International Journal of Global Environmental Issues
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International Journal of Global Environmental Issues (18 papers in press)
Abstract: In this article we confront the yawning gap between necessary GHG emissions reductions targets set by climate scientists and the results of decades-long international treaty negotiations and meetings. We find that, thirty years after the treaty process commenced, this gap is still growing. The treaty process first tried a top-down approach, in the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, and later a bottom-up one, in the 2015 Paris Agreement, but so far the later results have proved no better than the earlier ones. We suggest, therefore, that a different approach should be implemented. We propose that the advanced economies should begin, as soon as possible, subsidizing a massive program to promote decarbonisation in the still-developing economies by providing free of charge a very extensive array of non-fossil-fuel technologies and facilities. At the end of this article we refer to a specific framework within which this mission could be carried out.
Keywords: Environmental treaty law; Paris Agreement; climate forcing; climate science; greenhouse gas targets; risk; global warming.
Is fishing causes for marine resource vulnerability in Gulf of Mannar, India?
by Kanaga V, Rajakumar M, Sujathkumar N.V, Jawahar P, Brita Nicy
Abstract: Marine fishery resources are providing lots of benefits to the society and environment especially in employment, income and nutritional security. Marine fisheries resource degradation due to anthropogenic activities which includes destructive fishing activities is the present issue. Fishing activities provide livelihoods to coastal people even though it affects negatively the marine fishery resources. Hence this study attempted to identify the major causes for the vulnerability in the Gulf of Mannar coast. Gulf of Mannar was selected as the study area for the research due to resource richness and the significant level of livelihood dependence on marine fishery resources. The sample size of the study was 450 fishermen which were distributed to non-motorised (33), motorized (335) and mechanized (82) craft sector based on percentage contribution to total fishing crafts registered in GoM coast. Primary data were collected from the respondents through field survey by survey schedule. The collected data were tabulated and analysed by Random Based Quotient technique and Spearmen rank correlation technique. Practising banned fishing methods, bottom trawl net use, scarcity of sustainable fishing gear, the inefficiency of mesh size regulation, and nonselective fishing gear used for fishing were the major causes for the vulnerability as identified from the study. Implementation of suitable policy measures and regular monitoring will help to solve the problems to maintain the resources at the sustainable level.
Keywords: vulnerability; marine fishery resources; destructive fishing activities.
A second phase sampling design for monitoring the Nitrogen Dioxide in Greater Cairo, and Delta, Egypt.
by Sara Osama, Reda Mazloum, Hala Abou-Ali
Abstract: Air pollution is a serious environmental phenomenon that threatens the whole world. In order to be able to take the necessary regulations and policies to face air pollution, one must first depend on measurements and analysis that are correct and reliable. Reaching a well-designed network is the first step to gain access to these measurements and analysis. Throughout the current study the network of monitoring stations measuring Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) in Greater Cairo and Delta Regions in Egypt is improved. Two approaches are followed namely: approach (A) and approach (B). For approach (A), the simultaneous algorithm is applied for adding 11 extra stations to the existing network. Approach (B) consists of two steps; the first step includes choosing the least influential stations of the network, then re-allocate them in the second step along with the extra 11 stations using the simultaneous approach. Simulated data are then used to assess the modified networks. The improved network using either approach (A) or (B) gave better results than the initial one. However, approach (B) can be considered quite better than approach (A).
Keywords: Air Pollution; Network Design; kriging; Prediction Standard Error; Simultaneous Algorithm.
Photochemical behavior of pretilachlor on black soil surface
by Virendra Kakotiya, Partha Pratim Choudhury
Abstract: In any agricultural soil, humic-substances are the storehouse of multiple chromophores, which provide a unique role in the degradation of soil-applied herbicides under sunlight determining their availability for the protection of crops and their persistence in the soil. The role of humic acid (HA) on the photolysis of pretilachlor applied onto the soil surface was investigated in terms of the rate of photolysis along with the photoproduct formation. Experiments on the photolysis of pretilachlor under sunlight were conducted on the surfaces of glass, HA-coated glass, black soil, organic matter free (OMF) black soil, and HA-coated OMF-black soil. The half-life values were found 27.72, 43.31, 115.5, 63.00, 138.6 hour, respectively. Thus, the rates of reaction on HA-containing surfaces were slower than that on surfaces devoid of HA. In fact, HA provided either a quenching or shielding effect to protect pretilachlor from sunlight. The photoreaction of pretilachlor generated at least 12 photoproducts through two major routes the deacylation on amide linkage and the cleavage of the ether linkage. The product 2,6-diethyl aniline, one of the photoproducts characterized, is a potent mutagen and has the capacity to contaminate groundwater.
