology; Discourses; Environmental Sustainability.

Special Issue on: GCGW-2019 Studies Associated with Global Warming

  • An experimental evaluation of indirect direct evaporative cooling unit for hot climate   Order a copy of this article
    by Bourhan Tashtoush, Nelson Chilengwe, Mohamed Musthafa, Yousef Al Horr 
    Abstract: Direct and indirect evaporative cooling system is experimentally investigated using a plate heat exchanger for hot climate conditions. The effects of chilled water and ambient temperatures, water flow rates, humidity, and the operating cooling mode on the supply air temperature was investigated for three configurations. The system dry bulb and wet effectiveness was estimated for all conditions under consideration. It was found that the dry bulb effectiveness approached 17%, while it was in the range of 72-98% for the wet bulb effectiveness. In addition, the secondary air saturation effectiveness was calculated with varying water flow rates. It was found that the increase of water quantity in the heat exchanger would increase the refrigeration capacity and lead to a higher secondary air temperature difference. This resulted in higher saturation effectiveness for the system. These results were compared with available numerical data for calibration and validation purposes.
    Keywords: direct cooling; indirect cooling; cross flow; wet bulb effectiveness; dry bulb effectiveness; saturation effectiveness; psychrometric chart; coefficient of performance; hot climate; evaporative cooling.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2021.10039764
  • Statistically downscaling climate change projection of precipitation and temperature over the semi-arid Yarmouk Basin, Jordan   Order a copy of this article
    by Fayez A. Abdulla, Alham W. Al-Shurafat, Moayyad S. Shawaqfah 
    Abstract: The statistical downscaling model (SDSM) skills have been addressed in downscaling the climate change over the Yarmouk Basin, which is a semi-arid trans-boundary basin between Syria and Jordan. The scenarios used to drive SDSM are GHGs representative concentration pathways (RCPs) using CanESM2 GCM. The projected scenarios under RCP2.5, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 for the period 2011-2040 revealed an increase in the temperature by 0.9°C and decrease in the precipitation by about 9.5%, 12.7% and 12.9%, respectively. For the period 2041-2070, the results indicated an increase in temperature by 1.25°C, 1.54°C and 2.01°C, and decrease in precipitation by 16.8%, 18.6% and 18.5% under the three RCPs scenarios, respectively. Similarly, for the period 2071-2099, the results indicated an increase in temperature by 1.21°C, 1.79°C and 3.2°C and a decrease in precipitation by 19%, 25.5% and 31.6%, under the three RCPs scenarios, respectively.
    Keywords: climate change; downscaling; statistical downscaling model; SDSM; semi-arid basin; Yarmouk Basin and uncertainty; Jordan.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2021.10039766
  • The climate change impact projections on seasonal residential sector CO2 emissions and energy demand forecasting for Turkish provinces   Order a copy of this article
    by Can Coskun, Mustafa Erturk, Erol Arcaklioğlu, Kenan Balci, Zuhal Oktay 
    Abstract: The main aim of this study was to determine the seasonal Turkish climate change maps by using long-term temperature trends for the first time and add it to published literature. Residential energy demand and CO2 emissions for Turkish cities were predicted from a current and future perspective by using seasonal climate change maps. There was a significant rise in outdoor temperature according to the results of daily, monthly and seasonal temperature distribution analyses. The temperature increase for each province in Turkey was calculated to reach a maximum of 6.09°C, but it was expected to be 2.65°C on average. Household energy demand and emission changes for each province over the next 100 years were predicted depending on the level of global climate change. Analysis results demonstrated that in the near future, Turkey will get hotter, more arid and unstable in terms of precipitation patterns, and the increase in the average temperatures in Turkey will lead to an increase in energy needs.
    Keywords: climate change impact; energy; map; heating; cooling; residential sector; CO2 emissions; Turkey; forecasting.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2021.10039770
  • Characteristics and scenarios projection of NEE change in an alpine meadow on the Tibetan Plateau   Order a copy of this article
    by Mingyuan Du, Yingnian Li, Fawei Zhang, Liang Zhao, Hongqin Li, Song Gu, Seiichiro Yonemura, Yanhong Tang 
    Abstract: Fourteen years data of eddy covariance measurements at an alpine meadow on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) were used to characterise the statistical features of NEE and its relationship with temperature variations. A statistical model was obtained by using the Michaelis-Menten equations of the light-response curve for predicting the NEE for future climate warming. The results show that less than 2 degrees increase of temperature would not have much influence on the CO2 absorption amount of the ecosystem, while over 2.6 degrees increase of temperature would change the CO2 absorption into CO2 release and 4.8 degree increase of temperature would induce a large amount of CO2 release from the alpine meadow ecosystem (about 166.8 gC/m2/year). This means that over a 2 degrees warming like RCP8.5 scenario in the future would jeopardise future carbon sink capacity at the alpine meadow ecosystem on the TP.
