International Journal of Global Warming (60 papers in press)
Mechanism of CO2 sequestration by high-alkaline red mud : Conversion of katoite
by Zelin Su, Dongbo Wang, Xianqing Huang, Xiang Li, Xin Yu, Ying Huang, Qingge Feng
Abstract: Red mud (RM) is an alkaline solid waste, which can be carbonized and neutralized by sequestrating carbon dioxide (CO2). Here, the CO2 sequestration capacity of red mud was quantitatively characterized by elemental analyzer, and the effects of liquid-solid ratio (2:1-10:1), reaction time (0-300 min), reaction pressure (2-12 bar) and reaction temperature (room temperature-130?) were studied in detail. In addition, both the red mud before and after carbonation were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, SEM and laser particle size analyzer. The results showed that CO2 could be sequestrated by red mud due to the mineral phase transformation of alkaline substances, which was that katoite converted to calcite and other substances with dissolving CO2 and leaching Ca2+ in water medium.
Keywords: Red mud; carbon dioxide; sequestration; transformation; alkaline substances; mechanism; katoite; calcite.
The soil organic carbon density spatial heterogeneity and its impact factors under different karst landforms
by Xingfu Wang, Xianfei Huang, Jiwei Hu, Zhenming Zhang
Abstract: To study the spatial heterogeneity and effect factors of soil organic carbon density (SOCD) under different karst landforms, total of 1173 samples were taken from different karst landforms including Puding (KP), Xingyi (KPCD), Guanling (KC), Libo (KVF) and Yinjiang (KTV) in Guizhou Province. SOCD characteristics in lands with different vegetation types, land uses and soil types under different Karst landforms were analyzed. The relationship between SOCD and environment factors was analyzed via redundancy analysis. The results indicate that there is a larger discrepancy of SOCD among difference karst landforms types, and this distinction decreased gradually with the increasing of soil depth. The SOCD in soil horizons (0-100 cm) of KPCD, KP, KTV, KC and KVF were 11.10 kg
Keywords: Karst; Different Landform types; Soil Organic Carbon Density; Spatial Heterogeneity; Environment factors; Impact mechanism.
Canadian Arctic weather system configuration related to the recent sea ice decline and heatwave of summer 2019
by Farahnaz Fazel-Rastgar
Abstract: Average summer surface temperatures time series during 1948-2019 reveals higher positive slope for eastern Canadian Arctic rather than the west with a peak in summer 2019, accompanied with recent Arctic sea-ice decline. This is associated with Greenland Omega blocking high-pressure system. The Hovm
Keywords: Climate change; heatwave; Canadian Arctic; omega blocking high; GBI.
Global warming scenario depicts enhanced spatial distribution of Quercus lanata in the western Himalayas
by Maneesh S. Bhandari, Rajendra K. Meena, Rajeev Shankhwar, Shailesh Pandey, Rama Kant, Santan Barthwal, Harish S. Ginwal
Abstract: Quercus lanata, native to Indian Himalayan Region (IHR), is a less explored but extremely important species. Habitat fragmentation, forest degradation, lower seed viability and relegated regeneration contributed to the declining population of this species. The present study aimed to predict the distribution of Q. lanata in western Himalayas using Maxent modeling, where 70 % of the geo-coordinates were used for prediction and rest for validation. Results revealed the statistically significant AUC value ranged from 0.896
Keywords: Quercus lanata; Indian Himalayan Region; Maxent model; ecological niche; global warming.
Urban Heat Island effect over Delhi NCR using LANDSAT data
by Mohit Raja Srivastava, Satya Prakash
Abstract: In the paper the authors have analysed Urban Heat Island using Landsat TM data for Delhi NCR region using Mono-window algorithm. Spatial pattern of land surface temperature (LST) from 2001-2018 was retrieved to characterize its effect on UHI. It was found that UHI effect was increasing during 2001-2010, while during 2010-2016 it showed a decreasing trend due to increase in forest coverage and various governmental policies for construction activities, but the current trend shows an increasing trend further, the effect is highest in 2018. A total of 26 profile along each LST map has been taken to collaborate the finding.
Keywords: Land Surface temperature; Urban Heat Island; Delhi NCR; UHI; LST; Mono-window algorithm.
MSW to Energy: A Novel and Sustainable Solution to Waste Management for Kolkata, India
by Pradip Mondal, Sudip Ghosh, Swapan Das
Abstract: This study deals with modeling and 4-E analysis of a solid waste gasification combined cycle plant, conceived for the municipal area of Kolkata (India). It reveals that the plant can utilize municipal waste to generate about 300MW at a maximum efficiency of 49%. The combustor accounts for maximum exergy destruction, followed by the gasifer and the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). The plant offers very low cost of electricity and CO2 emission (2.8 INR/kWh and 580 g/kWh respectively, at optimum point) and also saves significant environmental damage cost by avoiding land-filling.
Keywords: 4-E analysis; CO2 emission; cost of electricity; sustainability; waste to energy.
Removal of Heavy Metals from Mixed Domestic and Industrial Wastewater by Activated Sludge Process Using MWCNT
by Ümmükülsüm Özel Akdemir
Abstract: In this study, the effect of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) on heavy metal and COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) removal in the continuous flow activated sludge process was investigated. In order to treat domestic and industrial wastewater together in the biological treatment unit, 50 and 100 mg.L-1 MWCNT were added to laboratory scale reactors, one of which was a control reactor (CR). It was determined that the increase of the MWCNT concentration leads to increase in the rate of removal of COD. COD removal for CR, 50 and 100 mg.L-1 MWCNT was 49.24, 64.95 and 76.46 %, respectively. In the first hour Ni (II) removal was achieved in the control Reactor (CR) at 65.33 %. When 50 and 100 mg.L-1 MWCNT was added to reactors, Ni (II) removal was 71.14 % and 79.99 %, respectively. Cu (II) and Cr (VI) removal efficiencies were achieved about 99 %, during the treatment. It was determined that MWCNT has a positive effect on activated sludge treatment efficiency. As a result, biokinetic coefficients show that reactor volume the size will be smaller and size of sludge handling facility will be the greater with increases in the amount of MWCNT.
Keywords: MWCNT; activated sludge; heavy metals; COD; biokinetic coefficients.
CO2 Emission from Oil & Gas Production - Challenges and Opportunities
by Shakir Ather, Muhammad Asim, Salman Manzoor
Abstract: The analysis in the report is related to the issue of emission of CO2 from the oil and gas companies in Pakistan. The issue was selected considering the increasing threats for the environmental sustainability that are caused due to the emission of CO2 gases on consistent basis. The variables chosen for the purpose of analysis were knowledge of the firm, incentives of the government, magnitude of CO2, cost and scale of CCU technology. The statistical techniques that were applied were regression, correlation and Cronbach alpha analysis. The findings that were obtained through regression and correlation illustrated a positive impact between the independent and the dependent variables.
Keywords: Carbon Capture and Utilization; Awareness; Acceptance; Perception; Emissions; Greenhouse Gases; Emissions Reduction; Emissions Mitigation.
RECENT ADVANCES IN THE PRETREATMENT OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS FOR ENHANCED BIOFUEL PRODUCTION
by Oznur Yildirim, Rahime Songur, Emine Bayraktar, Ahmet Demir, Bestami Ozkaya
Abstract: Lignocellulosic biomass has a hard matrix consisting of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, which stores carbon and chemical energy in its structure. Although its structure is resistant to biodegradation, it should be considered as an important raw material of high added value products such as ethanol and butanol. During the biologically refining of these products with a bio-refinery approach, it is essential to breakdown this structure with pre-hydrolysis. Therefore, the optimization and feasibility of biological processes strictly depend on the pretreatment step. This study aimed to contribute to ensuring accelerated biofuel production by examining all the applications adopted for the preliminary hydrolysis process in recent years. Another considerable point is being to release toxic compounds from the degradation of hemicellulose and cellulose during the pretreatment step, which is one of the discussed key points in this study. This study set out the challenges and implications in the pre-treatment step of lignocellulosic biomass, which will contribute to the commercialization of the biotransformation systems refining of high added value products with the biorefinery approach.
Keywords: lignocellulosic biomass; pre-hydrolysis; toxicity; bioethanol; biobutanol; biomethane; biohydrogen.
