Forthcoming articles

International Journal of Energy Technology and Policy

International Journal of Energy Technology and Policy (IJETP)

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International Journal of Energy Technology and Policy (37 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Energy Efficiency and Company Performance in Japanese Listed Companies   Order a copy of this article
    by Rayenda Brahmana, Hiroya Ono 
    Abstract: This research empirically investigates the relationship between energy efficiency and company performance for a pooled sample of 177 listed companies in Japan over 2005-2014. We find that energy efficiency plays a significant role in company performance in Japan, thereby debunking the energy efficiency paradox. Our research further indicates that this energy efficiency not only affects the market-based performance (Tobins Q), but it also significantly impacts the accounting-book performance (Return on Assets). The findings present significant contributions to both the academic body of knowledge and the industry. The findings can also provide a basis for the Japanese government to encourage companies to enact more energy efficient practices.
    Keywords: Energy Efficiency; Company Performance; Tobin’s Q; ROA; Japan.

  • Energy Consumption and Economic Growth Modelling in SADC Countries: An Application of the VAR Granger Causality Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Tafirenyika Sunde 
    Abstract: The study investigated the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in 10 SADC countries using the VAR model over the period 1971 to 2015. The variables used were first converted to growth rates before they were used in the model estimated. The results indicate unidirectional causality running from real economic growth to energy consumption in Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Mauritius, Namibia, bidirectional causality between energy consumption and economic growth in Botswana and Mauritius and no causality in Mozambique, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe. In countries where real economic growth Granger causes energy consumption the conservation hypothesis is confirmed. In countries where no causality was found the neutrality hypothesis is confirmed which implies that energy conservation will not lead to decreased economic growth and energy consumption will not be stimulated by economic growth. The feedback hypothesis confirmed in Botswana and Mauritius implies that an increase in the economic output will increase the level of energy consumption while an energy conservation policy will adversely affect economic output.
    Keywords: Economic growth; energy consumption; VAR model; Granger causality; SADC countries.

  • An Empirical Analysis of the Role of Rural Population Growth in Electricity Consumption in Sub-Saharan Africa   Order a copy of this article
    by Nyakundi Michieka 
    Abstract: The objective of this study is to provide empirical evidence on the relationship between rural and urban population on electricity consumption in 5 Sub-Saharan countries between 1971 and 2013. Results from the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL)-Bounds testing approach indicate that rural population plays a larger role in electricity consumption than the urban population in C
    Keywords: Rural and Urban Population; Electricity consumption; Sub-Saharan Africa.

  • A system dynamics approach to analyzing bioethanol and biodiesel supply chains: Increasing bioethanol and biodiesel market shares in the United States   Order a copy of this article
    by Hamid Ghaderi, Hossein Gitinavard, Mir Saman Pishvaee 
    Abstract: This paper proposes a system dynamics model to study and analyze bioethanol and biodiesel supply chains. The proposed model is a powerful tool for investigating the interactions among different variables of bioethanol and biodiesel supply chains. In this study, it is used for constructing scenarios to investigate appropriate policy options and their possible future effects on the market share of bioethanol and biodiesel in the United States. Inasmuch as the main objective of this study is to increase the market share of both bioethanol and biodiesel, and a reasonable balance is required to be created between bioethanol and biodiesel market shares, a scenario-based sensitivity analysis is conducted to this end. The results of sensitivity analysis demonstrate that causing an increase in oil plant and biodiesel production and a decrease in corn and bioethanol production results in an increase in both bioethanol and biodiesel market shares as well as a fair balance between them. In addtion to sensitivity analysis of the model, policy implications assoicated with increasing biofuel production in the United States are provided. For validating the proposed model, behavior reproduction test is done. Also, adding the other alternative fuel supply chains to the model; considering more detailed components; and incorporating environmental and social indicators besides an economic indicator are presented as the future research directions.
    Keywords: Corn; Oil plants; Bioethanol; Biodiesel; Supply chain management; System dynamics; Scenario-based analysis.

  • Hybridization study of renewable multi-source systems based on environmental economic and technical indicators   Order a copy of this article
    by Habib CHERIF, Jamel Belhadj 
    Abstract: In this paper the authors investigate the interest in hybridization of autonomous renewable multi-source systems under economic environmental and technical indicators of a hybrid photovoltaic-wind system with battery storage of a residential house. A parametric sensitivity algorithm is developed to find the best compromise between four objectives. The LCA indicators (objectives) are embodied energy, GHG emissions, life cycle cost and loss of power probability. During a life cycle period of 25 years, nine models of embodied energy, GHG emission and life cycle cost of a hybrid photovoltaic-wind system are developed. A dynamic simulator is developed under annual data of weather conditions and electric load data (residential house) for one year with a sampling step of half an hour. An energy management strategy has been integrated in this simulator in order to manage power during the system operation. Parametric sensitivity algorithm allows us to find the best configuration between the PV array area, the wind turbine swept area and the battery bank. As results, it is found that the hybrid WT/Battery is the environmentally better choice for producing electrical power than hybrid systems. The hybrid PV/Battery is the economically better choice for producing electrical power than hybrid systems. But, the hybrid PV/WT/Battery system is designed to meet both the economic and environmental requirements.
    Keywords: Hybrid systems; dynamic simulator; life cycle assessment; parametric sensitivity; environmental impacts; hybridization.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJETP.2020.10020792
     
