International Journal of Environmental Policy and Decision Making (6 papers in press)
REVIEW OF RAINWATER HARVESTING POLICIES IN GHANA: LESSONS FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
by Anthony Amoah, Clement Dorm-Adzobu, Ben Ampomah
Abstract: Countries are governed by laws and policies. Policies are designed to create a path meant to direct institutions in the performance of their duties to achieve broader national goals. This paper is aimed at contributing to the body of knowledge in rainwater harvesting and to inform future policies in developing countries. The paper assesses the extent to which the government of Ghana has formulated and implemented policies for rainwater harvesting. It presents policies that have existed from pre to post-independence era on rainwater harvesting in Ghana. The purposive sampling method was employed and selected policy documents were analysed using the content analysis method. A household survey data was also used in this study to complement the findings of the content analysis. The study found that, although an appreciable number of policies have been designed, implementation in all cases has not been desirable. The paper recommends that the rainwater harvesting policy be incorporated into the building code of Ghana in order to help in providing alternative sources of water for use in households.
Keywords: Rainwater; Harvesting; Developing Countries; Intervention; Policies; Strategies.
BUSINESS MODEL INNOVATION FOR THE ENERGY MANAGEMENT OF BUILDING NETWORKS IN SMART CITIES
by Marco Savastano, Carlo Amendola
Abstract: The rapid evolution in energy production and consumption models brought by the strong integration of ICT innovations has led to a disruptive wave of progress. Europe is at the forefront in the challenge of containing the climate change by promoting a profound transformation of energy systems, investing in the use of innovative technologies for an efficient energy management and its production from renewable sources.
In the main urban centers live three quarters of the total European population which consumes about 70% of the overall energy produced. In recent years, buildings have been equipped with Building & Automation Control Systems that provide a reliable active energy efficiency measure for reducing building energy consumption (Martirano et al., 2015). These advanced systems allow to use and regulate technological implants in the best possible way in response to the change in external environmental conditions, ensuring at the same time the highest possible comfort for the building's occupants. Due to the need of evidence and practical applications in this field, a simulator was developed capable of modeling and quantifying the main technical-economic variables in order to examine potential impacts of different "building network management" scenarios types, according to different scales and several application areas (Annunziato et al., 2013). The purpose of this simulator is to show, according to the user's choices, the economic evaluations essential for the assessment of the implementation of building automation and control systems (BACS) for the management of a network of buildings. The purpose of this study is to present and analyse in detail some scenarios that evaluate the economic convenience of BACS interventions in a network of buildings, in a context of smart city. This improved energy management of buildings aims to optimize energy consumption by making it more efficient based on a centralized diagnostics and optimization system. This could lead to significant energy and economic savings, being based mainly on automation and artificial intelligence, requiring at the same time relatively low capital investment (Di Pietra et al., 2015). The simulator was tested starting from the results obtained during the Smart Village project carried out by ENEA. The findings of this manuscript allow to assess how the convenience of an investment in automation, control and monitoring systems varies with varying complexity of the installed automation network, to determine the optimal solution from a technical-economic point of view
Keywords: Smart Cities; Business Model Innovation; Digital Transformation; Impact Evaluation; Energy Efficiency; Smart Buildings; Construction Industry; Sustainable Innovation.
Water Management below the outlet - A survey-based analysis on the Indus Basin Irrigation System in Pakistan
by Mark Oelmann, Jonathan Schulze, Nora Zimmermann, Benedikt Roters
Abstract: This article examines the prevalent management rules of farmers below the outlets at the local level. The aim is to identify the institutional gaps, which if corrected could substantial-ly result in a more efficient use of the scarce surface water resources among the farmers. The publication contextualizes findings from personal interviews, field visits and a survey in three villages in Punjab, in 2018. With regard to management deficiencies, the most commonly de-scribed problem of an allocation asymmetry, also known as the head-tail problem, was not found in the survey. Nevertheless, this research found that other aspects such as the lining of water-courses, the clout of low ranked irrigation officers over determining water tariffs, and the miss-ing links between different hydraulic levels of organization are representing equally challenging thresholds for an efficient and equitable water usage.
