Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Global Warming

International Journal of Global Warming (IJGW)

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International Journal of Global Warming (51 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Energy and Environment Nexus: Environmental Impact Mitigation Strategies   Order a copy of this article
    by Mehmet Tontu, Ahsen Sultan Tontu 
    Abstract: Energy and the environment have always been and will continue to be intimately connected. All types of energy negatively impact the environment somehow. Once used, it is eventually released to the ecosystem as a useful byproduct or, more often than not, as harmful pollutants or waste. As energy consumption has expanded around the world, its impact on the environment is continuing to increase. Greenhouse gas pollutants are mainly generated by the combustion of fossil fuels. Therefore, energy consumption is considered the main cause that impacts the environment. In this study, the main environmental issues due to energy production have been explained. Also, environmental impact mitigation methodologies related to energy systems have been deeply investigated in different methods for obtaining a cleaner ecosystem and sustainable use. Potential mitigation solutions have been identified via real case examples. Lastly, the interaction of energy, environment and sustainable development have been outlined.
    Keywords: Environmental problems; mitigation solutions; energy technologies; sustainable development; cleaner production.

  • Population-based dynamical modeling for global warming mitigation assessment by nuclear energy resource   Order a copy of this article
    by T.A.E. H.O. WOO 
    Abstract: The climate change is analyzed by the global population growth incorporated with the energy and its related social aspect consequences where the energy-mix policy has been issued to mitigate the carbon production fossil fuels such as oil and coal. In the simulation study, there are comparisons using three types of the population growth rate. Results show the temperature change where the variations of average temperature for 2020 are analyzed in three cases of regions. The highest value is on 4th year as 4.49 in Type1(Land). So, the indirect method of the population growth to reduce the world temperature could be analyzed as another way to treat the climate change. The other regional effect could be studied in the future work to find out the trend of nation and temperature variations.
    Keywords: Energy; Global warming; Population; Nuclear; Mitigation.

  • Comparative evaluation of nickel ions removal from aqueous solutions using hydrochar and biochar of cypress cones   Order a copy of this article
    by Mahboub Saffari, Masomeh Moazallahi 
    Abstract: A BoxBehnken design (BBD) under response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the nickel (Ni) ions removal by biochar and hydrochar of cypress cones from aqueous solutions. As result, the Ni removal in hydrochar (average 42.14%) was almost twice that of biochar (average 23.23%), which can be attributed to the higher porosity and the existence of oxygenated functional groups in hydrochar than biochar. The optimization results of RSM showed the high ability and accuracy of this model (R2> 0.96) in estimating Ni removal. The numerical optimization result predicted the most removal of Ni by biochar (51-57%) and hydrochar (67-69%), with desirability 1. In general, despite the lower production cost and removal of higher amounts of Ni by hydrochar compared to biochar, but it seems that due to the wood structure of hydrochar, the application of modification methods (Physico-chemical activation) may be necessary to help remove more Ni.
    Keywords: Adsorption; Biochar; Hydrochar; Nickel; Optimization.

  • Prediction of CO2 Emission in Transportation Sector by Computational Intelligence Techniques   Order a copy of this article
    by Omer Faruk Cansiz, Kevser ünsalan, Fatih Unes 
    Abstract: Carbon footprint is considered main cause of global warming. There are various studies on environmental sustainability carried out global scale. In this study, prediction models were developed for CO2 emissions in transportation sector. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), Simple Membership Functions and Fuzzy Rule Generation Technique (SMRGT), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) methods, which are artificial intelligence techniques (AI), and also multiple linear regression (MLR), which is statistical method, were used modelling. As a result of the comparison the best performance was seen in ANN model.
    Keywords: Carbon Footprint; Green Logictic; Transport Emissions; CO2 Emissions.

  • Spatiotemporal analysis of the future sensitivity to wind erosion using ensemble of the regional climate models: a case study   Order a copy of this article
    by Aleksandar Baumgertel, Sara Lukic, Milica Cakovic, Predrag Miljkovic, Milica Tosic, Irida Lazic, Vladimir Djurdjevic, Mladen Markovic 
    Abstract: Climate indicators (temperature and precipitation) are particularly important in times of global climate change because they create the preconditions for the development of wind erosion. The main goal of this research is to analyse the lands susceptibility to wind erosion in the future, using the fuzzy logic for the non-growing season (March and November) as well as for the growing season (July). The Climate Factor (CF) has been calculated for four different time periods: 1971-2000, 2011-2040, 2041-2070, and 2071-2100. The data were extracted for eleven different combinations of regional climate models (RCMs) and Global Climate Models (GCMs) using the EURO-CORDEX database. The climate sensitivity to wind erosion is bound to be significantly higher in the growing season (late 21st century) due to the increase in the average monthly air temperature and the decrease in precipitation.
    Keywords: wind erosion; fuzzy logic; environmental modeling; EURO-CORDEX; regional climate change.

  • Health Contexts of Climate-Induced Migration: A Scoping Review   Order a copy of this article
    by Mary Olukotun, Ranjan Datta, Bukola Salami 
    Abstract: The past several decades have been marked by an increasing occurrence of climate events worldwide, and consequentially, there has been growing study of the health impacts in exposed populations. While a plethora of studies have investigated the impact of climate change on health or migration, there is smaller body of literature where these three concepts overlap, and an even smaller proportion of these are qualitative studies. Thus, this review sought to assess the breadth of the available qualitative literature on climate change as a primary driver for migration and the related health contexts. Our findings highlight the nuances of climate-influenced migration decisions and the challenges experienced by populations who have left their homes because of climate change impacts. Further research should focus on the health experiences and migration decisions of those exposed to climate change hazards to identify appropriate multi-level interventions in disaster planning and response.
    Keywords: scoping review; climate change; climate migration; immigrant; human migration; displaced persons; human health; public health; global health; disaster response; qualitative.

