Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Forensic Engineering

International Journal of Forensic Engineering (IJFE)

Forthcoming articles have been peer-reviewed and accepted for publication but are pending final changes, are not yet published and may not appear here in their final order of publication until they are assigned to issues. Therefore, the content conforms to our standards but the presentation (e.g. typesetting and proof-reading) is not necessarily up to the Inderscience standard. Additionally, titles, authors, abstracts and keywords may change before publication. Articles will not be published until the final proofs are validated by their authors.

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International Journal of Forensic Engineering (5 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Hydrophilic surface modification of polymeric membranes to improve antifouling property in membrane bioreactor: a review   Order a copy of this article
    by M. Jayadeekshitha, Karthik Raj, Nistala Venkata Subrahmanyam, Dipankar Pal 
    Abstract: Membrane bioreactor (MBR) is one of the most effective techniques used in the contemporary world in the field of separation processes. MBR has wide application in water and biological effluent treatment. Biofouling of membranes becomes more severe due to hydrophobic nature of surface. Therefore, it challenges high maintenance costs and reduces life-span of the membrane. On treating the membrane, the contact angle can be lowered and permeability can be improved effectively. The surface modification of membrane is an attractive approach to impart more hydrophilicity. This review comprises the introduction of MBR along with the working principle and the schematic diagram. This paper also discusses about various surface modification techniques for enhancement of membrane hydrophilicity in MBR. Nevertheless, researchers are finding ways to understand the key constraints such as membrane cleaning after bio-fouling, and develop novel ideas to overcome such surface phenomena. Besides, this review discusses briefly on particular areas of development on surface properties and various applications.
    Keywords: MBR; membrane bioreactor; hydrophilic; hydrophobic; contact angle; permeability; surface modification; bio-fouling.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJFE.2021.10039233
  • Multi-disciplinary approach to a use-of-force investigation: case study   Order a copy of this article
    by Geoffrey Thor Desmoulin, Marc-André Nolette, David M. Blake 
    Abstract: Investigating a violent encounter can be a complicated endeavour as evidence is often incomplete or misleading. However, with the right combination of expertise, it is frequently possible to establish a verifiable fact pattern. The work presented illustrates this point by reviewing the investigation of a violent police-citizen encounter resulting in a loss of life. The ensuing discussion uses video analysis of body-worn camera footage as the overview for the events under review before quantifying them using both testing and literature. Individually, video forensics, human factors psychology and biomechanics allowed a greater understanding of the timing involved in the discharge of the firearm, relative movement patterns during the altercation and a plausible sequence of shots fired. Using these multi-disciplined approaches together however, provided validation of the same.
    Keywords: injury biomechanics; video analysis; human factors psychology; perception-response-time; forensics.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJFE.2022.10052944
  • Puncturing a castle defence: injury biomechanics solution to a homicide investigation case study   Order a copy of this article
    by Geoffrey Thor Desmoulin, Mark-André Nolette, Kevin Bird 
    Abstract: In the wake of a homicide, investigators were confronted with a castle doctrine self-defence argument that was difficult to refute with the tools and evidence at their immediate disposal. However, in his confession, the suspect claimed to have caused the stab wounds in an unusual manner. The victims autopsy revealed that one of the stab wounds pierced the sternum and cut into the victims heart, while another cut between ribs and stopped only at the knife hilt, causing a rib fracture. To provide insight into the likelihood of the suspects narrative, investigators turned to injury biomechanics. It was possible to show the suspects version of events had a low to an impossible chance of occurring through quantitative testing relating to sternum stabbing, rib fracture load, and ergonomic analysis, ultimately leading to a change in plea to 3rd-degree murder. This case illustrates the worth of injury biomechanics when dealing with complex homicides and why the standard investigative toolbox should include it.
    Keywords: injury biomechanics; homicide; stabbing; ergonomics; forensics.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJFE.2022.10052945
  • Understanding and analysis of mimicked speech: a case study   Order a copy of this article
    by Pallavi S. Marathe, Balasaheb J. Nagare 
    Abstract: Laboratory received an intriguing mimicry-based case. In that criminal case, defendant used his mimicked voice to negotiate a financial settlement. The studys goal was to determine whether the mimicked voice actually belonged to the target speaker or not. The study was built on the basis of a dialect, speaking style, and place of articulation. Since no comparable features could be derived using linear predictive analysis, phonetic features were thoroughly explored. The similarity between the accuseds mimicked speech and actual voice was proven by glottal leakage (B1). The jitter and shimmer calculations of the disturbances gave information about the accused and the target speakers ages. However, linguistic, phonetic, and acoustical research helped to bring the case to a successful conclusion. The mimicked voice, the accuseds natural voice, and the target speaker's voice could not be spectrographically matched.
    Keywords: mimicry; impersonation; formant frequency; spectrographic analysis; voice analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJFE.2023.10053177
  • Image averaging and shape recognition in forensic analysis of video evidence   Order a copy of this article
    by Geoffrey T. Desmoulin, Mark Nolette, Theodore E. Milner 
    Abstract: Averaging of raw images obtained from single frames of a body worn camera was used to illustrate the ability of averaging to significantly reduce the noise present in a single video frame. The outline the subject in the averaged image was then compared to outlines of a different subject adopting four similar postures, which included one posture that mimicked the posture of the first subject (reference posture). Using Hausdorff distance as a measure of shape similarity, it was possible to demonstrate that the outline of the second subject was most similar to the outline of the reference posture when the second subject mimicked the reference posture. Despite the similarity of the four postures, the Hausdorff distance was at least 50% less when the second subject mimicked the reference posture than for any of the other postures.
    Keywords: image averaging; image shape recognition; video analysis; shape difference measure; posture analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJFE.2023.10059452