International Journal of Global Environmental Issues (23 papers in press)
Is fishing causes for marine resource vulnerability in Gulf of Mannar, India?
by Kanaga V, Rajakumar M, Sujathkumar N.V, Jawahar P, Brita Nicy
Abstract: Marine fishery resources are providing lots of benefits to the society and environment especially in employment, income and nutritional security. Marine fisheries resource degradation due to anthropogenic activities which includes destructive fishing activities is the present issue. Fishing activities provide livelihoods to coastal people even though it affects negatively the marine fishery resources. Hence this study attempted to identify the major causes for the vulnerability in the Gulf of Mannar coast. Gulf of Mannar was selected as the study area for the research due to resource richness and the significant level of livelihood dependence on marine fishery resources. The sample size of the study was 450 fishermen which were distributed to non-motorised (33), motorized (335) and mechanized (82) craft sector based on percentage contribution to total fishing crafts registered in GoM coast. Primary data were collected from the respondents through field survey by survey schedule. The collected data were tabulated and analysed by Random Based Quotient technique and Spearmen rank correlation technique. Practising banned fishing methods, bottom trawl net use, scarcity of sustainable fishing gear, the inefficiency of mesh size regulation, and nonselective fishing gear used for fishing were the major causes for the vulnerability as identified from the study. Implementation of suitable policy measures and regular monitoring will help to solve the problems to maintain the resources at the sustainable level.
Keywords: vulnerability; marine fishery resources; destructive fishing activities.
Just water under the bridge: a Bourdieusian view about Samarco sustainability narrative before and after an ecocide episode
by Paula Piassa, Jacques Haruo Fukushigue Jan-Chiba, Rafael Borim-de-Souza
Abstract: In this research, we have aimed to interpret, through Bourdieusian sociology, narratives of and referring to Samarco Mineracoes S.A. on sustainability before and after the ecocide in the city of Mariana, state of Minas Gerais, southeast of Brazil. We have chosen this mining company because of the Fundao tailings dam on November 5th, 2015. We have done documental research with Samarcos sustainability reports, social media pages and videos from its YouTube official channel, and articles from two Brazilian media communication vehicles Carta Capital and Estadao. Through narrative analysis, we have found that Samarcoas narrative represented a different construction, intended only to hide the harmful effects of destructive development. Carta Capital has implemented a critical narrative regarding the sustainability of Samarco. Estadao has sought to narrate through a bias delimited by the set of sectors of society and by the government and a large part of the Samarcoas representative agents.
Keywords: Bourdieusian sociology; sustainability; ecocide; narrative analysis; organisations.
Site selection for landfills using GIS-based multi criteria decision analysis - a case study of National Capital Territory of Delhi, India
by Amrapali Tiwari, G. Sreenivasan, Vinod Kumar Sharma
Abstract: Landfill site selection in an urban area like National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi is a challenging task due to shortage of suitable land and other environmental, economic and social parameters. This study focusses on utilization of Geographic Information System, open-source libraries and Remote sensing for identification of potential landfill sites in Delhi NCT. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and other GIS based approaches are used for analyzing various natural parameters derived using remote sensing satellite data products. Resourcesat LISS-III and Sentinel-2 multispectral satellite data is used for deriving the required parametric layers. Zones in the vicinity of monuments, transport, canals, drainages, lineaments are avoided altogether. Results reveal overall, most suitable places for landfill site in study area is around 4.05 Sq. km (0.27 %), moderately suitable places are 14.68 Sq.km (0.98%), least suitable places are 25.46 Sq. km (1.71%) and not suitable places is 1419.11Sq.km (95.62%).
Keywords: geographic information system; GIS; multi-criteria decision analysis; MCDA; Geospatial Data Abstraction Library; GDAL; open-source libraries; Delhi NCT; remote sensing.