  • Off-grid hybrid photovoltaic-diesel-battery power systems for commercial sector of Yanbu SaudiArabia - A potential solution for carbon-free environment and to mitigate challenges of global warming   Order a copy of this article
    by S.M. Shaahid 
    Abstract: Renewable solar energy is a potential solution to reduce carbon-emissions and to mitigate the threats of global warming. Kingdom-of-Saudi Arabia (K.S.A.) is rich in solar-radiation and is highly suitable for deploying solar/Photovoltaic(PV) systems to generate power. Current work evaluates (technically and economically) use of hybrid-PV-diesel-battery power systems (HPVDBPS) to fulfill commercial electrical-load (620 MWh) of Yanbu (Industrial-hub, West-Coast, K.S.A.) by analyzing long-term radiation (solar) regime. The global-solar-radiation of Yanbu lies in between 3.61 and 7.90 kwh-per-sq.m. HOMER has been used for simulations. The results show that PV-fraction is 24 percent for HPVDBPS comprised of 80 kWp PV along diesel system 175 kW and three hours of battery. The energy-generation cost is 0.170 $ per kWh. By deploying the above HPVDBP, around 154 tons emissions annually will not enter the local atmosphere. The investigation examines impact of PV on: energy-cost, diesel operation-time/fuel, load un-covered, extra energy, emissions, and cost of HPVDBP
    Keywords: Solar radiation; PV modules; Battery; Diesel generators; Commercial loads; Carbon emissions.

    by Erland Kolomyts 
    Abstract: It is described the ecological resources of forests as their ability to absorb the greenhouse gases and accordingly to mitigate the climate fluctuations. A forecast empirical-statistical analysis of carbon cycle regulation by the forest cover of the Volga River basin is presented. The adsorption potential of primary and derivatives of boreal and nemoral forests has been established, their ability to mitigate climate changes, including reducing anthropogenic warming, has been evalu-ated. The losses of ecological resources in forests since the beginning of intensive forest and land use in them were quantitatively assessed. Thermo-arid transformation of forest ecosystems leads to the general decrease in positive carbon balance in most groups of forest formations. Verifica-tion of the forecast calculations of the carbon balance was carried out using measurements in the forests of Central Canada. A numerical experiment was executed to assess the effect of the elas-tic stability of forest formations on their carbon balance.
    Keywords: boreal forest ecosystems; indigenous and derivative forests; biological cycle; climate change; carbon balance; forest ecological resources; empirical-statistical modeling.

  • COVID-19 lockdown effects: An overview on electricity, water, wastewater in Samsun   Order a copy of this article
    by Elif Hatice GÜRKAN 
    Abstract: The manufacturing sector is one of the hardest-hit segments from the COVID-19 pandemic. The spread of COVID-19 pandemic and limitations on commercial activities, mobility and manufacturing sector has been shaken deeply. COVID-19 is both public health crisis and economic crisis. The financial and economic effects of this crisis is different in character from the previous ones. Production levels had already fallen before COVID-19 pandemic therefore they caught unprepared for economic growth. The impact of the COVID-19 on manufacturing sector is long term and far reaching. In this study, the Samsun-Central Organized Industrial Zone services are examined to analyze the impact of the global outbreak on the manufacturing sector.
    Keywords: Covid 19; oandemic; manufacturing; electricity; wastewater.

  • Correlation between Geo political risk, Economic policy uncertainty and Exchange Rates using partial and multiple wavelet coherence in P5 nations   Order a copy of this article
    by Sanjeet Singh, Pooja Bansal, Nav Bhardwaj 
    Abstract: Evaluating and quantifying risk spillovers from geopolitical genres to translating into investment risk has been attempted by many. We attempt to evaluate the association of the risk premia associated with the GPR with economic policy uncertainty and exchange rates and further evaluate the degree of coherence between all variables under study for P5+1 Nations. We find that (i) there is evidence of cyclicality between GPR and EPU, implying that geopolitical risk and economic-political uncertainty go hand in hand. The former has a significant impact on the latter in the P5 nations; (ii) strong coherence at lower frequencies show that GPR has a significant impact on the exchange rate returns and EPU of the most countries under study; (iii) after controlling for the effect of GPR, the co-movements between the confirmed EPU and Exchange rate returns becomes stronger; (iv) the co-movements between the GPR and EPU becomes stronger.
    Keywords: Geo political risk (GPR); Economic Policy Uncertainty (EPU); Exchange Rate (ER); wavelet theory; P5+1 nations.

  • The Use of Remote Sensing to Characterise Geomorphometry and Soil properties at Watershed Scale   Order a copy of this article
    by Turgay Dindaroglu, Vesna Tunguz, Emre Babur, Hiba M. Alkharabsheh, Mahmoud Seleiman, Rana Roy, Elina Zakharchenko 
    Abstract: This study aims to investigate the complex ecological interactions between geomorphometry, spectral indices, and soil properties to develop a watershed management plan that can mitigate the effects of global warming. In this study, Sentinel-2 multi-spectral instrument data was used to map some spectral indices. The digital elevation model was used to map transportation capacity index (TCI), stream power index (SPI), compound topographic index (CTI), and curvature. Some soil properties were analyzed using 128 top-soils. According to the results, a strong correlation (p<0.05) was found between CTI and NDVI (0.358), NDWI (-0.336), NDMI (0.372), SBI (-0.298), pH (-0.165), and phosphorus (0.164). The highest correlation (p<0.01) was found between SPI and phosphorus (0.301). The CTI model of the watershed, which was developed using geomorphometric data, can increase the success of forestry activities. Spectral indices have the potential to be used in the evaluation of soil properties and geomorphometric characteristics.
    Keywords: geomorphometry; GIS; remote sensing; soil ecology; watershed; environmental modelling; land use; topsoil; spatial analyses.

  • Non-destructive Above Ground Biomass estimation of individual tree species using Airborne LiDAR data for combating global warming   Order a copy of this article
    by Nuray Bas, Tarik Türk, Önder Gürsoy, Rutkay Atun, Kenan Koç 
    Abstract: Today, many countries are using biomass to reduce the effects of global warming. Calculating the amount of carbon from biomass requires comprehensive knowledge of which tree species absorbs carbon best. Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technique can measure tree parameters without damaging the trees in 3D with high detail. Within the scope of this study, it was aimed to determine Above Ground Biomass (AGB) in the province of Duzce, Akk
    Keywords: Biomass; carbon; global warming; climate change; LiDAR; allometric equation; tree height; diameter-at-breast height; remote sensing; canopy height model.

  • Impact of meteorological variations and preventive policy measures on the spread and mortality of COVID-19 in European countries   Order a copy of this article
    by Saira Tufail, Shahzad Alvi, Umer Khayam 
    Abstract: The COVID-19 transformed into a deadly disaster where the consecutive waves are undermining the states' efforts. The climatic variations are enabling the virus to expedite further. The present study examined the impact of meteorological variations and preventive policy measures on the spread and mortality of COVID-19 in ten European countries. The results from negative binomial regression indicated that the average period of high death count is characterized with low average temperature and confirmed that respiratory infections are enhanced during cold and low humidity conditions. The role of suggested and implemented preventive measures by the respective governments showed the effectiveness of all the measures taken to reduce the probability of mortality. Nonetheless, the effect of educational institutes closure remained significantly higher than other preventive measures. The study suggested less exposure to low temperature and smart lockdowns to avoid deaths during the predicted waves of COVID-19.
    Keywords: Coronavirus; Viral diseases; Meteorological factors; Government interventions.

