Forthcoming articles

International Journal of Energy Technology and Policy

International Journal of Energy Technology and Policy (IJETP)

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International Journal of Energy Technology and Policy (30 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • An Empirical Analysis of the Role of Rural Population Growth in Electricity Consumption in Sub-Saharan Africa   Order a copy of this article
    by Nyakundi Michieka 
    Abstract: The objective of this study is to provide empirical evidence on the relationship between rural and urban population on electricity consumption in 5 Sub-Saharan countries between 1971 and 2013. Results from the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL)-Bounds testing approach indicate that rural population plays a larger role in electricity consumption than the urban population in C
    Keywords: Rural and Urban Population; Electricity consumption; Sub-Saharan Africa.

  • Developing an Integrated Approach for Optimum Prediction and Forecasting of Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy Consumption in Iran   Order a copy of this article
    by Reza Babazadeh, Shima Pashapour, Abbas Keramati 
    Abstract: Energy planning for mid and long term periods needs forecasting the energy demands in the future. Therefore, suitable prediction tool will help energy policy makers and practitioners to take optimum decisions in energy supply management. The artificial neural network (ANN) is an efficient forecasting tool which have been widely applied in different fields. One of the weaknesses of the ANN method is appeared when the studied case has many input parameters affecting on the performance of output factor. Noteworthy, there is not reliable data in many applications of real world. The canonical correlation analysis (CCA) method is an efficient tool for data reduction purpose keeping useful information of the used data. The purpose of this paper is to estimate and predict the renewable and non-renewable energy consumption considering environmental and economic factors. To this aim, an integrated approach based on the CCA and ANN method is utilized. To show the applicability and superiority of the integrated CCA-ANN approach, monthly available data are collected for 11 years in Iran. The results show that the proposed approach reduces dimension of data without losing valuable information. Also, comparing the results of the CCA-ANN method with the pure ANN method justifies the superiority of the CCA-ANN approach.
    Keywords: Renewable Energy; Non-renewable Energy; Canonical Correlation Analysis; Artificial Neural Network; Environmental and Economic Factors.

  • Energy Efficiency, Rebound Effect and Environmental Tax Reform in Indonesia   Order a copy of this article
    by Arif Rahman Sobri, Djoni Hartono, Nina Indriati Lestari 
    Abstract: Energy intensity level in Indonesia is decreasing, which is a sign of energy efficiency improvement. However, with the presence of rebound effect, energy consumption becomes challenging to reduce. With an application of a general equilibrium (CGE) model, this study analyses a rebound effect existence in Indonesia and wether the reduction of energy subsidy and income tax could lessen the reboud effect. While it confirms the presence of rebound effect, energy subsidy reduction policy could play an important part in determining its level. The policy is believed to reduce rebound effect on fuel oil while elevates it when it comes to electricity and gas. Furthermore, it leads to a positive effect on the economy. However, the other policy such as income tax reduction, indicates contrarily.
    Keywords: energy efficiency; rebound effect; energy subsidy; income tax reduction; environmental tax reform.

  • Interaction between CO2 emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in the Middle East: Panel causality evidence   Order a copy of this article
    by Seyi Akadiri, Ada Akadiri 
    Abstract: The Middle East is one of the biggest suppliers of energy resources in the world. Through electricity production, transportation, oil and gas industries, industrial heating, the quality of air, environment and the whole economy at large is being affected. It is on this premise, this study examine the long-run equilibrium relationship and Granger causality interaction between CO2 emissions, income per capita and energy use caused by these traffics. We employ second generation panel approach that account for cross-sectional dependency, panel bootstrap cointegration testing as introduced by Westerlund and Edgerton (2007) and Granger causality testing procedure as proposed by Dumitrescu and Hurlin (2012). This econometrics techniques are robust for panel cointegration and panel Granger causality analysis. From our empirical results, we found evidence in support of a long-run equilibrium relationship among the variables, a bidirectional causality running from CO2 to energy use, and unidirectional causality running from CO2 emissions to income per capita. However, between income per capita and CO2 emissions, income per capita to energy use and energy use to income per capita all without a feedback in the long-run. We propose significant policy implications based on our empirical results.
    Keywords: CO2 emissions; economic growth; energy consumption; cointegration; causality; panel approach; Middle East.