Sustainability practices and promotion: websites of large US companies, part II
by Timothy Heinze, Nathan Heinze
Abstract: In recent years, both stakeholders and casual observers have required increasing amounts of social involvement from companies. Companies can no longer exclusively rely on quality products/services to generate goodwill. Rather, companies must also present themselves as socially conscious. Environmental corporate social responsibility (ECSR) is a major component of this presentation. However, the importance that stakeholders ascribe to ECSR efforts differs across industries. To strategically develop and market ECSR initiatives, companies must understand the relative importance and extent of ECSR programs and signalling within their given industries. The current study completes a 13-year longitudinal review of ECSR initiatives and website-based signalling across all Standard & Poors 500 companies. Results indicate that companies across all industries have increased their ECSR and signalling efforts. However, differences exist across industries. The paper highlights these differences and concludes with guidelines for developing and signalling ECSR initiatives that reflect or exceed industry norms.
Keywords: environmental sustainability; corporate websites; impression management; Standard & Poors 500.
Natural radioactivity level and evaluation of radiological hazard in the soil around a gold mining area in the North Region of Burkina Faso
by Karim Kabore, Luc Telado Bambara, Inoussa Zongo, Ousmane Cisse, François Zougmore, Emmanuel Ofori Darko
Abstract: The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in soil samples from the North Region of Burkina Faso around the mining site of Kalsaka were measured by gamma spectrometry using high purity germanium detector. Radiological hazard assessment due to such natural radioactivity was also investigated. The average activity concentration of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were found to be 26.06 ± 1.50 Bq.kg-1, 33.27 ± 1.97 Bq.kg-1 and 133.11 ± 13.69 Bq.kg-1 respectively. The average absorbed dose was 0.038 µGy/h whereas the annual committed effective dose was 0.050 ± 0.003 mSv.y-1. The average radium equivalent activity concentration was 83.89 Bq.kg-1. The external and internal hazard indices were 0.23 and 0.30 respectively which are three times less than one. The activity utilisation index was 0.6 Bq.kg-1 with maximum of 0.79 Bq.kg-1. The mean effective dose rate of 0.05 ± 0.003 mSv.y-1 and the mean values of Raeq and Hex and Hin for the studied area are below their respective permissible limits, thus indicating that radiation hazard is not significant in this area.
Keywords: activity concentration; uranium; thorium; potassium; natural radioactivity; soil; Burkina Faso.
Is general collective intelligence a reliable path towards achieving green growth?
by Andy E. Williams
Abstract: Through the invention of the organism, nature has already solved sustainability and many other wicked problems, and has demonstrated the successful operation of these solutions for hundreds of millions of years. Recent innovations in systems modelling suggest that from a functional modelling perspective an organism is a pattern that can be mimicked. By copying that model to define the concept of a 'general collective intelligence' software platform capable of orchestrating cooperation so human groups act as a single organism, for the first time in human history, solving wicked problems like achieving green economic growth and an exponentially greater impact on collective challenges such as climate change, might be reliably achievable. This statement is politically controversial because there are entire government bodies, industries, and international organisations operating on the assumption that existing approaches are sufficient, but it is also a realisation that is critical to recognising the need for new solutions if true.
Keywords: green growth; general collective intelligence; GCI; ecosystem; collective organism.
Analysing the presence of volatility clustering and impact of macro-economic variables on sustainability indices in India: using GARCH (1, 1) model and ARDL framework
by Kanchan Sehrawat, Muskan Kaur, Madhu Vij
Abstract: Increasing environmental consciousness among various stakeholders of financial markets has led to the introduction of GREENEX and CARBONEX indices by Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE). This study is an attempt to analyse the impact of macro-economic variables, namely growth rate (GDP), inflation (WPI) and exchange rate (FOREX) on both the sustainability indices. The paper also attempts to find the presence of volatility clustering in the sustainability indices of India. The cointegration amongst the macro-economic variables and sustainability indices is tested through auto-regressive distributive lag (ARDL) Approach and significant results are achieved for both the indices. The volatility clustering for GREENEX and CARBONEX is tested through GARCH (1, 1) model and significant volatility clustering is established for both the indices. These significant relationships highlight that the macro-economic variables have a significant and crucial impact on sustainability of the Indian economy. Any measure taken to improve the growth rate, exchange rate, or inflation shall significantly facilitate sustainability in the Indian economy, further reducing the volatility in stock market and economy.
Keywords: sustainability; macro-economic variables; GREENEX; CARBONEX; ARDL framework; GARCH (1; 1); India.