  • The effect of COVID-19 lockdown and meteorological parameters on air pollutants in Samsun, Turkey   Order a copy of this article
    by Hülya AYKAÇ ÖZEN 
    Abstract: In this study, to determine the effect of the lockdown applied in Samsun, Turkey, between March 01 to May 31 due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the concentration of air pollutants parameters (PM10, SO2, NO2 and O3) were measured at the same time interval of before lockdown and during the lockdown were compared. In addition, the relationship between the concentration of air pollutants and meteorological parameters such as wind speed, temperature, relative humidity, dew point and pressure was analyzed statistically. The lockdown caused the most significant reduction in the concentration of NO2, followed by SO2, O3 and PM10. Unlike SO2 and NO2, PM10 was less affected by lockdown since it also has natural sources. Between the meteorological parameters interested, wind speed and temperature showed a strong correlation with the air pollutants due to their transportation and conversion effects, while relative humidity, dew point and pressure showed a very weak correlation.
    Keywords: air pollution; lockdown effect; meteorology; Samsun.

  • Bioethanol production from C1 gases using alternative media by syngas fermentation   Order a copy of this article
    by Mine Gungormusler, Nuri Azbar, Tugba Keskin 
    Abstract: The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the presence or absence of trace elements and yeast extract on growth and ethanol production by Clostridium ragsdalei grown on C1 gas dominated syngas (60% CO, 10% CO2, 10% CH4,10% H2, 10% N2). Comparison of whey powder and glucose syrup as low-cost substitutes helped develop a cheaper medium formulation to produce ethanol from syngas with significantly higher yields, reaching up to 3.8 times improvement with co-utilization of syngas and glucose syrup. In addition, the results provided further insights about medium manipulation and possible modifications to decrease total costs for increased ethanol production by solventogenic acetogens via syngas fermentation by achieving a 15.6 % reduction in the cost of fermentation medium.
    Keywords: bioethanol; syngas; C1 gases; Clostridium ragsdalei; whey; glucose syrup.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2022.10046376
  • Next Generation Vehicles: Status Quo in Southeast Asia   Order a copy of this article
    by Piyaluk Potiwan, Mahinthorn Pothiwan, Xue-Ming Yuan, Kittikorn Bamroongboon 
    Abstract: As environmental concerns are mounting up, global governments are working collegially to reduce potential impacts of global warming and pollution. This causes the automotive industry to shift the emphasis towards next generation vehicles, as vehicles of novel energy sources have gradually revealed the potential to succeed internal combustion engine vehicles. This study conducts public policy review of the selected countries in Southeast Asia in order to analyse the current status quo and future directions for the support of next generation vehicles. It first explores the advantages and drawbacks of three types of NGVs: electric vehicles, hydrogen-powered vehicles, and synthetic fuel. Having examined the selected Southeast Asian nations through predictive analysis of available secondary data, it is discovered that each nation has crafted different policies in support of the shift towards next generation vehicles. Thailand and Singapore have pushed strong implementation for extensive supporting facilities and demand-side policies through mass incentivisation. Nevertheless, each with challenges to address, such as Thailands lacking necessary supporting facilities and a large number of population in Singapore lacking proper education on cost and benefits about next generation vehicles. Indonesia is spiralling up the policy-making effort and human expertise development to transition the country into a global electric vehicle production hub; let alone, building capacities for supporting facilities. On the contrary, Malaysia is a laggard due to implementation ambiguity of its policy directions for foreign direct investments in next generation vehicles domestically. The ways forward for the region are also put forth in this study.
    Keywords: Global warming; Pollution; Public policy; Electric vehicle; Hydrogen-powered vehicle; Synthetic fuel; ASEAN; Southeast Asia.

  • Long-term thunderstorm analysis at airports in the Marmara Region: types and favorable atmospheric conditions   Order a copy of this article
    by Veli Yavuz, Ali Deniz, Emrah Tuncay Özdemir, Haldun Karan, Caner Temiz 
    Abstract: In this study, long-term analyses of thunderstorm events occurring in Marmara Region airports were carried out. In the analyzes made using airport reports, the events that occurred between 2001-2015 were evaluated in terms of annual, monthly and intra-day changes. While no particular trend was observed in the thunderstorm events annually, more thunderstorms occurred in the summer months after September. In intraday analyses, it was determined that the most thunderstorm events occurred in the 2nd time zone (1100-1900 UTC). Rain also occurred 72% of the times when thunderstorms occurred. The rate of thunderstorm events that occurred without precipitation is 22%. One of the most important results of the study is that the convective available potential energy (CAPE) value was found to be zero in approximately 50% of the thunderstorm events. Non-zero CAPE values were also found to occur mostly (about 90%) in the range of 0-1000 J/kg.
    Keywords: thunderstorm; lightning; Marmara Region; airports; air-sea interactions; atmospheric conditions; extreme weather.

  • Understanding the Water-Related Risks under Climate Conditions in Vietnam Using CMIP6 Models   Order a copy of this article
    by Nguyen Tien Thanh 
    Abstract: Completely located in the tropics, water resources availability in Vietnam is plenty but not limitless, especially in associated with unexpected climate conditions. So, the study attempts to provide fully insight into water-related risks in present and near-future using an ensemble of CMIP6 models in combination with the methods of risk and GIS-based analysis on a provincial scale of Vietnam. The results show a dominant of floods and cyclones hazards, followed by droughts, landslides and seawater intrusion are observed in present. Meanwhile, under climate change scenario of SSP3-7.0 in near-future (2021-2040), an expected decreasing in precipitation by -13.6% for provinces in the north of Vietnam is illustrated. Most importantly, in spring and summer, maximum temperature can increase faster than those in autumn, winter and annual. Dealing with water-related risks, it is expected that there are 06 out of 63 provinces at very high risk level.
    Keywords: CMIP6; Water; Risk; Vietnam; Climate change.

