International Journal of Global Environmental Issues (14 papers in press)
Is fishing causes for marine resource vulnerability in Gulf of Mannar, India?
by Kanaga V, Rajakumar M, Sujathkumar N.V, Jawahar P, Brita Nicy
Abstract: Marine fishery resources are providing lots of benefits to the society and environment especially in employment, income and nutritional security. Marine fisheries resource degradation due to anthropogenic activities which includes destructive fishing activities is the present issue. Fishing activities provide livelihoods to coastal people even though it affects negatively the marine fishery resources. Hence this study attempted to identify the major causes for the vulnerability in the Gulf of Mannar coast. Gulf of Mannar was selected as the study area for the research due to resource richness and the significant level of livelihood dependence on marine fishery resources. The sample size of the study was 450 fishermen which were distributed to non-motorised (33), motorized (335) and mechanized (82) craft sector based on percentage contribution to total fishing crafts registered in GoM coast. Primary data were collected from the respondents through field survey by survey schedule. The collected data were tabulated and analysed by Random Based Quotient technique and Spearmen rank correlation technique. Practising banned fishing methods, bottom trawl net use, scarcity of sustainable fishing gear, the inefficiency of mesh size regulation, and nonselective fishing gear used for fishing were the major causes for the vulnerability as identified from the study. Implementation of suitable policy measures and regular monitoring will help to solve the problems to maintain the resources at the sustainable level.
Keywords: vulnerability; marine fishery resources; destructive fishing activities.
Influence of the type of photocatalyst on photocatalytic oxidation of triclosan in the aquatic environment
by Piotr Zawadzki, Edyta Kudlek, Mariusz Dudziak
Abstract: As part of the research, a comparative assessment of the removal of triclosan (an antibacterial compound) in aqueous solutions at a concentration of 1.0 mg/dm3 during an advanced oxidation process was carried out in the presence of commercial titanium(IV) oxide and photocatalysts modified with the carbonaceous material (powdered activated carbon) and ultrasounds. Photocatalytic decomposition processes were carried out using a photocatalyst dose of 100 mg/dm3. The photodegradation process was carried out in a laboratory reactor by Heraeus (Warsaw, Poland) with a capacity of 700 cm3. The influence of photocatalysts modification on the effectiveness of compound sorption and its decomposition was found. The compound was adsorbed in the range of 69% to 96%, whereas to a greater degree on a modified TiO2. The decomposition of triclosan in a process catalyzed by TiO2 allowed the compound to decompose in 91% after 20 minutes of the process. In the case of modified photocatalysts, the decomposition of the compound exceeded 99% after 10 minutes of irradiation. The analysis of the pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics showed a two-step course of photocatalysis in the case of a photocatalyst modified with activated carbon and ultrasounds.
Keywords: Photocatalyst; TiO2; photocatalysis; triclosan; modified photocatalysts; ultrasounds; activated carbon; kinetics; environmental pollution; advanced oxidation processes; photodegradation.
Public knowledge of seawater desalination and its impacts on the environment in Gaza strip, Palestine
by Saleh Alda
Abstract: This research assesses public awareness and knowledge about seawater desalination and its impacts on the environment in the coastal area in the Gaza strip, Palestine. In addition, the study investigates how socio-demographic, motivational factors and information use shape public knowledge. Data was collected using a survey from a random sample of the residents who live in Dier Al balh city in the Gaza strip.
Both People's self-assessed knowledge and factual knowledge indicators about desalination and its impacts on the environment were poor. Furthermore, it was found that people who were more connected with their place showed high awareness. Information resources indicate a low relation with self-assessed knowledge and awareness and lower with factual knowledge.
Keywords: Desalination; Water crisis; Awareness; Knowledge; Environment; Palestine.
Social sustainability of conventional and organic rice farming in north-eastern Thailand
by Chirawan Phantha, Jittima Prasara-A, Pornpimon Boonkum, Shabbir H. Gheewala
Abstract: While the benefits of organic rice for consumers are obviously seen in terms of nutritional and health aspects, the social effects of conventional and organic rice farming are also important to be investigated. This study compared the social performances of conventional and organic paddy rice in the north-east of Thailand by using the social life cycle assessment approach. The three stakeholder groups examined were workers, local community and rice farmers. It was found that overall the social performance of the organic rice was better due to its better performance on food security and income satisfaction. In the site studied, organic rice has been cultivated for several years resulting in a slightly higher yield and lower production costs than the conventional rice product. Moreover, all supplies used in organic farming could be produced locally, which is desirable for food security.
Keywords: social life cycle assessment; S-LCA; social sustainability; social performance; conventional rice farming; organic agriculture; organic rice farming; Thailand.