Special Issue on: Innovations for Sustainability Energy, Industry and Agriculture
Intentions without attention: challenges in agricultural extension communication in Ethiopia
by Tadele Mognehodie Workineh, Adem Chanie Ali, Amanuel Gebru Woldearegay
Abstract: This study aimed to explore the major challenges in agricultural extension communication activities focusing on four agricultural research centres in four districts under Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR). Applying an exploratory qualitative research approach, we gathered data using open-ended questionnaires, in-depth interviews and four FGD sessions. Then, data were coded and analysed thematically using QDA miner software based on the principles of diffusion of innovation and participatory communication theoretical frameworks. The findings show that agricultural innovation communications have been obstructed by various challenges, such as communication channels, resources, stakeholders' participation, capacity and perception. The major challenges have been condensed into six themes as: 'futile participation' (insufficient involvement of stakeholders), 'communication gaps' (poor information exchange), 'capacity problems' (knowledge and skills gap), 'resource constraints' (budget, infrastructure, and logistics), 'shortage of supplies' (varieties, herbicides, and fertiliser) and 'farmers' perceptions'. Thus, a system has to be established to enable stakeholders to work in synergy.
Keywords: agricultural innovation; challenges; communication; participation; stakeholders.
Clean development mechanism projects in the Brazilian wind sector and the carbon market: accounting aspects and relationships between its peculiarities
by Andreza Moura Dos Santos, Márcio Sampaio Pimentel
Abstract: This study analysed the accounting deal for carbon credit operations of Brazilian companies in the renewable wind energy segment with clean development mechanism (CDM) projects and their particularities. Descriptive, exploratory, and quantitative research was conducted. Multiple correspondence analysis was used to generate clusters and Fisher's exact test was also used. Regarding the accounting deal, the projects show transactions with carbon credits, classifying them as intangible assets. However, it is suggested that credit should be accounted for in a specific account of current assets as a financial instrument. Regarding the relationships between the particularities of the CDM, there is a significant relationship in all themes analysed, except for the information topic. Even though the CDM is a milestone in environmental regulation, it is important to establish public policies to promote tax incentives and specific rules on the accounting treatment of operations with carbon credits.
Keywords: environmental accounting; clean development mechanism; CDM; carbon credit; wind energy.
The impact of agricultural cooperatives on the sustainable development of rural communities
by Yuriy Petrushenko, Jiri Hejkrlik, Oksana Duvanova, Wojciech Duranowski, Tetiana Semenenko
Abstract: Today, decentralisation reform has been completed in Ukraine, and rural areas received resources for their development and became responsible for it. The study is based on the assumption that the effective mechanism for enhancing sustainable development of rural areas in Ukraine is to create agricultural cooperatives. They form an economic tool and a mechanism that positively affects the growth of communities' social capital and stimulates residents to develop the type of thinking focusing on sustainable development. An econometric model of the impact of the agricultural cooperative on local development was made to test this assumption. The study results proved the positive impact of agricultural cooperatives on sustainable development, which might be the basis for the formation of state, regional, and local policies to stimulate the establishment of agricultural cooperatives in rural communities of Ukraine. Results might be applied in the development of the cooperative movement in other countries.
Keywords: agricultural cooperative; sustainable development; economic cooperation; ecology; socio-economic development; rural community.
UAV multispectral imagery in determination of paddy conditions
by Andrea Oliver Enos, Khairul Nizam Tahar
Abstract: This study aims to determine the health condition of paddy by using UAV multispectral imagery. This involves determining the health of paddy by using NDVI and calculating the percentage of the healthy paddy area. The data was obtained from an altitude of 80 m with an 80% overlap. The selected study area was about 14,937.13 m2. This study reported that the very healthy paddy area was about 8,981.699 m2 (60.13%), and the healthy condition area was 3,398.481 m2 (22.75%). Meanwhile, the area of the unhealthy paddy region was 2,556.95 m2, whereby the percentage of the region was 17.12%. The accuracy assessment was based on the NDVI imagery and NDVI ground truth data, in which the root mean square error (RMSE) achieved ±0.057. The regression analysis showed that the relationship between NDVI from the multispectral UAV and spectrometer had a 90.53% correlation.