  • Developing an Integrated Approach for Optimum Prediction and Forecasting of Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy Consumption in Iran   Order a copy of this article
    by Reza Babazadeh, Shima Pashapour, Abbas Keramati 
    Abstract: Energy planning for mid and long term periods needs forecasting the energy demands in the future. Therefore, suitable prediction tool will help energy policy makers and practitioners to take optimum decisions in energy supply management. The artificial neural network (ANN) is an efficient forecasting tool which have been widely applied in different fields. One of the weaknesses of the ANN method is appeared when the studied case has many input parameters affecting on the performance of output factor. Noteworthy, there is not reliable data in many applications of real world. The canonical correlation analysis (CCA) method is an efficient tool for data reduction purpose keeping useful information of the used data. The purpose of this paper is to estimate and predict the renewable and non-renewable energy consumption considering environmental and economic factors. To this aim, an integrated approach based on the CCA and ANN method is utilized. To show the applicability and superiority of the integrated CCA-ANN approach, monthly available data are collected for 11 years in Iran. The results show that the proposed approach reduces dimension of data without losing valuable information. Also, comparing the results of the CCA-ANN method with the pure ANN method justifies the superiority of the CCA-ANN approach.
    Keywords: Renewable Energy; Non-renewable Energy; Canonical Correlation Analysis; Artificial Neural Network; Environmental and Economic Factors.

  • Energy Efficiency, Rebound Effect and Environmental Tax Reform in Indonesia   Order a copy of this article
    by Arif Rahman Sobri, Djoni Hartono, Nina Indriati Lestari 
    Abstract: Energy intensity level in Indonesia is decreasing, which is a sign of energy efficiency improvement. However, with the presence of rebound effect, energy consumption becomes challenging to reduce. With an application of a general equilibrium (CGE) model, this study analyses a rebound effect existence in Indonesia and wether the reduction of energy subsidy and income tax could lessen the reboud effect. While it confirms the presence of rebound effect, energy subsidy reduction policy could play an important part in determining its level. The policy is believed to reduce rebound effect on fuel oil while elevates it when it comes to electricity and gas. Furthermore, it leads to a positive effect on the economy. However, the other policy such as income tax reduction, indicates contrarily.
    Keywords: energy efficiency; rebound effect; energy subsidy; income tax reduction; environmental tax reform.

  • Interaction between CO2 emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in the Middle East: Panel causality evidence   Order a copy of this article
    by Seyi Akadiri, Ada Akadiri 
    Abstract: The Middle East is one of the biggest suppliers of energy resources in the world. Through electricity production, transportation, oil and gas industries, industrial heating, the quality of air, environment and the whole economy at large is being affected. It is on this premise, this study examine the long-run equilibrium relationship and Granger causality interaction between CO2 emissions, income per capita and energy use caused by these traffics. We employ second generation panel approach that account for cross-sectional dependency, panel bootstrap cointegration testing as introduced by Westerlund and Edgerton (2007) and Granger causality testing procedure as proposed by Dumitrescu and Hurlin (2012). This econometrics techniques are robust for panel cointegration and panel Granger causality analysis. From our empirical results, we found evidence in support of a long-run equilibrium relationship among the variables, a bidirectional causality running from CO2 to energy use, and unidirectional causality running from CO2 emissions to income per capita. However, between income per capita and CO2 emissions, income per capita to energy use and energy use to income per capita all without a feedback in the long-run. We propose significant policy implications based on our empirical results.
    Keywords: CO2 emissions; economic growth; energy consumption; cointegration; causality; panel approach; Middle East.

  • Powerhouse British Isles   Order a copy of this article
    by Bent Sorensen 
    Abstract: The British Isles are blessed with one of the largest resources of offshore wind energy in the world. A scenario simulation is used to demonstrate that not only can each society within the British Island area in a matter of a few decades develop an energy system to satisfy all energy demands with 100% re-newable energy, but there are further export opportunities to cover more than the entire electricity needs of the continental European Union (EU). The political implication of this is that it would be very foolish of the European Union not to use the Brexit negotiations to establish a friendly relationship with the United Kingdom that can open for the electricity imports without which it will be nearly im-possible for the continental EU to reach an emission-free and sustainable energy system.
    Keywords: Energy export; offshore windpower; energy scenarios; sustainability; European policy.