  • Powerhouse British Isles   Order a copy of this article
    by Bent Sorensen 
    Abstract: The British Isles are blessed with one of the largest resources of offshore wind energy in the world. A scenario simulation is used to demonstrate that not only can each society within the British Island area in a matter of a few decades develop an energy system to satisfy all energy demands with 100% re-newable energy, but there are further export opportunities to cover more than the entire electricity needs of the continental European Union (EU). The political implication of this is that it would be very foolish of the European Union not to use the Brexit negotiations to establish a friendly relationship with the United Kingdom that can open for the electricity imports without which it will be nearly im-possible for the continental EU to reach an emission-free and sustainable energy system.
    Keywords: Energy export; offshore windpower; energy scenarios; sustainability; European policy.

  • A Review on Smart Metering Infrastructure   Order a copy of this article
    by Augustus Ibhaze, Moses Akpabio, Tolulope O. Akinbulire 
    Abstract: Smart metering, a subset of the smart grid architecture has evolved over the years as power system infrastructure demand efficient energy management initiative. The basic challenge of inefficient energy utilization and energy wastage in consumer premise in an energy saving driven society has led to the development of smart metering solutions. This paper therefore provides a review on smart metering technology, its design requirements, protocols and challenges, policy issues.
    Keywords: Energy Policy; Metering Infrastructure; Smart Meter; Internet of Things; Retrofit; Smart Grid; Energy; Policy.

  • How much wind-powered electricity may be generated in 2040 by China, the U.S. and four other countries?   Order a copy of this article
    by Yu Sang Chang, Hann Earl Kim, Seongmin Jeon, Yoo-Taek Lee 
    Abstract: Projections of long-term wind-powered electricity by the Energy Information Administration in the past may have been too conservative. We generate alternative projections for China, the United States, India, Canada, Japan and South Korea, and compare them against the projections made by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the years 2020, 2030 and 2040. Although our projections are much higher than the EIAs for five of the countries, the exception being Japan, our projections are supported by several projections made by other organizations. Implications from our findings will be discussed.
    Keywords: Wind-powered electricity; Experience curve; Wind electricity intensity; Wind-powered net electricity generation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJETP.2020.10020242
  • Distributional Impacts of Gasoline Supply Constrained in Iran: Application of Input-Output Mixed Price Model   Order a copy of this article
    by Ali Faridzad 
    Abstract: Iran has always been the importer of gasoline over the last decade and international sanctions have made imports of this commodity difficult. This condition has potentially threatened Iran with gasoline supply constraint. Accordingly, potential supply constraint can damage the production of other economic sectors, which can directly be affected by experiencing a rise in the prices of goods and services. These changes will affect Iranian household welfare. Thus, a key question in this regard is how Iranian household expenditures will be affected in different consumer groups if the gasoline supply is constrained. To answer this question, the mixed-variable Input-Output price model and a symmetric Iran 38
    Keywords: Gasoline Supply Constraint; Mixed-Variable Price Input-Output; Household Expenditure.

  • Size optimization of RES based grid connected hybrid power system using Harmony Search algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Priyanka Anand, Sarbjeet Kaur Bath, Mohammad Rizwan 
    Abstract: In the present context, renewable energy sources are recognized as the best alternative of fossil fuels in order to fulfil the ever increasing demand with minimum harmful impact on environment. The combination of renewable energy sources can also be used in grid connected environment. This will help in reducing the burden of increasing demand on grid. Also, utility grid can supply deficit demand in case available generation from renewable energy sources becomes less than the demand. In the present paper, intelligent modelling of grid connected hybrid system has been carried out. Further, the total net present cost (NPC) of the considered system is optimized under the constraints of power reliability, storage limit on battery etc. Finally, a comparative analysis has also been performed between the grid connected and stand-alone hybrid system based on the size and cost of components.
    Keywords: solar; wind; biomass; biogas; power reliability; grid.