  • Globalization and renewable energy impact on carbon emissions in Ghana   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: Combating carbon emissions has been a global concern due to the negative impact it has on the environment. Therefore, understanding the factors that influence carbon emissions is a top priority for every country. Using GMM and DOLS to investigate the influence of globalization, and renewable energy on carbon emissions, the results indicate that trade openness and population reduce carbon emission. The pollution haven hypothesis is confirmed, but environmental kuznets curve theory is not valid for Ghanas situation. Economic growth and renewable energy are not significant. Restrictions should be put on foreign investors while encouraging the use of renewable energy technologies.
    Keywords: urbanization; carbon emissions; foreign direct investment; economic growth; trade openness.

  • Climate resilience modeling incorporated with non-carbon emissions of nuclear energy in South Korea   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: The climate resilience is investigated by the social and ecological aspects associated with the energy characteristics where the global warming has influenced on the meteorological elements. It is analyzed for the climate change as the carbon neutrality including the disease pandemic situations. The system dynamics (SD) simulations are performed during 100 months for the forecast of global warming effect. The consequence of Carbon Neutrality increases gradually in which the value of Global Warming increases slightly in initial stage and then decreases until the end point. The Nuclear Energy Impact is highest around the 50th month in this work. There is the list of statistical data of Climate Resilience where the mean value is 18,225.4 with the standard deviation of 18,597.3. The international corporation to set up the planning to climate change can be a strong way to treat global warming. Using the trend of climate resilience state, it is possible to save the fund to control the climate mitigation which has been discussed.
    Keywords: Climate; Resilience; Global warming; Nuclear; Renewable.

  • Evidence on climate policy, carbon dioxide emissions and inflation   Order a copy of this article
    by Richhild Moessner 
    Abstract: There is no consensus in the theoretical literature on the magnitude and direction of the effects of climate variables and climate policies on inflation, and there is only scant empirical evidence. This paper studies the relationship between climate policy, carbon dioxide emissions and inflation at the country level for a large number of 55 countries. A main finding is that better climate policy rankings, reflecting both national and international climate policy, tend to be associated with lower inflation across countries. This suggests that conducting better climate policy need not be held back by concerns that it would lead to higher inflation. Moreover, higher carbon dioxide emissions tend to be associated with higher inflation at the country level. This suggests that climate policies that manage to reduce carbon dioxide emissions would not lead to adverse effects of higher inflation.
    Keywords: inflation; climate policy; carbon dioxide emissions.

  • Research on Temporal and Spatial Evolution of Comprehensive Efficiency of Technology Innovation and Carbon Emission in China   Order a copy of this article
    by Hongwei Li, Xin Li 
    Abstract: Spatiotemporal evolution of comprehensive efficiency of technology innovation and carbon emission in China from 2010 to 2019 is presented in this paper. The average comprehensive efficiency of China is 0.779, with the highest value being in the east region and the lowest in the middle region. It shows great regional differences in both comprehensive efficiency and sub-stage efficiency. The annual variations of sub-stages show different characteristics. The lower efficiency of the technology innovation stage is on the rise while the higher efficiency of the carbon emission stage is the opposite. The overall total factor productivity (TFP) of China is 0.995, down by 0.55%. There is still an uptrend in TFP since 2016. The average TFP in the three regions is more than 1. The lack of coordination between the two sub-stages is glaring. After decomposition, the efficiency change in the technology innovation stage and the technology change in the carbon emission stage should be focused on.
    Keywords: TFP; SBM model; technology innovation; carbon emission; comprehensive efficiency.

  • Initial Dilution Improvement of Thermal Wastewater Outfall Singular Jets by Nozzle Inclination for Decrement of Sea Water Evaporation   Order a copy of this article
    by Bilge Ozdogan Cumali, Semih Nemlioglu 
    Abstract: Open-cycle cooling water systems and their discharges thermal wastewater outfalls can be commonly used by sea sides located thermal power plants. Lower dilution performance having thermal wastewater outfalls may be one of the sources of greenhouse gas water vapor evaporation. Thermal wastewater jets of outfalls are positively buoyant, and they are commonly discharged from horizontally located nozzles on multi-port diffusers. In this study, impact point dilution increments of thermal wastewater singular jets (+10
    Keywords: greenhouse gas; inclined jet; positive buoyant jet; thermal wastewater outfall; visual plumes; water vapor.

  • The Record Breaking Hot Summer of 2017 over the Southern Europe and Turkey underlying atmospheric conditions   Order a copy of this article
    by Meral Demirtas 
    Abstract: In 2017, extreme summer heatwaves affected the Euro-Mediterranean region with record-breaking temperatures, which were approximately 4-10C above base climate. We implemented a heatwave detection method and a blocking index. Results indicated that Southern Europe and Turkey were affected. There were approximately 40 heatwave days and 7 heatwaves. June's heatwaves were shorter but intense. Heatwaves were not as pronounced in July. In August, heatwaves affected a larger area and stayed longer, which were collocated with the 500-hPa geopotential height anomalies and the blocking. Summers may experience a pronounced increase in year-to-year seasonal variability in context of climate variability and change.
    Keywords: Climate variability and climate change; extreme weather; heatwaves; atmospheric blocking; Euro-Mediterranean region.

  • Forecasting Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Turkey Using Machine Learning Methods   Order a copy of this article
    by Mehmet KAYAKUS 
    Abstract: Global warming and climate change are among the most important problems that will affect our future and threaten it seriously. Carbon dioxide gas is emitted into the atmosphere using fossil fuels. Therefore, international organizations have accelerated policies that reduce carbon emissions to mitigate the effects of global warming. In this study, CO2 emissions in Turkey were estimated by machine learning methods. A total of 34 data were used for analysis between 1980 and 2014. Annual average temperature, population, gross domestic product (GDP), industry (annual % growth), electricity consumption (kWh per person), coal consumption (thousand tons), amount of agricultural land (km
    Keywords: Carbon dioxide (CO2); emissions; greenhouse; machine learning.