Keywords: precision agriculture; multispectral camera; UAV; unmanned aerial vehicle; remote sensing; vegetation index.
Global instability trends: impact on human development and labour market
by Mariia Krymova, Miroslaw Wasilewski, Halyna Fyliuk, Badri Gechbaia, Lyazat Zhumankulova, Tetiana Svyrydiuk
Abstract: This research is focused on the impact of established global trends on the world labour market conditions and opportunities for human development. Five major groups of trends (technological innovations, ecodemographic, socio-behavioural, economic, political and administrative and safety trends) which have a varying influence on human development have been identified. The most significant global trends within the scope of this study include: life extension and life cycle change, development of artificial intelligence, introduction of new treatment and health advocacy methods, increasing aversion to manual labour, introduction of new employment models, aggravating resource scarcity, economic and social disparity, etc. The study has determined that global trends are characterised by wide impact on all state and social systems. These trends can be situational, and can entail both positive and negative changes in specific countries.
Keywords: labour market; global trends; human development; innovations; risks; poverty; disparity; employment; instability.
Environmental and economic analysis of technological innovations in the energy sector
by Rui Li, Oleksandr Kubatko, Yevhen Baranchenko, Raminta Benetyte, Leonid Melnyk, Iryna Dehtyarova, Oleksandr Matsenko
Abstract: The work is related to the justification of decisions on the implementation of innovative technologies in the phase transition to a new model of economy. The purpose of the work is to present a comparative analysis of the economic and environmental efficiency of two competing technologies of energy production (fossil fuel and renewable). The comparative efficiency method was used, and it is based on the assessment levelised cost of energy (LCOE), the total present value of the energy projects implementation. The calculations showed that 2019-2021 were a milestone at which alternative energy sources in economic terms became compared with traditional energy sources (based on the combustion of fossil fuels). It is made a prognosis that by 2030, the economic advantage of using alternative energy per unit of energy production will exceed the value of traditional energy by 2.5 times.
Keywords: renewable resources; green energy; environmental damage; energy storage; digital economy.
Solar energy for green university: estimation of economic, environmental and image benefits
by Tetiana Kurbatova, Daria Lysenko, Galyna Trypolska, Olha Prokopenko, Marina Järvis, Tetiana Skibina
Abstract: The paper considers the main components of the green university concept, the foreign experience of environmental transformation of higher education institutions, and the impact of eco-innovations implementation on strengthening universities' position in the UI GreenMetric World University Rankings. The green strategy of Sumy State University, the results of its implementation, and prospects for improvement in terms of increasing renewable energy sources usage through the solar power plant installation are analysed. The effectiveness of the solar power plant investment project and the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere by replacing conventional electricity with electricity generated by the solar power plant are estimated. It is proved that in addition to economic and environmental benefits, the implementation of the solar energy project will positively impact the university's image at the national and international levels.
Keywords: green university; solar energy; investment project; benefits; Sumy State University; Ukraine.
Young people and women as key drivers of agricultural transformation in Africa: transiting from rhetoric to action in Ghana
by Emmanuel Kwesi Boon, Irene Susana Egyir, Richard Oppong-Boateng, Oleksandra Karintseva, Benedict Anganmwine Dibkuu
Abstract: The prevalence of hunger, malnutrition and poverty in many African countries like Ghana is mainly due to low agricultural productivity and the sector's inability to attract educated young people and women (YPW). Ghana has not been able to leverage her abundant land and water resources as well as her youthful population to transform her agricultural sector, promote food and nutrition security, and improve the livelihoods of the rural people, especially in the transition and northern savannah ecological zones. Agricultural transformation constitutes the core element of this paper's conceptual framework. The findings of a comprehensive desk research informed the selection and conduct of field surveys in two local communities in two districts in the transition and northern savannah ecological zones of Ghana. The quantitative data were analysed using SPSS version 20 while the qualitative information was subjected to content analysis. The opportunities for transforming Ghana's agriculture into a productive sector and a major employer of educated young people and women include smart agricultural practices, widening access to resources, markets and social amenities in rural communities.
Keywords: agriculture; food security; agricultural transformation; rural communities; unemployment; women; young people; Ghana.