Emerging Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Removal and Utilization Techniques
by Zhihua Zhang
Abstract: The increasing carbon emissions from fossil fuel combustion and land use change will lead to disastrous global warming in the near future, so it is widely recognized as one of the most challenges facing human societies. In this paper, we will assess the atmospheric carbon dioxide removal and recycling utilization which can turn anthropogenic carbon emissions from carbon pollution into valuable resource and then satisfy the needs of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The direct removal of atmospheric carbon dioxide is mainly through direct air capture, sustainable biochar, desert geoengineering, and ocean fertilization. Captured atmospheric carbon dioxide can further be utilized in the synthesis of various fuels or enhance of traditional energy production. This novel approach can bring the atmospheric carbon dioxide back to the energy cycle, converse fossil energy into carbon-neutral energy, and then achieve the recycle of carbon dioxide resource.
Keywords: Carbon Emissions; Carbon Dioxide Removal; Carbon Dioxide Utilization; Carbon-neutral Fuel; Sustainable Development Goals.
UP TO DATE STATISTICAL ESSENTIALS IN CLIMATE CHANGE AND HYDROLOGY: A REVIEW
by Zekâi ?en
Abstract: In climatology and hydrology probabilistic, statistical and stochastic analyses are frequently used tools for the identification of changes and variabilities within uncertainty domain. There are different statistical-based methodologies for climate change and hydrology data modeling, future simulation and projection studies. Even though physical dynamic integro-differential conservation equations provide the dynamic basis, but due to uncertainty ingredients probabilistic and especially statistical calculation principles are panaceas for better solutions. In the literature, there are many articles, where the proper usages of the statistical methodologies are rather weak, incomplete or even to a certain extent not acceptable. The main reason for this might be in many cases the use of ready software without knowing the rational, logical and practical background principles of the statistical methodologies in addition to the validity of restrictive assumptions. There are numerous statistical methods each one with its special pros and cons. \r\nThis review paper covers the main applications of statistical methods in climate change and hydrology studies. The content addresses various specialists such as meteorologists, climatologists, hydrologists, engineers, geographers, earth scientists. The topics include the most up to date subjects in these disciplines with great emphasis on the statistical methodologies. Visual graphical explanations are provided essentially through figures with the aim to understand the statistical bases of model construction, diagnosis, adaptation, verification and efficiency leading to proper projections, predictions, and their reliable representations by uncertainty assessments. Among the topics are statistical uncertainty evaluations, statistical weather forecasting, statistical downscaling, various risk analysis techniques, trend existence and identification analyses, and model efficiency metrics. \r\n
Keywords: Assumptions; climatology; hydrology; methodologies; parameters; pitfalls; \r\n statistics; trends; uncertainty. \r\n.
A case study of the life cycle impact of limestone quarrying on the environment
by BENDOUMA Sabrina, Serradj Tayeb, Vapur Hüseyin
Abstract: In this paper, a life cycle assessment (LCA) model from cradle-to-gate of one ton of aggregate was achieved to evaluate the environmental impact of limestone quarrying, by counting material and energy flows throughout the extraction and processing of limestone. Life cycle analysis was accomplished using SimaPro 8.5 software and ecoinvent database 3.4. Primary data collection was carried out in five different limestone quarries located in Algeria. The analysis was conducted according to the LCA standards ISO 14040-44. The results show that: global warming potential (GWP) varies from 4,689 to 50,875 kg CO2-eq./ton and it is remarkably dominated by CO2 and N2O emissions, primary energy use varies from 0,38 to 218,50 megajoules per ton. Other impacts are also mentioned in this study such as ecotoxicity and eutrophication which range from 2,17E-15 to 1,54E-11 and from 2,72E-17 to 1,61E-11 species.yr respectively.
Keywords: limestone quarrying; life cycle assessment; global warming; SimaPro; Algeria; aggregates; environment; life cycle impact.
Synthesis of hierarchical porous carbon from waste camellia oleifera shell with high carbon dioxide adsorption capacity
by Chao Chen, Samiran Bhattacharjee
Abstract: A porous carbon material with hierarchical micropore-mesopore structure was prepared from waste camellia oleifera shell by a simple ZnCl2 chemical activation technique. The surface morphology and textural properties of prepared carbon materials were characterized by scanning electron micrograph (SEM) and N2 adsorption/desorption measurement. The carbon product exhibits high specific surface area and pore volume of 2933 m2/g and 1.59 cm3/g, respectively, which are the highest values among carbon materials prepared from various biomass materials reported to date. This carbon material exhibited a CO2 uptake of 134 mg/g at 25 oC and 1 atm pressure, which is one of the highest CO2 capture capacities among carbon materials prepared from a variety of biomass materials reported so far under the same experimental conditions. The adsorbent regeneration can be achieved by a facile argon purge and the material showed stable performance in 5 CO2 consecutive adsorption-desorption test cycles.
Keywords: camellia oleifera shell; chemical activation technique; porous carbon; hierarchical pore structure; CO2 adsorption.
Prediction of calcination and sulfation along the sorbent particle trajectories for desulfurization in coal-fired furnace
by Ivan Tomanovic, Srdjan Belosevic, Nenad Crnomarkovic, Aleksandar Milicevic, Dragan Tucakovic
Abstract: The coal-fired furnace sorbent injection is analysed numerically, with the focus on sorbent trajectories behaviour, in order to estimate real CaCO3 sorbent utilization. The paper provides comprehensive presentation of numerical results and profound analysis of the sorbent particle reactions to deepen understanding of the process under realistic conditions. Extents of the sorbent calcination and sulfation are examined over 5600 trajectories, grouped by starting locations, and results are given for selected trajectories injected through different burner tiers. The boiler load in simulated test-cases is between 70 and 100%. Under the conditions, furnace processes are not disturbed by the reduction of the boiler load. A detailed insight into both the individual trajectories behaviour and the overall sulfation effects reveal that the reduced load, in these cases, yield to some extent better SO2 reduction. Reactivity of the sorbent particles increases with the boiler load reduction, especially for those passing near the flame core, where more SO2 is available for reactions. The boiler load reduction can lead to better particle utilization and, consequently, higher SO2 capture during the sorbent particles residence in the furnace. The calcination and sulfation of sorbent particles increase with the boiler load decrease, due to the combined influence of extended particle residence time and more favourable reaction conditions. The conclusions are limited to the case-study conditions and impose the need for further investigation.
Keywords: furnace; sorbent injection; limestone; calcination; sulfation; lignite; pulverized coal combustion; particle trajectories;; cfd; simulation.
Improved standard precipitation index (ISPI) and drought characteristics
by Zekâi Sen
Abstract: In many regions of the world, and particularly in the eastern Mediterranean region, there is a general tendency of precipitation decrease according to the global circulation model (GCM) and the regional climate change models (RegCM). Dry spells and their temporal occurrences as droughts affect water resources, and hence, agriculture and food security in any region. It is, therefore, necessary to foresee the future drought characteristics based on the historical records. Although the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) provides dryness classifications, it cannot reflect the basic drought characteristics in the original hydro-meteorological records. The main purpose of this paper is to show insufficiency of the SPI for drought characteristics quantitative calculations. In order to get rid of these insufficiencies additionally to SPI classification the discrepancies are presented on the basis of drought duration, amount and intensity. The application with objective results is presented for Istanbul meteorology station monthly precipitation records.
Keywords: Drought; duration; global warming; intensity; precipitation; standard index.
Climate change perception and adaptation strategies elaborated by forestry professionals in Turkey.
by Lionel Constantin Fosso, Uzay Karahalil
Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate forest managers perception on climate change and their willingness to change forest structure and composition for adaptation in three selected study areas (Antalya, ?stanbul and Trabzon) in Turkey. As method, a survey questionnaire was carried out on 279 respondents. As some results, respondents have indicated a very high awareness of climate change with about 88.3% of them who believe in it and identified real manifestations of climate change in their forest area respectively 92.9% in Antalya, 90.9% in ?stanbul and 81.1% in Trabzon, with a strong statistical relationship (X2 =8.607, p= 0.01) between the region and the perception. As well 92% of respondents in Antalya reported to be more prepared for climate change risk management, than ?stanbul (76.7%) and Trabzon (65%) with a significant difference (X2=89.03 p<0.01). Furthermore, 55.4% of the respondents reported a high willingness to modify their management practices for future adaptation with a significant difference between the respondents in Antalya (73.8%), ?stanbul (37.8%) and Trabzon (54.5%).