  • A Review on Smart Metering Infrastructure   Order a copy of this article
    by Augustus Ibhaze, Moses Akpabio, Tolulope O. Akinbulire 
    Abstract: Smart metering, a subset of the smart grid architecture has evolved over the years as power system infrastructure demand efficient energy management initiative. The basic challenge of inefficient energy utilization and energy wastage in consumer premise in an energy saving driven society has led to the development of smart metering solutions. This paper therefore provides a review on smart metering technology, its design requirements, protocols and challenges, policy issues.
    Keywords: Energy Policy; Metering Infrastructure; Smart Meter; Internet of Things; Retrofit; Smart Grid; Energy; Policy.

  • How much wind-powered electricity may be generated in 2040 by China, the U.S. and four other countries?   Order a copy of this article
    by Yu Sang Chang, Hann Earl Kim, Seongmin Jeon, Yoo-Taek Lee 
    Abstract: Projections of long-term wind-powered electricity by the Energy Information Administration in the past may have been too conservative. We generate alternative projections for China, the United States, India, Canada, Japan and South Korea, and compare them against the projections made by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the years 2020, 2030 and 2040. Although our projections are much higher than the EIAs for five of the countries, the exception being Japan, our projections are supported by several projections made by other organizations. Implications from our findings will be discussed.
    Keywords: Wind-powered electricity; Experience curve; Wind electricity intensity; Wind-powered net electricity generation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJETP.2020.10020242
     
  • Distributional Impacts of Gasoline Supply Constrained in Iran: Application of Input-Output Mixed Price Model   Order a copy of this article
    by Ali Faridzad 
    Abstract: Iran has always been the importer of gasoline over the last decade and international sanctions have made imports of this commodity difficult. This condition has potentially threatened Iran with gasoline supply constraint. Accordingly, potential supply constraint can damage the production of other economic sectors, which can directly be affected by experiencing a rise in the prices of goods and services. These changes will affect Iranian household welfare. Thus, a key question in this regard is how Iranian household expenditures will be affected in different consumer groups if the gasoline supply is constrained. To answer this question, the mixed-variable Input-Output price model and a symmetric Iran 38
    Keywords: Gasoline Supply Constraint; Mixed-Variable Price Input-Output; Household Expenditure.

  • Multi-objective MCTLBO approach to allocate renewable energy system (PV/ BESS) in electricity grid: Assessing grid benefits   Order a copy of this article
    by Kumari Kasturi, Manas Ranjan Nayak 
    Abstract: With the advent of the smart grid paradigm many distribution system operators are making efforts to modernize their power grids through the optimal integration of renewable energy system (RES) such as photovoltaic (PV) / battery energy storage system (BESS).This paper presents a novel mathematical model and solution approach for the optimal allocation of RES in radial distribution system (RDS). The optimal allocation of RES is formulated as a problem, and it is solved by multi-objective multi-course teaching learning based optimization (MCTLBO). An efficient codification for the allocation of RES allows the multi-objective MCTLBO to find the optimal location, capacity and power dispatch of RESs for a given RESs for a given load level with time of use (TOU) pricing. The proposed methodology is tested on the 69-bus RDS. It was found that an appropriate allocation of RESs results techno-economic improvement for the system under study.
    Keywords: Photovoltaic System; Battery Energy Storage System; Radial Distribution System; Multi-objective multi-course teaching learning based optimization.

  • Size optimization of RES based grid connected hybrid power system using Harmony Search algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Priyanka Anand, Sarbjeet Kaur Bath, Mohammad Rizwan 
    Abstract: In the present context, renewable energy sources are recognized as the best alternative of fossil fuels in order to fulfil the ever increasing demand with minimum harmful impact on environment. The combination of renewable energy sources can also be used in grid connected environment. This will help in reducing the burden of increasing demand on grid. Also, utility grid can supply deficit demand in case available generation from renewable energy sources becomes less than the demand. In the present paper, intelligent modelling of grid connected hybrid system has been carried out. Further, the total net present cost (NPC) of the considered system is optimized under the constraints of power reliability, storage limit on battery etc. Finally, a comparative analysis has also been performed between the grid connected and stand-alone hybrid system based on the size and cost of components.
    Keywords: solar; wind; biomass; biogas; power reliability; grid.

  • Modeling and Simulation of MPPT Techniques for Solar Photovoltaic System using Genetic Algorithm Optimized Fuzzy Logic Controller   Order a copy of this article
    by AFSHAN ILYAS, Mohammad Ayyub, M. Rizwan Khan 
    Abstract: This paper focuses on the intelligent techniques used for tracking the maximum power point of the solar photovoltaic (SPV) system for varying environmental conditions. The most widely used perturb & observe (P&O) maximum power point tracking (MPPT) technique is discussed briefly for the comparison with the intelligent techniques. The paper proposes control technique for the SPV system by using Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) based MPPT algorithm and the optimization of its various parameters by Genetic Algorithm (GA). The performance of the FLC optimized with GA is compared with the P&O and the fuzzy based MPPT technique. MATLAB/Simulink software is used to design the different stages of the MPPT controllers. Simulation results reported that GA optimized FLC perform much better than the P&O and fuzzy logic based MPPT controllers.
    Keywords: Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT); Solar Photovoltaic (SPV); Perturb & Observe (P&O); Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC); Genetic Algorithm (GA).