    Keywords: alpine meadow ecosystem; eddy covariance measurement; Michaelis-Menten light-response curve; net ecosystem CO2 exchange; NEE; Coupled Model Intercomparison Project; CMIP5; representative concentration pathways; RCPs; Tibetan Plateau.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2021.10039771
  • A study on determination of component sizing capacity for range performance, cost and CO2 production of an extended-range electric vehicle   Order a copy of this article
    by Mustafa Umut Karaoğlan, Nusret Sefa Kuralay, Can Özgür Çolpan 
    Abstract: Extended-range electric vehicles, which are equipped with a generator including a small gasoline engine as a range extender unit, have become attractive because of their high range and low battery cost potentials. In this study, firstly, the effects of the capacity of the generator module and the battery on the vehicle range, the battery weight, and the battery cost are calculated to determine the design alternatives of the powertrain taking into account the design constraints. Then, vehicle powertrain with each applicable design alternatives, which consist of feasible parameters as battery type, battery capacity, generator power output, and fuel tank capacity, is simulated for ECE-15 drive cycle requirements to determine the vehicle range, the total cost, and the CO2 production. After carrying out a single-objective optimisation procedure, the results yielded the optimum design parameters as follows; 100 Ah-15.36 kWh battery and 2 kW generator power output for the maximum vehicle range, 100 Ah-15.36 kWh battery and 1.7 kW generator power output for the minimum cost, and 40 Ah-15.36 kWh battery and 1.7 kW generator power output for the minimum CO2 production.
    Keywords: extended range; electric vehicle; design optimisation; powertrain simulation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2021.10039772
  • Evaluate the effect of land surface temperature in arid and semi-arid lands using potential remote sensing data and GIS techniques   Order a copy of this article
    by Majed Ibrahim, Barbara Koch, Pawan Datta 
    Abstract: Land surface temperature (LST) plays a significant role with respect to drought, vegetation and climate change. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the effect of LST in some parameters and to carry out mapping using remote sensing data and geographic information system (GIS) techniques. Satellite imagery in Landsat series and meteorological data were utilised to achieve the aims of study. Normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI), soil moisture index (SMI), normalised difference water index (NDWI) and dry bare soil index (DBSI) were utilised to evaluate the effect of LST. The results shows that the relation between the indices and the LST was statistically significant (R2 = 0.2 and 0.3 p < 0.05, respectively). Both maximum and minimum temperatures affect vegetation cover and lead to bareness. The final outcomes shows that the remote sensing data proved to be a powerful tool for monitoring spatial and temporal changes in LST.
    Keywords: land surface temperature; LST; normalised difference vegetation index; NDVI; dry bare soil index; DBSI; normalised difference water index; NDWI; vegetation; geographic information system; GIS; remote sensing; moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer; MODIS.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2020.10031655
  • Experimental analysis of carbon monoxide to establish the origin of dissolved gasses in water, and their role in weather anomalies   Order a copy of this article
    by Paul Somerville 
    Abstract: This study investigates carbon monoxide (CO) gas, to identify the impact it has on atmospheric anomalies (ATMAs). A variety of experimental tests were carried out with the heat, and pressure. Data obtained was analysed with the purpose of establishing clues to verify the fundamental characteristics of CO, highlighting it as being the most environmentally unfriendly gas in the atmosphere (ATM). This paper explores weather cycles, to connect the influence of CO, to extreme ATMAs, such as hurricanes, excessive rainfall, and high volumes of humidity on hot cloudless days. Observations of thunderstorms were explored to determine the effect of the sound given off by thunder, and its influence on the water vapour it comes into contact with. Our comprehension of climate change, leaves us, concluding that the volume of carbon dioxide (CO2) is way above natures required amount in the ATM, resulting in the warming of our planet. The purpose of this study is to highlight the characteristics of CO, and discuss how we should be addressing these issues, establishing a plan of action for combating global warming.
    Keywords: atmospheric gasses; global warming; climate change; carbon monoxide; atmospheric anomalies; ATMAs; thunderstorms; hurricanes; dissolved gas in water.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2021.10039773
  • Spatial trends of maximum and minimum temperatures in different climate zones of Pakistan by exploiting ground-based and space-borne observations   Order a copy of this article
    by Fasiha Safdar, Muhammad Fahim Khokhar, Muhammad Imad Ud Din, Ghazanfar Farooq Siddiqui, Waleed Khattak 