Keywords: photodegradation; humic acids; black soil; pretilachlor; chloroacetanilide herbicide.
Special Issue on: Green Economy Energy, Industry and Agricultural Aspects
by Emmanuel Boon, Richard Oppong-Boateng, Ama Appiah-Acheampong, Naomi Buabemaa Gyekye
Abstract: Policymakers, technical and development experts have provided numerous reasons for Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries to adapt and replicate the lessons of Asias Green Revolution (AGR) which is regarded to be an effective model for increasing agricultural productivity, reducing poverty and enhancing food and nutrition security. However, for SSA to successfully replicate AGR requires a firm grasp of the specific conditions under which it was implemented during the 1960s and 1970s. The changing environment, climate change impacts and erratic rainfall patterns are making the predominant rain-fed agriculture in SSA countries like Ghana unproductive and unsustainable. Consequently, widespread poverty, food and nutrition insecurity are endemic in most rural communities in Ghana. The views of eight development experts and forty-five farmers were analysed and the key drivers that can facilitate a successful replication of Asias experiences identified and analysed. A number of recommendations are then proposed for a successful deployment of AGR to boost agricultural productivity, wealth creation, and food and nutrition security in Ghana.
Keywords: Agriculture; Climate Change; Food Security; Green Revolution; Hunger; Irrigation; Nutrition; Productivity; Ghana Green Revolution; Productivity.
State support policy for renewable energy development in emerging economies: the case of Ukraine
by Tetiana Kurbatova, Iryna Sotnyk, Oleksandr Kubatko, Yevhen Baranchenko, Emmanuel Arakpogun, Hynek Roubík
Abstract: This paper investigates the role of state policies in supporting renewable energy development in emerging economies by drawing example from Ukraine. The economic mechanisms aimed at promoting electricity generation from renewable sources, namely, the feed-in tariff, credit programmes in renewable energy field, tax and customs privileges as well as indirect mechanisms, are considered in the context of business and household sectors. Particular attention is paid to the assessment of the impact of the motivational mechanisms on the deployment of renewable energy generation capacities introduced in Ukraine from 2009-2018. Despite the state support of renewable energy development and the positive tendencies toward the operational renewable energy facilities, the green electricity share in Ukraines final electricity consumption remains insignificant. In view of this, this paper explores the barriers impeding the large-scale deployment of renewable energy and makes recommendations for improvement, including the need for changes in the state support mechanisms.
Keywords: emerging economies; energy efficiency; green electricity; renewable energy; state support policy; Ukraine.
Service Learning as an Educational Outreach Project for Communitys Sustainable Development and Social Responsibility Support
by Orlando Petiz Pereira, Oleksii Goncharenko, Yulija Chortok, Oleksandra Kubatko, Maria Manuela Coutinho
Abstract: This work stresses the importance of curricular innovation for strengthening the relationship between the education market, the labour market and the communitys life. It materialises a reflective analysis to determine the importance of the introduction of Service Learning in the teaching-learning process. Indeed, it is a relational, reflective and structured process, combining the excitement of learning with the provision of useful service to the community. Hence, we aim to discuss hypothetical pedagogical solutions to innovate the orthodox teaching system. We also intend to respond to the following question: how to promote the civic engagement of universities? In this sense, this paper is not intended to introduce formulas for the solution of the problems of education and society. It aims to reflect on how to deepen citizens' awareness to another way of being, of teaching and learning at the University, through active, cooperative, flexible and exciting practices. In this context, as a methodology, we discuss the Service Learning as a pedagogical approach to be implemented in the light of the available literature and confront the Service-learning with the instruments of volunteering practices and community service. The paper on the Service Learning tends to assert its importance, both for the student and for the community at large. This work, as it is in the domain of reflection, has limitations and flaws. These can be overcome, in future work, with interviews with teachers, students and the local community. Another manner of complementing and strengthening the proposals for the implementation of this methodology is to realise an in-depth analysis of the results of the universities that have already implemented the Service-learningmethodology. This article defends the implementation of the Service Learning methodology because it responds better to the expectations of students and employers, and it also improves the well-being of the community. It sheds light on social implications because it acts as a "civilising agent" and it structures society in line with the values of Justice, equity, solidarity and respect for human rights, things and nature. This work enshrines some originality because it deals with a teaching-learning process that gives voice and time to creative participation of students, either in their educational process and in the construction of a plural and democratic citizenship.