  • Modeling and Simulation of MPPT Techniques for Solar Photovoltaic System using Genetic Algorithm Optimized Fuzzy Logic Controller   Order a copy of this article
    by AFSHAN ILYAS, Mohammad Ayyub, M. Rizwan Khan 
    Abstract: This paper focuses on the intelligent techniques used for tracking the maximum power point of the solar photovoltaic (SPV) system for varying environmental conditions. The most widely used perturb & observe (P&O) maximum power point tracking (MPPT) technique is discussed briefly for the comparison with the intelligent techniques. The paper proposes control technique for the SPV system by using Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) based MPPT algorithm and the optimization of its various parameters by Genetic Algorithm (GA). The performance of the FLC optimized with GA is compared with the P&O and the fuzzy based MPPT technique. MATLAB/Simulink software is used to design the different stages of the MPPT controllers. Simulation results reported that GA optimized FLC perform much better than the P&O and fuzzy logic based MPPT controllers.
    Keywords: Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT); Solar Photovoltaic (SPV); Perturb & Observe (P&O); Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC); Genetic Algorithm (GA).

  • Energy, Exergy & Exergoeconomic analyses and optimization of 137 MW gas power station implementing MOPSOCD   Order a copy of this article
    by Rajesh Arora 
    Abstract: Performance evaluation and optimization of operating parameters of gas power plants are the key challenges for the researchers and the power plant designers. Traditional performance evaluation techniques being utilized operate on the first law of thermodynamics. Exhaustive studies in this area suggest scope of improvement in view of power output, thermal efficiency and cost effectiveness through more valuable evaluation techniques as second law analysis, exergoeconomic analysis and evolutionary algorithms. In this perspective, energy, exergy and exergoeconomic investigations of the gas power plant are executed in context with 1st & 2nd laws of thermodynamics. The multi-objective optimization is also performed using NSGA-II and MOPSOCD evolutionary algorithms in MATLAB 9.2 in order to explore best input parameters and to find best trade off amongst two challenging objectives. The validation of the present work is done by correlating the obtained outcomes with 137 MW running gas power plant, NTPC Faridabad, India. The analysis illustrates a considerable enhancement in exergy efficiency of the power plant (around 18%) with a drop-in cost of the fuel and product as 15.72% and 13.24% respectively. However, total capital cost is increased by 10.61%.
    Keywords: Gas power plant; Energy; Exergy; Exergoeconomics; NSGA-II; MOPSOCD; LINMAP decision making method.

  • A thermodynamic performance analysis of the agricultural sector of India   Order a copy of this article
    by Abhijit Sinha, Laxman Mishra 
    Abstract: Thermodynamic analysis of Indian agricultural sector for a period of 14 years between 2001-02 and 2014-15 has been carried out in order to find the thermal efficiency and irreversible losses with the application of the principles of energy and exergy analysis. The devices such as tractors, power tillers using diesel and Irrigation pump-sets using electricity, which consumes major portion of the energy inputs are assumed to be the representative of Indian agricultural sector. It is found that during the study period the overall exergy efficiencies (66.05% to 68.46%) are slightly less than corresponding energy efficiencies (66.09% to 68.47%). The energy and exergy flow diagrams and further improvement potential of this important sector are also presented. The results of this study can be used as guidelines for research and development such as analyzing sectoral energy and exergy utilization, providing measures for energy conservation and policy development.
    Keywords: Indian agriculture; energy analysis; exergy analysis; improvement potential.

