International Journal of Global Environmental Issues (7 papers in press)
Is fishing causes for marine resource vulnerability in Gulf of Mannar, India?
by Kanaga V, Rajakumar M, Sujathkumar N.V, Jawahar P, Brita Nicy
Abstract: Marine fishery resources are providing lots of benefits to the society and environment especially in employment, income and nutritional security. Marine fisheries resource degradation due to anthropogenic activities which includes destructive fishing activities is the present issue. Fishing activities provide livelihoods to coastal people even though it affects negatively the marine fishery resources. Hence this study attempted to identify the major causes for the vulnerability in the Gulf of Mannar coast. Gulf of Mannar was selected as the study area for the research due to resource richness and the significant level of livelihood dependence on marine fishery resources. The sample size of the study was 450 fishermen which were distributed to non-motorised (33), motorized (335) and mechanized (82) craft sector based on percentage contribution to total fishing crafts registered in GoM coast. Primary data were collected from the respondents through field survey by survey schedule. The collected data were tabulated and analysed by Random Based Quotient technique and Spearmen rank correlation technique. Practising banned fishing methods, bottom trawl net use, scarcity of sustainable fishing gear, the inefficiency of mesh size regulation, and nonselective fishing gear used for fishing were the major causes for the vulnerability as identified from the study. Implementation of suitable policy measures and regular monitoring will help to solve the problems to maintain the resources at the sustainable level.
Keywords: vulnerability; marine fishery resources; destructive fishing activities.
Influence of the type of photocatalyst on photocatalytic oxidation of triclosan in the aquatic environment
by Piotr Zawadzki, Edyta Kudlek, Mariusz Dudziak
Abstract: As part of the research, a comparative assessment of the removal of triclosan (an antibacterial compound) in aqueous solutions at a concentration of 1.0 mg/dm3 during an advanced oxidation process was carried out in the presence of commercial titanium(IV) oxide and photocatalysts modified with the carbonaceous material (powdered activated carbon) and ultrasounds. Photocatalytic decomposition processes were carried out using a photocatalyst dose of 100 mg/dm3. The photodegradation process was carried out in a laboratory reactor by Heraeus (Warsaw, Poland) with a capacity of 700 cm3. The influence of photocatalysts modification on the effectiveness of compound sorption and its decomposition was found. The compound was adsorbed in the range of 69% to 96%, whereas to a greater degree on a modified TiO2. The decomposition of triclosan in a process catalyzed by TiO2 allowed the compound to decompose in 91% after 20 minutes of the process. In the case of modified photocatalysts, the decomposition of the compound exceeded 99% after 10 minutes of irradiation. The analysis of the pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics showed a two-step course of photocatalysis in the case of a photocatalyst modified with activated carbon and ultrasounds.
Keywords: Photocatalyst; TiO2; photocatalysis; triclosan; modified photocatalysts; ultrasounds; activated carbon; kinetics; environmental pollution; advanced oxidation processes; photodegradation.
Public knowledge of seawater desalination and its impacts on the environment in Gaza strip, Palestine
by Saleh Alda
Abstract: This research assesses public awareness and knowledge about seawater desalination and its impacts on the environment in the coastal area in the Gaza strip, Palestine. In addition, the study investigates how socio-demographic, motivational factors and information use shape public knowledge. Data was collected using a survey from a random sample of the residents who live in Dier Al balh city in the Gaza strip.
Both People's self-assessed knowledge and factual knowledge indicators about desalination and its impacts on the environment were poor. Furthermore, it was found that people who were more connected with their place showed high awareness. Information resources indicate a low relation with self-assessed knowledge and awareness and lower with factual knowledge.
Keywords: Desalination; Water crisis; Awareness; Knowledge; Environment; Palestine.
Special Issue on: International Design of Dialogic Environmental Policies
SYNOPTICS, part VII: application of the Synoptics model for the social analysis of large states: Republic of South Africa
by Herbert Rauch
Abstract: As another example for the application of the Synoptic social analysis method, the case study of Nelson Mandelas farewell speech in the ANC party convention of 1997 is outlined and linked to the Synoptics theory, while adding some comments with respect to the global situation of 2020. Overall, this article presents an outline of a larger case study illustrating the Synoptics theory, concentrating on the ANC convention in RSA with the farewell of Nelson Mandela as president of the ANC as central event. Synoptics wanted to present the foundations and the applicational possibilities of Synoptics as a rather precise path towards a psychosocial analysis of society. It includes social factors as well as psychic factors, and wants to show that finally, also society is rooted at least as much within the mental sphere as well as in the social web, which is intertwining psychic and social factors, as far as we today can grasp them in their state of being intertwined.
Keywords: Synoptics method; social analysis; hypotheses; psychoanalysis; social sciences; social systems; challenge principle; basic sentences; South Africa.
The impact of rural-urban migration and its effects on urbanisation in Kano State, Nigeria
by Mukhtar Sabiu Yahuza, Buket Asilsoy, Salih Gücel, Ozge Ozden
Abstract: One of the biggest world problems now is rural-urban migration, with about more than 50% of the total worlds population living in urban centres. Looking at the worlds virus pandemic of Covid-19 is spreading very fast; this is because of the congestion, unsanitary and high population in the urban centres. This paper highlights the problems of urbanisation in Kano State, and Nigeria as a whole. Relevant literatures were revised and conclusion and recommendation were deduced. Results show that migration problems resulted in the city over sprawl, deforestation, disturbance of wildlife, abandonment of cultural heritage, agricultural land, craftsmanship and loss of ancestral informal education and occupation. Therefore, it is recommended that rural areas of Kano State should be given special attention to reduce the rate of migration problem in urban centres around Kano State, Nigeria.
Keywords: urbanisation; migration; rural; urban; sustainability; Almajiri; city; Northern Nigeria; Kano State; Nigeria; Africa.
SYNOPTICS, part VI: synoptical analysis of the psychic field
by Herbert Rauch
Abstract: Part VI of synoptics deals with a new model of the psychic field. This aims to provide a synoptic model to describe in simple form all psychic involvement in human behaviour. Such, it deals in a clear-cut way with the basic areas of covert behaviour, the inner (psychic) back-and-forth that one cannot really see, but by meticulously observing overt behaviour one can conclude metaphorically in a hermeneutic approach toward a socio-psychology of behaviour, especially seen in the context of a method towards a psychosocial analysis of society. This approach starts with laying out in rough metaphorical ways the parts of the psychic field: the conscious, the suppressed area, the scotomised themes, i.e., the part of the outside world which is not recognised in the conscious field, from which it is excluded by the mechanism of the reign of a quasi-absolute (QA) marking each phase of the individual human life.
Keywords: synoptics method; social analysis; hypotheses; psychoanalysis; psychic field; social systems; challenge principle; scotomised; covert behavior; psychosocial analysis.
Design and model of facemask to inactivate the novel coronavirus
by Sunil Gupta
Abstract: Due to the novel coronavirus spread (COVID-19) globally, governments across the world recommended the mandatory use of facemasks. The facemask helps people prevent and control the spread of virus infection. In this paper, we propose a design and model of facemask to inactivate the virus particles present in our surroundings. The proposed facemask is able to purify the air when a person inhales and exhales. The proposed mask is cost-effective, reusable, washable, and possesses the ability to disinfect the surface of facemask. The mask has the capability to trap all dust particles and virus present in the air, drastically decreasing the chance of infection. The mask is well-designed on the concept of activated carbon and copper filter.
Keywords: facemask; coronavirus; infection; copper filter; activated carbon; medical silicone.