Keywords: Pakistan; irrigation management; institutions; farmer’s survey; sustainability; accountability; water allocation; equity in water management; water management; irrigation; agriculture; warabandi.
Natural urban farming as a mean to connect community to sustainable food: the case of Demonstration garden in Tor Mancina
by Sara Spognardi, Claudio Beni, Ilenia Bravo, Enrica Enrica Iannucci, Patrizia Papetti
Abstract: Urban agriculture play an important role to provide an innovative and different connection to food. Visitors, scholars, and generally participants of community gardens activities become "food citizens", shift from being passive consumers of food to becoming co-producers. To achieve this goal, the demonstration garden of Tor Mancina with the involvement of schools and of local communities tests innovative and more sustainable agricultural practices and carries on experiments to test the biostimulant and repellent effects of aromatic and officinalis plants extracts. rnThese experiments aim at inculcating positive values on food, agriculture and environment in growing youth, providing effective solutions to increase crop performance, to enhance the tolerance of plants against stressors, to safeguard the nature, biodiversity and quality. These activities teach sustainable agriculture practices which form basis for stable livelihood and informed consumption habits.rn
Keywords: demonstration garden; sustainable production; community garden; urban agriculture.
Smart city in Europe: comparative analysis between Italy and Germany development
by Gabriella Arcese, Louisa Schabel, Grazia Chiara Elmo, Mario Risso
Abstract: The upward trend of urbanization characterized by a rapidly growing number of city dwellers and an increasing population density is exacerbating sustainability issues such as air and water pollution, insufficient public waste management and relying on non-renewable energies, but also issues affecting the quality of citizens life such as congestion, inadequate development of public transport systems and the lack of digitalization of public services. For the stated reasons, there is an urgent need to develop urban growth concepts to increase the prosperity, livability and well-being of citizens while decreasing sustainability issues, which will be severely intensified by the rapid growth of urban agglomeration areas. With a rising number of megacities, city dwellers, and people migrating to urban areas, the smart cities idea emerged as an urban development approach to provide accessibility, safety and efficient infrastructure for citizens while relying on a sustainable choice of energy sources along with resourceful waste and pollution management. By giving a multi-dimensional view on the smart city approach and evaluating best practices applied by pioneering cities, this research paper supports the development of a much-needed comprehensive smart city conceptualism in order to support the policymaking in the smart city transformation process. Therefore, the state-of-art of the smart city understanding and term definition stated by authors at different development stages of the smart city paradigm as well as a critical reflection of the approach of the smart city idea as an urban growth model is presented. A smart city multi-dimensional framework based on an input-process-output-impact model was chosen as a methodological approach to analyze the smart city best practices of Italian and German pioneering cities in the core dimensions of technology, community and policy. The research done will support the development of a smart urbanism model adaptable to urban areas around the globe in order to provide citizens the highest quality of life possible and to enhance sustainable urbanism in the era of climate change.
Keywords: Smart city model; Sustainability; European environmental policy; Technology management; Urban metabolism.
An Overview of Entrepreneurship Development Programs in India
by Ravindra Sharma, Geeta Rana
Abstract: India is a country of youth as per the 2011 census the median age of the population is 26.9 years. On the one hand, these youths are a great demographic advantage for a country on the other hand it is a serious challenge to create jobs for these youths. It is not possible for the government to provide a job to every job seeker as there are limited job requirements in various government and private sectors. Keeping this constraint in mind the government has also focused to develop an environment where rather seeking job better to be a job provider. For making this concept applicable the government has initiated various entrepreneurship development programs (EDP). In the past few years, many start-ups are established and doing well but still, the progress is not rapid as it was expected. The objective of this paper is to explore the initiation taken by the government for Entrepreneurship development programs, challenges coming up while implementing these programs on the ground and suggestive remedies for effective implementation of EDP programs in India.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship; EDP; Jobseeker; Start-up.