  • British construction industry: A landmark of environmentally sustainable practices to the world   Order a copy of this article
    by Rashid Maqbool, Vishal Kandukuri 
    Abstract: Construction firms in both the private sectors and public sectors of the UK sponsoring the acceptance and adoption of sustainable development policies. The research provided the understanding of sustainability impacts caused by construction industry and how these can enhance the ecological aspect. Moreover, this research also investigated the hurdles which come in the way of sustainability and drivers for sustainable development in construction industry of the UK. The case of BedZED is critically evaluated in this research to understand and pose research dimensions. Mix-method data analysis techniques were used to provide inferences, for which purpose data was collected through questionnaire surveys and qualitative interviews. A purposive sampling technique was used to collect the data from 144 respondents through questionnaire survey and the 5 respondents through qualitative way of interviews. It was observed that the factor of compliance with the environment received the highest rating by the survey respondents, whereas the capital cost was not considered an important factor for the sustainable construction industry practices in the UK. The findings were also confirmed by the five industrial experts through interviews, who believe if there is a willingness to compliance with the environment there is not much hindrance impact of capital cost for sustained project practices in the construction industry. Though huge costs have to be invested in developing a sustainable environment in the construction industry, it can be avoided with the help of using efficient measures that will be a benefit for both the employees, the organization and society.
    Keywords: Sustainable construction; environment; United Kingdom; energy; BedZED.

  • Wind Adaptive Urban Seafront Buildings Design for Improving Urban Ventilation and Pedestrian Wind Comfort in Mediterranean Climate   Order a copy of this article
    by Hakan Bas, Ilknur Turkseven Dogrusoy, Sigrid Reiter 
    Abstract: Coastal cities in the Mediterranean region have cool sea breezes that can reduce the effects of global warming, urban heat islands (UHI), and air pollution. However, in many coastal cities, impermeable urban seafront buildings prevent cool sea breezes from penetrating the city while at the same time posing a risk of pedestrian wind discomfort. This study aims to design wind-adaptive urban seafront buildings that improve urban ventilation and pedestrian wind comfort in Izmir, a high-density Mediterranean city, using the parametric design and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. Alternative seafront buildings consisting of two-rows and shifted configurations were designed using the two proposed urban geometric indicators. The authors found that the denser and more compact seafront building configuration can prevent the risk of wind discomfort and achieves the highest ventilation efficiency (82%). The findings apply to similar coastal urban environments and help urban policymakers and designers.
    Keywords: urban seafront buildings; urban ventilation; pedestrian wind comfort; shifted building configuration; computational fluid dynamics (CFD).

  • Impacts of weather abnormalities on the mental health problems related suicidal behaviors: An economic approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Suzan ODABASI 
    Abstract: This study aims to estimate the impacts of climate variation on suicide rates in the United States by using county-level data on temperature, and mental health-related suicides between 2011 and 2020. In addition to climate factors, several socio-economic factors such as uninsured population rate, access to mental health providers, and unemployment rate are included to estimate their impacts on suicides. The estimation is separately performed for females, males, and overall groups. The results indicate that while there is limited evidence of the impact of precipitation on suicidal behaviors, the average daily minimum air temperature is an important determinant of the suicides in U.S. counties.
    Keywords: Climate Change; weather; mental health; health economics; uninsured population; access to health services; unemployment.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2022.10048294
  • A green economic production quantity model: A case study   Order a copy of this article
    by Elnaz Ebrahimi, Babak Shirazi, Iraj Mahdavi, Alireza Arshadi Khamseh 
    Abstract: The government can affect supply chain decisions by regulating and controlling carbon trading prices. Direct accounting, carbon taxation, direct cap, carbon-and-offset, and cap-and-trade schemes are mechanisms implemented in numerous countries. The present paper analyzes a green economic production quantity (G-EPQ) model under the different regulatory systems. The proposed solution method employs metaheuristics approaches, including genetic algorithm (GA), simulated annealing (SA), Keshtel algorithm (KA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). Regarding the computational time and solution quality, the algorithms are compared to prove the high performance of the proposed PSO for solving the G-EPQ model.
    Keywords: Green EPQ; Carbon Regulations; Direct Accounting; Carbon Tax; Direct Cap; Carbon Cap and rnOffset; Cap and Trade; Optimization Model; Keshtel Algorithm; Particle Swarm Optimization.

  • Extreme value innovative trend analysis methodology   Order a copy of this article
    by Zekâi Sen 
    Abstract: There are parametric and non-parametric trend identification methodologies in the literature, which search for a monotonic linear trend component at the central points of each time series. The main concern of the paper, apart from the central trend, is to identify upper and lower extreme values trend analyses separately. For this purpose, the modification of the innovative trend analysis (ITA) is adapted for extreme value trend analysis (EVTA) by employing at one standard deviation levels from the arithmetic average value. It is observed that extreme value trends appear along completely different monotonic lines than the classical central trend analysis. The EVTA methodology provides a basis for natural hydro-meteorological hazards (floods, flash floods, inundations, dry spells, droughts, and water stress) detailed assessments. The application of the suggested methodology is presented for seven meteorology stations annual total rainfall time series from each geographical and climatological regions of Turkey.
    Keywords: Average; drought; extreme; flood; danger; lower; precipitation; risk; slope; trend; upper.

  • Analysis of climate change resilience for urban disaster and pandemic mitigations incorporated with energy-mix   Order a copy of this article
    by T.A.E. H.O. WOO 
    Abstract: It is analyzed that the urban disaster with pandemic and its related consequences are associated with the global warming induced by the carbon-emitted fossil fuels. In Urban Disaster, the result is shown as a stepwise form in which the effectiveness of urban disaster increases. In addition, Energy-Mix and ENERGY decrease in their effectiveness, although TRAFFIC, COMMUNICATION, etc., HEALTH, QUARANTINE, etc., and RESILIENCE increase in their effectiveness. This means that three variables of the TRAFFIC, COMMUNICATION, etc., HEALTH, QUARANTINE, etc., and RESILIENCE effect on the Energy-Mix and ENERGY as the feedback algorithm. It is analyzed for urban disasters with ecological pandemic situations where the social distancing is very important in the urban places due to the higher population density than the rural areas. In this work, the prospects of pandemic society incorporated with the climate change mitigating by energy-mix policy are investigated.
    Keywords: Resilience; Energy; Climate; Population; Mitigation.

  • Survey on Environmental Awareness, Attitude and Behavior of Taiwan Medical Personals   Order a copy of this article
    by Angela Yi Jing Tsai, Alex Yong Kwang Tan 
    Abstract: A survey from the Taiwan medical personals showed that their environmental awareness is very high and in consensus with international healthcare community. Their environmental attitude is relatively high, showing strong and favorable attitude. Their environmental behavior ranged from slightly high to relatively high, depending on society advocating or regulations, and hence differed from Taiwan general public. Respondents, who are older than 45 years old, had more than 20 years of working experience, married, with children, or have higher moral norms regarding environmental protection, exhibited higher environmental awareness, attitude and behavior.
    Keywords: Environmental awareness; Environmental attitude; Environmental behavior; Taiwan medical personals; age; working experience; married status; moral norms.