  • Energy, Exergy & Exergoeconomic analyses and optimization of 137 MW gas power station implementing MOPSOCD   Order a copy of this article
    by Rajesh Arora 
    Abstract: Performance evaluation and optimization of operating parameters of gas power plants are the key challenges for the researchers and the power plant designers. Traditional performance evaluation techniques being utilized operate on the first law of thermodynamics. Exhaustive studies in this area suggest scope of improvement in view of power output, thermal efficiency and cost effectiveness through more valuable evaluation techniques as second law analysis, exergoeconomic analysis and evolutionary algorithms. In this perspective, energy, exergy and exergoeconomic investigations of the gas power plant are executed in context with 1st & 2nd laws of thermodynamics. The multi-objective optimization is also performed using NSGA-II and MOPSOCD evolutionary algorithms in MATLAB 9.2 in order to explore best input parameters and to find best trade off amongst two challenging objectives. The validation of the present work is done by correlating the obtained outcomes with 137 MW running gas power plant, NTPC Faridabad, India. The analysis illustrates a considerable enhancement in exergy efficiency of the power plant (around 18%) with a drop-in cost of the fuel and product as 15.72% and 13.24% respectively. However, total capital cost is increased by 10.61%.
    Keywords: Gas power plant; Energy; Exergy; Exergoeconomics; NSGA-II; MOPSOCD; LINMAP decision making method.

  • A thermodynamic performance analysis of the agricultural sector of India   Order a copy of this article
    by Abhijit Sinha, Laxman Mishra 
    Abstract: Thermodynamic analysis of Indian agricultural sector for a period of 14 years between 2001-02 and 2014-15 has been carried out in order to find the thermal efficiency and irreversible losses with the application of the principles of energy and exergy analysis. The devices such as tractors, power tillers using diesel and Irrigation pump-sets using electricity, which consumes major portion of the energy inputs are assumed to be the representative of Indian agricultural sector. It is found that during the study period the overall exergy efficiencies (66.05% to 68.46%) are slightly less than corresponding energy efficiencies (66.09% to 68.47%). The energy and exergy flow diagrams and further improvement potential of this important sector are also presented. The results of this study can be used as guidelines for research and development such as analyzing sectoral energy and exergy utilization, providing measures for energy conservation and policy development.
    Keywords: Indian agriculture; energy analysis; exergy analysis; improvement potential.

  • ESCO Business Model for Energy Conservation in Sri Lanka   Order a copy of this article
    by Udara Ranasinghe, Y.G. Sandanayake 
    Abstract: Energy Service Company (ESCO) is a renowned concept in the developed world for energy conservation projects, although there is lack of suitable ESCO business model for guaranteed return and safeguard energy performance risks in energy conservation projects in Sri Lanka. This study therefore aims to investigate the gap between the existing energy service practices in Sri Lanka and ESCO concept, and to develop an ESCO Business Model Accordingly, a comprehensive literature review and in-depth interviews with 12 subject matter experts were carried out to achieve the aim. Research findings identified ten sub-elements under four main elements, i.e. Value Proposition, Customers, Value Creation and Delivery and Value Capture, in the proposed ESCO Business Model. Key findings further revealed guaranteed saving as the best finance model for Sri Lankan built environments. The research finally developed an ESCO Business Model incorporating appropriate energy service practices which will lead both ESCOs and the clients in Sri Lanka to gain the competitive edge.
    Keywords: ESCO Model; Energy Services; Business Model; Energy Conservation; Energy Management.

  • A particle swarm optimized support vector regression for short-term load forecasting   Order a copy of this article
    by Su Wutyi Hnin, Chawalit Jeenanunta 
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present a forecasting model for the daily electricity demand. Support Vector Regression (SVR) has the ability that can perform well in non-linear forecasting problems. In this paper, the parameter optimization for SVR is proposed by using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The data for testing the proposed method is obtained from the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT). The data has been recorded in every 30 minutes. The data from 2012 to 2013 is used for training to forecast daily electricity load demand in 2013. The performance of the model is measured by the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). The results of SVR and SVR-PSO are compared. Optimizing hyperparameters with PSO outperforms the SVR.
    Keywords: particle swarm optimization; support vector regression; optimizing hyperparameters; short-term load forecasting.