Keywords: Climate change; Perception; Adaptation; Forest managers; Pearson correlation.
The effect of olive oil mill and molasses wastewater as a co-substrate during simultaneous textile wastewater treatment and energy generation
by Vildan Akgul, Kevser Cirik, Ahmet Duyar, Emre Oguz Koroglu
Abstract: The biological treatment of recalcitrant wastewaters in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) rather than chemical, physical, and advanced oxidation processes are low cost and environmentally friendly processes. In this study, sulfate-reducing microorganisms in MFC anodic chamber were fed with olive oil mill (OMW) and molasses wastewater at various dilution rates for simultaneous wastewater treatment and energy production. A power density of 31
Keywords: molasses treatment; olive mill wastewater treatment; microbial fuel cell; bioelectric.
Spatiotemporal variations and influence factors of greenhouse gas carbon dioxide over China using satellite measurements
by Yanfang Hou, Litao Wang, Yi Zhou, Shixin Wang, Fuli Yan, Wenliang Liu, Jinfeng Zhu
Abstract: Spatiotemporal distributions of CO2 obtained from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) over China from 2010 to 2017 and influence factors are presented in this study. It shows an annual increase and a seasonal cycle. The CO2 annual growth rate was about 2.34 ppm year?1, with the highest value being in spring and the lowest in autumn. Yearly variations in the CO2 over Eight Economic Regions are prominent, the regions with higher CO2 concentration also have higher increase rate. Some factors affecting variations in CO2 are analyzed in this study. There is a stronger negative relationship between CO2 and MODIS vegetation products. Population density and energy consumption are anthropogenic factors in increasing CO2 concentration, and CO2 variation shows a high correlation with population density in Eight Economic Regions (coef?cient of determination (R2) = 0.76)). CO2 and energy consumption also have a better correlation (R2 > 0.66) in the most regions.
Keywords: GOSAT; Remote sensing; CO2; Spatiotemporal variations; Regional change characteristics; Influence factors.
Future climatic and hydrologic changes estimated by bias-adjusted regional climate model outputs of the Cordex-Africa project: case of the Tafna basin (North-Western Africa)
by Amina Mami, Mélanie Raimonet, Djilali Yebdri, Sabine Sauvage, Amin Zettam, José Miguel Sachez Perès
Abstract: The Mediterranean region is considered particularly vulnerable to climate variability and change, both in the last decades of the twentieth century and in the future. As in many places in the world, water stress is expected to become particularly severe in Algeria in the next decades. This study investigates climatic and hydrologic changes of one of the most vulnerable basin of Algeria, the Tafna basin, by using 10 outputs of precipitation and temperature from a combination of two regional climate models (RCMs) and eight global climate models (GCMs) of the Cordex-Africa project. Different methods of bias-correction (linear scaling; local intensity scaling; distribution mapping; and variance scaling) are compared to correct the bias of precipitation and temperature datasets to observations. The most suitable method, the distribution mapping method, reduces the bias to 1.27 mm for precipitation and 0.06 and 0.7
Keywords: Climate change; Tafna basin; precipitation; Cordex-Africa; Bias-correction; discharge.
A review on environmental impacts from Aviation Sector in terms of life cycle assessment
by Duran Calisir, Selcuk Ekici, Adnan Midilli, T. Hikmet Karakoc
Abstract: The aviation sector, which has significantly increased today's trade volume, plays a critical role both in increasing the welfare levels by providing fast, safe and easy transportation to people and in gaining strength globally by contributing to the technological and economic developments of countries. In addition to the positive impact of the aviation industry, some global negative effects are becoming more and more understandable. Under these considerations, the main objective of this paper is, in terms of LCA (Life Cycle Assessment), to compile and discuss, environmental impacts of aircraft, gas turbine engine and components, and maintenance process and operations in the aviation sector. In this regard, the study reveals in detail life cycle assessment implementations on aircraft and related products and process (aircraft maintenance process, gas turbine engines, aircraft parts) and unmanned aerial vehicles, as well as LCA's historical development, purpose, scope and method classification. Thus, this paper will contribute to the scientists, researchers, designers, manufacturers and policy makers on aviation industry for better understanding the environmental impacts from Aviation Sector in terms of life cycle assessment.
Keywords: life cycle assessment (LCA); aircraft; environmental impact; sustainability; unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV).
HOW TO REDUCE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF A HAMBURGER MENU?
by Mustafa Özilgen, Serap Nazir
Abstract: Hamburgers recently draw huge attention because of their contribution to global warming because of the energy utilized and CO2 emitted during their production. If beef should be replaced with chicken, the chemical fertilizers should be replaced with their microbial counter parts, and electric power should be generated by combusting the restaurant waste, it will be possible to achieve 60% reductions in both energy utilization and CO2 emissions. If the improvements suggested in this study should be implemented globally, in case of production of 1,000,000 t of hamburger menu, 3.24 x1010 MJ less energy would be utilized and 7.35x109 t less CO2 would be emitted to the atmosphere.
Keywords: Beef burger menu; Chicken burger menu; Chemical fertilizers; Emission reduction; Microbial fertilizers.
The use of energies as a tool to stabilize climate and world population
by Antonio Caselles, Maria T. Sanz
Abstract: It is a fact that population and average global temperature on Earth grow fast. Literature shows that many studies have been performed about it. Nevertheless, forecasts are not good. Assuming that the key implied factors are the consumption of energy (from the different types of energy sources) and the birth rate, we suggest in this research, as a first step, to state a stochastic demographic model, including the necessary and adequate economic, environmental and wellbeing variables. This model will be able to optimize, by means of a genetic algorithm, the amount and proportion of the main source types energy consumption as well as the average birth rate in the world, in order to maintain the global present population and mean temperature. The input variables to be optimized (control variables) are the consumptions of: coal, oil, gas, nuclear energy, and renewable energies, as well as, forest area and the birth rate. The scenarios in which to perform the optimization processes (non-controlled variables) are defined by the Human Development Index. The evolution of other variables such as, for instance, unemployment, carbon dioxide production, gross capital formation, water cycle, etc. is obtained as collateral information.
Keywords: global warming; energy consumption; stochastic demographic model; genetic algorithm; optimization analysis.
Estimation of global temperature and Bond albedo anomalies in response to radiative imbalances
by A. Heitor Reis
Abstract: Here I present an analysis of the evolution of global temperature and Bond albedo anomalies in the period 2001-13. Based on the radiative balance at the top of the atmosphere, an equation is presented to estimate the temperature anomaly following a particular albedo anomaly, and vice versa. The estimated values are compared with the observed values.
Keywords: Earth’s radiative balance; Global temperature anomalies; Bond albedo anomalies; Estimation of anomalies.
Impacts of Carbon and Energy Aspects on Financial Performance: A Case Study
by Halil Emre Akbas, Hasan Agan Karaduman, Seda Canikli
Abstract: Companies attempt to find ways of improving environmental performance and financial performance simultaneously while maintaining a balance between their actions and consequences for climate change. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the impacts of carbon and energy aspects on corporate financial performance using available dataset for Turkish listed companies. Financial performance is measured by both an accounting based indicator, Return on Assets (ROA) and a market based indicator, Tobins q. The main finding stemmed from the estimated panel data regressions is twofold. The first one implies that carbon performance has a positive impact on ROA, which is a sign of the possibility of simultaneous improvement in both environmental performance and profitability. Our second main finding is that carbon performance and energy performance dont affect Tobins q revealing that the market doesnt respond either positively or negatively to environmental performance of firms in Turkey.
Keywords: carbon performance; energy performance; financial performance; Turkish companies; global warming; climate change; sustainable development; carbon emissions; carbon intensity; energy consumption; energy intensity; return on assets; profitability; Tobin’s q.