    Abstract: Temperature is a key indicator of a changing climate. A trivial change in temperature can result in significant changes in weather patterns with severe repercussions on ecology and socio-economic conditions of an area. This study aims to assess the changing trends in maximum and minimum temperatures in five climatic zones of Pakistan, and compare ground-based with satellite data from AIRS over these climatic zones of Pakistan. Mann Kendall test has been used to signify the temperature trends in all zones and seasons while Sen's slope value has been used to measure the magnitude of the trends for the time period 1978 to 2016. Ground observations have been compared with AIRS satellite observations for ascending and descending air temperatures by employing correlation and mean bias error. The results show that AIRS product (AIRSX3STM) underestimates Tmax and Tmin in all zones of Pakistan with the underestimation being most prominent in zone A. The trend analysis for maximum and minimum temperatures shows an increase in temperatures for all climate zones. Overall, Pakistan's maximum temperature increased by 0.026°C/year with the maximum increase of 0.05°C/year during pre-monsoon, and the minimum temperature increased by 0.027°C/year.
    Keywords: temperature trends; AIRS satellite data; validation; mean bias error; MBE; climatic zones; Pakistan.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2021.10031711
  • Real-time vulnerability analysis of hydropower projects under changed climatic scenarios   Order a copy of this article
    by Priyanka Majumder, Samrat Kar, Mrinmoy Majumder 
    Abstract: Utilising the kinetic energy of the flowing water and converting it to electrical energy can be a very useful method in the way of sustainable development as energy retrieved from the flowing water is comparatively inexpensive and a reliable renewable energy source which have the potential to substitute the conventional methods. But due to the increasing concentration of unwanted green house gases and global warming the environmental concentration are degrading day by day. The electricity production of hydropower plant will greatly be effected by climate change as the production is directly proportional to the rate of flowing water which directly depends on the climatic location of the power plant. Thus continuous climatic vulnerability monitoring becomes very important factor in order to predict the efficiency of a hydro power plant. In this study continuous climatic vulnerability monitoring is done by decision making-based neuro-genetic models.
    Keywords: HPP; fuzzy AHP; ANN; climate change; real-time monitoring.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2021.10039774
  • Impact of the urban heat island effect on the climate of the State of Qatar   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammed Al-Marzooqi, Hazrat Bilal, Rajesh Govindan, Krishna Kumar Kanikicharla, Tareq Al-Ansari 
    Abstract: The rapid urbanisation and expansion of the built environment in large cities are attracting increasing attention among the global scientific community to understand the relationship between urban expansion and heat island effect (UHI). This study investigates the relationship between urban expansion and the UHI effect employing an integrated approach, including topographic analysis and land surface temperature analysis based on remote sensing and ground-based urban temperature analysis over 30 years of data. Results suggest that: 1) long-term UHI intensity trends in Doha city are statistically significant for seasonal and annual night time temperature; 2) based on the remote sensing data analysis significant urban expansion in Doha city was observed over the past 30 years; 3) day and night time temperature in Doha city was comparatively higher than other localities; 4) the spatiotemporal variations in the UHI are consistent with the urban expansion. Improvement in energy efficiency practices, urban green space optimisation, green rooftop and the use of reflective materials will mitigate the UHI effects. These results are suggested to help future urban planning and development, which will help to achieve sustainable development goals.
    Keywords: urbanisation; urban heat island; UHI; remote sensing.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2021.10039775
  • Application of artificial neural network model for forecast energy efficiency of the cryogenic liquefaction system in the meaning of sustainability   Order a copy of this article
    by Elif Altintas, Mert Tolon, Arif Karabuga, Zafer Utlu 
    Abstract: Sustainable engineering approaches are a necessity for improving efficiency. For this reason, the artificial neural network (ANN) model is used to forecast different types of energy efficiency problems. In this paper, a comparison is made between a simple model based on ANN which gives meaningful findings in terms of thermodynamics and a model that is based on thermodynamic principles as auditing and predicting tool to forecast exergy efficiency of the system by applying different ANN architecture types with 441 data of experimental measurements obtained from liquefied nitrogen and analysed the Engineering Equation Solver (EES) program to make an exergy analysis.
    Keywords: sustainability; sustainable engineering approach; thermodynamic analysis; cryogenic liquefaction system; artificial neural networks; ANNs.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2021.10039776