Keywords: Democratic Citizenship; Educational Innovation; Relation University-Comunity; Service-Learning; Service to the Community; Social Responsibility; Sustainable development; Volunteering Work.
The system of indicators for alternative energy development in the context of the green economy
by Victoria Bozhkova, Leonid Melnyk, Oleksandr Derykolenko, Yuri Yevdokimov, Iryna Dehtyarova, Oleksiy Pasyevin
Abstract: The use of alternative energy is beneficial and is in high demand all over the world. However, implementation of projects associated with alternative energy or the so-called green projects in emerging economies remains rather low. The goal of this paper is to analyze and identify determinants that influence the development of alternative energy in Ukraine. Specifically, the impact of the countrys economic growth on the use of alternative energy is analyzed. Granger Test was applied to prove that the power supply in the country does not change the dynamics of alternative energy utilization. The influence of globalization and international cooperation on the development of alternative energy is also reviewed. The paper shows that both significantly influence the development of global and local energy markets to provide incentives for global and regional environmental projects. The paper also investigates the need for appropriate infrastructure to support green projects. It is suggested to classify infrastructure providers to support alternative power generation into three groups: (i) financial and credit institutions; (ii) technical and technological businesses; (iii) information technology (IT) and consulting companies. The paper discusses the existence and role of these groups in Ukraine.
Keywords: alternative energy; green economy; indicators; sustainable development.
World trends in bioethanol and biodiesel production in the context of sustainable energy development
by Oleksandr Klymchuk, Olga Khodakivska, Bohdan Kovalov, Anna Brusina, Raminta Benetyte, Iryna Momotenko
Abstract: The article outlines the current state of increasing consumption and demand for primary energy resources due to exhaustion and avalanche-like growth of their world prices. The effects of excessive use of non-renewable energy resources that have led to global climate change and deterioration of the natural environment are highlighted. The priority of sustainable development of the world energy sector is based on increasing consumption of renewable energy resources, in particular, liquid biofuels. The processes of the general world consumption of various types of primary energy and the dynamics of indicators of world bioethanol and biodiesel production during 20002018 are analyzed. Based on the correlation-regression analysis, the forecast of consumption of the primary world energy and the production of liquid biofuels has been made for 20192025. The results indicate that the world market of bioethanol and biodiesel tends to expand, providing from an economic point of view rational use of energy resources, reducing gasoline and diesel consumption. From an energy side, this ensures the transition to sustainable energy development based on the consumption of renewable energy resources. From an environmental side, this leads to environmental pollution decrease. From a social side, this allows creating new processing plants, causing an employment rate increase of population.
Keywords: global energy consumption; fossil fuels; environmental change; sustainable development; renewable energy; bioethanol; gasoline replacement; biodiesel; diesel replacement; correlation and regression analysis; economic development.
ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC REGULATION OF SUSTAINABLE SPATIAL AGROFORESTRY
by Olha Prokopenko, Yevhen Mishenin, Ladislav Mura, Inessa Yarova
Abstract: The article describes the strategic orientations of environmental and economic regulation of sustainable agroforestry under the conditions of anthropogenic and agro-natural environment formation. The necessity to determine the territorial agroforestry potential for further formation of the agroforestry natural capital and the forest reclamation planning of agricultural landscapes is discussed. The system and mechanisms of the forest environment and economic regulation of sustainable spatial agroforestry in terms of the motive factors' formation and creating linear-type forest shelterbelts by agribusiness entities require the agroforestry reclamation cadaster. The methodology of environment and economic assessment of creating forest shelterbelts from the perspectives of the ecosystem service economy has been improved. Some features of determining the "total economic value" of forest protective belts have been considered in this article. A system of strategic targets (production, economic, environmental, and social) for environmental and economic regulation of the spatial agroforestry has been proposed.
Keywords: agroforestry; sustainable spatial development; sustainable spatial agroforestry; environmental and economic regulation; forest protective belts.