Baseline values of greenhouse gas emissions for an airport
by Sinem Aksit Sahinkaya, Fatos Germirli Babuna
Abstract: This study investigates the baseline carbon footprint of an airport. Approximately 1470530 tons of CO2 equivalent (e) emissions are generated by this airport annually. Aircrafts, ground access to airport, waste disposal, energy usage, airside vehicles, de-icer usage and wastewater processing are the contributors. As expected aircrafts have the highest share in total greenhouse emissions. Ground access to airport, indicating how to reach the airport by ground transportation vehicles for passengers, employees, cargo etc. accounts for 11% of the total emissions. CO2 emissions that originate from sources under the control of the airport authorities, are only 4% of the total emissions mentioned. Nevertheless, airport operators must lower these emissions by taking necessary precautions. Total CO2 e emissions generated by the airport showed a 55% increase within three years. On the other hand, obtained figures show a slightly decreasing trend for kg CO2 e emissions per passenger.
Keywords: airport; climate change; greenhouse gas emissions; sustainability.
TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL WASTE MANAGEMENT: REUSE AND ENERGY RECOVERY ALTERNATIVES FOR BIOMASS
by B. Aylin Alagoz, Orhan Yenigün, Aysen Erdinçler
Abstract: This research investigated the anaerobic co-digestion of several agricultural biomass (nutshell, potato peels, olive bagasse and grass) with wastewater sludges to produce biogas. The applied co-digestion process successfully resulted in improved biogas/methane yields compared to single-sludge digestion and appeared to be an energy-efficient disposal alternative for sludges and agricultural residues. The highest biogas yield was obtained from wastewater sludges and grass co-digestion to be 0.58 L/gVSdegraded, where the biogas yield from single-sludge digestion was 0.24 L/gVSdegraded. Being compatible with grass, the obtained biogas yields from the co-digestion with agricultural residues were almost 2.5 times higher than single-sludge digestion.
Keywords: Agro-wastes; anaerobic co-digestion; biomass; biogas production; energy crop; methane yield; renewable energy; wastewater sludges.
Exploring the Climate Literacy of High-School Students for Better Climate Change Education
by Jing Wu, Yoshiki Otsuka
Abstract: To address climate change issues, international community is facing an overwhelming challenge: to create a climate-literate population by educating citizens. This study explores high-school students cognition, knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour in relation to climate change, based on a questionnaire survey of 657 high-school students from Shanghai. The findings reveal that misconceptions and biased understandings of climate change persist; climate-related knowledge and attitudes are weakly associated with behaviour. However, the element of relevance, including a belief in individual lifestyle, appears to be actively linked to behaviour. As an initial investigation of climate literacy in mainland China, the results are expected to increase the existing knowledge of climate literacy and education, from both conceptual and geographical perspectives.
Keywords: climate literacy; climate change education; high-school students; misconception; relevance.
Evaluation of Combined Use of Drought Indices in the Case of Konya Closed Basin
by Hüseyin DALKILIÇ, Metin BAYÇINAR, Pijush SAMUI
Abstract: Drought is cited as one of the consequences of climate change and it is important to examine it with various methods as it can give negative results to both the economy and the nature. In this study, the drought status of the regions where these stations are located and the effects of drought on climate change were statistically calculated and evaluated using Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Percentage of Normal Index (PNI), Aridity Index (AI) and Standardized Precipitation -Evopotranspiration Index (SPEI). At the same time, factor analysis and validity-reliability analysis were conducted to test the computability of the indices used in the study as a single index and to determine the reliability of the operations. While using exploratory factor analysis, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) test and Barlett test for factor analysis; Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used for reliability analysis.
Keywords: Aridity Index (AI); Percentage of Normal Index (PNI); Standardized Precipitation -Evopotranspiration Index (SPEI); Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI); Drought; Factor Analysis; KMO; Reliability Analysis; Cluster Analysis; ANOVA.
Apocalypse Now? Communicating Extreme Forecasts
by David Rode, Paul Fischbeck
Abstract: Apocalyptic forecasts are unique. They have, by definition, no prior history and are observed only in their failure. As a result, they fit poorly with our mental models for evaluating and using them. However, they are made with some frequency in the context of climate change. We review a set of forecasts involving catastrophic climate change-related scenarios and make several observations about the characteristics of those forecasts. We find that mentioning uncertainty results in a smaller online presence for apocalyptic forecasts. However, scientists mention uncertainty far more frequently than nonscientists. Thus, the bias in media toward coverage of nonscientific voices may be anti-uncertainty, not anti-science. Also, the desire among many climate change scientists to portray unanimity may enhance the perceived seriousness of the potential consequences of climate catastrophes, but paradoxically undermine their credibility in doing so. We explore strategies for communicating extreme forecasts that are mindful of these results.
Keywords: apocalypse; climate change; communication; extreme event; forecast; forecasting; global warming; media; policy; prediction; risk; risk communication; uncertainty.
Spatio-Temporal Variations of Extreme Precipitation Events over North Central of Vietnam
by Nguyen Tien Thanh
Abstract: The study provides a qualitative source of gridded daily precipitation at high resolution of 5 km based on bias correction factors for Quang Binh, a province in North Central of Vietnam. The reproduced daily precipitation product, namely QBv1 is then evaluated with the station, station-based, satellite, reanalysis precipitation data. More specifically, understanding the spatial distribution of extreme precipitation events is fully interpreted. With this, it is firstly vial to analyse the accuracy of QBv1 product using the statistical indices of continuous and dichotomous. The results showed an excellent reproduction for daily precipitation of QBv1 product at high resolution. The extreme precipitation values are then calculated on the gridded precipitation product. It is illustrated extremely large amounts of precipitation defined by 99th percentile with 81.9 mm, 994.9 mm and 2357.8 mm in a day, month and season, respectively. The maximum consecutive 5-day precipitation can rise up to over 1600 mm.
Keywords: Chirps; ERA5_Land; Aphrodite-2; Heavy precipitation; Satellite precipitation; Quang Binh; extreme precipitation.
Regime-dependent Effects of Selected Macroeconomic Variables on CO2 Emissions: Evidence from China
by Dicle Ozdemir
Abstract: The aim of this study is to examine the nonlinear effects of the macroeconomic variables on CO2 emission level and to determine how the cyclical patterns of carbon emission growth change along the changes in macroeconomic variables growth rate under a regime switching mechanism in China employing nonlinear Granger causality and Markov-switching dynamic regression models. The results show no bidirectional causality between carbon emission level and the macroeconomic variables used in this model. The cyclical relationship between carbon emission level and income was negative in the high emission regime, but it became positive once a low-emission growth regime was reached. Specifically, the negative sign on GDP growth under the high-emission growth regime and the positive sign on GDP growth under low-emission growth regime and, furthermore, the changing cyclical behavior of emissions growth with the continuous upward trend of GDP is compatible with the existence of an N-shaped EKC in the case of China.
Keywords: carbon emissions; economic growth; environmental Kuznets curve; trade openness; industrialization; population.
Classification of Chinas county administrative units based on carbon emissions from energy consumption and economic indicators
by Chang Liu, Yun Su
Abstract: The main anthropogenic cause of global warming is the emission of CO2. China is one of the biggest emitters with vast territory, and there are significant differences in population size, industrial structure, and economic development among county administrative units, leading to large differences in energy consumption and associated carbon emissions. The comprehensive classification of counties based on economic development and carbon emission can provide a basis for targeted emission reduction measures. Using the energy consumption method combined with allocation by population density, this paper estimated the carbon emissions of Chinas 2170 county administrative units in 2015. Then, we used cluster analysis to classify county units, obtaining twelve types. At this stage, the most common type in city municipal districts is low carbon emission-relatively low GDP, with medium emission intensity, while most county-level cities and counties belong to the low carbon emission-low GDP category with relatively high emission intensity. Then, five development paths were obtained by linear fitting. Counties with extremely high carbon emission intensity may show a reduction in emission intensity and an increase in economic level. Regarding counties with relatively low emission intensity, there are two different paths in future economic development.
Keywords: carbon emission; estimate; climate change; cluster analysis; county.
Assessment and modeling of greenhouse gas emissions from waste collection vehicles powered by different fuel types
by Ayse Burcu Yaman, Orhan Sevimoglu
Abstract: Vehicles emit greenhouse gas (GHG) and air pollutants during the collection of municipal solid waste. In this study, GHG emissions and global warming factors (GWF) from waste collection vehicles were calculated for four different fuel types (diesel, gasoline, compressed natural gas, and electricity) in Kocaeli, Turkey. Results showed that GHG emissions were determined by using a model and manual calculations as 10,853 tons CO2-eq and 10,265 tons CO2-eq, respectively. If diesel is used, the GWF values for the model and manual calculations were determined as 18 kg CO2-eq ton-1 and 17 kg CO2-eq ton-1, respectively. Furthermore, when gasoline, CNG, and electricity were used, GWFs were calculated as 13.3 kg CO2-eq ton-1, 9.2 kg CO2-eq ton-1, and 2.6 kg CO2-eq ton-1, respectively. This study demonstrated that alternative fuels, especially electricity, has a great potential to reduce GHG emissions. In addition, opening up new transfer stations or a new landfill site can be considered as important steps in reducing GHG emissions.