Special Issue on: IEEES-12 Environmentally-Benign Solutions

  • Assessment of Regional Climate Innovation Potential in Hungary   Order a copy of this article
    by Mária Szalmáné Csete, Orsolya Barna 
    Abstract: Climate change can have extremely diverse impacts on different spatial levels depending on regional characteristics. To tackle climate change in a sustainable way on a regional level should be a key priority for all regions. The role of innovation in regional competitiveness is widely studied, however, climate innovation is a research niche in the regional development research field. This paper gives an overview and a typology about climate innovation options from the regional development perspective in Hungary.
    Keywords: climate innovation; regional development; sustainability management; environmental education.

  • Research on carbon productivity of the construction industry in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region using system dynamics model   Order a copy of this article
    by Wei Sun, Yanan Han, Fan Zhang, Chaoxia Hu, Yujun He 
    Abstract: In this paper, the carbon productivity of construction industry in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei is researched to guide regional low-carbon development. First, the Log Mean Divisia Index method is adopted to identify the main driving factors of regional carbon productivity. Then, based on the system dynamics theory, three scenarios are designed to predict the future of carbon productivity. Results show that the carbon productivity under three scenarios will reach 0.58438, 0.84304, 0.86592 (
    Keywords: Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei construction industry; Log Mean Divisia Index; Carbon productivity; system dynamics model.

  • Life Cycle Assessment of Energy-Efficient Improvement for External Walls of Hospital Building   Order a copy of this article
    by Okan Kon, Ismail Caner, Nadir ILTEN 
    Abstract: In this study, life cycle assessment analysis was examined for the insulation material applied to the external walls in hospital building in Balikesir. Optimum insulation thicknesses were calculated depending on different insulation materials such as glass wool, rock wool and polyurethane considering the combustion properties. Then, the life cycle saving (LCS) and life cycle total cost (LCT) values were calculated based on the energy consumption of the uninsulated and optimally insulated external wall for ten years life. Finally, CO2 emission savings due to life cycle greenhouse gas (LCG) were estimated. Optimum insulation thicknesses were found to be 0.157 m for glass wool, 0.074 m for rock wool and 0.022 m for polyurethane.
    Keywords: hospital building; combined heat transfer coefficient; optimum insulation thickness; life cycle assessment; greenhouse emission.

  • Biochar: A Sustainable Approach for Water Stress and Plant Growth   Order a copy of this article
    by Snigdhendubala Pradhan, Hamish Mackey, Tareq Al-Ansari, Gordon McKay 
    Abstract: In this study, the performance of biochar produced from vegetable wastes at 400
    Keywords: Food waste; Biochar; Water retention; Plant growth; Water food nexus.

  • Role of Solar Indoor Cooker with Natural Circulation in Mitigation of Carbon Emissions   Order a copy of this article
    by Varun K, Arunachala Chandavar, Manjunath M S 
    Abstract: The present study introduced a novel Thermosyphon heat transport device (THTD) for solar cooking. The numerical analysis included the response and flow pattern of THTD and its counterpart Simple closed thermosyphon (SCT). The response of SCT is deteriorated by 38 % compared to THTD as multiple recirculation zones are present in the flow region. Further, a redesigned cooktop THTD integrated with a parabolic dish reflector emerged as an efficient design. In India, both firewood and LPG cooking leads to alarming pollution level, which can be proficiently cut down by implementing cooktop THTD as it can minimize 14.19 Mt of CO2 discharge. Additionally gains carbon credit for the same.
    Keywords: Cooktop thermosyphon device; Adiabatic height; Beam down concentrator; Carbon discharge; Carbon credit.