Life satisfaction and digital transformation of society evidence from European economies
by Oleksandra Kubatko, Hynek Roubík, Victoria Kubatko, Oluwatobi Odewole, Yevheniia Stepanenko, Bohdan Kovalov, Serhiy Kozmenko
Abstract: Life satisfaction is the most important social indicator of life quality. 33 European countries and data for them for 2016-2018 were selected. Four regressions with set variables that impact life satisfaction are constructed using the general least square techniques with random effects. It is found that if mean and median income increases by 10,000 euro, the life satisfaction increases by 0.42 points. However, when the income per capita starts to be bigger than 59,177, the life satisfaction levels decrease. The study proved the inverted U-shape relations between economic growth and life satisfaction. After some critical points in the population's well-being, other factors are needed to improve life satisfaction. It is found that when the employment rate increases by 10%, life satisfaction increases by 0.7. If arrears increase by 10%, life satisfaction decreases by 0.36 (it is more pleasant to leave in smaller states). If human resources in science and technology increase by 10%, life satisfaction increases by 0.5, proving that all new advances lead to technological progress and influence the quality and standard of living.
Keywords: life satisfaction; developed economies; economic development; EU; unemployment; digital economy.
Coevolution of education and business: adaptive interaction
by Kostiantyn Bezgin, Andrey Zahariev, Larysa Shaulska, Olha Doronina, Natela Tsiklashvili, Natalia Wasilewska
Abstract: The study focuses on innovative means of interaction between educational and business entities. These means are aimed at drawing a parallel between established educational objectives and practical experience. Business education has to transform to ensure coevolution of the business needs and capabilities of the business education, and this challenge is discussed in the article. It explains why it is urgent to introduce new ways of interaction and involvement of the students in managerial and economic processes. An expanded typology of modern business education models has been described in this study. Their practical implementation would prove fruitful in the long run. In particular, it would allow the educational institution to evolve along with the business environment and constantly adapt to new challenges. Businesses would be able to improve and replenish labour resources, and graduates of business schools would be more competitive on the market.
Keywords: business; coevolution; education; competence; business model; innovative development; needs; congruence; adaptive potential; interaction.
Development of economy digitalisation: global and national dimensions in the pre-COVID and post-pandemic world
by Volodymyr Bilotserkivets, Viktor Tarasevych, Urak Aliyev, Waldemar Izdebski, Petr Lemeshchenko
Abstract: Despite the widespread occurrence of the digital economy phenomenon, the scientific community continues a fraught debate regarding its terminological unambiguity, the definition of the lines of its demarcation from genetically and substantively similar phenomena. Digitalisation covers the spheres of production, distribution, exchange and consumption in different ways. Digitalisation processes are gaining importance in industry, transport, agriculture and e-commerce. The role of the state in the national economies digitalisation is growing. The state plays a special role in educational, healthcare and social digitalisation. The economy digitalisation processes acceleration and deepening are taking place in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a change in the role of government in the economy and policy implications for economy digitalisation in East Europe and Kazakhstan. The stimulated transition to a quarantine regime, repeated lockdowns announcements have identified new prospects for the digital economy development.
Keywords: digital economy; digitalisation; sustainable development; global digital transformation; post-pandemic; COVID-19; DESI; East Europe; Kazakhstan.
Scenarios of the logistics systems development for industrial enterprises in a view of sustainability and efficiency
by Olga Maslak, Natalya Grishko, Yaroslava Yakovenko, Sarkhel Mohammed, Khatuna Buchashvili, Nagy Szabolcs
Abstract: The study's relevance is confirmed by the fact that current trends in the informatisation of social and production processes, the implementation of Industry 4.0, and the globalisation of the world economy will contribute to the development of logistics processes. The study aims to develop a methodological approach and practical recommendations for information and analytical support for forming logistics systems of industrial enterprises based on sustainability and effectiveness. The own vector of the comparisons matrix was calculated, and setting priorities for implementing PJSC 'Kredmash' allowed creating a decision support system. The priority scenario for the logistics system development helped determine the position of specialised innovations in logistics. It was substantiated that the primary route for implementing the priority scenario for developing the logistics system must include a block for assessing the program's compliance of directed impulse changes with the policy of interaction with the external environment.