Keywords: Waste collection; greenhouse gas emissions; alternative fuel vehicles; collection process model; global warming factor.
Climate change impacts on optimal reservoir operation and agricultural water allocation
by Dariush Baharlooee, Narges Zohrabi
Abstract: Considering the need to supply water and food in future periods, this study assessed the effects of climate change on the water resource system of the Ballarood reservoir that located in the northwest of Khuzestan province, Iran. The outputs of 10 general circulation models (GCMs) under two scenarios RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 has been used to simulate the effects of climate change. The results indicated an increase in average annual temperature by 2.34 (1.64)
Keywords: Climate change; Global warming; Reservoir operation; Agricultural water requirement.
The best fitted Probabilistic modeling for Seasonal Extreme Rainfall of Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan
by Muhammad Ali, Bulbul Jan, Faisal Ahmed Khan Afridi, Muhammad Yonus
Abstract: Extreme rainfall plays a key role in hydrological designs, resources of water management, flood hazard and land sliding in mountainous regions. In hydrological analysis, it has been a topic of interest to establish a suitable probabilistic approach for extreme rainfall. Monthly extreme rainfall of five meteorological stations of Gilgit-Baltistan (GB) from 1971-2010 has been used. The percentile deviation and probabilistic models have been applied to calculate variation and return levels of seasonal extreme rainfall. The outcome of this study shows that the preferred stations of GB (Gilgit, Skardu, Bunji, Gupis and Astore) will receive rainfall greater than 107.76 mm, 140.64 mm, 69.23 mm, 85.34 mm and 153.44 mm respectively incoming 50 year return period, which are more than the extreme rainfall of 2010. The analysis also predicts that on average, Gilgit-Baltistan will receive 111.28 mm return level against 50 year return period in summer season. These results are useful for agriculture, environmental researchers, planners and decision makers to get precautionary measures in Gilgit-Baltistan.
Keywords: Seasonal Extreme Rainfall; Probabilistic Modeling; Percentile Deviation; Return levels; Return period.
Evaluation of Offshore Wind Power Plant Sustainability: A Case Study of Sinop/Gerze, Turkey
by Volkan Baser, Faruk Guner, Hilmi Zenk
Abstract: Renewable energy generation has become indispensable for many countries due to global warming, energy security and foreign dependency. Sinop is an area worth investigating with its wind potential. In this study, Sinop / Gerze region was examined in terms of offshore wind power plant (OWPP) installation. In the study, the appropriate site selection was made with the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique, which is one of the Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Analysis (MCDM) methods. Then wind potential and power calculations were performed. The cost of the required investment and the payback period of the investment were calculated with the levelized cost method. The payback period of the investment, including operating and maintenances expenses, has been calculated as approximately 11 years.
Keywords: renewable energy; offshore wind energy; site selection; MCDM; analytical hierarchy process; levelized cost method;.
Effects of Liquid Fuels and Alcohols on the Pollutant Emissions of a Spark Ignition Engine
by GÜVEN GONCA, Ibrahim Genc
Abstract: The presented work investigates the impacts of various liquid fuels and alcohols including methanol, ethanol, toluene, hexane, benzene, isooctane and gasoline on a spark ignition (SI) engine's performance and combustion products. A verified mathematical model with empirical data has been utilized to indicate the various fuel type impacts on the emission outputs and combustion specifications of a SI engine. An artificial neural network (ANN) model for the system is also presented to show that the system can be approximated more densely compared to numeric methods with the advantage of less computational complexity.
Keywords: Alcohols; combustion; liquid fuels; pollutant emissions; spark ignition engine; artificial neural networks.
Estimation of Shipping Emissions in the Iskenderun Gulf, Turkey
by Aydin Tokuslu
Abstract: Marine ports are the most important source of air pollution in the region and vessels are the most polluting emission source. The Iskenderun Gulf is the main industrial and transportation region affected by the emissions emitted by its 8 ports and industrial facilities. The air pollutants generated from vessels in the Iskenderun Gulf by using Automatic Identification System (AIS) data was created for the Iskenderun Gulf. In this study, total emissions from vessels were estimated as 2.551 t y-1 for NOX, 135.100 t y-1 for CO2, 968 t y-1 for SOX, 99 t y-1 for VOC, 139 t y-1 for PM for 2018 based on ship activity-based method. General cargo and bulk carriers are responsible for 89% of the total ship-borne emissions in the gulf, and containers, tanker, chemicals and other vessels such as passenger, ro-ro cargo, tugs follow it. Emissions produced from vessels are mainly emitted at cruising mode (78%), followed by hotelling mode (21%). Port emissions in the gulf may have negative effects on the health of a minimum of 32.364 people living 1 km from the port area including other city emissions (domestic heating, road traffic, and industry). The environmental cost of the port emissions for each pollutant was estimated as $82 million and $17.146 per ship call. All kinds of emission sources in the ports area should be detected and measures to decrease the emissions should be implemented. This is the first study to estimate port emissions in the Iskenderun Gulf.
Keywords: Iskenderun Gulf; environmental pollution; shipping emissions; environmental costs.
Exploring the spatiotemporal characteristics of heating and cooling degree-day in China 19512016
by Jing-Li Fan, Bin Zeng, Jia-Wei Hu, Yao Liu, Xian Zhang
Abstract: As the climate change aggravates in the future, it is important for Chinas energy planning and management to consider energy demand for space heating and cooling. Based on the daily average temperature data of 835 meteorological stations nationwide from 1951 to 2016, the temporal and spatial characteristics of heating degree-day (HDD) and cooling degree-day (CDD) in various regions in China were examined in the context of climate change. Four key patterns were identified in the analysis. (1) The correlation coefficient between HDD and CDD and the annual average temperature was highly significant. The annual average HDD has a negative correlation with interannual and interdecadal average temperatures; the annual average CDD has an obvious positive correlation. (2) After the 1980s, the national HDD decreased significantly and the CDD increased significantly. (3) HDD saw a downward trend over time in all regions, with the fastest decline in North China and the slowest in South China. CDD in all regions showed an increasing trend, with the fastest rise in South China and the slowest in the Northeast. (4) At a provincial level, HDD decreased from north to south with the CDD showing the inverse pattern. The history performance of HDD and CDD in China may provide implications for addressing climate change.
Keywords: Climate change; Cooling degree-day; Energy demand; Heating degree-day.
Effect of endophytic-assisted phytoremediation on plant growth and chromium (Cr) toxicity reduction in contaminated soil
by Uzma Noreen, Aliya Khalid, Narmeen Inderyas, Shahzada Amani-Room, Majid Hussain
Abstract: This study focused on phytoremediation of chromium (Cr) through endophytic bacteria. Four endophytic bacteria i.e. Pseudomonas putida (CEN2), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CEN3), Acinetobacter baumanni (CEN4), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CEN5) were selected for phytoremediation experiments to investigate its effects on plant growth and Cr uptake. Phytoremediation experiment was carried out by using one hyper accumulator (Brassica napus) and one non-hyper accumulator plant (Coriandrum sativum), grown in agricultural soil amended with three different concentrations 50ppm, 100ppm and 200ppm of Cr for 60 days. In Brassica napus, endophytic consortia showed maximum root, shoot elongation and vigour index at all concentrations. In Coriandrum sativum CEN5 strain showed maximum root, shoot length and vigour index. Brassica napus with consortia produced maximum fresh and dry biomass as compared to the control treatments. Therefore, endophytic-assisted phytoremediation could be a promising tool for mitigating heavy metals toxicity from polluted soil without any negative effects on plant growth.
Keywords: Chromium. Phytoremediation. Endophytes. Brassica napus. Coriander sativum.