  • Decision Making for Electricity Retailers in Fractile Model from Multiple Markets with Rational Responses of Consumers   Order a copy of this article
    by Shinya Sekizaki, Ichiro Nishizaki, Tomohiro Hayashida 
    Abstract: This paper presents a new decision making model that enables a retailer to optimize a portfolio reflecting his or her risk attitude in the non-convex decision making problem. In the proposed model, the responses of consumers to selling prices offered by the retailer are integrated with three types of electricity transactions. The retailer purchases the electricity through multiple markets, e.g. a long-term transaction (a forward contract), a short-term transaction (a day-ahead market), and a real-time transaction (adjustment for imbalance) to avoid the risk arising from the volatile day-ahead market prices and to adjust the imbalance. In our model, we deal with the three types of electricity transactions, i.e. forward contracts, day-ahead market transactions, and real-time market transactions, and consumers optimize the electricity consumption schedules in response to the time-of-use (TOU) selling prices offered by the retailer. For developing a practical electricity market model, it is quite significant to adequately reflect the risk attitudes of retailers on their decision makings. The weighted sum method is often used to formulate the decision problem of the retailer in order to optimize the portfolio allocation for the multiple markets. In the weighted sum method, however, it is difficult to select the {weight} coefficients which reflect the risk attitude of retailer adequately. In this paper, in order to examine behavior of the retailers with various risk attitudes effectively, we employ the fractile model that can find the preferred solution in the proposed non-convex decision making model. Through the computational experiments, we demonstrate the validity of the proposed model for examining the retailer's actions in the deregulated electricity market.
    Keywords: Decision making; electricity retail market; demand response; Stackelberg game; Bi-level programming problem.

  • Impact of risk on the levelised cost of energy: The case of solar tariffs in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Swaralakshmi Umamaheswaran, Rajiv Seth 
    Abstract: Setting optimal tariffs that adequately compensate the investment and project risks is crucial to sustain the participation of private sector in India's ambitious solar programme. However, driven by fiscal priorities, state programs are increasingly resorting to aggressive tariff reduction to minimise compliance costs. This article first highlights the trends in solar tariffs and estimates the underlying levelised cost of energy (LCOE). We further delve into the broader institutional context and sectoral issues that motivate these trends. Finally, we evaluate the implications of low tariffs from the perspective of risk using quantitative simulations. Our results suggest that the levelised costs vary widely when evaluated against different risk scenarios. Based on these results we propose recommendations for policy makers in the context of determining tariffs that balance the interests of different stakeholders.
    Keywords: renewable energy; risk; simulation; solar energy; tariffs; India; Monte-Carlo; energy policy;.

  • On-board generation of HHO gas with dry cell electrolyser and its applications: A review   Order a copy of this article
    by P.V. MANU, Navaneeth Kishan T. R., S. Jayaraj, A. Ramaraju 
    Abstract: In this era of depleting fossil fuels, alternative fuels and their study has gained much importance. One of the methods of using alternative fuels is operating the IC engines in dual fuel mode. This review is an attempt to highlight the investigations on the HHO gas supplemented combustion in IC engines, particularly the diesel operated ones. HHO gas has better burning characteristics than pure hydrogen since hydrogen and oxygen does not attain the diatomic state. Hence, ideally HHO gas is having higher energy releasing capability. HHO inducted systems show better performance than that of the ordinary diesel engines in terms of brake thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, and engine torque. HHO inducted systems also show better emission characteristics. The emission of CO and unburned hydrocarbons are almost reduced by 30 40 %. One of the major disadvantages of using HHO gas is the possible increase in NOx emission.
    Keywords: Dry cell electrolyser; HHO gas; Dual fuel.

  • Energy and CO2 Emissions in the Gulf Cooperation Council Region   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammed Al-Mahish 
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the factors that cause environmental contamination in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region through carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The paper conducts qualitative analysis by focusing on the IPAT equation and quantitative analysis using panel data methods. The results of the qualitative analysis show that political factors, such as wars and unrest, affect the environmental quality in the GCC region. The results of comparative static analysis show that the increase in population, GDP, and energy production increase CO2 emissions. Through panel regression methods, we fail to reject the null hypotheses as suggested by the comparative static analysis, hence the paper concludes that population, GDP, and energy supply cause environmental pollution in the GCC region.
    Keywords: GDP; Kuznets Environmental Curve; panel regression; IPAT.

  • Factors influencing grid interactive wind power industry in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Manjushree Banerjee, Gautam Dutta 
    Abstract: Increasing wind power capacities demand increased private sector participation while states are responsible for the renewable projects as well as for achieving their renewable targets. The paper aims at identifying the influencing factors in scaling up of grid interactive wind power through the lens of entrepreneurs and state policies. Adequate tariff, savings on power expenditure in industries, renewable purchase obligation (RPO) targets, long-term power purchase agreements, liberal energy banking and favourable open access policies are found to be encouraging while insufficient tariff, delayed payments, policy uncertainties, limitations in energy banking and difficult land processes are counted as barriers. Country level analysis reveals that presently the installed capacities are unable to respond to the state wind tariff though it strongly responds to the power tariff for industries. Suggestions to develop a policy scenario wherein the installed capacities respond to the state tariff are proposed. The scope of wind power is to be enhanced through favourable open access policies and high RPO targets.
    Keywords: grid interactive wind power; state policies; entrepreneurs; barriers; influencing factors; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJETP.2019.10021643
     
