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International Journal of Forensic Engineering (6 papers in press)
Application of Biomechanical Modelling to Police Shooting Reconstruction by Geoffrey Thor Desmoulin Abstract: When investigating Officer-involved shootings, scientific input provides an unbiased perspective to case evidence that assist both the objectivity and credibility of associated reconstructions. This article demonstrates this by detailing a recent shooting reconstruction where multiple scientific tools and methodology were implemented. In order to differentiate between different possible narratives, tools such as synthetic bones, ballistic soap, human dynamic testing as well as human body numerical modelling were used. These tool show how the narrative available can be tied to the injuries reported through the use of a model supported by simple yet robust laboratory testing. In the exemplary case presented, the method was shown to exonerate the response of a police officer who discharged their weapon in self-defence while trying to subdue a violent suspect. Keywords: Officer-involved shooting; biomechanics; modelling; reconstruction; ballistics; wound path; forensics.
Investigations to Assess the Requirement of Overlay every 5th Year after initial Construction on National Highway Projects A Case Study by Amarendra Kumar Sandra Abstract: The maintenance schedule of the concession agreement made for construction of the National Highway projects in India under Built Operate Transfer (BOT) Toll basis says that the pavement need to be overlaid whenever the performance indicators such as Roughness or Benkelman Beam Deflections exceed the trigger value or when the age of the pavement is more than five years. Due to improved quality in construction and good maintenance practices followed during service life, many roads are performing well even after 5 years of the construction and their performance indicators are below the trigger value and do not warrant for an overlay. Nevertheless, the concession agreements demand the overlay irrespective of the condition of pavement which is wastage of natural resources. With this background, in the present study, a five years road section from Ambala Chandigarh of NH-22 was taken as a case study and studied various parameters which affect the pavement performance. Based on the study, it is concluded that the selected pavement for the study is performing better ever after five years and overlay is not required immediately. Keywords: Pavement Mapping; Overlay; Roughness; Pavement Deflection; Asphalt Mix Parameters.
Architectural Standards for Internet of Things: Standardising IoT Architecture. by Syed Suhail Simnani, Sameena Shah, M. Tariq Banday Abstract: Internet of Things aims to integrate physical and digital world by pervasive use of intelligent devices. This technology uses unabatable number of sensing & actuating devices with advanced software stacks to create advanced control and monitoring applications requiring minimal human intervention. The IoT application is created with reference to the architecture describing data flow through the system. These architectures are necessary to tackle the issues of heterogeneity, communication, connectivity, data collection mechanisms, security and scalability. Many such architectures have been proposed but the continuous evolution of IoT enabling technologies make it hard to standardise one concrete architecture over which all IoT systems can be built. This paper provides the synopsis of the IoT architectures and helps us in understanding the pre-requisites and functioning of general IoT devices by discussing their software stacks. The paper later discusses the architectural reference framework of IoT-A which is used to derive domain specific architectures following is the Industrial IoT reference architecture (IIRA) which gives a tier based IoT architecture. The paper then arrives at WSO2 and CISCO architectural models which minimize the architectural levels of abstraction and describe an architectural model based on present IoT enabling technologies. Finally the paper uses a model to evaluate the architectural criteria addressed by all four discussed architectures and helps us to arrive at the Architectural reference model which can be used as a standard for rapid evolution and easy extension of the IoT Infrastructure. Keywords: IoT Architectures; 3-layer; SOA; Cloud; Fog; Software Stack; IoT-A; WSO2; CISCO; IIRA; Weighted Sum Model.
Assessment of Personal Vehicles Side Impacts in the Czech Republic by Roman Mikulec, Stanislav Tokar, Greg Sullenberger Abstract: This study is focused on the analysis of the injuries sustained by vehicle occupants during side crashes based on the data obtained in the Czech Republic since 2011. In the study the analysis of recorded injuries was carried out depending on the position of the passengers in vehicles. Only those vehicles that were crashed from the side (and the impact was directed to the passenger compartment) and where at least one of the passengers was injured were selected. The most common AIS ? 2 level injuries of these vehicles passengers were head and chest injuries. Despite the average age of the documented vehicles (over 11 years), there appears to be no considerable difference in injury distribution in this study compared to those presented in older studies even after significant difference in data collection period of the respective studies and considering progress in vehicle safety. Keywords: Crash analysis; side impact; injury; vehicle occupant; passenger position; vehicle age.
Body-Worn Cameras: A Useful Tool for Police Incident Reconstruction by Geoffrey Desmoulin, Ph.D., R.Kin., Mark Nolette Abstract: Body-worn cameras are a tool commonly used in many police department as a way to protect the officers and the public. However, their value has sometimes been questioned. A recent case, presented here, exemplifies the way body-cam footage can be used. Using the footage in conjunction with injury biomechanics investigation process, it was possible to show that the officers involved delivered submaximal blows in order to control the suspect rather than aiming to deliberately harm the suspect. It was also shown that the duration of the baton intervention was reasonable as the time the officer took to change his response was within the limits presented in literature. Keywords: Police intervention; Incident Reconstruction; Injury Biomechanics; Body-Worn Camera.
Experimental and Numerical Study of Green Concrete by Kong Fah Tee, Ifenna Agba, Abdul Aziz Abdul Samad Abstract: This paper presents the development of a green concrete mortarless interlocking hollow block using the Putra concrete block as its model. As part of efforts to promote sustainability, achieve increased durability and affordability, fly ash as a geopolymer binder and palm oil fuel ash are used as partial replacement for ordinary Portland cement while waste glass and recycled concrete aggregate are used as replacement for fine aggregate. The research adopts three mix designs using various proportions of materials and an unconventional mix ratio of 1:1.35:3.5 calculated using certain parameters like characteristic and target mean strength. The results of the 28 days test indicate that mix designs (MD) 1 and 3 attain a mean compressive strength of 33.8 MPa and 41.65 MPa, respectively while MD 2 and control MD attain a mean compressive strength of 31.8 MPa and 30.83 MPa. MD 3 as the most suitable MD is thus adopted for FEM static analysis where the Von Mises stress is 41.12 MPa which is 1% lower compared to the experimental result of MD 3 (41.65 MPa). In comparison with other interlocking and conventional masonry blocks used for construction purposes, the newly developed green concrete block with higher compressive strength indicates enhanced durability while promoting sustainability and is therefore considered suitable for construction purposes. Keywords: green concrete; interlocking; hollow block; fly ash; waste glass.