The economic effects of climate change on Cereal Yield in Greece: a spatial analysis selection model
by IOANNA GKIZA, Stefanos Nastis, Manos Basil, Eftichios Sartzetakis
Abstract: The aim of this study is to analyze spatially the economic impacts of climate change on cereal yield in Greece. The paper employs the geographically weighted regression (GWR) method to determine the spatially varying relationships between geophysical, soil, climatic and social variables and their effects on crop yield based on both historical climate observations and a future climate emission scenario. While the effects of climate change on cereal yields across Europe and the world have been widely analyzed by studying specific areas, the literature in the region of Greece has not investigated the effects of climate change using data at a high spatial analysis in grid cells. Thus, in order to achieve this analysis, the present research examines the effects of climate change using data at a high spatial 10 x 10 km2 grid cells. The results showed that crop yield is clearly influenced by spatial agrophysical and climate variables. The future climate emission scenario, predicts an average decrease in rainfall, a rise in temperature and an increase in severe weather events. The results of the paper indicate that a reduction in rainfall and an increase in temperature will cause different changes in average cereal yield in neighboring regions in Greece due to spatial heterogeneity between the variables
Keywords: Climate Changes; Spatial Analysis; Cereal Yield.
Fabrication of CA/PEG/MWCNTs composite membranes for enhanced CO2/CH4 separation
by Muhammad Fahad Yousaf, Sarah Farrukh, Arshad Hussain, Abid Hussain
Abstract: Gas separation process through membrane technology has greatly improved green-house effect. Membrane technology is considered important for gas separation. The aim of this work was to study the effect of membrane thickness with respect to gas permeance and tensile strength. Single layer flat sheet membrane with thickness of 45
Keywords: Composite membranes; Gas separation; Multi-walled carbon nano-tubes; Polyethylene glycol; Polyvinyl Alcohol; Selective layer.
Reverse Electrodialysis Salinity Gradient Power Potential of Treated Municipal Wastewaters Used as Diluted Solution
by Ali ZOUNGRANA, Ça?la AKSEL, Oruç Kaan TÜRK, Mehmet ÇAKMAKCI
Abstract: In this study, a reverse electrodialysis (RED) stack fed with natural seawater, treated municipal wastewaters and synthetic solutions was operated to investigate the energy extraction potential of different feed solutions. The synthetic solutions resulted in the highest power density. Among the wastewaters, ultrafiltration (UF) effluent was more attractive for RED compared to membrane bioreactor (MBR) and advanced biological treatment (ABT) effluents. The 6 days average power densities for the combination UF-seawater, MBR-seawater, ABT-seawater were 0.52, 0.50 and 0.48 W.m-2, respectively, while the synthetic solutions generated 0.57 W.m-2. No significant difference between the power densities of synthetic and natural solutions was observed, due to the high quality of the treated wastewaters. The SEM-EDX analysis showed that Mg2+ and Ca2+ were present in natural solutions and may have contributed to reducing the power output. The SEM and FTIR results revealed a slight deposition of pollutants on the ions exchange membranes (IEMs) surface, but no fouling, scaling or structural modification was observed within the 6 days RED operation. Treated municipal wastewaters discharged into seawater are important sources of energy with RED, however, high quality of the feed solution together with improved, highly selective and cost-effective IEMs are necessary to enhance and optimize the power output.
Keywords: Ions Exchange Membranes; Reverse electrodialysis; Salinity gradient power; Seawater; Wastewater.
Selection Criteria of Municipal Solid Wastes for Thermo-Chemical Conversion processes by using Proximate and Ultimate analysis
by Renjith Krishnan, Lalhmingsanga Hauchhum, Rajat Gupta, Gokul Gopan
Abstract: Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is mostly known as garbage or trash which is generated due to day-to-day life human activities. It is the commercial, medical and residential waste generated in a particular area or municipal either in solid or semi-solid form, excluding industrial hazardous wastes. These wastes create environmental pollution in land, water and air, hence, the proper disposal of MSW is a challenging factor globally. This paper presents MSW disposal process using thermo-chemical processes such as combustion, gasification and pyrolysis. The best thermo-chemical process for its individual waste can be formulated by using selection criteria from proximate and ultimate analysis. For the analysis purpose, 28 different types of MSW were collected and found that 13 samples are good for combustion while 6 samples and 5 samples are good for gasification and pyrolysis respectively. The MSW collected are in the categories of hospital wastes, domestic/household wastes, industrial/constructional wastes, institutional/school wastes and shop/hotel wastes
Keywords: Municipal Solid Waste; Combustion; Gasification; Pyrolysis; Proximate analysis; Ultimate analysis.
Comparison of environmental pollution and social cost analyses in different drying technologies
by Ali Motevali, Hassan Jafari, Esmaeili Zakipour Molkabadi, Songming Zhu, Reza Tabatabaee Koloor, Ahmad Taghizadeh-Alisaraei
Abstract: Four different widely used dryers (i.e., recirculation, fluidised-bed, hybrid hot-air/infrared, and hybrid microwave/hot-air dryers) were used to analyse the gas emissions from different drying processes of Aloe vera. According to the results, the highest and lowest actual specific energy consumption were 306.977 and 3.182 kWh/kgwater reported for fluidised-bed and hybrid microwave/hot-air dryers, respectively. Given the energy consumption of different dryers, the highest CO2, SO2 and NOx emission levels were 314.651, 4.689 and 0.827 kg/kgwater for the steam power plant, 337.06, 1.195 and 1.778 kg/kgwater for the gas turbine plant, and 190.940, 0.714 and 1.161 kg/kgwater for the combined-cycle power plant. The lowest energy consumption was reported for drying with the microwave/hot-air dryer at 60°C, airflow velocity of 0.3 m/s and power level of 300 W. The highest and lowest social costs for the microwave/hot-air dryer under the said conditions were 0.12 and 0.08 USD for evaporating 1 kg water, which belonged to gas turbine and combined-cycle plants, respectively. According to the results, the lowest emission level was observed in the combined-cycle power plant when burning natural gas.
Keywords: environmental pollution; greenhouse gases; Aloe vera; power plants; social costs; drying technology.
Assessing the local perception of climate change in a small island: a case study
by José Benedicto Royuela, Sandra Hervías-Parejo, Barbara Ambros, Azucena De La Cruz, Artur Gil
Abstract: The effects of climate change are global, but small islands are among the most vulnerable places. Local populations on small islands might have a ground-based perspective of the impacts that threaten them. This study was undertaken on Corvo (Azores), where 34% of the residents of both genders and different education levels were surveyed. Here, their understanding of climate change and their perception of its local impacts, the sense of risk, the local areas at risk, the willingness to propose mitigation and adaptation strategies, and the knowledge of regional procedures was analysed. Education played a crucial role in local understanding. The general perception was that the regional policies were insufficient to address climate change issues at the local level. This fact points out that the efforts to mitigate climate change impacts, and the public participation procedures for supporting policy-making, must be significantly increased and improved, in order to reach a real impact on local island communities.
Keywords: global change; local impacts of climate change; local perception of climate change; island-scale mitigation; adaptation policy-support; outermost European regions; OERs; overseas countries and territories.
Investigation of the effect of climate change on precipitation and temperature data of Susurluk Basin and Van Lake Closed Basin
by Gokmen Ceribasi, Umut Aytulun
Abstract: In this study has researched to effect of climate change emerging as a result of global warming in Susurluk Basin in west of Turkey and in Van Lake Closed Basin in east of Turkey. This research was conducted on annual mean temperature and precipitation data of both basins. Innovative Sen method was used to make analyses with these data. As a result of study, an increasing trend has been observed in three regions of temperature data of both basins. When precipitation data was examined, it was observed that there was an increase in high region in precipitation of Susurluk Basin. In medium region, an increasing trend for three stations, a decreasing trend for one station and no trend for three stations were observed in medium region. Also, no trend was generally observed on low region. In Van Lake Closed Basin, a trend of decrease was observed in general in precipitation.
Keywords: global warming; climate change; meteorology; precipitation; temperature; Susurluk Basin; Van Lake Closed Basin; station; trend analysis; innovative Sen method.