  • ESCO Business Model for Energy Conservation in Sri Lanka   Order a copy of this article
    by Udara Ranasinghe, Y.G. Sandanayake 
    Abstract: Energy Service Company (ESCO) is a renowned concept in the developed world for energy conservation projects, although there is lack of suitable ESCO business model for guaranteed return and safeguard energy performance risks in energy conservation projects in Sri Lanka. This study therefore aims to investigate the gap between the existing energy service practices in Sri Lanka and ESCO concept, and to develop an ESCO Business Model Accordingly, a comprehensive literature review and in-depth interviews with 12 subject matter experts were carried out to achieve the aim. Research findings identified ten sub-elements under four main elements, i.e. Value Proposition, Customers, Value Creation and Delivery and Value Capture, in the proposed ESCO Business Model. Key findings further revealed guaranteed saving as the best finance model for Sri Lankan built environments. The research finally developed an ESCO Business Model incorporating appropriate energy service practices which will lead both ESCOs and the clients in Sri Lanka to gain the competitive edge.
    Keywords: ESCO Model; Energy Services; Business Model; Energy Conservation; Energy Management.

  • A particle swarm optimized support vector regression for short-term load forecasting   Order a copy of this article
    by Su Wutyi Hnin, Chawalit Jeenanunta 
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present a forecasting model for the daily electricity demand. Support Vector Regression (SVR) has the ability that can perform well in non-linear forecasting problems. In this paper, the parameter optimization for SVR is proposed by using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The data for testing the proposed method is obtained from the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT). The data has been recorded in every 30 minutes. The data from 2012 to 2013 is used for training to forecast daily electricity load demand in 2013. The performance of the model is measured by the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). The results of SVR and SVR-PSO are compared. Optimizing hyperparameters with PSO outperforms the SVR.
    Keywords: particle swarm optimization; support vector regression; optimizing hyperparameters; short-term load forecasting.

  • Decision Making for Electricity Retailers in Fractile Model from Multiple Markets with Rational Responses of Consumers   Order a copy of this article
    by Shinya Sekizaki, Ichiro Nishizaki, Tomohiro Hayashida 
    Abstract: This paper presents a new decision making model that enables a retailer to optimize a portfolio reflecting his or her risk attitude in the non-convex decision making problem. In the proposed model, the responses of consumers to selling prices offered by the retailer are integrated with three types of electricity transactions. The retailer purchases the electricity through multiple markets, e.g. a long-term transaction (a forward contract), a short-term transaction (a day-ahead market), and a real-time transaction (adjustment for imbalance) to avoid the risk arising from the volatile day-ahead market prices and to adjust the imbalance. In our model, we deal with the three types of electricity transactions, i.e. forward contracts, day-ahead market transactions, and real-time market transactions, and consumers optimize the electricity consumption schedules in response to the time-of-use (TOU) selling prices offered by the retailer. For developing a practical electricity market model, it is quite significant to adequately reflect the risk attitudes of retailers on their decision makings. The weighted sum method is often used to formulate the decision problem of the retailer in order to optimize the portfolio allocation for the multiple markets. In the weighted sum method, however, it is difficult to select the {weight} coefficients which reflect the risk attitude of retailer adequately. In this paper, in order to examine behavior of the retailers with various risk attitudes effectively, we employ the fractile model that can find the preferred solution in the proposed non-convex decision making model. Through the computational experiments, we demonstrate the validity of the proposed model for examining the retailer's actions in the deregulated electricity market.
    Keywords: Decision making; electricity retail market; demand response; Stackelberg game; Bi-level programming problem.