  • Determinants of Climate Risk Management in Paddy and Milled Rice Marketing in Nigeria   Order a copy of this article
    by Robert Ugochukwu Onyeneke, Mark Umunna Amadi, Chukwudi Loveday Njoku 
    Abstract: The paper examined climate risk management of rice sellers in Ebonyi State, Nigeria using cross-sectional data from 112 paddy rice sellers and 172 milled rice marketers. Descriptive statistics and multivariate probit were adopted for data analysis. The common perceived climate events include rising temperature, prolonged dry season, and unpredictability of rainfall. Reliance on climate information, storing of paddy/rice, selling-off purchased paddy/rice, buying paddy/rice for sale in small quantities and livelihood diversification were the adaptation strategies adopted by rice sellers to manage climate risks. We found that socioeconomic and institutional characteristics, assets, and government support influenced choice of adaptation strategies. The common barriers to adaptation include inadequate capital, inadequate storage facilities, price fluctuation and high transportation cost. Government support should be intensified in creating basic infrastructure and social amenities in the rural areas, also initiate effective climate and market information networks, incentivise formation of trader associations and encourage capital formation for rice marketing.
    Keywords: rice marketing; climate change; perception; adaptation; barriers; multivariate probit regression.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2023.10048264
  • The Impact of Biochar and Carbonates Carbon on CO2-C Emission and Soil Sequestration   Order a copy of this article
    by Mehmet Fatih Dilekoglu, Erdal Sakin 
    Abstract: The status of biochars effects on the sequestration of soil organic carbon is not yet known. To effectively mitigate climate change through SOC sequestration, a net extraction and storage of carbon in the soil relative to atmospheric CO2 must occur and continue for several hundred years to several thousand years. In this study, the effects of biochar addition on SOC sequestration on soils with different calcareous content were investigated. According to the results obtained in the study, SOC sequencing of soils with 4.86%, 23.32%, and 45.9% calcareous content was measured as 36.4, 62.38, and 42.99 mg-CO2 kg-1 soil without adding biochar, respectively, for 21 weeks cumulatively. As a result of the addition of biochar to the same samples, it was measured as 90.79, 106.79, and 107.09 mg-CO2 kg-1soil, respectively.
    Keywords: biochar; calcareous soils; global warming; greenhouse effects; Sanliurfa; soil sequestration; Turkey.

  • How green building performance levels address climate adaptation, climate mitigation and environmental sustainability?   Order a copy of this article
    by Duygu Erten 
    Abstract: The new EU regulations has created certain concerns within the construction and real estate sector about challenges in becoming Taxonomy aligned since they include several economic activities. The research is conducted in order to evaluate the robustness of the different scoring systems within LEED and BREEAM so that they can be used as reliable tools. An analysis framework is created to answer how does the relative weight of different categories and criteria hold across different building performance levels and how these systems address/impact climate mitigation, adaptation and environmental sustainability, across different building performance levels. Framed with this objective, a methodology where different scenarios corresponding to different building performance levels was created both for new construction and existing buildings. A scoring robustness evaluation was conducted. The results showed the most impactful categories across different performance levels for both new and existing buildings and their scoring robustness for different performance levels.
    Keywords: Green Building Certification Systems; Climate Adaptation; Climate Mitigation; Sustainability; Taxonomy; Global Warming.

  • Precipitation Nowcasting using ensemble learning approaches   Order a copy of this article
    by Nita Shah, Bipasha Paul Shukla, Anupam Priamvada 
    Abstract: The data from the Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) though extremely important is yet to be fully explored from the perspective of weather forecasting. In this paper, we have experimented with a different setup of each ensemble learning technique XGBoost, AdaBoost, and Random Forest with different oversampling techniques. The experiments lead us to develop an algorithm that is a linear combination of multilinear regression, XGBoost, AdaBoost, and Random Forest. The predictors consist of time series of in-situ observations. We have also studied the impact of in-situ observations on the rainfall for the next few hours based on misclassification error. The results indicate that the most influential feature extracted from the proposed algorithm is humidity and rainfall while other meteorological variables are found to be weak predictors. The average accuracy of the proposed algorithm is 87%.
    Keywords: Ensemble learning; XGBoost; AdaBoost; Random Forest; Oversampling; Misclassification Error.

Special Issue on: GCGW-21 Energy and Environment Related Solutions

    by Mustafa Zeki Yilmazoglu, Enis Dogan Dagdemir 
    Abstract: This study is aimed at examining the validation and operation steps in a cleanroom, to reduce the rate of air changes per hour in the cleanroom to maintain the pressure difference except when not in use. Before changing the HEPA filters of twenty-three operating rooms in Gazi University Hospital, air change rate measurements were carried out and compared with the measurements of the last two years. Particles were counted to verify the ISO class of the operating theatres. Since the airflow rate decreases outside of working hours, the determination of the decontamination period, which is one of the validation steps, should be taken into consideration. In this study, the reduction of operating costs and greenhouse gas emissions are examined by considering different operating scenarios. It was calculated that 63.2% of energy savings can be achieved and 2.76 tons of CO2 emissions per year can be prevented for an operating room according to different operating scenarios.
    Keywords: Cleanroom; healthcare; greenhouse gas; particle; energy-saving; validation; energy efficiency; TAB.

  • Big Dilemma in Face Mask Consumption: Environmental Sensitivity versus the Fear of Covid-19   Order a copy of this article
    by Kenan Aydin, Seda Yildirim, Ece Özer Çizer 
    Abstract: The Covid-19 pandemic has created a significant transformation in the production and consumption of face masks. This study investigated the main indicators effect attitude and intention toward reducing unnecessary face mask consumption during the Covid-19 pandemic. Accordingly, this study focused on exploring how environmental sensitivity, the fear of Covid-19, price sensitivity, and subjective norms influence mask consumption behavior based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB). The data was collected from Turkish citizens by survey method. As a result, it was seen that environmental sensitivity, price sensitivity, and subjective norms affected attitude and intention towards reducing unnecessary mask consumption positively. On the other side, it was determined that fear of Covid-19 increased face mask usage and affected attitude and intention towards reducing unnecessary mask consumption negatively.
    Keywords: Environmental sensitivity; fear of Covid-19; subjective norms; price sensitivity; face mask consumption.