Techno-economic and environmental appraisal of a hybrid distributed generation system for a hospital building
by Kambiz Rezapour, Reza Effatnejad, Farnaz Amin Salehi, Alireza Abdollahshirazi, Mohsen Ghorbani
Abstract: In this paper, the techno-economic, energy efficiency, and environmental parameters of three different types of distributed generation systems, including high-temperature fuel cells, micro-turbines and photovoltaic (PV) systems were performed for a hospital building in Tehran, Iran using the eQUEST energy simulation tool and HOMER international optimisation model. The demand of electricity and natural gas of the hospital was calculated by the eQUEST software. Based on that, economic parameters, energy efficiency and environmental issues for three distributed generation systems have been evaluated by the HOMER international optimisation model and results are proposed for decision making. The results show that emissions produced by the fuel cell system including F and nitrogen oxides (NOx) are far less than other distributed generation systems. Therefore, the high-temperature fuel cell is more sustainable and affordable from economic and environmental aspects.
Keywords: distributed generation; renewable energy; hybrid system; building energy efficiency; eQUEST; HOMER.
Research on residents' electricity behaviour analysis and control strategy optimisation
by Yaxuan Chen, Xiaobin Cheng, Kai Huang, Jinpeng Liu, Tao Yi
Abstract: In recent years, the electricity consumption of residents has continued to grow, which has brought impact to global climate, it is of great significance to dig deep into the characteristics of residential electricity consumption. This paper introduces the ReliefF algorithm to reduce the load characteristic index. The resident electricity behaviour analysis model based on DBSCAN algorithm is further constructed to analyse the index data, and then the empirical calculation and data mining analysis are carried out. On account of the clustering results, the judgment radar matrix of user control attribute is advanced to clarify differentiated regulation strategies and meticulous regulative strategies for various residents are proposed. The analysis model introduced in this paper can accurately describe the user's electricity behaviour characteristics, so that the proposed differential control strategy can improve the demand side management level, which will alleviate global warming to some extent.
Keywords: residential electricity consumption behaviour; ReliefF algorithm; DBSCAN algorithm; cluster analysis; regulation strategy.
Land use, land-use change and their effect on greenhouse gas emissions and removals from Greek forests
by Iordanis Tzamtzis, Petros Ganatsas
Abstract: The role of LULUCF activities has been already recognised for the climate change mitigation. Mitigation can be achieved by increasing GHG removals from the atmosphere (e.g., afforestation) and/or decreasing emissions (e.g., reducing deforestation). This paper deals with the current status of GHG balance in Greek forests, and the effect land use and land-use changes had during last decades. Data from the 1st NFI, a great number of forest-management plans, and on land-use changes in Greek forests were used. Special emphasis was laid on the evaluation of the methods applied, the data utilisation in the national GHG inventory, while specific gaps were identified. Forest land acts as a net carbon sink during the studied period; its capacity increased from approximately −1.1 Mt CO2eq in 1990 to −2.1 Mt CO2eq in 2016, mainly due to forest management practices. Net emissions from deforestation amounted to 0.5 Mt CO2eq in the period 2008-2016.
Keywords: carbon sequestration; UNFCCC; Kyoto Protocol; climate change; LULUCF; forest management; deforestation; mitigation actions.
Special Issue on: GCGW-2019 Studies Associated with Global Warming
Spatial Trends of Maximum and Minimum Temperatures in Different Climate Zones of Pakistan by Exploiting Ground-based and Space-borne Observations
by Fasiha Safdar, Muhammad Fahim Khokhar, Muhammad Imad Ud Din, Waleed Khattak
Abstract: Temperature is one of the key indicators of a changing climate. A trivial change in temperature can result in significant changes in weather patterns with severe repercussions on ecology and socio-economic conditions of an area. This study aims to assess the changing trends in maximum and minimum temperatures in five climatic zones of Pakistan, and to compare ground-based with satellite data obtained from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) observations over these climatic zones of Pakistan. Mann Kendall test has been used to signify the temperature trends in all zones and seasons while Sens slope value has been used to measure the magnitude of the trends for the time period 1978 to 2016. Ground observations have been compared with AIRS satellite observations for ascending and descending air temperatures by employing correlation and mean bias error (MBE). The results show that AIRS product (AIRSX3STM) underestimates Tmax and Tmin in all zones of Pakistan with the underestimation being most prominent in Zone A. The trend analysis for maximum and minimum temperatures show an increase in maximum temperatures for all seasons in all climate zones except a slight decrease is observed during pre-monsoon and winter seasons in the Zone D (relatively hot and dry region of Pakistan). Minimum temperatures have an increasing trend in all zones. Overall, Pakistans maximum temperature increased by 0.026 ?C/year with the maximum increase of 0.05 ?C/year during pre-monsoon, and the minimum temperature increased by 0.027 ?C/year with maximum increase of 0.039 ?C/year, also in pre-monsoon season, indicating an early onset of summers. Additionally, maximum and minimum temperatures from 2008-2016 have been compared with the 30 years average baseline values (1978-2007) and the results show that the increase in maximum temperatures has been less pronounced than the overall period of 1978-2016 whereas the increase in minimum temperatures is more pronounced during the period of 2008-2016.
Keywords: temperature trends;satellite data; validation; AIRS; mean bias error.
An Experimental Evaluation of Indirect Direct Evaporative Cooling Unit for Hot Climate
by Bourhan Tashtoush, Nelson Chilengwe, Mohammad Musthafa, Yousef Al Horr
Abstract: Direct and indirect evaporative cooling system is experimentally investigated using a plate heat exchanger for hot climate conditions. The effects of chilled water and ambient temperatures, water flow rates, humidity, and the operating cooling mode on the supply air temperature was investigated for three configurations. The system dry bulb and wet effectiveness was estimated for all conditions under consideration. It was found that the dry bulb effectiveness approached 17%, while it was in the range of 72-98% for the wet bulb effectiveness. In addition, the secondary air saturation efficiency was calculated with varying water flow rates. It was found that the increase of water quantity in the heat exchanger would increase the cooling capacity and lead to a higher secondary air temperature difference. This resulted in higher saturation efficiency for the system. These results were compared with available numerical data for calibration and validation purposes.
Keywords: Direct Cooling; Indirect Cooling; Cross flow; Wet Bulb Effectiveness; Dry Bulb Effectiveness; Saturation Efficiency.
Statistically Downscaling Climate Change Projection of Precipitation and Temperature over the semi-arid Yarmouk Basin- Jordan
by Fayez Abdulla
Abstract: The statistical downscaling model (SDSM) skills have been addressed in downscaling the climate over the Yarmouk Basin, which is a semi-arid trans-boundary basin between Syria and Jordan. The scenarios used to drive SDSM are GHGs Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) using CanESM2 GCM. The study findings illustrate that there is a good statistical confidence in the downscaling based on the uncertainty analysis results that have been performed. SDSM showed a good ability to simulate the mean characteristics of precipitation and temperature but a poor capability for capturing the daily precipitation pattern and extreme precipitation events. In addition, SDSM was found to tend to underestimate the precipitation amounts and the number of wet days. During the 21st century, all scenarios have agreed that the mean annual rainfall will continue to decrease while the temperature will continue to increase. The projected time series can be adopted with satisfying confidence for any intended climate change impact studies within the Yarmouk Basin.
Keywords: Climate change; Downscaling; SDSM; Semi-arid basin; Yarmouk Basin and Uncertainty.
THE CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT PROJECTIONS ON SEASONAL RESIDENTIAL SECTOR CO2 EMISSIONS AND ENERGY DEMAND FORECASTING FOR TURKISH PROV?NCES
by Can Coskun
Abstract: Global climate change is one of the most significant problems that mankind has to front with respect to its results. Turkey was chosen for a case study because of the sensitive position due to global warming. The main aim of this study was to determine the Turkey global warming map based heating and cooling energy demand change. In this perspective, Turkey is studied in terms of daily, monthly and seasonal long term temperature trends. The temperature trends are analyzed by the use of linear regression techniques and the results indicate a significant rise in temperature trends. The average temperature increase for each province in Turkey is calculated to reach the maximum of 6.09
Keywords: Global warming; map; heating energy; cooling energy; CO2 emission; Turkey.