  • Technical Review of Green Roofs in Hot Arid Region: Case of Qatar   Order a copy of this article
    by Sara Zaina, Fodil Fadli, Mohd Faris Bin Khamidi 
    Abstract: Greening the city and its buildings is not a new notion, in fact it is an old-traditional system that is re-discovered to improve damaged impact on the urban environment in a smart-sustainable way. Greening has its roots in the natural environment, and it can also be incorporated significantly on the roof within architecture and design. Green roof system is becoming popular. In the last years, the quantity of studies distributed in the scienti?c writing on this point, including green elements are rapidly expanding as it allows for a healthy-sustainable urban space and improves the overall quality of life. This paper develops a technical review on historical, classifications, and technical aspects of green roof system. The review concludes with a set of design recommendations which would be helpful to architects, planners, and urban designers, to explore and use the most suitable green design possibilities in hot arid region such as Qatar.
    Keywords: green roof; sustainable architecture; construction components; technical review.

  • Drive Cycle Performance Analysis for Various Powertrain Alternatives of Zero-Emission Battery Electric Military Vehicles   Order a copy of this article
    by Mustafa Umut Karaogan 
    Abstract: Applications of heavy-duty electric vehicles are growing as clean and efficient options in commercial and military fields. Except for the commercial applications, zero exhaust and noise emissions with high powertrain efficiency are aimed for secret operations from military purpose vehicles. In this study, electrification of a heavy military vehicle is simulated by Matlab/Simulink to achieve these requirements for various powertrain types as wheeled, half-tracked, and tracked. The simulations are performed for the results of electric motor (EM) torque, battery power, and State of Charge (SOC) outputs of the vehicle alternatives during the drive cycle time. The results indicate that a higher range can be obtained by the tracked vehicle when it operates at low speeds (HHDDT-Creep Mode) but the wheeled alternative offers higher ranges in HHDDT-Cruise Mode for various vehicle weights.
    Keywords: Electric vehicle simulation; wheeled vehicle; half-tracked vehicle; tracked vehicle.

  • Mitigation of urban air pollution with green vegetation for sustainable cities: A review   Order a copy of this article
    by Taif Alsalama, Muammer Koc, Rima J. Isaifan 
    Abstract: This paper presents a narrative review on the utilization of urban trees and vegetation to reduce air pollution in urban areas. The results show that trees act as a barrier between sources of pollution and population by the objection of airborne particles and exploitation of gaseous emissions through leaf stomata on the plant surface. The factors that affect the extent of air quality improvement by trees depend on their type, air quality index, leaf size and shape, and seasonality. In addition, the geography, climate, demographic and built-environment make up of the urban entity play major role in this application.
    Keywords: Urban environment; sustainability; urban greening; air quality; climate change; trees.

  • Flowsheet development for the steam gasification of animal manure with subsequent CO2 capturing using CaO: An Aspen Plus   Order a copy of this article
    by Muhammad Shahbaz, Tareq Al-Ansari, Ahmed AlNouss, Gordon Mckay 
    Abstract: Animal manure is one of the important wastes present in the state of Qatar and worldwide. The aim of the current investigation is to develop a flowsheet model for the steam gasification of animal manure with CaO for CO2 capturing using Aspen Plus through the Gibbs-free energy minimization model. The effect of three key variables, namely, the temperature (600-800
    Keywords: Animal manure; CO2 capturing; gasification; Aspen Pus; syngas. CaO; CO2 emissions; Cost; Techno economic analysis.