Development of Public Participation Framework for Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
by Maisarah Makmor, Hafez Salleh, Nikmatul Adha Nordin
Abstract: Public participation plays an essential part in an Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) that protects and manages the environment. Current studies have shown that the application of effective public participation remains scant, especially in Malaysia. This paper aims to develop a framework for public participation in the EIA process in Malaysia using Partial Least Squares (PLS). A comparative study was carried out on public participation in EIA in New Zealand, Canada, Hong Kong and Malaysia. Quantitative data were collected via questionnaire surveys to evaluate 54 items of public participation in EIA in Malaysia extracted from a rigorous literature review. Analyses were administered using PLS-SEM. Three constructs form the framework: the inadequacies of the requirements for, and legislation on, public participation in an EIA; barriers to public participation in an EIA; and recommendations to further improve public participation in the EIA process in Malaysia. The development of the framework is expected to improve the current application of public participation in the EIA process in Malaysia. The framework provided in this research contributes to the further improvement of public participation in EIA.
Keywords: Public Participation; Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA); Malaysian EIA Process; Partial Least Square (PLS-SEM); Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA); Quantitative method; Effective EIA; Malaysia; Measurement Model; Structural Model.
Special Issue on: International Design of Dialogic Environmental Policies
SYNOPTICS, part VII: application of the Synoptics model for the social analysis of large states: Republic of South Africa
by Herbert Rauch
Abstract: As another example for the application of the Synoptic social analysis method, the case study of Nelson Mandelas farewell speech in the ANC party convention of 1997 is outlined and linked to the Synoptics theory, while adding some comments with respect to the global situation of 2020. Overall, this article presents an outline of a larger case study illustrating the Synoptics theory, concentrating on the ANC convention in RSA with the farewell of Nelson Mandela as president of the ANC as central event. Synoptics wanted to present the foundations and the applicational possibilities of Synoptics as a rather precise path towards a psychosocial analysis of society. It includes social factors as well as psychic factors, and wants to show that finally, also society is rooted at least as much within the mental sphere as well as in the social web, which is intertwining psychic and social factors, as far as we today can grasp them in their state of being intertwined.
Keywords: Synoptics method; social analysis; hypotheses; psychoanalysis; social sciences; social systems; challenge principle; basic sentences; South Africa.
The impact of rural-urban migration and its effects on urbanisation in Kano State, Nigeria
by Mukhtar Sabiu Yahuza, Buket Asilsoy, Salih Gücel, Ozge Ozden
Abstract: One of the biggest world problems now is rural-urban migration, with about more than 50% of the total worlds population living in urban centres. Looking at the worlds virus pandemic of Covid-19 is spreading very fast; this is because of the congestion, unsanitary and high population in the urban centres. This paper highlights the problems of urbanisation in Kano State, and Nigeria as a whole. Relevant literatures were revised and conclusion and recommendation were deduced. Results show that migration problems resulted in the city over sprawl, deforestation, disturbance of wildlife, abandonment of cultural heritage, agricultural land, craftsmanship and loss of ancestral informal education and occupation. Therefore, it is recommended that rural areas of Kano State should be given special attention to reduce the rate of migration problem in urban centres around Kano State, Nigeria.
Keywords: urbanisation; migration; rural; urban; sustainability; Almajiri; city; Northern Nigeria; Kano State; Nigeria; Africa.
SYNOPTICS, part VI: synoptical analysis of the psychic field
by Herbert Rauch
Abstract: Part VI of synoptics deals with a new model of the psychic field. This aims to provide a synoptic model to describe in simple form all psychic involvement in human behaviour. Such, it deals in a clear-cut way with the basic areas of covert behaviour, the inner (psychic) back-and-forth that one cannot really see, but by meticulously observing overt behaviour one can conclude metaphorically in a hermeneutic approach toward a socio-psychology of behaviour, especially seen in the context of a method towards a psychosocial analysis of society. This approach starts with laying out in rough metaphorical ways the parts of the psychic field: the conscious, the suppressed area, the scotomised themes, i.e., the part of the outside world which is not recognised in the conscious field, from which it is excluded by the mechanism of the reign of a quasi-absolute (QA) marking each phase of the individual human life.
Keywords: synoptics method; social analysis; hypotheses; psychoanalysis; psychic field; social systems; challenge principle; scotomised; covert behavior; psychosocial analysis.
Design and model of facemask to inactivate the novel coronavirus
by Sunil Gupta
Abstract: Due to the novel coronavirus spread (COVID-19) globally, governments across the world recommended the mandatory use of facemasks. The facemask helps people prevent and control the spread of virus infection. In this paper, we propose a design and model of facemask to inactivate the virus particles present in our surroundings. The proposed facemask is able to purify the air when a person inhales and exhales. The proposed mask is cost-effective, reusable, washable, and possesses the ability to disinfect the surface of facemask. The mask has the capability to trap all dust particles and virus present in the air, drastically decreasing the chance of infection. The mask is well-designed on the concept of activated carbon and copper filter.
Keywords: facemask; coronavirus; infection; copper filter; activated carbon; medical silicone.