    Abstract: In this study, the energy requirement of the moving for a light rail transport system is covered by scenarios using different amounts of hydrogen. The economic benefit and environmental impact outputs of these different scenarios were found. Then, by looking at these findings, the optimum scenario by Pareto analysis was determined. It was determined that 7% of the total energy consumed when met by hydrogen uses 61.82% of the maximum cost and for this, the hydrogen utilization rate was considered. It was found that the additional cost will increase by an average of 1.17 thousand TL however; the amount of the reduction in CO2 emission will be on average 290.385 kg for four different load scenarios per day.
    Keywords: Global Warming; Hydrogen Energy; Clean Energy; Light Rail Transport System; Pareto analysis.

  • Evaluation of environmental impacts of a building-integrated photovoltaic system by the RIAM method   Order a copy of this article
    by Gustavo Gonçalves, Raphael Abrahão 
    Abstract: Renewable energy sources, such as photovoltaics, are seen as sustainable alternatives to mitigate climate change. Building-integrated photovoltaic systems allow components to be connected to the building structure itself. The aim of this study was to identify and assess the environmental impacts related to a building-integrated photovoltaic system sized to meet the electrical consumption of a tourist complex, using the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix method. In total, 14 different aspects and 22 respective environmental impacts were identified, distributed in the three stages of the project. Of these, 7 were in the Physical/Chemical category, 14 in the Economic/Operational, 2 in the Social/Cultural and 1 in the Biological/Ecological, being 33.3% +D, 16.8% -B, 12.5% -D, 4.2% +A, 8.3% +C, -C, +B and -A. The main positive impacts were related to local economic development, security of electricity supply, and decarbonization of the electricity grid. Negative impacts, on the other hand, were associated with reduced visibility of the original structure and safety issues for workers. The building-integrated photovoltaic system presented itself as a solution to meet the electrical demand in places that face land use and occupation conflicts, due to its integration in the structures.
    Keywords: Sustainable construction; Environmental feasibility; Photovoltaics; Renewable Energy.

Special Issue on: WCEST-2021 The Dimensions of Energy for Global Warming

  • Conversion of brewed tea waste into hydrochar and activated carbon   Order a copy of this article
    by Ismail Cem Kantarli 
    Abstract: Feasibility of hydrochar and activated carbon production from brewed tea waste was investigated in this study. Brewed tea waste was hydrothermally carbonized in subcritical water to obtain hydrochar as energy feedstock. Hydrothermal carbonization experiments were performed at different process temperatures to determine its effect on fuel properties and combustion behaviour of resultant hydrochar. Increasing the process temperature yielded less amount of hydrochar. Higher calorific value and lower burnout temperature was observed for hydrochar. Hydrothermal carbonization could remove only 25-35% of initial ash in biomass and could not remove CaO in brewed tea waste. Hence hydrochar had high slagging risk during combustion which was only slightly lower than that of feedstock. On the other hand, hydrochar had lower fouling risk due to removal of K2O. ZnCl2 activation of hydrochar produced an activated carbon with high surface area and acceptable porosity.
    Keywords: brewed tea waste; hydrochar; combustion; slagging; fouling; activated carbon.

    by Habip Akin Hacimusalar, Mehmed Rafet Ozdemir, Mehmet Harun Sokucu, Ahmet Selim Dalkilic 
    Abstract: The pressure gradient analysis is important to observe the homogeneity of the refrigerant and to choose the correct distributor equipment in refrigeration cycles. This research proposes a new method for determining the two-phase pressure gradient accurately compared to existing methods. Two-phase pressure gradient determination approach of Chisholm was modified by integrating the flow pattern map of Thome and Cioncolini. The thermophysical properties of refrigerant 404A were obtained through EES software and the proposed method was coded in the same software. The two-phase pressure gradient results of the proposed method were verified using the experimental data for the refrigerant 404A and compared with the commonly used methods and correlations. It was found that the proposed method predicted the experimental data of R404A better compared to other methods and correlations. The proposed method accurately determines the two-phase pressure drop under superheating and subcooling conditions for various tube wall thicknesses.
    Keywords: Two phase pressure gradient; Distributor; Flow distribution; Refrigeration cycle; climate change; global warming.

  • Macro and Micro Climatic Analysis of Traditional Houses in Turkey   Order a copy of this article
    by Aliyu Usman, Paratsoo Pourvahidi 
    Abstract: Buildings consume more than half of the world's energy, contributing to climate change. The purpose of the research is to equip architects with a way for constructing buildings based on microclimate in order to reduce future energy usage. The research was carried out in order to find a solution to Turkey's climate change issue. The research was conducted in seven distinct districts throughout Turkey. These are the regions of Eastern Anatolia, Central Anatolia, Black Sea Region, Mediterranean Region, Aegean Region, Marmara Region, and South-eastern Anatolia Region. The construction industry in Turkey is experiencing a surge in demand for residential constructions as the country's population grows. As a result, in light of the above statement, the contribution of this research is to provide builders with a simple and explicit method for designing a building based on microclimate in order to reduce energy consumption in the future.
    Keywords: energy efficiency; climate Change; micro Climate; macro climate Turkey.

  • Design and Analysis of an IoT Enabled Unmanned Aerial Vehicle to Monitor Carbon Monoxide: Methodology and Application   Order a copy of this article
    by Ozge Kucukkor, Orhan Aras, Emre Ozbek, Selcuk Ekici, Tahir Hikmet Karakoc 
    Abstract: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are efficient platforms for the inspection and detection of hazardous particle emission locations in terms of cost and ability to reach challenging areas. In this study, a custom quadcopter UAV with Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) type Carbon Monoxide (CO) sensor and data acquisition module is designed to detect and measure CO pollution over industrial sites and urban areas. Unlike similar studies, a rope hanging design is used for sensor extension and collected data transmitted to the cloud using Internet of Things (IoT) technology. Flight tests are conducted to collect CO measurements over an area with a controlled fire to replicate industrial chimneys. CO readings on 26 data points result in between 0 and 4 PPM concerning their distance to the pollution zone. Therefore, a heatmap is created using real-time GPS locations and measured CO concentrations. Challenges in this operation are explained to guide future researchers and entrepreneurs.
    Keywords: air quality; drone; environment; IoT; pollution; remote sensing; UAS; UAV.

    by Alperen SARI, Egemen SULUKAN, Dogus Ozkan, Tanay Sidki UYAR 
    Abstract: The marine transportation industry, which has made significant steps in recent years to combat climate change and global warming, is heavily influenced by regional and worldwide economic trends. The covid-19 pandemic, which began in China at the end of 2019 and spread to the rest of the world in the first quarter of 2020, caused the global economy and marine transport to decline by 4.1 percent in 2020. It is proposed in this study to investigate various scenarios by modeling this circumstance that has unexpectedly occurred using decision assistance technologies.
    Keywords: Reference Energy System; Energy Analysis; Energy Modelling; LEAP; Greenhouse Gas Emissions.