  • Effects and critical analysis for Emission Reduction Assessment in the Road Transportation Sector   Order a copy of this article
    by Ruba Al-Foraih, SREEKANTH K J 
    Abstract: Road transportation and the corresponding GHG emissions are one of the main reasons for environmental contamination in almost all countries, and Kuwait is not an exception. Emissions of CO2, NOx, CO, and CH4 due to the operation of vehicles lead to environmental pollution and serious health issues. This research focuses on the use of Effects and Criticality Analysis (ECA), which identifies how a product, facility, or practice can collapse for analyzing the effects and associated risk assessment due to these emissions. A structured approach is made in this study to estimate the risk allied with certain failure grounds and rank the proceedings to lessen the risk of failure. ECA requires identifying different possible failure modes of the present road transportation practice, their occurrence, and possible sources in conjunction with the emission sector. The standard ECA procedure assesses failure means for occurrence, severity, and detection. To narrow the gap between the research and actual maintenance practices while dealing with failures and its criticality for hot arid regions, this study will surely contribute and beneficial. The focus of this study was mainly on automobiles' fuel consumption, energy consumption, and emissions produced by private vehicles. ECA was made to calculate these measures and predict them for the future. The exponentiation of the parameters directs to the Risk Priority Number (RPN). A rating is assigned for severity, occurrence, and detection to estimate RPN for every failure mode and to select the first five high priority failure modes to be used in the improvement stage, as they are approximately 70% of all RPN. The basis for 70% appears from the Pareto principle. Based on the obtained results, some important recommendations were made such as service intervals for the optimum time to change the filter, tyre pressure check at regular intervals, tyre inflation its effect, the effect of carrying excess weight, vehicle idling time and its effect on fuel consumption, and the harmful effect of CO2 into the atmosphere.
    Keywords: Fuel consumption; energy consumption; emissions; exhaust gases; ECA; FMEA.

  • Mitigating Global Warming in Smart Energy Grids via Energy Supply Security for Critical Energy Infrastructures   Order a copy of this article
    by CEVAT ÖZARPA, Muhammed Ali Aydin, Isa Avci 
    Abstract: The use of renewable energy sources, energy management, and improvement of the operation of power systems have become important in terms of reducing global warming and environmental pollution. Energy is an indispensable building block for all countries and has a severe impact on the economy and the environment. Problems in energy supply security threaten smart grids and cities, critical infrastructures and industrial control systems, and directly affect the economy. As a result, energy supply security has become an important issue for energy infrastructures, renewable, and environmentally friendly energy networks. This study aims to review the increase in energy supply, energy supply security and risks, global warming, the importance of renewable energy sources, and environmental factors in energy infrastructure security. Also, a security framework is proposed for critical energy infrastructures such as electricity, water, natural gas, coal, petroleum, renewable energy, and nuclear energy resources, taking into account the key risk factors affecting the reliability, environmental impacts, and security of energy sources in energy supply security. This framework consists of seven main topics, with particular emphasis on cybersecurity and environmental security. 17 different risk types are identified in the proposed framework along with their reasons for natural gas, electricity, coal, oil, nuclear, and renewable energy sources. Risks determined in terms of energy supply security and environmental impacts are calculated according to energy sources and it is found that renewable energy sources have less risk (9%) than other energy forms, electricity (13%) and natural gas (15%).
    Keywords: Energy Supply Security; Emissions; Smart Grid; Renewable Energy Grids.

  • Techno-economic and Environmental Aspects of Solar Driven Heating Assistance Options for Residential Buildings   Order a copy of this article
    by Ümit Deniz Akyavuz, Hasan Özcan 
    Abstract: In Turkey, every year 12-15 billion m3 of natural gas is used in residential heating. Energy from renewable energy systems can reduce both CO2 emissions and national energy imports. In this study, storage of sensible heat, hydrogen and electricity is compared in four different systems to be integrated to existing heating systems utilizing solar energy for heating assistance. Vacuum tube collector (VTC) system and parabolic thermal collector (PTC) system are selected for sensible heat storage, photovoltaic (PV) panel system is selected for hydrogen storage and electrical energy storage via batteries. According to calculations for an area where 300 kW of solar energy falling for 8 hours, the highest heating support is PTC with approximately 5800 MJ. Its natural gas equivalent is approximately 160 m3/day. Due to the highest natural gas gain, the highest blocked CO2 emission as 320 kg/day occurs in the PTC preheating system.
    Keywords: Energy storage; sensible heat storage; renewable energy; solar energy; heating system;CFD.