  • Project finance and investment in the oil and gas industry in developing countries: a case study of Ghana   Order a copy of this article
    by Efiba Vidda Senkyire Kwarteng, Yarhands Dissou Arthur, John Ayer 
    Abstract: Raising start-up and working capital are challenges faced by indigenous oil and gas entrepreneurs in many developing countries. The absence of sufficient collateral, good business plans, and high interest rates are barriers to acquiring bank loans in Ghana. The study was to identify possible avenues for funding oil and gas projects and challenges indigenous firms (SMEs) within the oil and gas value chain encounter in accessing funds. A questionnaire survey was performed with some banks and oil and gas service providing companies in Ghana. We showed that SMEs have lower success rate in accessing bank loans compared to well-established firms due to repayment risk. Therefore, financial institutions could resort to the project finance method to reduce such risk for projects within the oil and gas industry. We conclude that project finance is a viable avenue for SMEs to finance oil and gas projects in developing countries despite the associated bottlenecks.
    Keywords: energy technology and policy; project finance model; developing countries; Ghana's oil and gas industry; small and medium scale enterprise; SMEs; indigenous entrepreneurs; Ghanaian economy; project finance strategies; working capital; start-up capital; interest rates; trust fund; barriers to financing oil and gas projects.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJETP.2019.10021644
     
  • Alternative projection of the 2040 nuclear power for eight countries   Order a copy of this article
    by Yu Sang Chang, Jinyoung Jinnie Yoo 
    Abstract: This study projected nuclear electricity intensity for eight countries - China, the USA, India, South Korea, Japan, Canada and Brazil - which in turn is used to estimate net nuclear electricity generation for year 2020, 2030, and 2040. The net nuclear electricity generation projected by this study then was compared to those projected in the 2013 International Energy Outlook published by the US Energy Information Administration. The 2040 projection from this study is 57.7% higher than Energy Information Administration's projection for China and also 54% higher for the USA. For four other countries, Energy Information Administration's projections are higher than those from this study, but by a smaller margin. Implications from the findings will be discussed.
    Keywords: nuclear electricity intensity; net nuclear electricity generation; experience curve; kinked experience curve; progress ratio.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJETP.2019.10021645
     
  • Evaluating the operational flexibility for wind energy integration in Nigeria using a security constraint unit commitment model   Order a copy of this article
    by Richardson Omorodje Eni, John-Felix Kayode Akinbami 
    Abstract: The study evaluated the flexible techno-economic operations of thermal plants for sustainable wind power integration into the Nigerian electricity industry using security constraint unit commitment approach. This provides empirical evidence on the thermal power plants capability to back-up variable generation from wind energy. Relative to the current generation mix, 10% and 20% wind energy penetration increased the system spinning reserve per day from 702.5 to 1507.5 and 2107.5 MW respectively. Thermal plants total numbers of start-up per day decreased from 23 to 14 and 18, and shutdown hours per day decreased from 52 to 44 and 49 hrs in 10% and 20% wind energy integrated system, respectively. Greenhouse emission reduction per day were 1746.6 and 3254.4 lb, and thermal plants operational revenue reduced by 3.7 and 7.0% daily in 10% and 20% wind energy integrated system, respectively.
    Keywords: energy integration; flexible operations; thermal power; unit commitment model; wind energy; Nigeria.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJETP.2019.10021646
     
  • Novel hydroelectricity data envelopment analysis model   Order a copy of this article
    by Kenneth David Strang 
    Abstract: In this paper a data envelopment analysis (DEA) was developed using a spreadsheet to inform policy decision making for a clean renewable hydroelectricity plant located in a natural park preserve. The DEA objective function was to make the minimum changes to the proposed policy rates for hydroelectricity generation subject to the known capabilities and risks calculated from a beta distribution. The DEA decision variables were the proposed changes to the policy rates for each month. The simplex linear programming technique was used to implement DEA in a spreadsheet. Screen shots were included to illustrate how to setup the DEA spreadsheet. The results of this paper should generalise to policy makers, practitioners, analysts and researchers in the public utility and specifically in the clean renewable hydroelectricity community.
    Keywords: data envelopment analysis; DEA; operations research; hydroelectricity; clean renewable energy; park; risk; beta distribution; spreadsheet office automation software models.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJETP.2019.10021649
     
  • Multi-criteria optimisation of a cane flexi-factory   Order a copy of this article
    by Abdel Khoodaruth 
    Abstract: The sugar cane industry is at stake due to the fall in prices of sugar. The industry has to re-engineer itself to a cane flexi-factory for its survival. A cane flexi-factory consists of a sugar mills, cogeneration power plant, bio-ethanol distillery, value-added sugars refinery and a bio-fertiliser manufacturing plant. Although one such refinery is in operation in Mauritius, the area of land area under sugar cultivation is decreasing. The outputs of the flexi-factory can be increased through implementation of higher pressure boiler; higher fibre cane; energy cane; cane tops and leaves; addition of a falling thin film evaporator and use drip irrigation technique. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the possible options to optimise the performance of a flexi-factory through the multi-criteria assessment approach. The outcome of the assessment will help policy makers to prioritise the implementation of these alternatives in the short, medium and long term.
    Keywords: sugar cane; electricity; cogeneration; multi-criteria assessment; MCA; small islands development states; SIDS.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJETP.2019.10021647
     