  • Impact of risk on the levelised cost of energy: The case of solar tariffs in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Swarnalakshmi Umamaheswaran, Rajiv Seth 
    Abstract: Setting optimal tariffs that adequately compensate the investment and project risks is crucial to sustain the participation of private sector in India's ambitious solar programme. However, driven by fiscal priorities, state programs are increasingly resorting to aggressive tariff reduction to minimise compliance costs. This article first highlights the trends in solar tariffs and estimates the underlying levelised cost of energy (LCOE). We further delve into the broader institutional context and sectoral issues that motivate these trends. Finally, we evaluate the implications of low tariffs from the perspective of risk using quantitative simulations. Our results suggest that the levelised costs vary widely when evaluated against different risk scenarios. Based on these results we propose recommendations for policy makers in the context of determining tariffs that balance the interests of different stakeholders.
    Keywords: renewable energy; risk; simulation; solar energy; tariffs; India; Monte-Carlo; energy policy;.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJETP.2020.10025087
  • On-board generation of HHO gas with dry cell electrolyser and its applications: A review   Order a copy of this article
    by P.V. MANU, Navaneeth Kishan T. R., S. Jayaraj, A. Ramaraju 
    Abstract: In this era of depleting fossil fuels, alternative fuels and their study has gained much importance. One of the methods of using alternative fuels is operating the IC engines in dual fuel mode. This review is an attempt to highlight the investigations on the HHO gas supplemented combustion in IC engines, particularly the diesel operated ones. HHO gas has better burning characteristics than pure hydrogen since hydrogen and oxygen does not attain the diatomic state. Hence, ideally HHO gas is having higher energy releasing capability. HHO inducted systems show better performance than that of the ordinary diesel engines in terms of brake thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, and engine torque. HHO inducted systems also show better emission characteristics. The emission of CO and unburned hydrocarbons are almost reduced by 30 40 %. One of the major disadvantages of using HHO gas is the possible increase in NOx emission.
    Keywords: Dry cell electrolyser; HHO gas; Dual fuel.

  • Energy and CO2 Emissions in the Gulf Cooperation Council Region   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammed Al-Mahish 
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the factors that cause environmental contamination in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region through carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The paper conducts qualitative analysis by focusing on the IPAT equation and quantitative analysis using panel data methods. The results of the qualitative analysis show that political factors, such as wars and unrest, affect the environmental quality in the GCC region. The results of comparative static analysis show that the increase in population, GDP, and energy production increase CO2 emissions. Through panel regression methods, we fail to reject the null hypotheses as suggested by the comparative static analysis, hence the paper concludes that population, GDP, and energy supply cause environmental pollution in the GCC region.
    Keywords: GDP; Kuznets Environmental Curve; panel regression; IPAT.

  • Using makeup water to recycle cooling tower evaporated water: A feasibility study using experimental data   Order a copy of this article
    by Amirreza Heidari, Ehsan Heidari 
    Abstract: Wet cooling towers are one of the most water intensive technologies which are widely used in air conditioning applications, especially in dry regions. Considering the current water crisis around the world, it is essential to improve the design of these cooling towers to reduce their water consumption while maintaining their cooling performance. Makeup water of cooling tower is usually a constant temperature water which is cold enough to condensate the moisture content of the cooling tower exhaust air. Therefore, it has a great potential to recycle water evaporation of cooling towers, which is not considered so far. This paper investigates a novel design for cooling towers utilizing the makeup water to recycle part of the evaporated water. To perform a realistic evaluation of this idea, the experimental data of a real world cooling tower were measured. Using these data, a dynamic simulation was performed in TRNSYS software to evaluate the water saving potential. The results show that this design will recycle 105 liters water during 2 hours of cooling tower operation. This paper has highlighted the importance of using makeup water in reducing the water consumption of wet cooling towers.
    Keywords: Wet cooling tower; Water saving; Makeup water; Air conditioning.

  • An energy analysis of first to third-generation bioethanol production in Brazil: the potential for CO2 emissions   Order a copy of this article
    by Flavio Numata Junior 
    Abstract: First (1G), second (2G), and third-generation (3G) ethanol industrialization produces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and increases carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in the atmosphere. In this study, a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) concluded that hydrolysis and filtration processes have the largest environmental impact, and, despite a trend of increased discharge generated by electricity related to 3G introduction, thermodynamic processes still show the highest emissions. These results demonstrate the importance of developing a strong technology base in biofuel industrialization, predominantly due to the vast potential of 3G production, which increasingly requires higher energy consumption and more efficiency from the industrial system. As such, the aim of this paper is to assess the environmental impact caused by CO2 emissions in 1G, 2G, and 3G ethanol production.
    Keywords: Energy analysis; LCA; CO2 emissions; Bioethanol.