SYNOPTICS, part X: application of the Synoptics model for the social analysis of states: Colombia (1991) and Nigeria (1992)
by Herbert Rauch
Abstract: Synoptics - a method to diagnose and consult in socio-political conflict situations is here used to describe and analyse the two conflict situations on the level of states in Colombia 1991 and Nigeria 1992. Several conflict scenarios are described to understand better the political micro, meso and macro scenes. The following case studies are developed along some of the main questions for Synoptics social analysis with regard to diagnosing socio-political events: 1) description of focus event; 2) general description of the embedding sovereign social system; 3) description of the agents of the focus event; 4) location of focus event with regard to the level of social systems; 5) C-analysis of the process of the focus event (C = common Challenge, and describing the Alpha, Beta, Gamma and Omega spaces within the social system; 6) gestalt/general pattern of the conflict, and considerations with respect to the future.
Keywords: Synoptics method; social analysis; hypotheses; social systems; conflict situations; challenge principle; Colombia; Nigeria.
Hydrogen perspectives in the world and in Ukraine
by Mukhub Benmenni
Abstract: This analysis aims to prove the irreversibility of the energy transition to clean energy system without emissions and the key role of green hydrogen in this transition. Catastrophic global warming associated with greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions threatens the continued existence of our civilisation and obliges humanity to make the necessary global decisions as soon as possible. Today, in order to solve important environmental and energy problems and reduce the risk associated with the enrichment of the atmosphere with carbon dioxide, the world is increasingly using green hydrogen as a universal environmentally friendly energy source. The use of green hydrogen for Ukraine is urgently needed as it allows large-scale use of renewable energy sources (RES) instead of obsolete and inefficient existing traditional generating capacities. It is better to start implementing hydrogen technologies as soon as possible, recognising that an imperfect start is likely better that adopting wait and see approach, which could worsen the situation in the energy sector, and above all, environmental issues.
Keywords: hydrogen; ‘green’ hydrogen; ‘blue’ hydrogen; renewable energy; fossil fuels; climate changes; greenhouse gas emissions; strategy; roadmap; storage; technology; fuel cell; Ukraine.
Synoptics, Part XI: application of the synoptics social analysis to presidential elections and the corona crisis
by Herbert Rauch
Abstract: This case study (based on the synoptics method explained earlier) tries to show that actual scenarios are able to show the transition of the macro the micro of very recent and prominent events. This election event provides a historically new element in the history of the USA, and even with regard to the human history overall: the whole world comes to see the incredible acts of opposing the official institutions responsible for the presidential transition versus the traditions of transferring administrative power peacefully. The world becomes eye-witness of a former president's behaviour, which - as many think - is partly owed to a specific character, but also to attitudes toward institutions. The side effects are perhaps the most important, namely demonstrating that 'the world has gone global' while the information technology allows almost instantaneous knowledge of important events worldwide - if the interest is global.
Keywords: synoptics method; social analysis; social hypotheses; USA; presidential elections; political system; corona crisis; corona management.
Cost of energy infrastructure in Europe and Austria: electricity, gas, oil, and heat
by Gilbert Ahamer
Abstract: The present research analysis of over 250 pieces of literature identifies the cost of energy networks. a) The basic question is: what does the energy infrastructure cost now?; b) The further perspective is: how much will energy networks cost in the future when achieving the climate protection goals by an energy transition? For the target of cost finding estimates, the current Austrian projects to construct new energy lines are used because cost data can be retrieved for them. Network costs are (as a mean with a wide spread within the energy sources): electricity: 1.5 to 3 M/km, with an average of
2.3 M/km; gas: 0.5 to 2.5 M/km (mainly depending on the pipe diameter), oil: 1.6 M/km; and heat: 0.2 to 1.8 M/km. Overall, a very rough estimate for all four energy carriers is: around 2 M/km (i.e., ~1+1 M/km each for line-oriented + point-oriented costs, such as transformer stations).
Keywords: energy grids; grid costs; Austria; electricity networks; oil pipelines; gas pipelines; heat networks; energy transition; infrastructure costs; transformer stations.
Special Issue on: COVID-19 and Its Impact on the Economies of the Developing World
Indian agriculture sector: impacts from COVID-19
by Arti Yadav, Irfan Ahmad
Abstract: The livelihood of around 70% of the Indian rural population depends on the agriculture sector. In India, even the earnings of the non-agriculture sectors in terms of backward and forward linkage for agro-based businesses also get impacted by the production of agricultural products. However, issues like cereal centric, regionally biased, and resource-intensive production are still about the agriculture sector of India. The present study attempts to provide an insight into the present scenario of the Indian agriculture sector after providing a brief review of the agricultural literature. Through empirical analysis using multiple regression technique, it tries to find out the factors responsible for the growth of the Indian agriculture sector. The study also explores the potential impact of COVID-19 on the agriculture sector of India based on various secondary sources. The result shows that agriculture trade, level of rainfall, and infrastructure development is significantly and positively, while life expectancy and employment in agriculture are significantly and negatively impacting the agricultural contribution to the GDP of India.
Keywords: agriculture sector; economic growth; COVID-19; India.