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International Journal of Forensic Engineering
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International Journal of Forensic Engineering (3 papers in press)
Application of Biomechanical Modelling to Police Shooting Reconstruction by Geoffrey Thor Desmoulin Abstract: When investigating Officer-involved shootings, scientific input provides an unbiased perspective to case evidence that assist both the objectivity and credibility of associated reconstructions. This article demonstrates this by detailing a recent shooting reconstruction where multiple scientific tools and methodology were implemented. In order to differentiate between different possible narratives, tools such as synthetic bones, ballistic soap, human dynamic testing as well as human body numerical modelling were used. These tool show how the narrative available can be tied to the injuries reported through the use of a model supported by simple yet robust laboratory testing. In the exemplary case presented, the method was shown to exonerate the response of a police officer who discharged their weapon in self-defence while trying to subdue a violent suspect. Keywords: Officer-involved shooting; biomechanics; modelling; reconstruction; ballistics; wound path; forensics.
Investigations to Assess the Requirement of Overlay every 5th Year after initial Construction on National Highway Projects A Case Study by Amarendra Kumar Sandra Abstract: The maintenance schedule of the concession agreement made for construction of the National Highway projects in India under Built Operate Transfer (BOT) Toll basis says that the pavement need to be overlaid whenever the performance indicators such as Roughness or Benkelman Beam Deflections exceed the trigger value or when the age of the pavement is more than five years. Due to improved quality in construction and good maintenance practices followed during service life, many roads are performing well even after 5 years of the construction and their performance indicators are below the trigger value and do not warrant for an overlay. Nevertheless, the concession agreements demand the overlay irrespective of the condition of pavement which is wastage of natural resources. With this background, in the present study, a five years road section from Ambala Chandigarh of NH-22 was taken as a case study and studied various parameters which affect the pavement performance. Based on the study, it is concluded that the selected pavement for the study is performing better ever after five years and overlay is not required immediately. Keywords: Pavement Mapping; Overlay; Roughness; Pavement Deflection; Asphalt Mix Parameters.
Architectural Standards for Internet of Things: Standardising IoT Architecture. by Syed Suhail Simnani, Sameena Shah, M. Tariq Banday Abstract: Internet of Things aims to integrate physical and digital world by pervasive use of intelligent devices. This technology uses unabatable number of sensing & actuating devices with advanced software stacks to create advanced control and monitoring applications requiring minimal human intervention. The IoT application is created with reference to the architecture describing data flow through the system. These architectures are necessary to tackle the issues of heterogeneity, communication, connectivity, data collection mechanisms, security and scalability. Many such architectures have been proposed but the continuous evolution of IoT enabling technologies make it hard to standardise one concrete architecture over which all IoT systems can be built. This paper provides the synopsis of the IoT architectures and helps us in understanding the pre-requisites and functioning of general IoT devices by discussing their software stacks. The paper later discusses the architectural reference framework of IoT-A which is used to derive domain specific architectures following is the Industrial IoT reference architecture (IIRA) which gives a tier based IoT architecture. The paper then arrives at WSO2 and CISCO architectural models which minimize the architectural levels of abstraction and describe an architectural model based on present IoT enabling technologies. Finally the paper uses a model to evaluate the architectural criteria addressed by all four discussed architectures and helps us to arrive at the Architectural reference model which can be used as a standard for rapid evolution and easy extension of the IoT Infrastructure. Keywords: IoT Architectures; 3-layer; SOA; Cloud; Fog; Software Stack; IoT-A; WSO2; CISCO; IIRA; Weighted Sum Model.