Characteristics and Scenarios Projection of NEE Change in an Alpine Meadow on the Tibetan Plateau
by MINGYUAN DU, Yingnian LI, Fawei Zhang, Liang Zhao, Hongqin LI, Song GU, Seiichiro Yonemura, Yanhong Tang
Abstract: Scenarios projection of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) for the warming future on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is extremely important due to the TP has been considered as one of the most sensitive regions to global warming. 14 years data of eddy covariance measurements at an alpine meadow on the TP were used to characterize the statistical features of NEE and its relationship with temperature variations. We fitted the MichaelisMenten equations of the lightresponse curve to the alpine meadow ecosystem and then get the relationship between the parameters of the light-response curve and air or soil temperature. Predictions of NEE for future climate warming in the alpine meadow on the TP are made. The results show that less than two degrees increasing of temperature would not have much influence on the CO2 absorption amount of the ecosystem (around 45gC/m2/year), while over 2.6 degrees increasing of temperature would change the CO2 absorption into CO2 release from the ecosystem and 4.8 degree increasing of temperature which is high level of RCP8.5 scenarios would induce a large amount of CO2 release (about 166.8 gC/m2/year ) from the alpine meadow ecosystem. This means that over a 2 degrees warming in future would jeopardizes future carbon sink capacity at the alpine meadow ecosystem on the TP.
Keywords: Alpine meadow ecosystem; eddy covariance measurement; Michaelis–Menten light–response curve; NEE (Net ecosystem CO2 exchange); Tibetan Plateau.
A Study on Determination of Component Sizing Capacity for Range Performance, Cost and CO2 Production of an Extended-Range Electric Vehicle
by Mustafa Umut Karaoglan, Nusret Sefa Kuralay, Can Ozgur Colpan
Abstract: Extended-range electric vehicles, which are equipped with a generator including a small gasoline engine as a range extender unit, have become attractive because of their high range and low battery cost potentials. In order to increase range and decrease total cost and CO2 emissions for these vehicles, powertrain components should be appropriately designed according to the operating conditions of the vehicle. In this study, firstly, the effects of the capacity of the generator module and the battery on the vehicle range, the battery weight, and the battery cost are calculated to determine the design alternatives of the powertrain taking into account the design constraints. Then, vehicle powertrain with each applicable design alternatives, which consist of feasible parameters as battery type, battery capacity, generator power output, and fuel tank capacity, is simulated for ECE 15 drive cycle requirements to determine the vehicle range, the total cost, and the CO2 production. After carrying out a single-objective optimization procedure, the results yielded the optimum design parameters as follows; 100 Ah 15.36 kWh battery and 2 kW generator power output for the maximum vehicle range, 100 Ah 15.36 kWh battery and 1.7 kW generator power output for the minimum cost, and 40 Ah 15.36 kWh battery and 1.7 kW generator power output for the minimum CO2 production.
Keywords: Extended range; electric vehicle; design optimization; powertrain simulation.
Evaluate the Effect the Land Surface Temperature in the Arid and Semi-Arid Lands Using Potential Remote Sensing Data and GIS Techniques
by Majed Ibrahim, Barbara Koch, Pawan Datta
Abstract: Land Surface Temperature (LST) plays a significant role with respect to drought, vegetation covers and climate change. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to evaluate the effect of LST in some parameters and to carry out mapping using Remote Sensing Data and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques. Remote sensing techniques were used to estimate LST variation using data obtained from satellite imagery in Landsat series 1990 and 2019. A Landsat Operational Land Imager (OLI) and a Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) were utilized to evaluate the LST and to create a vegetation and soil moisture indices map. Some indices were used to assess the effect of LST on the land in the study area. Meteorological data acquired through a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was utilized to evaluate the accuracy of the LST. GIS techniques and image processing were used to cal-culate the LST, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Soil Moisture Index (SMI), Normalized Differ-ence Water Index (NDWI) and Dry Bare Soil Index (DBSI). The results show that the relation between the indices and the LST was statistically significant (R2 = 0.2 and 0.3 p < 0.05 respectively). Both maximum and minimum temperatures affect vegetation cover and lead to bareness, where high LST regions have a low amount of vegetation and a low level of soil moisture content, and low LST regions have a high amount of vegetation and a higher level of soil moisture content. It was found that the indices used were suitable for distinguishing between vegetation cover and bare soil in arid and semi-arid climates and for evaluating the relation between indices and LST. The final out-comes show that the remote sensing data proved to be a powerful tool for monitoring spatial and temporal changes in LST and thus it can be useful for environmental studies and the agriculture sector.
Keywords: Land Surface Temperature; NDVI; DBSI; NDWI; GIS; Remote Sensing; MODIS.
Experimental analysis of carbon monoxide to establish the origin of dissolved gasses in water, and their role in weather anomalies
by Paul Somerville
Abstract: This study investigates carbon monoxide (CO) gas, to identify the impact it has on atmospheric anomalies (ATMAs). A variety of experimental tests were carried out with the heat, and pressure. Data obtained was analysed with the purpose of establishing clues to verify the fundamental characteristics of CO, highlighting it as being the most environmentally unfriendly gas in the atmosphere (ATM). This paper explores weather cycles, to connect the influence of CO, to extreme ATMAs, such as hurricanes, excessive rainfall, and high volumes of humidity on hot cloudless days. Observations of thunderstorms were explored to determine the effect of the sound given off by thunder, and its influence on the water vapour it comes into contact with. Our comprehension of climate change, leaves us, concluding that the volume of carbon dioxide (CO2) is way above natures required amount in the ATM, resulting in the warming of our planet. The purpose of this study is to highlight the characteristics of CO, and discuss how we should be addressing these issues, establishing a plan of action for combating global warming.
Keywords: Atmospheric Gasses; Global Warming; Climate Change; Carbon Monoxide; Atmospheric Anomalies; Thunderstorms; Hurricanes; Dissolved gas in water.
Real time vulnerability analysis of hydropower projects under changed climatic scenarios
by Priyanka Majumder, Samrat Kar, Mrinmoy Majumder
Abstract: Energy requirement is one of the most important factor to keep todays world a developing one. Thus the requirement of electricity has been intensified by the need of energy . At present, humans are very much dependent on fossil fuel in order to produce energy which creates a very big obstacle in the way of sustainable development. The conventional way of using the fossil fuel in order to produce energy is economically an un sustainable one. Thus the need of finding an alternative arises which have the potential to substitute the conventional fuel methods. Utilizing the kinetic energy of the flowing water and converting it to electrical energy can be a very useful method in the way of sustainable development as energy retrieved from the flowing water is comparatively inexpensive and a reliable renewable energy source which have the potential to substitute the conventional methods. But due to the increasing concentration of unwanted green house gases and global warming the environmental concentration are degrading day by day. The electricity production of hydropower plant will greatly be effected by climate change as the production is directly proportional to the rate of flowing water which directly depends on the climatic location of the power plant. Thus continuous climatic vulnerability monitoring becomes very important factor in order to predict the efficiency of a hydro power plant. In this study continuous climatic vulnerability monitoring is done by Decision Making Based Neuro-genetic Models.
Keywords: Hydro power plants (HPP); Analytical Hierarchy Process(AHP); Arifitial Neural Network(ANN).
Special Issue on: R&R 2018 Environmental Dimensions of Recycling and Reuse
Comparative study of combustion, performance, and emissions of a diesel engine fueled with biodiesel blend with metallic and organic nano-particles
by E.A. Elsarkawy, M.M. Abou Al-Sood, M.K. El-Fakharany, M. Ahmed
Abstract: This study investigates the effect of adding two types of nano-particles to castor biodiesel-diesel on combustion, performance, and emission characteristics of diesel engine. Blended fuels were experimentally tested by running the engine at various loads at a constant speed. The experimental analysis indicated that diesel-biodiesel blends with aluminum oxide nano-particles (ALNPs) show better results than multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) for higher cylinder peak pressure, lower ignition delay, higher BTE and lower emissions for CO While (MWCNT) diesel-biodiesel blends have slight improvement in NOx emissions. The peak pressure increase was approximately 2.2% while BTE increased by 6.1 %. The maximum reduction in NOx emissions was 30.5 %, while the reduction in CO emission was 28.52%. For (MWCNT) addition, increase in cylinder pressure recorded was 3.3 %, and the BTE was enhanced by 6.2%, NOx emission decreased by 30.25 %, while the greatest reduction in CO was 57.2% for the fuel blend with (ALNPs). Finally, adding MWCNT to biodiesel blend CB30 increases the cost of producing 1.0 kWh by 41 % - 170 % whereas adding ALNPs has a negligible effect in the cost.
Keywords: Castor biodiesel; Nano-particles; Combustion; Performance; Emissions.