Keywords: logistics system; sustainability; scenario; alternatives; logistics costs; efficiency; priorities; sustainable development; industrial enterprises; logistics operations.
Artificial intelligence in the judiciary: challenges and tools for achieving sustainable development goals
by Vladyslava Zavhorodnia, Anna Slavko, Olha Shvaher, Mateusz Kamionka, Ion Cojocari, Lubov Polyakova
Abstract: Innovative technologies based on artificial intelligence (AI) are rapidly invading various areas of our lives. Legal practice and litigation are no exception. The use of AI in the judiciary carries several risks but can be an essential tool in achieving sustainable development goals. AI systems can facilitate the monotonous work of lawyers in the study of precedents, bills, and regulations. Nevertheless, AI can significantly contribute to resource savings, the rule of law, fair justice, ensuring equality, and non-discrimination. The authors explore modern approaches to the definition of AI suitable for use in legislation, ways to use AI in legal practice, their potential in sustainable development and associated risks, experience gained by national practices of states and international organisations in this field. The conditions and principles of using AI in the judiciary, which will contribute to sustainable development goals, have been determined.
Keywords: sustainable development goals; SDG; judiciary; artificial intelligence; the rule of law; fair justice; equality; non-discrimination.
Special Issue on: International Design of Dialogic Environmental Policies
SYNOPTICS, part X: application of the Synoptics model for the social analysis of states: Colombia (1991) and Nigeria (1992)
by Herbert Rauch
Abstract: Synoptics - a method to diagnose and consult in socio-political conflict situations is here used to describe and analyse the two conflict situations on the level of states in Colombia 1991 and Nigeria 1992. Several conflict scenarios are described to understand better the political micro, meso and macro scenes. The following case studies are developed along some of the main questions for Synoptics social analysis with regard to diagnosing socio-political events: 1) description of focus event; 2) general description of the embedding sovereign social system; 3) description of the agents of the focus event; 4) location of focus event with regard to the level of social systems; 5) C-analysis of the process of the focus event (C = common Challenge, and describing the Alpha, Beta, Gamma and Omega spaces within the social system; 6) gestalt/general pattern of the conflict, and considerations with respect to the future.
Keywords: Synoptics method; social analysis; hypotheses; social systems; conflict situations; challenge principle; Colombia; Nigeria.
Synoptics, Part XI: application of the synoptics social analysis to presidential elections and the corona crisis
by Herbert Rauch
Abstract: This case study (based on the synoptics method explained earlier) tries to show that actual scenarios are able to show the transition of the macro the micro of very recent and prominent events. This election event provides a historically new element in the history of the USA, and even with regard to the human history overall: the whole world comes to see the incredible acts of opposing the official institutions responsible for the presidential transition versus the traditions of transferring administrative power peacefully. The world becomes eye-witness of a former president's behaviour, which - as many think - is partly owed to a specific character, but also to attitudes toward institutions. The side effects are perhaps the most important, namely demonstrating that 'the world has gone global' while the information technology allows almost instantaneous knowledge of important events worldwide - if the interest is global.
Keywords: synoptics method; social analysis; social hypotheses; USA; presidential elections; political system; corona crisis; corona management.
Application of system dynamics for the sustainable management of solid waste in urban areas of Pakistan
by Shoaib Muhammad, Fatima Kauser, Arslan Raza, Ishtiaq Hassan, Shahmir Janjua
Abstract: Environmental problems, especially related to solid waste management, are a growing concern for every developing country, including Pakistan. Rapid population growth has significantly increased the levels of solid waste pollution, and the situation continues to worsen with every passing day. The technical, financial, environmental, and social elements involved in the management of solid waste systems are interconnected, resulting in several interacting feedback loops, thus making solid waste management a complex and dynamic problem. This research aims to develop an integrated system dynamics (SD) framework for the sustainable management of solid waste. The SD model is developed based on a detailed causal loop diagram prepared for the management of solid waste using STELLA software. Different strategies are formulated by including the policy levers in the model. The simulation results show that different financing strategies undertaken by the management can result in varying impacts for the consumers regarding collection efficiency and financial burden.
Keywords: solid waste management; sustainability; system dynamics; STELLA software; policy levers; simulation; Pakistan.