Special Issue on: Energy Policies and Standards for Large-scale Renewable Energy Integration with Utility Grids

  • A System dynamics modelling for energy planning and Carbon dioxide estimation of the Nigerian power sector   Order a copy of this article
    by Babajide Shari, Yacouba Moumouni 
    Abstract: Energy is essential to supporting the modern life-style; it is the main driver to economic development and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Due to associated complexities and uncertainties, decision makers and energy planners face increasing pressure to effectively address energy related challenges, including approaches to low carbon energy provision. This study seeks to develop a long-term, 2010-2050, System Dynamics (SD) model of the Nigerian Power Sector (NPS). The model then helps to investigate ways to bridge the electricity supply and demand gaps by simulating various performance scenarios based on real socio-economic variables and estimation of CO2. A total of six policy scenarios were implemented. These scenarios sought to evaluate the influence of the following four parameters: 1) Transmission Losses (Tx); 2) Time to Adjust Capacity (TAC); 3) Population Growth Rate (PGR); and 4) Capacities under construction. Accordingly, results not only showed that the completion of the existing project and the Mambilla Multipurpose Hydropower (MMHP) would make the NPS 71% energy secured, but also revealed a paradigm shift in CO2 reduction in the planning process considered by the study in contrast to the existing generations. Finally, capability of SD was affirmed by properly capturing feedbacks, delays, and other complexities in the NPS.
    Keywords: system dynamics; carbon dioxide; Nigerian power sector; energy planning; energy policy; Mambilla hydropower.

  • An investigation on the petrochemical industry development in Iran: A system dynamics approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Vahid Hajiebrahimi Farashah, Seyed Hossein Hosseini, Zeinab Sazvar, Hamed Shakouri Ganjavi 
    Abstract: Petrochemical industry plays a considerable role to achieve high value-added from oil and gas reserves. The development of this industry is therefore very crucial, especially for countries with huge resources of fossil fuels. The mid and downstream sectors of the oil and gas industry in Iran have not been paid attention as much as the upstream sector in recent studies. Since the investment is a crucial factor in the development of any system, this study aims to investigate and model the effects of domestic investment dynamics on the petrochemical industry development in Iran using System Dynamics (SD) methodology. Accordingly, causal loop diagrams are developed to describe interrelationships among the main variables making the dynamics of domestic investment. Then, a quantified system dynamics model is built based on the relationships to simulate the main model and predict possible outcomes on the petrochemical industry future in Iran. The proposed model provides practitioners with a foundation to conduct differently related analyses. According to the simulation results, in 2025 the capacity of Iran's petrochemical products will range from 73 to 78 million tons under different scenarios that will not be desirable (Iran plans to be the biggest producer of petrochemical products in the Middle East in 2025). Also, based on the simulation results, the value of products will range from 26 to 36 million Dollars (USD) in 2025 under different scenarios that can be another interesting offer to researchers to investigate how can be possible to increase the value of petrochemical products as well as the number of products. With using the proposed model and analyzing different scenarios, optimized policymaking will be possible to enhance the petrochemical industry of Iran in the future.
    Keywords: petrochemical industry; system dynamics; capacity expansion; scenario analysis; Iran.

  • Optimization of energy and exergy parameters of a C.I. engine in dual fuel mode using Taguchi method   Order a copy of this article
    by Nayak Himanshu Sekhar Ray, Ramesh Chandra Mohanty, Mahendra Kumar Mohanty 
    Abstract: In this study, the first and second laws of thermodynamics are applied to analyze the quantity and quality of energy and exergy in a compression ignition (C.I.) engine using diesel and biogas in dual fuel mode. The energy and exergy for the engine have been calculated and analyzed by Taguchi method for both modes of operation using MINITAB software. The results show the similar energetic performance of dual fuel mode as that of diesel fuel mode. The exergetic performance parameters also follow the similar trends according to the energetic performance parameters. The analyses are based on energy and exergy distribution of dual fuel mode with the varying load and compared with the corresponding values of diesel mode.
    Keywords: energy; exergy; Taguchi method; C.I. engine; biogas; diesel; dual fuel; S/N ratio; response curve.

  • Impact of Wind Power Based DG on Nodal Prices in Distribution System with Harmonic Load   Order a copy of this article
    by Anil Sohal, NARESH KUMAR 
    Abstract: The competitive electricity market structure is one of the factors to adopt the real time pricing structure for efficient operation of distribution networks. It is the key responsibility of the distribution network operator to determine the real time prices based tariff structure for smart distribution systems. The prices must take into account the effect of load and must be based on the change in the operating state of the system. In this paper, by using Wind power in distribution system and basic forward backward sweep load flow method is used for analyzing the affect of harmonics on nodal prices. The method uses marginal loss coefficients (MLCs) to get these prices, the results are compared with realistic ZIP and Normal or constant power (CP) loads. The entire study is conducted on IEEE 33 bus radial distribution system (RDS).
    Keywords: Distribution system; load model; harmonic load; nodal prices; wind based DG.