Compensation mechanism for damage from ecosystem services deterioration: constitutive characteristic
by Oksana Veklych, Oleksandra Karintseva, Andriy Yevdokymov, Encarna Guillamon-Saorin
Abstract: A growing attention of researchers and politicians to the processes of formation and implementation of the environmental compensation mechanism is fixed in the last decade. Environmental compensation has been viewed as a national or regional regulatory mechanism that contributes to balancing the goal of environmental conservation with the goals of sustainable socio-economic development. The literature on the ecosystem service has developed the terminology of the eco-compensation mechanism. Still, they do not define its functional structure within its framework, in particular, a compensation mechanism for damage from the deterioration of ecosystem services. We characterized this crucial but relatively understudied component of the eco-compensation mechanism and suggested a general formula for determining the magnitude of compensatory payments for damages from degradation/destruction of ecosystem services, which will help to improve the implementation of compensatory payments in decision making as well as drive green economic activity.
Keywords: ecosystem services; eco-compensation mechanism; the magnitude of compensatory payments.
Econometric analysis of the national economy sustainable development based on environmental Kuznets curve
by Lidia Horoshkova, Ievgen Khlobystov, Serhiy Kozmenko, Victoriya Trofymchuk
Abstract: The global threats that the world faces and that are connected with the environmental problems substantiate the need to form the parameters, conditions and mechanisms of sustainable development. It is relevant first of all for developing countries, including for Ukraine. The aim of the paper is to study the issue on the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis in order to understand the parameters of national economy sustainable development. In the paper, the possibility of using the environmental Kuznets curve was checked against the background of the analysis of the relationship between GDP and volumes of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon oxide and dioxide emissions and per capita income in Ukraine and volumes of the abovementioned substances emissions. It was found that Ukraine did not reach a steady turning point, which is present in the traditional environmental Kuznets curve model. The need to take into account the indicators of conservation activity investment against the background of the analysis of the dynamics of the relationship between current and capital expenditures on conservation activity and sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon oxide emissions volumes. It is found that in Ukraine, environmental Kuznets curve has specific nature in the form of separate turning points. It is proposed to form the agreed policy concerning the economic, social and environmental components taking into account the time lag in order to create the conditions for achieving the environmental Kuznets curve parameters in the Ukrainian economy.
Keywords: sustainable development; economic growth; gross domestic product; GDP; per capita income; cyclicality; hazardous substances emissions.
Food Security and Green Economy: impact of institutional drivers
by Tatjana Tambovceva, Ivaylo Hristov Ivanov, Oleksii Lyulyov, Tetyana Pimonenko, Nataliya Stoyanets, Kateryna Yanishevska
Abstract: The paper deals with the analysis of the food security drivers among the Post-Soviet, Visegrad and Baltic Countries in the framework of green economy and sustainable development goals. The authors summarised the main preconditions to analyse the power and significance of institutions' efficiency impact on food security. The authors analysed food security as the core goal of the Sustainable Development Goals 2030. Besides, the authors proved, that the effective policy on agricultural sector allows increasing the level of the countrys food security. In the paper, the authors compiled the main institutions' drivers which influence the efficiency of agricultural sector functioning. The main hypothesis of the investigation is checking to link between governance efficiency and food security of the country. The governance efficiency is estimated through the World Governance Indicators, the food security of the country was estimated by the Food Security Index. The time-series 2006-2016. For the analysis, all countries were divided into three types of the political regime; authoritarian and transitional regimes; weak and full democracies. At the next stage, using the GLS method the significance and power's impact of political institutions functioning and the quality of governmental regulation on the food security was checked. The findings proved that the growth of political freedom level by one-point leads to an increase of the food security by 0.0482 points. While decreasing right to vote by one point reduces the food security by 0.1325, government effectiveness by 0.1992, rule of law by 0.201 points. Considering the findings and results of comparison analysis of EU agricultural policy, the authors allocated the three type of food security drivers: basic (focus of efforts on reducing corruption and increasing political freedom); enforced (focus on extending the right to vote and improving government efficiency); intense (ensuring the rule of law).
Keywords: sustainable development; agriculture; poverty; sustainable development goals; good governance.
The evaluation of economic, environmental and energy security: composite approach
by Grzegorz Mentel, Tetiana Vasilyeva, Yaryna Samusevych, Alina Vysochyna, Rolf Karbach, Justas Streimikis
Abstract: It is determined that economic, energy and environmental security indicators are characterized by the presence of systemic interconnections. The results of the evaluation show, that environmental and energy security are more closely related than environmental and economic or energy and economic types of security. The Integral Index of Environmental-Energy-Economic Security was constructed and assessed taking into account the linkage of individual indicators. Sample of individual indicators is presented by 27 parameters (9 indictors for each security type, divided into groups), which are normalized. The internal consistence of indicators describing each type of security is evaluated by Cronbach coefficient alpha. Integral index considers interrelationships between individual indicators estimated as level and direction of pair correlation. The values of this Index show that during 2000-2016 Slovak Republic demonstrated the highest level of such comprehensive security, while Poland the lowest one.