  • Harmonic analysis of Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor in polluted Algerian network   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohamed Nassim KRAIMIA, Mohamed Boudour 
    Abstract: This paper presents the study of the impact of harmonic distortion generated by the Thyristors Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) in Algerian electric power system. By applying Fourier transform of terminal voltage and switching function, The TCSC model is used as a harmonic admittance matrix, in the frequency domain. Then integrated into a balanced harmonic load flow algorithm based on the Newton-Raphson method. The study has been carried out with the equivalent Algerian power system 114 bus. The total harmonics and RMS voltages are evaluated under different operating regions of the TCSC.
    Keywords: harmonic power flow; nonlinear load; TCSC; Algerian power system; total harmonic distortion.

  • Assessment, Simulation and Analysis of PV Power Generation for Educational Building of Rural Women University in India: A Case Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Sonal Sindhu 
    Abstract: The present investigation evaluates the feasibility of grid connected rooftop solar PV system for Faculty of Engineering and Technology (FET), Bhagat Phool Singh Mahila Vishwavidyalya (BPSMV), Khanpur Kalan, Sonepat, Haryana, India. In this investigation, Solargis Photovoltaic (PV) planner software has been utilized because of its ability to provide access to reliable PV potential information within short span of time. Present study analyses the performance of 160 kWp solar rooftop plant and compares the performances of different PV technologies on the basis of simulated energy yield and performance ratio (PR). Amorphous PV technology performs the best among the four PV technologies in terms of energy yield and PR. Life cycle cost of the proposed PV power plant has also been evaluated to get unit cost of electricity (UCE) of $0.051/kWh. Finally, comparative studies have been carried out with the existing thermal power plants (TPP) in Haryana. It is observed that PV power generation is still a costly option but the gap between the two is reducing day by day and PV systems are going to be competitive in near future. The study enables researchers and engineers in this area to understand roof top solar PV power plant and its economic viability. The present study acts as milestone to address the energy need and provides guidance to set-up similar PV power plants for various applications viz. in agriculture, commercial, health, and educational sectors etc. in rural Haryana to name only a few.
    Keywords: Photovoltaic; Solargis PV planner; Performance ratio; Energy yield; Life cycle cost analysis; India.

Special Issue on: Energy Policies and Standards for Large-scale Renewable Energy Integration with Utility Grids

  • Present status, energy policies and future perspective of solar photovoltaic in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Nirav Patel, Nitin Gupta, Arun Kumar Verma 
    Abstract: This paper aims at presenting state of art solar photovoltaic (SPV) in India and various initiatives and actions plans launched by Indian Government to augment the share of most promising and growing source of renewable energy SPV. A renewable and sustainable source of energy such as solar PV has been playing a vital role in curbing carbon emission. This paper presents a widespread review of the present status, various energy policies and future perspective of SPV considering the fact that India is having an abundant amount of solar energy potential. The intention of this review is to emphasise broadly on the major constraints hampering the growth of SPV energy in India. Efforts have been made to presents the selections guide, applicable standards and state-wise sanctioned solar parks. It is hoped that the information reported in this paper will be a worth of one-stop source of information for researchers.
    Keywords: solar PV; renewable energy; solar potential; renewable public obligation; RPO; energy policies; grid interactive; off-grid; India.

  • A System dynamics modelling for energy planning and Carbon dioxide estimation of the Nigerian power sector   Order a copy of this article
    by Babajide Shari, Yacouba Moumouni 
    Abstract: Energy is essential to supporting the modern life-style; it is the main driver to economic development and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Due to associated complexities and uncertainties, decision makers and energy planners face increasing pressure to effectively address energy related challenges, including approaches to low carbon energy provision. This study seeks to develop a long-term, 2010-2050, System Dynamics (SD) model of the Nigerian Power Sector (NPS). The model then helps to investigate ways to bridge the electricity supply and demand gaps by simulating various performance scenarios based on real socio-economic variables and estimation of CO2. A total of six policy scenarios were implemented. These scenarios sought to evaluate the influence of the following four parameters: 1) Transmission Losses (Tx); 2) Time to Adjust Capacity (TAC); 3) Population Growth Rate (PGR); and 4) Capacities under construction. Accordingly, results not only showed that the completion of the existing project and the Mambilla Multipurpose Hydropower (MMHP) would make the NPS 71% energy secured, but also revealed a paradigm shift in CO2 reduction in the planning process considered by the study in contrast to the existing generations. Finally, capability of SD was affirmed by properly capturing feedbacks, delays, and other complexities in the NPS.
    Keywords: system dynamics; carbon dioxide; Nigerian power sector; energy planning; energy policy; Mambilla hydropower.