  • Simultaneous Allocation of Multiple Distributed Generators and Shunt Capacitor Banks in Radial Distribution Systems using Grasshopper Optimization Algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Suresh Kumar Sudabattula, Kowsalya M, Suresh Velamuri 
    Abstract: Electricity has become a part of day to day life of the people. With the increase in population, electricity demand also raised. The development of distribution systems (DSs), the optimal utilization of shunt capacitor banks (SCBs) and distributed generators (DGs) in the DSs are heightened. Optimal location and sizing are two decisive factors, which influence the performance of DS. In this paper, a competent methodology is proposed to find the optimal location and sizing of DGs and SCBs simultaneously on the DS. The objectives are to minimize power loss, improving the voltage profile and increasing voltage stability index (VSI) with satisfying different operating constraints of the DS. First locations of DGs and SCBs are found out by loss sensitivity factor (LSF) technique. Next Grasshopper Optimization algorithm (GOA) is used to determine the rating of these sources at these identified locations. The developed methodology is implemented on IEEE 33 and IEEE 69 bus test systems considering significance of load variations. Analyses are carried out on the DS considering optimal allocation of multiple DGs without and with placement of capacitors. Finally, the results obtained by the proposed method are compared with GA/PSO and PSO methods for validation purpose. The results show that proposed method is predominant in finding the better solutions
    Keywords: Distributed Generators (DGs); Shunt Capacitor banks (SCBs); Loss sensitivity factor (LSF); Grasshopper Optimization Algorithm (GOA); Power loss; Voltage stability index (VSI).

  • Optimal fuel consumption planning and energy management strategy for a hybrid energy system with pumped storage   Order a copy of this article
    by Okba Djelailia, Mounia Samira Kelaiaia, Hocine Labar, Salah Necaibia, Faycel Merad 
    Abstract: Energy management system is very critical for solving the energy problem in remote areas, especially autonomous systems that uses diesel generators. The fuel cost increases due to transport over long distances makes it unsustainable system. for that an optimal sizing of the hybrid microgrid energy system (HMGES) with an energy management control (EMC) strategy was proposed in this work for an isolated site in southern Algeria, which consisting of photovoltaic (PV) source, diesel generator (DG), with a power hydroelectric storage (PHS) system in order to increase the reliability. the HMGES based on renewable energy is profitable for supplying the domestics and agricultural demand. this work evaluate three different standalone systems, that used to guarantee the supply of energy for the isolated Saharan zone. the HMGES with EMC system not only decrease the harmful CO2 emission due to the less consumption of fuel, but also reduce the system cost comparison with the (DG and PV/DG) standalone systems, which are the objectives function of this study.
    Keywords: Hybrid system; Energy management; Microgrid; PV system; Diesel generator; Power hydroelectric storage PHS system;.

  • Harmonic Minimization in direct torque controlled Induction Motor using Neural Network controller   Order a copy of this article
    by Sudhakar Ambarapu, Vijaya Kumar M 
    Abstract: In a conventional direct torque control (DTC) method, hysteresis controllers are used to process the flux and torque errors influencing space voltage vector selection to obtain direct torque control of induction motor resulting in harmonics. First, the paper emphasizes the implementation of Feed-forward Neural network controllers in direct torque control (DTC) based induction motors. The scope of the paper is to apply neural network controller for direct torque controlled induction motor drives suitable for high performance application. Then the flux and torque errors are processed through hysteresis controllers along with neural network controllers in order to improve voltage space vector selection strategy and achieve reduction in current harmonics. Finally, the Simulink models of direct torque controlled induction motor with and without neural controller are tested in MATLAB/SIMULINK for different operating conditions with favourable results.
    Keywords: Neural network controller; Induction motor; Hysteresis controller; direct torque control; harmonics.

  • Present status, energy policies and future perspective of solar photovoltaic in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Nirav Patel, Nitin Gupta, Arun Kumar Verma 
    Abstract: This paper aims at presenting state of art solar photovoltaic (SPV) in India and various initiatives and actions plans launched by Indian Government to augment the share of most promising and growing source of renewable energy SPV. A renewable and sustainable source of energy such as solar PV has been playing a vital role in curbing carbon emission. This paper presents a widespread review of the present status, various energy policies and future perspective of SPV considering the fact that India is having an abundant amount of solar energy potential. The intention of this review is to emphasise broadly on the major constraints hampering the growth of SPV energy in India. Efforts have been made to presents the selections guide, applicable standards and state-wise sanctioned solar parks. It is hoped that the information reported in this paper will be a worth of one-stop source of information for researchers.
    Keywords: solar PV; renewable energy; solar potential; renewable public obligation; RPO; energy policies; grid interactive; off-grid; India.