  • Sustainable Development of Qatar Aquifers Under Global Warming Impact   Order a copy of this article
    by Salah Ajjur, Husam Baalousha 
    Abstract: In a warming world, effective management is important to the sustainability of water resources. This is especially true in arid countries where those resources are limited. Qatar is a hyper-arid country with minimal rainfall and extremely high temperatures. Its recent sharp increase in population and urbanization have affected Qatars per-capita water consumption, which in turn has exerted more pressure on its limited water resources. Many studies have recommended managed aquifer recharge (MAR) to improve groundwater quality and enhance water security. The literature has documented many different MAR implementation methods and strategies. However, their appropriateness and feasibility in Qatar remain unexplored. This study establishes key MAR development indicators in Qatar considering current technical and socio-economic factors. The study compares four MAR methods: (a) aquifer storage and recovery (ASR), (b) rainwater harvesting (RWH), (c) in-channel modification, and (d) spreading. Results show that coupling the RWH and ASR methods is the optimum scenario for aquifer management and sustainability. In addition to resources augmentation, RWH will contribute to flash flood prevention, which adversely affects the environment. In contrast, the in-channel modification and spreading methods can reduce up to 80% of the water available for recharge. Specific recommendations for the ASR method are embarking on field-scale tests and theoretical models to ensure the effectiveness of the recovery process in heterogeneous aquifers. A recovery rate of less than 25% might be recorded in ASR karstic sites. Further work includes considering climate change impacts and uncertainty in MAR design for Qatar.
    Keywords: Qatar; water resources management; managed aquifer recharge; desalinated water; climate change.

  • Sustainable energy use and decarbonization potential in the Hungarian residential building sector   Order a copy of this article
    by Tamás Pálvölgyi, Attila Buzási 
    Abstract: The residential buildings form a crucial sector of climate change mitigation in Hungary. The primary objective of the paper is to identify the long-term tendencies and future perspectives of the decarbonization of household heating energy use in Hungary. Secondly, the paper focuses on the sustainability context of the energy sector by applying a complex impact assessment framework. Besides the quantitative analyses, driving factors in historical emission reductions were also identified, as well as future decarbonization potentials and options in household heating were estimated.
    Keywords: residential buildings; decarbonization potential; sustainable energy use.

  • The Energetic Performance Effect on The Valuation of Bulk Carriers   Order a copy of this article
    by Murat Koray, M.Ziya Sogut 
    Abstract: Dry cargo vessels consume high energy depending on operational processes in economic life and many work processes related to energy consumption from port to voyage processes have been defined. As a result of the regulations imposed by regulatory authorities such as the International Maritime Organization, Flag and Port State, shipping companies are under severe conditions for developing environmentally sensitive behavior as well as coping with low freight rates. This study was examined based primarily on the energy analysis and environmental effects of the power transmission system used in a dry bulk carrier. Then, considering the real performance data, the effects on the ship valuation processes are also questioned. As a result of the analyses, the total amount of fuel has average energy performance of 31.54% when 30 voyages are considered. A one-degree savings rate in this load distribution has yielded a 5.27% savings, with 510.31 tons. These savings increase the ship' value up to 1.4 million USD at the end of the economic life. At the end of the study, taking into account the fuel cost, which is the biggest impact on the Operational Expenditures Costs, the relationship between the ship operation processes and valuation were presented.
    Keywords: bulk carriers; energy; exergy; efficiency; ship valuation.

  • Prospects of Renewable Energy Penetration to Turkeys Electric Power Grid   Order a copy of this article
    by Mehmet BULUT, Izzet Alagoz 
    Abstract: Turkey has important growth for renewable energy and has been recorded in a short time, where electricity generation from solar power reached 9249 GWh and from wind power reached 21730 GWh by the end of 2019. This study examines the penetration of renewable energy sources to the grid by analyzing the current grid situation. In this study, we investigated how much can be met from renewable energy sources over the next decade in Turkey. For this, predictive values of renewable energy sources were found using linear and polynomial regression methods.
    Keywords: Electrical energy; Renewable; Hydroelectric; Wind energy; Solar energy.

Special Issue on: IEEES-12 Environmentally-Benign Solutions

  • Investigations on the domestic waste and its impact on human health- Case study for Qatar to understand the needs and recommendations
    by Taif Alsalama, Muammer Koc, Rima J. Isaifan 
    Abstract: Qatar has recently witnessed an unprecedented growth in population and economy since 2007 that has led to a significant increase in domestic waste generation. This research aims at understanding the composition of domestic waste, evaluating the health hazard on human health in Qatar and proposing proper disposal methods of domestic hazardous waste. The results show that the domestic waste is dominated by plastic bottles, bags, and paper. The most common disposal method is in communal trashcan without sorting, and 77% of trash collectors reported that they got injured by broken glass.
    Keywords: domestic waste; health hazards; waste disposal; Qatar; awareness; urban waste