  • An investigation on the petrochemical industry development in Iran: A system dynamics approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Vahid Hajiebrahimi Farashah, Seyed Hossein Hosseini, Zeinab Sazvar, Hamed Shakouri Ganjavi 
    Abstract: Petrochemical industry plays a considerable role to achieve high value-added from oil and gas reserves. The development of this industry is therefore very crucial, especially for countries with huge resources of fossil fuels. The mid and downstream sectors of the oil and gas industry in Iran have not been paid attention as much as the upstream sector in recent studies. Since the investment is a crucial factor in the development of any system, this study aims to investigate and model the effects of domestic investment dynamics on the petrochemical industry development in Iran using System Dynamics (SD) methodology. Accordingly, causal loop diagrams are developed to describe interrelationships among the main variables making the dynamics of domestic investment. Then, a quantified system dynamics model is built based on the relationships to simulate the main model and predict possible outcomes on the petrochemical industry future in Iran. The proposed model provides practitioners with a foundation to conduct differently related analyses. According to the simulation results, in 2025 the capacity of Iran's petrochemical products will range from 73 to 78 million tons under different scenarios that will not be desirable (Iran plans to be the biggest producer of petrochemical products in the Middle East in 2025). Also, based on the simulation results, the value of products will range from 26 to 36 million Dollars (USD) in 2025 under different scenarios that can be another interesting offer to researchers to investigate how can be possible to increase the value of petrochemical products as well as the number of products. With using the proposed model and analyzing different scenarios, optimized policymaking will be possible to enhance the petrochemical industry of Iran in the future.
    Keywords: petrochemical industry; system dynamics; capacity expansion; scenario analysis; Iran.

  • Optimization of energy and exergy parameters of a C.I. engine in dual fuel mode using Taguchi method   Order a copy of this article
    by Nayak Himanshu Sekhar Ray, Ramesh Chandra Mohanty, Mahendra Kumar Mohanty 
    Abstract: In this study, the first and second laws of thermodynamics are applied to analyze the quantity and quality of energy and exergy in a compression ignition (C.I.) engine using diesel and biogas in dual fuel mode. The energy and exergy for the engine have been calculated and analyzed by Taguchi method for both modes of operation using MINITAB software. The results show the similar energetic performance of dual fuel mode as that of diesel fuel mode. The exergetic performance parameters also follow the similar trends according to the energetic performance parameters. The analyses are based on energy and exergy distribution of dual fuel mode with the varying load and compared with the corresponding values of diesel mode.
    Keywords: energy; exergy; Taguchi method; C.I. engine; biogas; diesel; dual fuel; S/N ratio; response curve.

  • Impact of Wind Power Based DG on Nodal Prices in Distribution System with Harmonic Load   Order a copy of this article
    by Anil Sohal, NARESH KUMAR 
    Abstract: The competitive electricity market structure is one of the factors to adopt the real time pricing structure for efficient operation of distribution networks. It is the key responsibility of the distribution network operator to determine the real time prices based tariff structure for smart distribution systems. The prices must take into account the effect of load and must be based on the change in the operating state of the system. In this paper, by using Wind power in distribution system and basic forward backward sweep load flow method is used for analyzing the affect of harmonics on nodal prices. The method uses marginal loss coefficients (MLCs) to get these prices, the results are compared with realistic ZIP and Normal or constant power (CP) loads. The entire study is conducted on IEEE 33 bus radial distribution system (RDS).
    Keywords: Distribution system; load model; harmonic load; nodal prices; wind based DG.