Keywords: environmental security; economic security; energy security; integral assessment; interactions.
From shadow economy to lower carbon intensity: theory and evidence
by Yuriy Bilan, Paulína Srovnalíková, Justas Streimikis, Sergij Lyeonov, Inna Tiutiunyk, Yulia Humenna
Abstract: The purpose of the research paper is to investigate the chain link "pollution-shadow economy" in the context of the analytical estimation of the impact of individual factors and the level of carbon intensity of gross domestic product (GDP). The article determines the impact of individual factors with transfer to the system of chain interconnections based on regression analysis. On the basis of successive mathematical iterations consisting in confirmation of stationarity (Dickey-Fuller test) and cointegration of data series (Johansen test), the cointegration equations of the dependence of GDP carbon intensity on the level of economy shadowing, the amount of tax payments, the rate of unemployment, the amount of public expenditures on environmental protection have been constructed. It is scientifically based that in all the European countries without exception, taxes and public investments have the greatest impact on the carbon intensity of the GDP of the economy.
Keywords: carbon intensity of the GDP; shadow economy; ecological taxes; unemployment; budgetary allocations; regulation; chain link; impact factor; resulting indicator; multiple regression.
Human Capital Development As A Factor In Achieving Sustainable Development And Enterprise Competitiveness
by Lina Sineviciene, Ausrine Lakstutiene, Almashaqbeh Ismail Yousef Ali, Oleksandr Matsenko, Pavlo Denysenko, Volodymyr Kasyanenko
Abstract: The article focuses on the importance of human capital both in the context of the competitiveness of production and in the context of the impact of the level of development of human capital on the environment to achieve sustainable development. The emphasis is on the study of a unique component of human capital - the creative class. The concepts of creative and cognitive human capital are revealed. It has been established that in the countries of the European Union, the development of human capital correlates with a reduction in the negative impact of social activities on the environment.
Keywords: human capital; enterprise; sustainable development; creative human capital; pollution; human cognitive capital; production.
Greening Economy vs Greening Business: Performance Indicators, Driving Factors and Trends
by Yuriy Derev'yanko, Olha Lukash, Olena Shkarupa, Vladimir Melnyk, Maria Simonova
Abstract: Over the past few years, the economies of the countries and individual companies have been given the strategic task of moving to green principles of activity. The mechanism for assessing economies' achievements (for countries in general) and business (for companies) is rather complex. It is important to evaluate the progress in this direction for countries and firms, as well as how they correspond to each other. The authors take the already developed indexes (GGEI and CSA) as the basis for evaluation of countries and companies, identify the main driving factors and constraints, and suggest the evaluation of such trends over the past five years. The authors apply the method of modifying the GGEI indicator and simplifying the evaluation of the CSA indicator, which allows one to determine the current trend of achieving a green economy and green business. The results prove a discrepancy between green economy and green business trends.
Keywords: green business; green economy; indicator; trend.
A Dynamic Approach to the Study of Institutions in a Green Economy: Macroeconomics, Regions and Industries
by Viktor Sabadash, Olena Pavlenko, Oleg Rubel, Alexandar Shivarov, Kaled A. Asalam Moftah Adrwi, Anar Aghayev
Abstract: The paper extensively reviews the implementation processes of the Association Agreements between the European Union and Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine in the area of environment. The correlation between the implementation processes of the Association Agreements on the environment with the institutional and neo-institutional theories is determined. The most complementary elements of the neo-institutional theory regarding institutional processes for the implementation of the Association Agreement between the EU and Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine in relation to the environment are developed. The neo-institutional methodology of environmental management based on the formation of institutional ecosystem is scientifically reviewed and substantiated. The scientific elements that support its methodological integrity are defined: institutional dominants, institutional replications, and institutional players. A decomposition of these concepts within the framework of modern economic-ecological and neo-institutional theory, and their connection in the context of the formation of the national institutional model of eco-management is analysed.
Keywords: institutional theory; green economy; institutional players; new institutional economics; institutional dominance; institutional replication.