  • Assessment of Environmental Sustainability with Entropy-Based Indicators for Integrated Buildings   Order a copy of this article
    by Mehmet Ziya Sogut 
    Abstract: Different climatic conditions directly affect fuel consumption of traditional heating systems in buildings and, together with this system-induced entropy generation, constitute one of the main sources of CO2 emissions with a global impact. Although these consumption vary primarily according to combustion performance, they generally define a high rate of exergy destruction due to irreversibility depending on the system operation and load values. In this study, first, exergy analyses were performed in order to evaluate the entropy performance and analyze it comparatively with the process efficiency. Accordingly, the fuel-based exergy efficiency of the building was found to be 55.02%, and the efficiency potential for total improvement was determined as 20.31% depending on the parametric values and the entropy criteria developed. At the end of the study, the features of the two criteria developed in such building preferences were evaluated and some re commendations were presented.
    Keywords: Integrated buildings; rnDemand management; rnfficiency rnSustainability rnEnvironment.

  • Suitability of Hekimhan siderite as oxygen carrier in Chemical Looping Combustion   Order a copy of this article
    by Merve DURMAZ, Nesibe DILMAÇ, Ömer Faruk DILMAÇ 
    Abstract: In this study, siderite ore from Hekimhan (Malatya, Turkey) was calcined and tested as the oxygen carrier (OC) in a laboratory-scale Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) set-up by using CO and H2 mixtures. 92% fuel conversion was obtained as a mean of four tests performed at 850 oC. It was determined that calcination of the ore before the tests led to the generation of MnFe2O4, a bimetallic OC that includes the synergistic benefits of both metal oxides. It was concluded that siderite is a proper OC for pilot or sub-pilot applications.
    Keywords: Chemical Looping Combustion; oxygen carrier; siderite; manganese ferrite.

  • Effect of an Algae Integrated Water Wall on Energy Consumption and CO2 Emission   Order a copy of this article
    by Nilay Altunacar, Mehmet Akif Ezan, Yonca Yaman, Ayça Tokuc, Berkay Budakoglu, Gülden Köktürk, Irem Deniz 
    Abstract: This study develops a transient thermal model for an indoor in which a photobioreactor (PBR) is integrated into one of its facades. Thermal comfort, energy consumption, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions were interpreted in different design scenarios for Izmir, Turkey. As a result, it was determined that a 20% window-to-wall ratio (WWR) provides the most comfortable results, and the algae usage increases the annual comfort by 19% and reduces the heating/cooling demand. Compared to a water wall, it provides a 17% reduction in energy consumption and CO2 emissions.
    Keywords: algae integrated façades; energy-efficient buildings; photobioreactor; water wall.

  • Investigation of Energy Efficiency Strategies in Production Processes Based on Operational Management   Order a copy of this article
    by Mehmet Sogut, Tahir Hikmet Karakoç 
    Abstract: This study investigates the energy efficiency potential of a cement production process based on the operational control approach, which has been developed. In this context, indicators that concern consumption of specific energy users were defined and limit values were determined. Accordingly, energy efficiency potential was found to be 3.5% depending on the control of 122 operational parameters. When the consumption loads of the enterprise are taken into account, the annual savings potential was found to be 4.5 GWh/year of heat energy and 39 GWh/year of electricity. These processes indicated a total of 10334.99 tons of CO2 per year. At the end of the study, the contribution of the developed approach to the energy management processes was evaluated. In this respect, in cement production, mill inlet temperatures, secondary temperature, and main drive power emerge as the main operational indicators for energy efficiency for raw mills, rotary kiln, and cement mills, respectively.
    Keywords: Operational control; Energy management; efficiency; Cost; Sustainability.

  • The effect of nanotechnology in the energy sector on economic growth and sustainable development   Order a copy of this article
    by Zahra Fotourehchi, Amir Ali Farhang 
    Abstract: In the present work, the effect of nanotechnology in the energy sector on sustainable development and economic growth is compared in 28 developed and developing countries for a period of time 2015-2019. Empirical results indicate that the nanotechnology index in the energy sector positively and significantly affects economic growth and sustainable development. This impact is stronger and greater in developed countries compared to developing ones. Moreover, the stronger effect of nanotechnology in the energy sector on sustainable development than economic growth indicates the significant role of nanotechnology in the energy sector in developing innovative approaches for creating novel products, replacing current manufacturing equipment, reproducing new materials, and improving the structure of chemicals, including reduction of consumption of materials, storage and transfer of energy, and reducing damage to the environment and its protection. These results provide useful information to sustain development globally. Because from the point of view of environmental issues, nanotechnology in the energy sector, due to its efficiency and wide productivity in this sector by reducing environmental degradation will lead to the transmission of the least damage and challenges to the production and industry of future generations. Furthermore, control variables have different effects in different models on economic growth and sustainable development.
    Keywords: Nanotechnology; energy sector; economic growth; sustainable development.

Special Issue on: WCEST-2021 The Dimensions of Energy for Global Warming

  • Biogas production from sugarcane leaves and tops using batch experiments
    by Boonsong Sillapacharoenkul, Roj Khunanake, Yupadee Paopun, Piyanan Thanomchat, Nusara Sinbuathong 
    Abstract: Sugarcane leaves and tops were studied as feedstock for biogas production. Sugarcane leaves and tops alone and those mixed with cow manure were separately digested in anaerobic batch reactors. The influent feedstock for digestion consisted of ratios of sugarcane leaves and tops-to-cow manure-to-water of 20:0:80 (sugarcane leaves and tops alone) and for co-digestion was 10:10:80 (sugarcane leaves and tops with cow manure). The anaerobic batch reactors comprised 50 mL syringes in a trial that compared methane (CH4) yields. The CH4 yield obtained from the co-digestion of the feedstock with cow manure was 145 L at standard temperature and pressure (STP)/kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) degraded while that of the digestion of sugarcane leaves and tops alone was just 61 L at STP/COD degraded. The rate of co-digestion of the sugarcane leaves and tops with cow manure was faster than that of the digestion without cow manure.
    Keywords: Agricultural waste;anaerobic digestion;biogas;co–digestion;renewable energy;sugarcane