  • Simultaneous Allocation of Multiple Distributed Generators and Shunt Capacitor Banks in Radial Distribution Systems using Grasshopper Optimization Algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Suresh Kumar Sudabattula, Kowsalya M, Suresh Velamuri 
    Abstract: Electricity has become a part of day to day life of the people. With the increase in population, electricity demand also raised. The development of distribution systems (DSs), the optimal utilization of shunt capacitor banks (SCBs) and distributed generators (DGs) in the DSs are heightened. Optimal location and sizing are two decisive factors, which influence the performance of DS. In this paper, a competent methodology is proposed to find the optimal location and sizing of DGs and SCBs simultaneously on the DS. The objectives are to minimize power loss, improving the voltage profile and increasing voltage stability index (VSI) with satisfying different operating constraints of the DS. First locations of DGs and SCBs are found out by loss sensitivity factor (LSF) technique. Next Grasshopper Optimization algorithm (GOA) is used to determine the rating of these sources at these identified locations. The developed methodology is implemented on IEEE 33 and IEEE 69 bus test systems considering significance of load variations. Analyses are carried out on the DS considering optimal allocation of multiple DGs without and with placement of capacitors. Finally, the results obtained by the proposed method are compared with GA/PSO and PSO methods for validation purpose. The results show that proposed method is predominant in finding the better solutions
    Keywords: Distributed Generators (DGs); Shunt Capacitor banks (SCBs); Loss sensitivity factor (LSF); Grasshopper Optimization Algorithm (GOA); Power loss; Voltage stability index (VSI).

  • Optimal fuel consumption planning and energy management strategy for a hybrid energy system with pumped storage   Order a copy of this article
    by Okba Djelailia, Mounia Samira Kelaiaia, Hocine Labar, Salah Necaibia, Faycel Merad 
    Abstract: Energy management system is very critical for solving the energy problem in remote areas, especially autonomous systems that uses diesel generators. The fuel cost increases due to transport over long distances makes it unsustainable system. for that an optimal sizing of the hybrid microgrid energy system (HMGES) with an energy management control (EMC) strategy was proposed in this work for an isolated site in southern Algeria, which consisting of photovoltaic (PV) source, diesel generator (DG), with a power hydroelectric storage (PHS) system in order to increase the reliability. the HMGES based on renewable energy is profitable for supplying the domestics and agricultural demand. this work evaluate three different standalone systems, that used to guarantee the supply of energy for the isolated Saharan zone. the HMGES with EMC system not only decrease the harmful CO2 emission due to the less consumption of fuel, but also reduce the system cost comparison with the (DG and PV/DG) standalone systems, which are the objectives function of this study.
    Keywords: Hybrid system; Energy management; Microgrid; PV system; Diesel generator; Power hydroelectric storage PHS system;.

  • Harmonic Minimization in direct torque controlled Induction Motor using Neural Network controller   Order a copy of this article
    by Sudhakar Ambarapu, Vijaya Kumar M 
    Abstract: In a conventional direct torque control (DTC) method, hysteresis controllers are used to process the flux and torque errors influencing space voltage vector selection to obtain direct torque control of induction motor resulting in harmonics. First, the paper emphasizes the implementation of Feed-forward Neural network controllers in direct torque control (DTC) based induction motors. The scope of the paper is to apply neural network controller for direct torque controlled induction motor drives suitable for high performance application. Then the flux and torque errors are processed through hysteresis controllers along with neural network controllers in order to improve voltage space vector selection strategy and achieve reduction in current harmonics. Finally, the Simulink models of direct torque controlled induction motor with and without neural controller are tested in MATLAB/SIMULINK for different operating conditions with favourable results.
    Keywords: Neural network controller; Induction motor; Hysteresis controller; direct torque control; harmonics.